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Seminar Report On

Comprehensive Review and Comparison of DC Fast Charging

Converter Topologies:Improving Electric Vehicle Plug-to-Wheels

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the

degree of


Department Name
University Name
The success of electric vehicles (EVs) relies heavily on the presence of high-
efficiency charging stations. This paper provides an overview and a compre-
hensive performance comparison of the present status and future implemen-
tation plans for DC fast charging infrastructures and converter topologies.
The paper also discusses critical consequences of DC fast charging stations
on the AC grid. Different power converter topologies for DC fast charging are
presented, compared, and evaluated, based on the power level requirements,
efficiency, cost, and technical performance specifications. The paper focuses
specifically on Level-3 DC fast charging converter topologies and their per-
formance comparison. Finally, the paper presents a detailed well-towheels
(WTW) analysis from an energy-efficiency standpoint. The most important
part of this analysis focuses on the effect of usage of various charging levels
and charger topologies on the all-important plug-to-battery (P2B) energy-
efficiency within the overall context of WTW energy cycle efficiency.

I would like to express my special thanks and gratitude to my mentor Dr.Arun
Kumar Verma, Professor, for providing me an opportunity to do this seminar
on the topic “Comprehensive Review and Comparison of DC Fast Charging
Converter Topologies: Improving Electric Vehicle Plug-to-Wheels Efficiency”
and for paying the path towards the completion of this report by her esteemed
guidance and enlightenment. I would also like to take this opportunity to
thank our Seminar Coordinator Mr. Ashok Kumar Agarwal, Associate Pro-
fessor, for guiding us through the seminar process and providing me the
necessary guidance. I would also like to thank the Electrical Engineering
Department for providing me an opportunity to present this seminar.

1.1 What makes an Electric Car . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

2 Vital Parts of an Electric Car 6

2.1 EV Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.2 Cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.3 Battery Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.4 Battery Pack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.5 Battery Manangement System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.6 Electric Vehicle Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.7 Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.8 EV Chargers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

3 Challenges Of Charging 11
3.1 Types of EV Charging Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.1.1 Level 1 and Level 2: Alternating Current . . . . . . . . 12
3.1.2 Level 3 and above: Direct Current . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.2 CLASSIFICATION OF DC FAST CHARGER . . . . . . . . . 13
3.2.1 Unidirectional Chargers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.3 Bidirectional Chargers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

4 DC DC Converter Topologies 15
4.1 Boost DC-DC Converter (BC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.2 Vienna Rectifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4.3 Buck-boost charge controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.4 Efficiency comparison of boost and buck-boost . . . . . . . . 18

5 Plug to Wheels 19

6 Vehicle to Grid 21
6.1 What is V2G? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
6.2 Why should you care about V2G? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
6.3 How does vehicle-to-grid work? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
6.4 How will vehicle-to-grid become mainstream? . . . . . . . . . 22
6.5 Once-in-a-lifetime opportunity for utilities . . . . . . . . . . . 22
6.6.1 TECHNICAL AND SOCIAL BARRIERS . . . . . . . 22

6.6.2 POLITICAL BARRIERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
6.6.3 IMPACTS ON ENERGY MARKETS . . . . . . . . . . 24

7 Fast charging 24


ING 26
8.1 Overview of Fast Charging Converter Comparison . . . . . . . 26

List of Figures
1 Block diagram of Electric Vehicle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2 Types of cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3 General unidirectional and bidirectional topology. . . . . . . . 13
4 On-board unidirectional full-bridge series resonant charger pre-
sented in for Level 1 system (3.3 kW). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5 (a) Nonisolated bidirectional two-quadrant charger. (b) Iso-
lated bidirectional dual active bridge charger. . . . . . . . . . 14
6 Classification of DC-DC converter topologies. . . . . . . . . . 15
7 Standard step-up DC-DC converter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
8 Vienna Rectifier standard setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
9 Architechture of Buck Boost Converter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
10 Boost charger and buck-boost charger efficiency vs. charge
current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
11 This is the drivetrain in a Tesla S. It’s a motor between two
wheels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
12 Fast Charging in 10 minutes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
13 Summary of fast charging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
14 Fast Charging in 30 minutes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
15 Performance comparison of DC fast charging converter topolo-
gies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

EVs -Electric Vehicles
EVSE -Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment
ESS -Energy Storage System
EMS -Energy Management Scheme
RESs -Renewable Energy Sources
SR -Rated capacity of the charging station in VA
Nslot -Number of available slots for charging of individual vehicle
cosø -Power factor of the system
Pev -Maximum charging power rate of an EV
kload- Overload factor
vdc -DC bus voltage
Vbat- min Minimum voltage of battery
mmin -Minimum modulation index
Cdc -DC bus Capacitance
t -Period of AC voltage wave
n -multiple of ‘t’
Dp -DC power range of change in percentage, during transient
Dv -Allowable DC bus voltage range of change in percentage, during transient
SOC -State of Charge of battery
V2G -Vehicle-to-Grid
V2V -Vehicle-to-Vehicle
AER -All Electric Range of EV
Ppv -Power output of the installed solar PV
g- PV array efficiency
G2V- Grid to Vehicle
PV2V- PV-to-Vehicle
PG -Power taken from the grid

According to a forecast by International Energy Agency, the use of Electric
Vehicles will grow from 3 million to 125 million by the year 2030. That is
almost 41 times of what it is today, with the increasing demand of fossil fuel
and problems with pollution it seems most likely to happen. Owing to that,
all major IC Engine Car manufacturers like Ford and GM are slowly turning
their attention towards the Electric Vehicles. The market and consumers
are in need for a cheaper personal transportation and even on top of that,
the government has started supporting Electric Vehicles through its policies.
Considering all these facts it is pretty much evident that very soon we will
find Electric Cars zooming all around our Roads. Or should I also include
the Space, where there is already one Tesla car traveling beyond Mars
This change has already begun to show symptoms. In the past few years
there have emerged many successful Electric Vehicle manufactures like Tesla,
Kia Soul, Navistar and Kandi to name a few. And because of them there
have also been many technology breakthroughs in the area of batteries and
motors of an Electric Vehicle. While the changes are underway, it is time for
us as engineers to understand what’s under the hood of an Electric car and
how they work. So in this article let’s break down an Electric Vehicle to its
bones and flesh to learn about them.

1.1 What makes an Electric Car

An Electric Car is an automobile by itself and consists of many components
and a large cluster of wires connecting them all. But there are few basic bare
minimum materials for an Electric Car which is shown in the block diagram
The Engine of a conventional IC Engine Car is replaced by an electrical
Motor and the fuel tank is replaced by the Battery Pack. Of all the com-
ponents only the Battery Pack and Motor alone contributes to about more
than 50

2 Vital Parts of an Electric Car

The Battery Pack is the fuel source of the car, since there are hundreds of
cells arranged to form a battery pack a special circuit is required to monitor

Figure 1: Block diagram of Electric Vehicle

these cells, this circuit is called as the Battery Monitoring circuit. The DC
voltage from battery cannot be used to drive a motor so we need the controller
which drives the motor, and the Transmission system transfers the rotational
energy from motor on to the wheels through some gear arrangements. Let’s
look into each Part in details to understand more on EV’s.

2.1 EV Batteries
Batteries are the fuel source for Electric Cars, but it is also important to know
that batteries are not the only source of fuels. There are other alternatives
to power an EV like a Fuel cell or Super capacitors but both of them are still
in development stage and no commercial cars on the road use them. So let
us focus only on Battery Operated EV in this article.
The first think you should know about batteries in EV is that, unlike your
mobile phone which has only one battery EV’s are powered by hundreds if
not thousands of batteries joined together as a pack. To give you an idea
the Tesla has 7000 batteries and the Chevrolet spark has 600 Batteries inside
them. The complete battery anarchy consists of the Cell, Battery Module
and Battery Pack.

2.2 Cell
The cell refers to a single battery. There many different sizes and shapes for
a cell based on the chemistry. Most commonly used chemistry is the Lead-
Acid Batteries and Lithium Batteries. These batteries are available in many
different shapes like cylindrical, Coin, Prismatic and Flat type few of which
are shown below.

Figure 2: Types of cells

2.3 Battery Module

A single lithium cell voltage and Ah rating is not enough to drive an EV, so
these cells are connected in series and parallel configuration to increase the
resulting system voltage. This pack is called as a module. For people who
are new to batteries the term Ah might be confusing there are lot of such
parameters related to batteries which we will cover in a separate article. For
now you can think of Ah as the fuel range of an EV more the Ah more the
mileage we can get out of the EV.

2.4 Battery Pack

Once the system Voltage and Ah rating is obtained by combining various
modules in series and parallel configuration this set-up should be placed
inside the EV. But it is not so easy; the reason is -its complexity. Lithium
cells are unstable in nature any mishap like short circuit or excess charging or
discharging can make there batteries get very hot leading to fire or explosion.
So the voltage current and temperature of each cell should be monitored
for a safe operation. The duty of monitoring the cells during the charging
and discharging procedure is given to the circuit called Battery Management
system or BMS for short.

2.5 Battery Manangement System
Now that we have known about Batteries in EV the follow up would be
to know about battery Management system. A BMS is like the brain or
caretaker of batteries, as we saw earlier there are many batteries in an EV and
each battery has to be monitored to ensure safety. For Lead Acid batteries
BMS is not mandatory although some people use it but for Lithium cells due
to its unstable nature BMS becomes essential.

2.6 Electric Vehicle Motors

While batteries are the fuel tanks of an EV, the motors are the Engines
of them. There are many types of Motors used in EV and the one used
for Scooters and bikes is totally different form the one that is used in cars.
Let’s have a quick look on the commonly used ones that are BLDC motors,
Brushed DC motors and AC Induction Motor.

2.7 Controller
The controller gets all the inputs form the user like the amount of throttle
(acceleration), breaks pressure, driving mode etc and controls the speed of the
motor accordingly. If motors are considered to the muscle of a car, controller
is its brain. A controller is often a generic term and it might include other
circuits like a DC-DC converter, Speed controller, Inverter etc. The DC-DC
converter is used to power all the peripherals of the car like the infotainment
system, Headlights and other low level electronic devices.
Apart from this the controller also takes care of regenerative braking. It
is the process of converting kinetic energy into electric energy. That is when
the EV runs down a slope the motor are rotating freely due to the kinetic
energy, at this situation the motors can be made to act as a generator so that
the power thus obtained can be used to charge the batteries. Most modern
day EV’s have this but its performance and functionality is still debatable.

2.8 EV Chargers
Another important component in an EV which requires advancement is the
Chargers. An average E-Car takes a minimum of 5 hours to get charge that
combined with its very low mileage becomes a disaster. An average American

drives more than 50km per day, in this scenario an EV which gives a rage
of 90km for full charge has to get charged almost every day. This makes the
charges a most used component.
It gets plugged into the AC mains and converts the AC to DC to charge
the batteries. But there are more to add to it. Charging is a process in which
the batteries and charger should coexist you cannot push current inside a
battery if the battery is not ready to accept it. There are many types of
chargers; the most common types are discussed below.

3 Challenges Of Charging
Energy efficiency, distributed energy resources, and shifting demand patterns
have been a challenge to electric utilities for some time. Since 2010, annual
electricity demand has been flat or declining in many regions. In the South-
west alone, annual electricity demand in 2016 was 2.7million MWh less than
forecasted.36 Rapid EV deployment will increase the demand for power, but
the existing generating capacity should be able to meet that demand in most
areas of the country, assuming that a percentage of that incremental demand
occurs in the off-peak hours. Utilities are less concerned about the eventual
magnitude of this incremental demand, than the form that EV charging
might take—how fast, where and when, and how the power will be priced.
These parameters will be critical determinants in the evolution of the EV
charging market.
Energy efficiency, distributed energy resources, and shifting demand pat-
terns have been a challenge to American electric utilities for some time. Since
2010, annual electricity demand has been flat or declining in many regions.
Rapid EV deployment will increase the demand for power, but the existing
generating capacity should be able to meet that demand in most areas of
the country, assuming that a percentage of that incremental demand occurs
in the off-peak hours. Utilities are less concerned about the eventual mag-
nitude of this incremental demand, than the form that EV charging might
take—how fast, where and when, and how the power will be priced. These
parameters will be critical determinants in the evolution of the EV charging

3.1 Types of EV Charging Equipment

Charging equipment, henceforth denoted by “electric vehicle supply equip-
ment” (EVSE) comes in two basic varieties. The first, comprising “Level 1”
and “Level 2” EVSE, operates using alternating current (AC), and can draw
electricity directly from the local distribution system. All BEVs and PHEVs
carry an on-board inverter with limited capacity, to convert AC power to
direct current (DC), which is required to charge the battery. The second
variety, “Level 3” and above, uses DC charging, which bypasses the need
for an inverter by charging the battery directly and can therefore deliver
much more power. There is otherwise no relevant difference in the AC and
DC charging process. Chargers in public or commercial locations, typically

Level 2 and above, (henceforth “commercial chargers”) may be standalone
devices, or stations comprised of multiple chargers.

3.1.1 Level 1 and Level 2: Alternating Current

Level 1, providing 1.4 kW of power in the U.S., is simply a conventional
wall socket, and requires no additional circuitry, aside from the adapters
required to connect the EV to the socket. In theory, Level 1 charging can
be used anywhere, although in practice it takes place primarily at the EV
owners’ homes. Level 2 charging operates on the same upgraded 220-volt
outlets, required by washing machines and clothes driers, and can easily
be installed. More modern houses typically have these outlets, while older
houses may require electrical upgrades. Depending on the home’s electrical
infrastructure, this can involve upgraded circuitry, wiring extensions to reach
the charging location, or, even in rare cases, an upgraded transformer. Level 2
charging can also be provided at workplace locations, other business locations
(hotels, gas stations, private parking lots), and public locations (on-street
parking space, garages, streets, public parking lots—wherever cars are likely
to be stationary for hours at a time). Level 2 charging starts at a power
rating of 6.6 kW, increasing to 19.2 kW depending on the level of current
that the supporting circuitry can sustain. Most home Level 2 charging, and
almost all commercial Level 2 charging, is limited to 6.6 kW because (a) the
onboard inverter on most existing EVs cannot handle significantly more than
this level38 and (b) boosting the current typically requires the installation
of more expensive higher-capacity circuitry.

3.1.2 Level 3 and above: Direct Current

Because direct current charging bypasses an EV’s onboard inverter to charge
the battery directly, it can deliver much higher levels of electrical power. This
type of charger is commonly referred to as a Direct Current Fast Charger
(DCFC) and is typically used only in commercial locations. While studies
demonstrate that consistently high DCFC usage can accelerate deterioration
in battery capacity over time, capacity degradation forthe vast majority of
users is more closely associated to overall usage than charging patterns.40
“Estimated Direct Current Fast Charger utilization rates,” an NREL study
concludes, “do not appear frequent enough to significantly impact battery
life,” suggesting that the thermal management systems of the battery itself

are a more important determinant.41 Self-reported survey data from Tesla
drivers suggests that even for the most frequent users of fast charging, battery
capacity is highly unlikely to fall below 90percent of its original rating even
after 150,000 miles of usage.


description of each charger type is given below.

3.2.1 Unidirectional Chargers

Two types of power flow are possible between EVs and the electric grid, as
shown in Fig3. EVs with unidirectional chargers can charge but not inject
energy into the power grid. These chargers typically use a diode bridge in
conjunction with a filter and dc–dc converters. Today, these converters are
implemented in a single stage to limit cost, weight, volume, and losses.

Figure 3: General unidirectional and bidirectional topology.

High-frequency isolation transformers can be employed whendesired . Fig.

shows a unidirectional full-bridge series resonant converter for a Level 1
charging system similar to that represented in. Simplicity in the control of
unidirectional chargers makes it relatively easy for a utility to manage heav-
ily loaded feeders due to multiple EVs . Those with active front ends can
provide local reactive power support by means of current phaseangle control
without having to discharge a battery. Research on unidirectional charging
seeks optimal charging strategies that maximize benefits and explore the im-
pact on distribution networks. With a high penetration of EVs and active
control of charging current, unidirectional chargers can meet most utility
objectives while avoiding cost, performance, and safety concerns associated
with bidirectional chargers .

Figure 4: On-board unidirectional full-bridge series resonant charger pre-
sented in for Level 1 system (3.3 kW).

3.3 Bidirectional Chargers

A typical bidirectional charger has two stages: an active gridconnected bidi-
rectional ac–dc converter that enforces power factor and a bidirectional dc–dc
converter to regulate battery current . These chargers can use nonisolated or
isolated circuit configurations. When operating in charge mode, they should
draw a sinusoidal current with a defined phase angle to control power and
reactive power. In discharge mode, the charger should return current in a
similar sinusoidal form . A bidirectional charger supports charge from the
grid, battery energy injection back to the grid, referred to as vehicle-to-grid
(V2G) operation mode, and power stabilization. The topology shown in Fig.
5(a) is a nonisolated bidirectional two-quadrant charger. This circuit has two
switches, which greatly simplifies the control circuitry. However, there are
two high-current inductors that tend to be bulky and expensive, and it can
only buck in one direction and boost in the other. The topology in Fig. 5(b)
is an isolated bidirectional dual-active bridge charger. While this circuit pro-
vides high power density and fast control, the large number of components
can add to cost. While most studies have focused on bidirectional power

Figure 5: (a) Nonisolated bidirectional two-quadrant charger. (b) Isolated

bidirectional dual active bridge charger.

flow, there are serious challenges for adoption. Bidirectional power flow must
overcome battery degradation due to frequent cycling, the premium cost of
a charger with bidirectional power flow capability, metering issues, and nec-

essary distribution system upgrades . Customers are likely to require an
energy guarantee to ensure that vehicle state-of-charge is predictable (and
high) when it is time to drive. Successful implementation of bidirectional
power flow will require extensive safety measures. Anti-islanding protection
and other interconnection issues must also be addressed. Levels 1, 2, and 3

4 DC DC Converter Topologies
BEVs and PHEVs: Boost DC-DC converter (BC), Interleaved 4-Phase Boost
DC-DC converter (IBC), Boost DC-DC Converter with Resonant circuit
(BCRC), Full bridge Boost DC-DC converter (FBC), Isolated ZVS DC-DC
converters (ZVSC), Sinusoidal Amplitude HV DC bus converter (SAHVC),
Multiport isolated DC-DC converter (MPC), and Multi-device Interleaved
Bidirectional DC-DC converter (MDIBC).
Figure6 depicts a general classification of DC-DC converter topologies for
BEV and PHEV powertrains. In this section, extensive details about each
topology with their characteristic functions is discussed.

Figure 6: Classification of DC-DC converter topologies.

4.1 Boost DC-DC Converter (BC)

A boost DC/DC converter (step-up converter shown in Fig. 5.) is a power
converter with an output DC voltage greater than its input DC voltage. It is a
class of switching-mode power supply containing at least two semiconductor
switches (a diode and a switch) and at least one energy storage element
(capacitor and/or inductor). Filters made of capacitors are normally added to

the output of the converter to reduce output voltage ripple and the inductor
connected in series with the input DC source in order to reduce the current

Figure 7: Standard step-up DC-DC converter.

The smoothing inductor L is used to limit the current ripple. The fil-
ter capacitor C can restrict the output voltage ripples. The ripple current
in the inductor is calculated by neglecting the output voltage ripple. The
inductance value is given by the following equation:
L = (V out)/4 ∗ F ∗ Ilmax
The capacitor must be able to keep the current supply at peak power.
The output voltage ripple is a result of alternative current in the capacitor.
C = ILmax/(4 ∗ F ∗ V out)

4.2 Vienna Rectifier

Topology:- The Vienna Rectifier is a unidirectional three-phase three-switch
three-level Pulse-width modulation (PWM) rectifier. It can be seen as a
three-phase diode bridge with an integrated boost converter
The Vienna Rectifier is useful wherever six-switch converters are used for
achieving sinusoidal mains current and controlled output voltage, when no
energy feedback from the load into the mains is available. In practice, use of
the Vienna Rectifier is advantageous when space is at a sufficient premium
to justify the additional hardware cost

Three-phase three-level three-switch PWM rectifier with controlled out-
put voltage.
Three-wire input, no connection to neutral.
Ohmic mains behaviour[citation needed]
Boost system (continuous input current).
Unidirectional power flow.
High power density.
Low conducted common-mode EMI emissions.
Simple control to stabilize the neutral point potential.
Low complexity, low realization effort
Low switching losses.
Reliable behaviour (guaranteeing ohmic mains behaviour) under heavily
unbalanced mains voltages and in case of mains failure.

Figure 8: Vienna Rectifier standard setup

4.3 Buck-boost charge controller

The buck-boost charge controller drives four external switching FETs to
charge a battery from an input that is either below or above the desired
charge voltage. This controller has a seamless transition among buck, buck-
boost, and boost modes of operation, making it a truly universal charger
for batteries from one to four cells. The input voltage range is compatible

with USB power delivery (PD), accepting anywhere from 3.5 V up to 24 V.
This wide range of operating voltages adds flexibility, making this solution
attractive for robot vacuum cleaners, drones and portable computers. Fig-
ure 7 shows the typical architecture and an example PCB circuit size for a
buck-boost charger.

Figure 9: Architechture of Buck Boost Converter

4.4 Efficiency comparison of boost and buck-boost

Figure 8 shows plots for charge efficiency against charge current for the boost
charger and buck-boost charge controller when configured for charging a se-
ries two-cell battery from a 5-V source. Here are the distinguishing charac-
teristics of each topology:
• A buck-boost charge controller offers high charging efficiency for high
charge current, but requires a larger solution size with external power FETs.
• The boost charger handles up to 15 W of input power to charge a series
two-cell battery and integrates all power FETs, reducing solution size and
simplifying circuit design.

Figure 10: Boost charger and buck-boost charger efficiency vs. charge current

5 Plug to Wheels
One of the nice things about electric motors is that they operate efficiently
over a wide range of speeds. An ICE varies between 0, when idling, to some-
thing in the low to mid 30percent range. An electric motor runs somewhere
in the low 80’s to high 90percent range over its entire RPM band.
There used to be a running debate about whether EV’s should have gears,
generally two. That keeps the motor in the mid-to-high 90’s, but adds com-
plexity. That debate is now over; no modern EV has more than a single fixed
speed gear.

Figure 11: This is the drivetrain in a Tesla S. It’s a motor between two

So in an EV there’s no major transmission system, driveshaft components,

and in some designs, you don’t even have axles or differentials. A modern
electric drivetrain is much simpler than a modern gasoline one, with parts

counts that are tens or hundreds of times smaller Over on the right is an
image of the Tesla Model S (from Rides with Chuck) and that’s basically
the entire car – the motors are placed between the wheels (the big cylinder
mid-image) where the front and rear axle/transaxle would be, and a battery
pack in the floor of the car (the light-silvery part at the top-left).
In a typical car, the drivetrain eats up about 5 to 6
The motor itself is fantastically efficient, but that’s in terms of the elec-
tricity being delivered to it from the batteries. That conversion is not direct
– the batteries provide DC power but the motor uses AC, so you need to use
an “inverter” to change it from one to the other. Modern inverters are about
In a gasoline car, the fuel that’s pumped into your tank is used directly
in the engine. That’s not the case in an electric car, where the “fuel” is AC
power from your home, and the tank is a battery full of DC power. So we
have to convert from AC to DC using a charger which is also about 95
That’s right – we start with AC, turn it into DC, back into AC, and then
into motion. That doesn’t sound great, does it?
And finally, we need to consider leakage. When I charge the battery, not
all of the power ends up stored, some of it is used up pushing the electrons
through the battery. Typical numbers here are about 85 to 90
So, a rough estimate of the total round-trip tank to wheel efficiency is:
0.90 (motor and drivetrain) x 0.95 (inverter) x 0.90 (battery) x 0.95
(charger) = 73
This number jives quite well with the claims of Tesla, which quotes a
75percent round-trip efficiency. Tesla and Leaf owners report slightly lower
real-world charging numbers, with the charger and battery portions of the
cycle on the order of 80 to 85percent. If we use those numbers we get:
0.90 (motor and drivetrain) x 0.95 (inverter) x 0.8 (battery and charger)
= 68percent
This isn’t a huge difference, so we’ll split it and call it 70percent. How
does this compare to a conventional car? Quite well in fact. A normal
gasoline car has a tank-to-wheel efficiency of 16
That’s right, an electric car is over four times as efficient at turning energy
into motion.

6 Vehicle to Grid
6.1 What is V2G?
V2G stands for “vehicle-to-grid” and is a technology that enables energy to
be pushed back to the power grid from the battery of an electric car. With
vehicle-to-grid technology, a car battery can be charged and discharged based
on different signals — such as energy production or consumption nearby.
In a nutshell, the idea behind vehicle-to-grid is similar to regular smart
charging. Smart charging, also known as V1G charging, enables us to con-
trol the charging of electric cars in a way that allows the charging power
to be increased and decreased when needed. Vehicle-to-grid goes one step
further, and enables the charged power to also be momentarily pushed back
to the grid from car batteries to balance variations in energy production and

6.2 Why should you care about V2G?

Long story short, vehicle-to-grid helps mitigate climate change by allowing
our energy system to balance more and more renewable energy. However,
to succeed in tackling the climate crisis, three things need to happen in the
energy and mobility sectors: Decarbonisation, energy efficiency, and electri-
In the context of energy production, decarbonisation refers to the de-
ployment of renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power. This
introduces the problem of storing energy. While fossil fuels can be seen as a
form of energy storage as they release energy when burned, wind and solar
power function differently. Energy should be either used where it’s produced
or stored somewhere for later usage. Therefore, the growth of renewables
inevitably makes our energy system more volatile, requiring new ways to
balance and store energy to be used.
Simultaneously, the transportation sector is doing its fair share of car-
bon reduction and as notable proof of that, the number of electric vehicles
is increasing steadily. Electric vehicle batteries are by far the most cost-
efficient form of energy storage, since they require no additional investments
on hardware

6.3 How does vehicle-to-grid work?
When it comes to using V2G in practice, the most important thing is to
make sure that EV drivers have enough energy in their car batteries when
they need it. When they’re leaving for work in the morning, the car battery
must be full enough to drive them to work and back if needed. This is the
basic requirement of V2G and any other charging technology: The EV driver
must be able to communicate when they want to unplug the car and how
full the battery should be at that time.

6.4 How will vehicle-to-grid become mainstream?

V2G solutions are ready to hit the market and start doing their magic. Yet,
some hurdles need to be overcome before V2G becomes the mainstream en-
ergy management tool.

6.5 Once-in-a-lifetime opportunity for utilities

The first V2G projects are running and vehicle-to-grid solutions have been
implemented. V2G will become a vital solution first in locations where the
energy system is the most volatile. The most important thing, despite the
location, is that the installed charging devices are smart – otherwise all of
the smart energy management features will be inaccessible.
When V2G has been implemented extensively enough, EVs can also sup-
port the grid in a state of emergency. If extreme weather conditions cause
breaks in electricity, electric vehicles can maintain power for basic needs until
the problem is fixed. This will make the electricity system less vulnerable
and less dependent on external conditions.


1.Massive Introduction of PHEV can significantly reduce the CO2 emissions.
On the other side the integration of Renewable Energy Sources in the existing
conventional grid causes some technical constraints in the grid, especially
issues Concerning Power Quality.[54] At present there is no such system for
Integrating EV and PHEV in the conventional electric grids

2. The most important barrier to the spread of electric propulsion from
the point of view of electric variables are voltage and current, frequency and
connections to the vehicle.
3.Two-way communication (“ Smart charging”) system between utility
and PEV’s are needed to be implemented to shift the charging of PEV”s
completely to off-peak periods .Without smart charging or controlling sys-
tem the national electricity grids can be an important show stopper for the
introduction of EV”s
4.The major problem limiting the wider penetration of Distributed En-
ergy sources (DER) in the power systems is the lack of compatibility of
different fault protection systems and metering with different DER”s.
5. Customer side distributed storage and plug-in vehicles are connected at
electrically- Remote locations within the Power Delivery network so Proper
Planning of the Power Delivery network is extremely essential
6. PEV loads will not grow uniformly in the whole utility service area.
Initial penetrations will most likely to be clustered in certain areas so it
ultimately causes a Significant overload on the distribution feeders in the
Service area[t]
7. Coupling of Load Control with the new usages (Plug-in Electric and
Hybrid Vehicles) or intermittent generation(RES, PHEV and Power grids) or
intermittent generation(Convergence of buildings, Renewable Energies, plug
in EHV and Power grids)
8.Traditional methods of load forecasting will not be possible due to un-
certainty in PEV penetration and temporal uncertainty in charging patterns
and habits
9. Impact of Plug in electric hybrid and hybrid vehicles on the network,
its various forms of load and its interaction with the system(injection, con-
sumption and storage)
10. Data processing and management of large amounts of information
with respect to the dynamic bi-directional communication “grid-smart me-
11. Development and implementation of “ Simple” and cost- effective
technologies in the presence of distributed generation.


1. Investments in the smart grid charging system are extremely expensive
.There is a lack of interest in the government doubling the electrical trans-

mission capacity or capacity of generating units
2. The connection of PHEV’s to the electricity gird are subjected to
different connection rules depending on the electric distributor policy
3. The different national legislations regarding Connection of storage
systems Demand side management needs to be sorted
4. Standardization of national legislations needs to be achieved
5. Conflicts of interests between DSO, TSO and customers needs to be
sorted out
6. A standardized infrastructure solution is needed to facilitate the mass
roll out of EV and favor customer acceptance
7. Promoting the awareness of Energy usage to the consumers by the


Expected Market developments(recharging strategies, pricing mechanisms)
new technologies in the industries needs to be developed in the Market to at-
tract consumers in V2GU dispatch able nature of RES required new dedicated
market regulations and policies different from the methodologies currently
employed in the electricity market, Assuring- Non discriminatory treatment
for all small and auto producers that want to compete in the electricity mar-
ket. The simulating market equilibrium solution for the energy supply and
demand by the EU.

7 Fast charging
The simulation of fast charging is based on the assumption that the initial
battery temperature is equal to the temperature of the surroundings, which
is 25degree. Both of the ambient temperature and coolant temperature are
kept as constant during charging, which is 25degree. Simulation results for
10 minutes, 30 minutes and 60 minutes are shown by Fig. 9, Fig. 11 and
Fig.12 respectively.
Results from CC-CV protocol are presented in accordance. In the case of
10 minutes charging, the result of PMP is similar with that from CC-CV.
The reason is that under such harsh charging scenario, there is not much
can be done by the optimal controller to decrease aging effect. On the other
hand, in the cases of 30 minutes charging and 60 minutes charging, the

Figure 12: Fast Charging in 10 minutes

Figure 13: Summary of fast charging

optimal controller is able to keep the battery temperature much lower than
that from CC-CV strategy, which leads to less aging effect. The reason is
that under such harsh charging scenario, there is not much can be done by
the optimal controller to decrease aging effect. On the other hand, in the
cases of 30 minutes charging and 60 minutes charging, the optimal controller
is able to keep the battery temperature much lower than that from CC-CV
strategy, which leads to less aging effect The summary of results for fast
charging is listed in in which is battery operating severity factor. It is clearly
shown that effective Ah-throughput, Ahef f , which quantifies battery life
depletion, can be reduced by the optimal charging strategy

Figure 14: Fast Charging in 30 minutes

8.1 Overview of Fast Charging Converter Comparison
After detailed review of the three converter topologies, it can be concluded
that the use of the

Figure 15: Performance comparison of DC fast charging converter topologies

Vienna rectifier for the implementation of the DC fast charging station is
appropriate, due to the following reasons:
1.Better compensation for harmonic content
2.Higher power factor, around 0.99, compared to the unidirectional boost
converter and the reduced switch Buck-Boost Converter.
3.Presence of lower number of switches per phase
4.Good efficiency when compared to the unidirectional boost converter and
the reduced switch Buck-Boost Converter
the Vienna rectifier is the most optimal converter topology for the DC fast
charging stations from among the reviewed topologies

A DC bus is realized using grid connection through an AC/DC converter.
The converter is so designed that near to unity power factor operation is ob-
tained and minimum line current harmonics are drawn. Good performance
is observed with change in load. Results show a proper dynamic behavior
of the DC bus voltage, the battery voltage, and the battery current. The
line current harmonics are greatly reduced by the use of proposed control
technique. The control is relatively easier to implement and also gives good
dynamic performance in terms of DC bus voltage stability. The controller
designed for CC-CV charging is effective in controlling the charging modes.
The proposed model is also effective in reducing the impact on grid by reduc-
ing the net energy drawn from the utility. The advantage of the coordinated
operation of Electric utility, solar PV generation and available reserve capac-
ity is highlighted in terms of the net profit earned by participation in the
energy market..Successful implementation of DC fast charging stations face
many hurdles. Few of the issues include: high equipment cost, overloading of
transformers, and lack of standard procedures and codes. Currently, Level 1
and 2 are the most popular schemes available, as they are both suitable for
the available present infrastructure. Furthermore, levels 1 and 2 AC charg-
ing are more cost effective compared to level 3 DC fast charging stations.
Public transportation sectors, especially mass transit systems, have a dire
need for DC fast charging topologies. In addition to public transit vehicles,
other commercial utility vehicles such as trams, trucks, and trains have peak
power demands, such as providing starting torque for a very short duration.
Peak power demands can be met if the vehicle is charged within a very short
amount of time. Fast charging of electric mass transit systems is essential,
since an electric city transit bus or a subway/metro train makes frequent
stops (about 1 km between stops). The proposedDC fast charging system
can be installed at major stops or train stations. DC fast charging provides
tractability and a variety of charging options to the consumer. Finally, a
more user-supportive charging system will allow for greater penetration of
fast charging stations and greater acceptance of the technology. The paper
comprehensively discussed and reviewed an all-inclusive literature survey on
the present status of DC fast charger converter topologies. The concept of DC
fast charging stations and power electronic converter topologies to achieve
high-power transfer from the AC grid to the EV battery were discussed in
detail. The focal point of the overall discussion was off-board DC charging,

as opposed to expensive and inefficient on-board AC/DC charging. It has
been proven in the available literature that the Vienna rectifier is a preferred
choice in high-power applications, due to superior power factor and excellent
capability to cancel pout current harmonics.

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