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GERAN UR14 Basic Feature

Description
GERAN UR14 Basic Feature Description

GERAN UR14 Basic Feature Description


Version Date Author Reviewer Notes

© 2016 ZTE Corporation. All rights reserved.


ZTE CONFIDENTIAL: This document contains proprietary information of ZTE and is not to be disclosed or used
without the prior written permission of ZTE.
Due to update and improvement of ZTE products and technologies, information in this document is subjected to
change without notice.

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GERAN UR14 Basic Feature Description

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1 Instruction.......................................................................................................... 6

2 Service ............................................................................................................... 7
2.1 Voice Service ....................................................................................................... 7
2.1.1 ZGB-01-01-001 Full Rate (FR) Speech Codec..................................................... 7
2.2 Data Service ........................................................................................................ 8
2.2.1 ZGB-01-02-001 Quality of Service (QoS) ............................................................. 8
2.3 Supplementary Service ........................................................................................ 9
2.3.1 ZGB-01-03-001 Emergency Call Handling ........................................................... 9
2.3.2 ZGB-01-03-002 Data Traffic Channels ................................................................. 9
2.3.3 ZGB-01-03-003 Short Message Service (SMS) ................................................. 10

3 Mobility Management ...................................................................................... 11


3.1 Paging ............................................................................................................... 11
3.1.1 ZGB-02-01-001 Paging ...................................................................................... 11
3.2 Handover and Reselection ................................................................................. 12
3.2.1 ZGB-02-02-001 Basic Handover ........................................................................ 12
3.2.2 ZGB-02-02-004 Support 64 Neighboring Cells ................................................... 16
3.2.3 ZGB-02-02-005 Double BCCH Allocation List .................................................... 16
3.2.4 ZGB-02-02-006 Cell Reselection ....................................................................... 17
3.2.5 ZGB-02-02-007 Cell Selection ........................................................................... 18

4 Resource Management ................................................................................... 20


4.1 Congestion Control ............................................................................................ 20
4.1.1 ZGB-03-01-001 MS Access Control ................................................................... 20
4.1.2 ZGB-03-01-002 Directed Retry .......................................................................... 21
4.1.3 ZGB-03-01-003 Queuing.................................................................................... 23
4.1.4 ZGB-03-01-004 Immediate TCH Assignment ..................................................... 23
4.2 Channel Allocation ............................................................................................. 24
4.2.1 ZGB-03-02-001 Support of SDCCH/4 and SDCCH/8 ......................................... 24
4.2.2 ZGB-03-02-002 Flexible SDCCH Configuration ................................................. 25
4.2.3 ZGB-03-02-003 Dynamic Configuration of SDCCH ............................................ 26
4.2.4 ZGB-03-02-004 MAC Dynamic Allocation Mode ................................................ 26
4.2.5 ZGB-03-02-005 Static Channel Management .................................................... 27
4.2.6 ZGB-03-02-006 Dynamic Channel Management ............................................... 28
4.2.7 ZGO-03-02-001 Idle Channel Measurement ...................................................... 28
4.2.8 ZGO-03-02-002 Enhancement on CS Channel Allocation.................................. 29
4.2.9 ZGO-03-02-003 Enhancement on PS Channel Allocation .................................. 32
4.3 Circuit Management ........................................................................................... 33
4.3.1 ZGB-03-03-001 2M High Speed Signaling Link .................................................. 33

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4.3.2 ZGB-03-03-002 Enhanced E1 Link between BSC and BTS ............................... 34


4.3.3 ZGB-03-03-004 TC Resource Dynamic Sharing ................................................ 35
4.3.4 ZGB-03-03-005 PCU Resource Dynamic Allocation .......................................... 36
4.4 Reliability ........................................................................................................... 37
4.4.1 ZGB-03-04-001 BSC Load Control .................................................................... 37
4.4.2 ZGB-03-04-003 BTS Recovery .......................................................................... 38
4.4.3 ZGB-03-04-004 Dry Contact Alarm .................................................................... 38
4.4.4 ZGB-03-04-006 Backward Compatibility for BTS ............................................... 39
4.5 GPRS/EGPRS ................................................................................................... 40
4.5.1 ZGB-03-05-001 Coding Scheme CS1~CS4 ....................................................... 40
4.5.2 ZGB-03-05-002 Initial Coding Scheme per Cell Settable.................................... 41
4.5.3 ZGB-03-05-005 8/11 bit Access Burst ................................................................ 42
4.5.4 ZGB-03-05-006 Class A, B, C Mobile Stations ................................................... 42
4.5.5 ZGB-03-05-007 One Phase Access ................................................................... 43
4.5.6 ZGB-03-05-008 Two Phase Access ................................................................... 44
4.5.7 ZGB-03-05-009 Network Mode of Operation (NMO) 1~3 ................................... 46
4.5.8 ZGB-03-05-011 Timeslot Multiplexing ................................................................ 48
4.5.9 ZGB-03-05-012 GPRS Link Adaptation.............................................................. 48
4.5.10 ZGB-03-05-013 Delayed TBF Release in DL ..................................................... 49
4.5.11 ZGB-03-05-014 Delayed TBF Release in UL ..................................................... 50
4.5.12 ZGB-03-05-015 RLC Acknowledged/ Unacknowledged Mode ........................... 50
4.5.13 ZGB-03-05-016 Downlink BVC Flow Control...................................................... 51
4.5.14 ZGB-03-05-017 Downlink MS Flow Control........................................................ 52
4.5.15 ZGO-03-05-003 EGPRS Packet Channel Request on CCCH ............................ 53
4.5.16 ZGO-03-05-007 EGPRS Activation per Cell ....................................................... 54

5 Network Performance ..................................................................................... 55


5.1 Coverage Enhancement .................................................................................... 55
5.1.1 ZGB-04-01-001 Receiving Diversity ................................................................... 55
5.1.2 ZGB-04-01-002 Support Tower Mounted Amplifier (TMA) .................................. 55
5.2 Network Quality Improvement ............................................................................ 56
5.2.1 ZGB-04-02-001 Traffic Hold at Channel Blocking............................................... 56
5.2.2 ZGB-04-02-002 Static BTS Power Control ......................................................... 57
5.2.3 ZG0-04-02-019 Discontinuous Reception (DRX)................................................ 58

6 Transmission ................................................................................................... 59
6.1 Flexible Networking............................................................................................ 59
6.1.1 ZGB-05-02-001 Automatic Bridge in BTS Chain Networking .............................. 59
6.1.2 ZGB-05-02-002 Basic RAN Topology ................................................................ 60
6.1.1 ZGO-05-02-010 Multi-band Networking ............................................................. 61
6.1.2 ZGO-05-02-031 Distributed Architecture of BTS ................................................ 62
6.2 Synchronization ................................................................................................. 63

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6.2.1 ZGB-05-03-001 Clock Synchronization .............................................................. 63

7 Others .............................................................................................................. 65
7.1 O&M .................................................................................................................. 65
7.1.1 ZGB-06-01-001 Monitoring Um Interface ........................................................... 65
7.1.2 ZGB-06-01-002 Abis Interface Monitoring .......................................................... 66
7.1.3 ZGB-06-01-003 Performance Data Measurement .............................................. 67
7.1.4 ZGB-06-01-005 BSC Monitor Functions............................................................. 68
7.1.5 ZGB-06-01-006 BTS Software Loading.............................................................. 69
7.1.6 ZGB-06-01-007 Cell Traffic Statistics ................................................................. 71
7.1.7 ZGB-06-01-008 Equipment Health Check .......................................................... 72
7.1.8 ZGO-06-01-003 BSC LMT Interface................................................................... 74
7.1.9 ZGO-06-01-009 RX Diversity Imbalance Detection ............................................ 75
7.1.10 ZGO-06-01-010 VSWR Detection ...................................................................... 76
7.1.11 ZGO-06-01-014 BTS Operations & Maintenance Channel ................................. 77
7.1.12 ZGO-06-01-015 Time Calibration via SNTP ....................................................... 78
7.2 Security.............................................................................................................. 79
7.2.1 ZGB-06-02-001 A5/1 Ciphering Algorithm .......................................................... 79

8 Acronyms and Abbreviations ......................................................................... 80

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FIGURES

Figure 6-1 Star, tree and Chain Networking .......................................................................60

TABLES

Table 4-1 Coding Scheme CS1-CS4 .................................................................................40


Table 4-2 Three Network Operation Modes .......................................................................47

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GERAN UR14 Basic Feature Description

1 Instruction
The complete set of feature description for radio access part of ZTE GSM consists of
three documents:

ZTE GERAN Basic Feature Description

ZTE GEARN Optional Feature Description

ZTE NetNumen-M31 Feature Description

This document contains the basic features of ZTE GERAN.

ZTE GERAN Feature ID number is in the format of ZGX-xx-xx-xxx. The header “ZG”
stands for ZTE GSM.

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GERAN UR14 Basic Feature Description

2 Service

2.1 Voice Service

2.1.1 ZGB-01-01-001 Full Rate (FR) Speech Codec

Benefits

This feature is a speech codec that gives good speech quality used for Full Rate traffic
channels and makes the user have better experience.

Description

Full rate speech coder is the basic coding scheme of GSM system. It uses Linear
Predictive Coding with Regular Pulse Excitation (LPC-RPE codec). It is a full rate speech
codec and operates at 13 kbps. Full Rate Speech Codec is based on RPE-LTP. 160
speech samples in 13-bit PCM are mapped to 260bit (interval is 20ms and sampling rate
is 8 KHz), which is called coding. Decoding refers to the mapping relation between the
160 reconstructed speech samples from 260bit coding packet to export packet. The
coding stream is 13kbit/s.

The traffic channel using FR speech codec is usually expressed by TCH/F. One TRX
supports maximum 8 TCH/F time slots. It can give good speech quality with Mean
Opinion Score (MOS) 3.8.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

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2.2 Data Service

2.2.1 ZGB-01-02-001 Quality of Service (QoS)

Benefits

This feature enhances high-end subscribers’ service experience in the case of restricted
radio resource for packet service.

Description

GPRS/EDGE QoS includes the parameters as follows:

 Delay class: 1 (short delay) ~ 4 (background)

 -5) ~ 5 (>5*10-4)

 Peak throughput class: 1 (<16Kb/s) ~ 9 (≥2Mb/s)

 Precedence class: 1 ~ 3

 Mean throughput class: 1 (lowest, 0.22kbps) ~ 18 (highest, 111kbps), 31 (best


effort).

These QoS parameters are negotiated by MS and SGSN in the process of PDP
activation. BSC obtains QoS parameters from SGSN downlink data.

When finding the QoS profile belongs to R97/R98, BSC needs to map to R99 QoS in
order to adapt to air interface scheduling. There are 5 attributes in SGSN in R97/R98
QoS profile, BSC only deals with peak throughput, and maps to Maximum bit rate of R99
QoS, for the mapping method, please refer to 3GPP TS 23.107.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

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2.3 Supplementary Service

2.3.1 ZGB-01-03-001 Emergency Call Handling

Benefits

Emergency calls have the highest priority, even if the system congests or overloads,
emergency calls will be handled rapidly and guaranteed good service quality. This
enhances emergency call handling efficiency and user satisfaction.

Description

Emergency call is a basic voice service of the GSM system. When the MS accesses the
network using an emergency call, the BSS treats and provides higher priority and faster
service to it. So TCH channel will be allocated with higher priority. Allocation of SDCCH
channel will be considered if the TCH channel is busy.

Emergency calls have highest priority, even if the MS does not have any SIM card or the
SIM card is locked, he/she still can dial emergency calls successfully, even if the system
congests or overloads, emergency calls will be handled rapidly and guaranteed good
service quality.

Introduced version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

2.3.2 ZGB-01-03-002 Data Traffic Channels

Benefits

Circuit Switched Data services (CSD) shows more ways to support data services for 2G
operators. Operators can provide diversified services on the data platform of CSD to
attract more subscribers and achieve more profits.

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Description

ZTE GSM BSS adopts TCH/F9.6 (transparent and non-transparent) data channels to
deliver circuit switched data services at a rate of 9.6 Kbits/s. The BSS provides the
lower-layer bearer service but does not process the upper-layer services. In
non-transparent data services, a set of radio link protocol is used for data correction and
retransmission between Mobile Station (MS) and Core Network (CN).

Introduced version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

2.3.3 ZGB-01-03-003 Short Message Service (SMS)

Benefits

This feature has great potential in attracting target subscribers and increasing revenue.

Many services can be deployed with short messages, such as stock information, current
exchange rate and weather forecast.

In addition, operator can send advertisement, bill and charge information to specific
subscribers by SMS, which makes them charge on not only subscribers, but also the
enterprise that needs the service.

Description

Support bi-directional (MT/MO) message transmission between MS and SMC.

One MS sends text to another MS (point to point, PTP) through network and SMC. The
text should not exceed 160 (English) letters.

SMC is in charge of short message storing and forwarding. This service is not only for
GSM users, but also for fixed network users that are able to receive short messages as
well.

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BSS establishes links (SAPI =3) to transmit SMS. This transmission procedure is
transparent to BSS. MS sends and receives SMS in either busy or idle state.

In idle state, MS sets up a link (SAPI = 3) at Abis interface before sending or receiving
short messages. Then it will set up SAPI connection at Abis interface to send or receive
short messages.

Even if a call is coming, MS still can receive short message. After BSC receives the short
message from SMC, it will send ‘Establish Request’ message to set up a link at Abis
interface first. BSC then transmits the short message to MS after a successful setup.

When MS is going through a call, short messages are carried on SACCH channel. When
MS is in idle state; short messages can be carried on SDCCH channel or FACCH
channel according to the network state.

Introduced version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

3 Mobility Management

3.1 Paging

3.1.1 ZGB-02-01-001 Paging

Benefits

This feature is a basic step to setup a call and send a SMS. Large paging capacity and
flexible process avoids congestion caused by paging overload and improves the call
setup success rate.

Description

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Paging procedure is initialized by MSC or SGSN to locate the MS. After receiving the
paging message from CN, BSC sends the paging request to all cells in specified LA.
There are two kinds of paging: IMSI paging and TMSI paging. When IMSI is used for
paging, one paging message can contain two IMSI numbers, while four TMSI can be
packed in one paging message.

Paging is sent via CCCH. Downlink CCCH is shared by PCH and AGCH. Among them,
PCH sends paging message, and AGCH sends immediate assignment and immediate
assignment rejection message. According to GSM specification, there are 3 paging
groups in one multi-frame when the CCCH and SDCCH share one control channel, and
there are 9 paging groups when CCCH and SDCCH are configured individually. The
paging group in one multi-frame is shared by PCH and AGCH. Thus, the paging capacity
depends on the configuration method of CCCH, PCH, AGCH, and the ratio of IMSI
paging to TMSI paging. ZTE BSC supports a flexible channel configuration to provide
different paging capacity. The maximal paging capacity for one LAC is 400,000 times per
hour. ZTE BSS also supports paging retransmission. When the paging message is not
replied within certain duration, it will be retransmitted.

There are three paging types: the CS call paging, PS paging, and SMS paging. Usually
all these paging messages are sent via CCCH. In order to avoid paging congestion, all
these traffics should be considered so that the LAC can be defined properly.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

3.2 Handover and Reselection

3.2.1 ZGB-02-02-001 Basic Handover

Benefits

This feature enables the basic handover, allowing the terminals to keep talking while

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moving in the cell or to the other cells, so as to guarantee the users’ voice quality during
handover as well.

Description

This feature enables the basic function related to the mobility management, which is
handover. BSC decides whether the terminals need to handover according to the
measurement reports. BSC updates the BCCH Allocation (BA) list first, and then selects
the suitable cell to handover after the handover decision is made. In order to avoid the
frequent handover failure, relevant failure penalty is adopted, which decreases the
signaling load and increases the handover successful ratio.

ZTE GSM supports BSC in dealing with the measurement reports with the sliding window
mechanism and the weighted average algorithm, and then selects the higher priority
handover algorithm according to the different handover reasons. For the intra-cell
handover, the suitable carrier and the timeslot of the minimum interference band is
selected; for the inter-cell handover, the target cell based on the layer strategy and the
handover decision criterion is selected.

The determinant factor of the target cells’ sequencing is load, priority and power margin.
First, sequence and filter the target cells’ list according to the traffic: the cell with full
traffic or exceeding the traffic threshold should be deleted from the list. Then sequence
all the target cells based on the priority. At last, sequence all target cells with the same
priority based on the power margin. Select the first cell in the list as the target cell to
handover.

If handover fails, the handover failure penalty should be adopted, which avoids the
repeated handover failure, and increases the successful handover ratio. For the intra-cell
handover, BSC restrains the user not to attempt handover during the penalty time of
handover failure. For the inter-cell handover, BSC deducts the offset value based on the
signal level of the cell, which reduces the possibility of the user handover to the last failed
target cell during the penalty time of handover failure.

In order to prevent the repeated handover, BSC compares the current time point with the
time point of last successful handover. If the difference between the two time point
exceeds the penalty time of repeated handover, the handover procedure is going on; if

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not, the source cell of last handover should be deleted from the target cells’ list of this
handover first, and then select the suitable target cell for this handover.

The handover mode is divided into the synchronous handover and the asynchronous
handover, the synchronous handover is used for the inter-cell handover in the same site,
and the asynchronous handover is used for the handover between the different sites.

ZTE GSM supports basic and optional handover algorithms. Basic handover algorithm
includes: signal quality (uplink/downlink) handover, signal level (uplink/downlink)
handover, signal interference (uplink/downlink) handover, ultra-distance and Power
Budget (PBGT) handover. The details are shown as follows:

Signal Quality (Uplink/Downlink) Handover

Signal quality handover is a basic criterion for inter-cell handover, which is composed of
uplink and downlink, and the handover decision is the same. When the channel quality is
getting worse, the radio link may become abnormal to release the occupied channel,
leading to the user’s call drop. In order to avoid this situation, when the mean error rate is
greater than the quality threshold for P times in N times, BSC triggers the signal quality
handover to save this call.

Signal Level (Uplink/Downlink) Handover

Signal level handover is a basic criterion for inter-cell handover, which is composed of
uplink and downlink, and the handover decision is the same. When the interference is
too low to trigger the interference or quality handover even the level fading is serious,
leading to the users’ call drop. In order to avoid this situation, when the signal lever is
lower than the level threshold for P times in N times, BSC triggers the signal level
handover to save this call.

Signal Interference (Uplink/Downlink) Handover

Signal Interference handover is the basic criterion for intra-cell handover, which is
composed of uplink and downlink, and the handover decision is the same. When the
interference occurs, the interference degree of every channel in the cell is different. So
the handover in the different channel of the same cell solves the interference problem.
When the signal quality is getting worse but the signal level is higher, the terminal enters
the pre-defined interference area for P times in N times; BSC triggers the signal

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interference handover to save this call.

If there is not idle channel in the serving cell, the handover should be converted to the
signal quality handover to try the inter-cell handover. The difference between the signal
interference handover and the signal quality handover is: when the signal interference
handover occurs, the signal quality isn’t worse to influence the call and the signal level is
high at present.

Ultra-Distance Handover

Ultra-distance handover is a basic criterion for inter-cell handover. If the terminal is far
from BTS, the ultra-distance handover is done to the nearest neighboring cell. When the
Time Advance (TA) is greater than the distance threshold for P times in N times, BSC
triggers the ultra-distance handover to save this call.

PBGT Handover

PBGT handover is a basic criterion for inter-cell handover, so as to keep the call in the
suitable cell. PBGT is gained from the signal level of the neighboring cell subtracting that
of the serving cell. When the downlink level of the neighboring cell is lower than the initial
threshold, if the PBGT of the neighboring cell is greater than the preset PBGT threshold
for P times in N times, BSC triggers the PBGT handover. PBGT handover is a non-saving
handover.

In order to make the PBGT occur in the same layer, and the neighboring cell’s level of
other layers is strong enough to execute the inter-layer PBGT handover; the inter-layer
timer should be set when the terminal accesses the network. If the inter-layer timer isn’t
out, the neighboring cell’s level should add the offset value of the upper layer for PBGT
handover to the upper layer, and the neighboring cell’s level should add the offset value
of the lower layer for PBGT handover to the lower layer. If the timer is out, the normal
PBGT handover is executed.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

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3.2.2 ZGB-02-02-004 Support 64 Neighboring Cells

Benefits

This feature improves radio network performance and reduces call drop rate by providing
enough neighboring cells.

Description

This feature increases GSM neighboring cells from original 32 to 64 ones, meeting the
demand from growing network capacity and complexity. BSC supports handover and cell
reselection between different frequency bands with maximum 64 GSM handover
neighboring cells, 64 GSM cell reselection cells, and maximum 96 GSM/UMTS
neighboring cells. BSS sends neighboring cell list to MS by system information.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

3.2.3 ZGB-02-02-005 Double BCCH Allocation List

Benefits

This feature enables terminals to adopt different BCCH Allocation (BA) list in idle mode
and connected mode in the high traffic area, realizing the benefits as follows:

 Enhance the flexibility of the system, which means different operation methods
are used for terminal in idle mode and connected mode.

 Increase the reselection successful rate for terminal in idle mode, so as to


access the network quickly.

 Increase the measurement precision for terminal in connected mode, so as to


improve the accuracy for cell reselection.

Description

This feature enables terminals to adopt different BA list in idle mode and connected
mode to handover or reselection. The BA list is provided by the network to terminal, and

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terminal gets the BCCH frequency from it. In case of connected mode, the BA list is sent
by SACCH for handover. In case of idle mode, the BA list is broadcasted by BCCH for
cell reselection.

ZTE GSM supports the double BA list in idle mode and connected mode for each cell,
and the maximum number of BCCH is 96. The length of the BA list in idle mode is long,
which includes more frequencies, to increase the reselection successful rate and to
access the network quickly. The length of the BA list in connected mode is short, which
only includes the real neighboring cells, to avoid wasting time to encode the Base Station
Identity Code (BSIC) of the uncorrelated cells, so as to improve the accuracy for cell
reselection.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

3.2.4 ZGB-02-02-006 Cell Reselection

Benefits

This feature enables the reselection to the suitable neighboring cell in the idle mode and
the connected mode for the terminal, ensuring the terminal to offer the best radio
connection.

Description

This feature enables the cell reselection algorithm, which is defined in 3GPP protocol.
The terminal implements the cell reselection through the measurement of the radio
signal in BCCH carriers for the serving cell and the neighboring cells. The signal quality
criterion parameter C2 is used for cell reselection.

If one of the following conditions is satisfied, the cell reselection is triggered:

If C1<0 lasts for 5s;

During 5s, if the serving cell and the neighboring cell are in the same Location Area
Code (LAC), when C2 (n) > C2 (s) the cell reselection occurs; if not, and C2 (n) > C2

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(s) + CRH the cell reselection occurs;

Where

C2 (n) is the C2 value of the neighboring cell.

C2 (s) is the C2 value of the serving cell.

CRH applies the hysteresis of cell reselection.

If the cell reselection occurs before the previous 15s, and C2 (n) > C2 (s) + 5dB, the cell
reselection occurs.

ZTE GSM supports the terminals controlled cell reselection, BSC sends the cell
reselection parameters to the terminal through the system information SI 2quater, and
then the terminal selects the cell satisfied with the reselection conditions to reselect in
the searching neighboring cells.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

3.2.5 ZGB-02-02-007 Cell Selection

Benefits

This feature is the basic feature of GSM radio network.

Description

When the MS is switched on or following recovery from lack of coverage, it finds


available GSM PLMN, and selects an appropriate cell for residence. This process is
called "cell selection."

To select one appropriate cell is constrained by many factors, such as whether the cell
belongs to selected network, whether the cell is prohibited from accessing or not, the cell
priority, whether MS access level is prohibited by the cell and whether RF channel quality

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is good enough. GSM standard defines C1, the path loss criterion parameter, to
demonstrate RF channel quality, which is the important factor for cell selection. The path
loss criterion is satisfied if C1 > 0.

If MS does not store BCCH message, it searches all the 124 RF channels (for dual-mode
MS, it also needs to search 374 GSM1800 RF channels), reads received signal strength
of each channel and calculates average signal level.

After MS tunes to the carrier with highest receiving level, it confirms whether it is BCCH
carrier or not. If so, the MS attempts to decode SCH to synchronize with this carrier and
reads system broadcast message on BCCH. The MS can only reside in the cell if the MS
correctly decodes BCCH data the cell belongs to the selected PLMN, C1 is larger than 0
and the cell access is not barred. Otherwise, MS is tuned to the next maximum carrier
until it finds an available cell.

If the MS fails to find an appropriate cell after searching 30 RF channels with best signal
strength, it continues monitoring the signal strength of all RF channels and searches
BCCHs with access not barred and C1 larger than 0. After finding an appropriate carrier,
the MS selects the cell without taking into account PLMN identification. In such a mode,
only emergency calls can be made.

If an MS stores BCCH carrier information before last power-off, it first searches the
stored BCCH carrier. If the MS can decode BCCH data of the cell but cannot reside in the
cell, it checks the BCCH Allocation (BA) list of the cell. If it still fails to find an appropriate
cell after searching all BCCH carriers in the BA list, the MS will initiate cell selection
procedure in the way described above.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

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4 Resource Management

4.1 Congestion Control

4.1.1 ZGB-03-01-001 MS Access Control

Benefits

This feature allows the operator to classify the subscribers to provide preferential service.

With Access Class Control (ACC), network operators can define some cells to be only
accessed by authorized subscribers.

For example, in traffic hotspot area, operators offer the additional cell to enforce the
traffic abilities; but only authorized subscribers can access the cell. So the operators can
ensure better service for these subscribers in busy hour, and additional income might be
obtained.

This feature can also be used to ensure telecommunication for staffs from special
sections in case of emergency.

Description

BTS continually broadcasts system information message to all MSs in the cell; an
important function of this message is to indicate the MS how to access this cell.

ACC information is included in system information. The GSM protocols define 16


classes:

10 classes (0-9) are randomly allocated to normal subscribers.

Class 10 is dedicated to emergency call.

5 classes (11-15) are allocated to specific high priority subscribers.

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Every class is indicated by one bit in system information. If the bit is set to 1, the MS with
the corresponding ACC will be forbidden. Every MS is assigned an ACC, which is saved
in SIM card.

By setting the different ACCs, operator can enable some ACCs to access special cells.
These configurations are set in OMCR and included in system information broadcasted
by BTS.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

In ZTE BSS version before V09R2, which access classes of users are forbidden to
access in case of radio resource congestion are configured statically on OMCR. So it is
possible for some users to be always forbidden to access in case of radio resource
congestion, while the other users can always access.

In V09R2, MS Access Control function applies sliding window method to decide the
forbidden MS classes, which avoids forbidding some fixed classes of MS.

There are 2 sets of access control parameters for resource congestion scenario, 2 sets
of access control parameters for normal scenario. Which set of access control
parameters to be used can be configured on OMCR. Each set of access control
parameters consists of the first barred access class, barred classes window size and
window sliding time interval.

4.1.2 ZGB-03-01-002 Directed Retry

Benefits

Directed retry realizes wireless resources sharing among neighboring cells during
assignment, effectively relieving the network congestion and the unbalanced usage of
wireless resources and greatly enhancing the assigning success rate.

Description

During TCH assignment, MS turns to serving cell for TCH channel resource; if network

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GERAN UR14 Basic Feature Description

doesn’t have available TCH resource, cell will make forced release, forced handover or
queuing attempt according to calling priority, preemption vulnerability indicator, queuing
permission indicator and preemption capability indicator in assignment request; if the
attempt fails, directed retry procedure is initiated.

Then, according to measurement reports sent by MSs, network sorts the adjacent cells
which meet the rule 1 for handover to get the directed retry target cell list.

When sorting adjacent cells, the cells overloaded compared to load threshold are filtered
out first, and the remaining cells are sorted in accordance with the dynamic priorities and
power budget surplus.

Afterwards, BSC turns to the first cell in the target cell list for TCH channel. When TCH
channel is allocated from target cell, channel description of target cell are sent to MS
through assignment or handover command, MS then accesses to target cell. If network
doesn’t support directed retry function, when MS fails to initiate forced release, forced
handover and queue, it sends to MSC the failure message and waits for clear command
from MSC, then releases wireless resources.

In addition, according to whether the attempted cells in directed retry cells list belong to
the BSC, directed retry is divided into internal and external directed retry. If the attempted
cells of directed retry belong to the BSC, then MS can directly apply channels to the cell
and make internal directed retry. If the attempted cells do not belong to the BSC, MS has
to send handover request to MSC through A interface and make external directed retry
via inter-BSC external handover flow. External directed retry in BSC part may select
whether to send request failure to MSC; if “Yes” is selected, request failure will be
delivered to MSC firstly before sending handover request with cause labeled as directed
retry.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

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4.1.3 ZGB-03-01-003 Queuing

Benefits

This feature improves the usage of the radio resources, improves the ratio of successful
assignment.

Description

In the assignment procedure of call setup or handover, if the serving cell has no idle
TCHs, and the queuing is allowed in this cell, and MSC indicates in the assignment
message that this MS is allowed to be queued, then the MS is put in a queue.

If some other MS releases a call or hands over to another cell and the serving cell has
idle TCHs, BSC will check if there is idle channel that can match some MS’s request in
the queue in respect of sub-cell, channel type and frequency band. If there is such an
idle channel that matches, it will be assigned to the MS in the queue, then the call setup
or handover procedure continues.

Queuing time can be set individually for call attempts and for handover. When queuing
time is set to zero, the queuing function is deactivated.

By putting subscribers in queue instead of rejecting it when the radio resources are busy,
this feature increases the success ratio of call setup and handover.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

4.1.4 ZGB-03-01-004 Immediate TCH Assignment

Benefits

This feature reduces the call setup time.

Reduce call failures caused by unavailable idle SDCCH in the serving cell.

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GERAN UR14 Basic Feature Description

Description

When this feature is activated, BSS assigns a TCH channel for MS in immediate
assignment procedure. This TCH channel is used as SDCCH to carry the dedicated
signaling. Then in assignment procedure, this channel is modified to a TCH channel to
carry user voice data.

On OMCR, the operator can configure which kind of call can initiate immediate
assignment. Usually emergent call and call re-establishment are configured to apply this
feature.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

4.2 Channel Allocation

4.2.1 ZGB-03-02-001 Support of SDCCH/4 and SDCCH/8

Benefits

This feature improves the channel utilization ratio by configuring different SDCCH type
according to cell traffic.

Description

SDCCH is used to transmit system signaling before TCH assignment, such as MS


register, Authentication, and Location Update. As one kind of low data rate logical
channel, several SDCCH channels can be mapped to one physical channel. There are
two different ways to configure SDCCH. One is combination with BCCH. In this
configuration, 4 SDCCH can be configured in the TS0 of BCCH TRX. This kind of
SDCCH is called SDCCH/, while SDCCH/8 means that a whole physical channel is
configured to eight SDCCH channels.

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Which kind of configuration should be used depends on the capacity of a cell. Normally
SDCCH/4 is only used for a cell with no more than two TRXs. In ZTE BSS system,
SDCCH/4 and SDCCH/8 can be configured in a cell at the same time or individually.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

4.2.2 ZGB-03-02-002 Flexible SDCCH Configuration

Benefits

This feature allows operator to configure any number of SDCCH in one cell to reduce the
risk of SDCCH congestion.

Description

ZTE BSS supports flexible configuration of SDCCH.

SDCCH can be allocated to every TRX in a cell.

SDCCH can be configured on every TS of one TRX.

Whether a cell supports frequency hopping or not has no effect on SDCCH.

For an extended coverage cell, SDCCH can be configured on both extended and
ordinary TRXs.

With the methods provided above, operator is able to configure SDCCH flexibly
according to cell traffic. It reduces the risk of SDCCH congestion and improves the
network performance.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

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GERAN UR14 Basic Feature Description

None

4.2.3 ZGB-03-02-003 Dynamic Configuration of SDCCH

Benefits

This feature reduces call attempt failure caused by busy SDCCH.

Description

When this feature is activated, BSC adjusts the SDCCH number in a cell automatically
according to the load of SDCCH,

When the SDCCH channels in a cell are overloaded referring to the threshold set on
OMCR, and TCH channels are idle according to another threshold set on OMCR, BSC
changes one TCH into 8 SDCCHs automatically.

When SDCCH channels are idle, BSC combines 8 redundant SDCCH channels into 1
TCH channel to provide more traffic channels. Only those SDCCH channels formerly
obtained from TCH can be combined into TCH channels.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

4.2.4 ZGB-03-02-004 MAC Dynamic Allocation Mode

Benefits

Dynamic Allocation Mode is defined in 3GPP which is the primary function to introduced
PS service.

Description

ZTE GSM BSS supports two MAC modes: Dynamic Allocation and Extended Dynamic

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GERAN UR14 Basic Feature Description

Allocation. This feature supports dynamic allocation. For Extended Dynamic Allocation,
please refer to ZGO-03-02-007 MAC Extended Dynamic Allocation.

With Dynamic Allocation, Network allocates one timeslot to more than one MS with
specified USF. For downlink data, the USF information is decoded in RLC/MAC headers
to determine which MS is assigned to send radio block in the uplink. In this way, the BSS
controls the uplink access of multiple MS on a timeslot.

The number of downlink PDCHs should be more than uplink PDCHs in Dynamic
Allocation mode.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

4.2.5 ZGB-03-02-005 Static Channel Management

Benefits

This feature provides basic channel management for GSM service.

Description

ZTE GSM BSS supports static channel and dynamic channel. This feature only
describes static channel management. For dynamic channel management, please refer
to ZGB-03-02-006 Dynamic Channel Management.

There are two kinds of static channels: static TCH and static PDCH. Static TCH is only
used for CS service, not PS service. Likewise, static PDCH is only used for PS service.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

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GERAN UR14 Basic Feature Description

None

4.2.6 ZGB-03-02-006 Dynamic Channel Management

Benefits

This feature provides flexible channel management to improve channel resource


utilization.

Description

ZTE GSM BSS supports static channel and dynamic channel. This feature only
describes dynamic channel management. For static channel management, please refer
to ZGB-03-02-005 Static Channel Management.

With this feature, BSS allocates channel dynamically to CS service or PS service based
on traffic load. Dynamic channels are allocated to CS service while CS traffic load is high
or allocated to PS service while PS traffic is high. If CS and PS traffic are both high in the
same time, the dynamic channel is assigned to CS service with priority. For dynamic
channel allocation priority of PS service, please refer to ZGO-03-02-009 Flexible Priority
Handling of Packet Data Channel.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

4.2.7 ZGO-03-02-001 Idle Channel Measurement

Benefits

This feature improves network quality and user satisfaction by providing interference
measurement result to assign suitable channel to establish new calls.

Description

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GERAN UR14 Basic Feature Description

BTS measures the idle channel’s interference level and classifies the results into 5 levels,
then reports it to BSC.

The channel with lowest interference level is considered to be the best. During the
channel assignment procedure, BSC assigns the channel with lowest interference level
first. For example, channel with degree 1 is assigned first, then degree 2, 3, 4, 5.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

4.2.8 ZGO-03-02-002 Enhancement on CS Channel Allocation

Benefits

With this feature, levels for different users or applications will be in the initial cut into
channel management to ensure maximum utilization of spectrum resources.

Different allocation functions have different emphases in order to improve network


stability and system capability.

The operator can optimize the network with customized parameters.

Description

This feature supports following channel allocation methods.

Channel allocation on speech channel with different rates

Several channel allocation manners can be selected in order to control and use the FR
and HR channels flexibly. The system supports channel allocation according to the
subscriber’s priority.

The optional priority based managements are as following:

FR priority

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GERAN UR14 Basic Feature Description

HR priority

Only FR channel to be allocated

Only HR channel to be allocated

Transceivers selected according to priority

Transceivers are separated into five classes according to the radio parameter and the
channels in the transceivers: 1 is the highest priority, 5 is the lowest priority and the
default value is 3. The priority is configured in OMCR, and the BCCH transceivers are set
as the highest priority 1 and other transceivers are set 2 to 5 according the priority in
general condition. The channels of transceivers with high priority are selected by the
system first.

Channel Allocation on TRX Priority

The TRX priority is divided into five levels: level 1 to level 5. Level 1 is the highest priority.
BSS always prefers to allocate the high priority TRX when MS requests to access the
network. TRX priority is set by operator on OMCR.

Channel allocation on interference band

The BTS measures the receiving level values of idle channels, and calculates the
average value in the measurement period (480 ms). It converts the interference
averages to the information of corresponding interference bands and sends it to BSC.
The BSC classifies the interference bands of the channel into five levels: level 1 to level 5.
For details, see “ZGO-03-02-001 Idle Channel Measurement”.

The channel interference affects the key indices of this channel, such as call quality, call
completion ratio, call drop rate, and handover completion ratio. Therefore, the
interference band information of the channel is a major factor which should be
considered preferentially in the enhanced channel allocation. Low-interference channel
is preferred in the channel allocation. For example, channels with level 1 interference
band will be assigned with priority, followed by level 2, 3, 4, and 5 orderly.

When problems such as radio channel cause the channel exception release, the BSC
sets the interference band of the channel to 0, and sets a punishment period in which the
interference band will not be updated. It acts as an assignment history record to affect

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GERAN UR14 Basic Feature Description

the current channel allocation, that is, the channel with interference band 0 will be
assigned at last in the channel allocation.

Channel allocation on TRX priority

The enhanced channel allocation algorithm sorts the intra-cell carriers by the background
configuration parameter “Same Type Carrier Allocation Priority” (carrier with high priority
precedes). The priority is divided into five levels: level 1 to level 5. Level 1 is the highest
priority.

Channel allocation on intra-cell handover

When handover is caused by the interference in the uplink or downlink, the channel in
the different transceivers is selected in priority. As the origin of the handover decision is
interference, in another word, there is interference in the current transceivers, the
possibility of interference on the other channels in the transceivers is large. Then the
channels on other transceivers are allocated according to priority, which improves the
handover success rate.

Channel allocation on reserved channel

When service with high user priority is used, the system is allowed to set several
reserved channels.

The difference from eMLPP is that in this feature, channels are reserved only for high
priority subscribers, but in the feature of eMLPP, the channel is not reserved, all the
subscribers can use the channel, but high priority subscriber will be allocated first when
congests.

To control the utilization of the reserved channels flexibly and satisfy the demands of the
different subscribers, system provides two ways: reserved channels are allocated in
priority; and other channels are allocated in priority. High priority subscribers can select
normal channels allocation in priority or reserved channels allocation in priority. The
purpose is to decrease the risk of call failure because of the network congestion.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

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GERAN UR14 Basic Feature Description

Enhancement

None

4.2.9 ZGO-03-02-003 Enhancement on PS Channel Allocation

Benefits

Enhanced PS channel allocation improves PS user’s throughput, increases frequency


efficiency, and enhances system performance and capacity.

The operator can optimize the network with customized parameters.

Description

This feature supports following channel allocation methods.

Channel allocation on Guarantee Bit Rate (GBR)

PCU allocates the channel resource to fulfill the GBR of streaming or conversational
service. When current available resource is hard to satisfy the GBR, PCU tries empty
and queue as eMLPP. For empty and queue on GBR service, please refer to
ZGO-01-02-004 Streaming Service Policies.

Channel allocation on user’s throughput maximum

PCU allocates channel resource as much as possible according to the MS multi-slot


class and system capacity, increasing user throughput.

Channel allcocation on TRX load

BSS limits TRX number that allocated to MS by TRX load, avoiding PS service occurred
TRX overly. New TRX will be allocated for PS service only when service TRX load
exceeds the load threshold. With this way, BSS balances the CS/PS service and
resource.

Channel allocation on EGPRS/GPRS scheduling conflict

When the GPRS uplink and EDGE downlink multiplex the same radio channel, the EDGE
downlink rate will be limited due to the limitation of coding method (8PSK to GSMK). In

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order to avoid this scenario, BSS allocates the channel considering the conflict
preferentially, and assigns the channel to MS without conflict.

Channel allocation on PDCH preference

For PS service, BSS allocates the channel with following order. Firstly, allocate static
PDCH; secondly, allocate dynamic channel with PS preference; and last, allocate other
dynamic channel. This method improves the utilization on static and PS preference
channel, reduces requirement on the other dynamic channel and avoids the PDCH
preemption by CS service when traffic load is high. For PS preference dynamic channel,
please refer to ZGO-03-02-009 Flexible Priority Handling of Packet Data Channel.

Channel allocation on TRX priority

The TRX priority is divided into five levels: level 1 to level 5. Level 1 is the highest priority.
BSS always prefers to allocate the high priority TRX when MS requests to access the
network. TRX priority is set by operator on OMCR.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

4.3 Circuit Management

4.3.1 ZGB-03-03-001 2M High Speed Signaling Link

Benefits

This feature extends the bandwidth of system signaling link on A/Ater interface, and
meets the requirement of large capacity networking.

Description

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GERAN UR14 Basic Feature Description

In GSM network, the signaling link between different signaling points is identified by the
Signaling Link Selection (SLS) field of signaling routing label. This field has 4 bits, which
means there are maximal 16 signaling links between two signaling points. When the
narrowband 64Kbps signaling link is used, the total bandwidth between BSC and MSC is
only 16*64Kbps. It limits the processing capacity of one BSC.

ZTE BSS system supports 2Mbps high speed signaling link. In one 2M signaling link,
TS0 is used for synchronization; TS1-TS31 is combined as one signaling link with
1.984M bandwidth. Maximal 16 high speed links can be configured for one signaling
point pair. It extends the bandwidth of signaling link and meets the requirement of large
capacity networking.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

4.3.2 ZGB-03-03-002 Enhanced E1 Link between BSC and BTS

Benefits

This feature enhances E1 transmission function (the number of E1 link, E1 link distance,
and E1 link impedance).

With this feature, network planning and implementation becomes easier.

Description

Enhanced E1 link between BSC and BTS supports the 75Ωand 125Ωimpedance input.

This feature enhances E1 transmission, supports 2km-transmission or even longer


distance with unbalanced E1.

This feature supports more E1 links, as many as 16 E1 links.

This feature also supports automatic bridge function of E1 interface. For example, in
chain network, if BTS interface fails, E1 interface can hop to next BTS interface unit

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GERAN UR14 Basic Feature Description

automatically to ensure the normal function of other BTSs.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

4.3.3 ZGB-03-03-004 TC Resource Dynamic Sharing

Benefits

This feature makes the configuration of TC irrelevant to the codec types and distribution
of MSs in the network. As a result, the configuration of TC is simplified and the hardware
cost of TC is reduced.

Description

ZTE BSS TC unit supports 5 codec types: FR/EFR/HR/AMR-FR/AMR-HR. And the


processing ability for these codec types is the same.

When a call is initiated, the MS reports its bearer capability and the Class Mark to the
network. MSC informs BSS of the voice rate and voice codec type supported by this MS
in Assignment Request or Handover Request message. BSC chooses a codec type for
this call and allocates TC resource.

ZTE BSS TC resources are not allocated to radio channel resource statically, but are
shared by all radio channels. As a result, TC configuration is irrelevant to the distribution
of MSs in the network.

If Remote Transcoder feature is deployed, TC resources are dynamically shared not only
in one BSS, but also in multiple BSSs.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

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GERAN UR14 Basic Feature Description

None

4.3.4 ZGB-03-03-005 PCU Resource Dynamic Allocation

Benefits

PCU resource dynamic sharing saves the PCU resources, reduces the cost of PCU
resource, and saves investment. With this feature, cell and PCU resources are not
fixedly mapping anymore. When some of the PCU processing resources break down, the
PS service of cell attached on the processing resource will be dynamically switched to
other processing resources, which increases reliability of PCU.

Description

PCU process resources are dynamically allocated to cell when BSS is initialized. If a
PCU process resource fails, the system attaches new PCU process resource to take
over the fault process. When fault process is recovered, the system re-assigns the cell
with load balance.
BSS performs dynamic allocation when the target process fulfills the following conditions:

The process is working normally, no failure.

The number of cell serving this process does not exceed the maximum capacity.

The number of PDCH serving this process does not exceed the maximum capacity.

BSS selects the lowest load process to serve the cells one by one till every cell is
attached completely.

Introduced Version

V09R2

Enhancement

None

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4.4 Reliability

4.4.1 ZGB-03-04-001 BSC Load Control

Benefits

This feature guarantees the BSS system stability during the traffic surge by means of
selective rejection of service requests.

Description

This feature deals with these 3 types of overload:

MSC overload: that is, when BSC receives OVERLOAD message via A interface;

Signaling overload: that is, when BSC application layer receives overload message
from BSC signaling transportation layer;

CPU overload: that is, when BSC detects that the CPU usage is too high.

In overload cases, BSC applies the following 2 methods to reject some service requests
to maintain system stability:

Access class control: that is, stop some MSs from accessing the network by sending
(Access Control Class N ACCN) in system information

FUC control: that is, the FUC module of BTS stops some MSs from accessing the
network according to the RACH random value of MSs

The BSC load control function adopts ZTE patent algorithm.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

In V10R1 BSC load control is enhanced by paging flow control and BHCA control.

There are two methods used to do paging flow control.

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GERAN UR14 Basic Feature Description

Priority based paging flow control; BSC will discard paging messages of low priority
subscribers when CPU load reaches the threshold set via OMC-R

Paging message number based flow control; BSC sets the threshold that how many
paging can be dealt with, if paging messages reach this threshold, new paging
messages will be discarded.

BHCA control, channel request threshold can be set via OMC-R, when BSC receives
more channel requests from Abis, new request received later will be discarded.

4.4.2 ZGB-03-04-003 BTS Recovery

Benefits

This feature enables BTS to restore the service immediately after the recovery of broken
Abis transmission link. It reduces the service outage time.

Description

BTS detects Abis status automatically and sets the service status as “block” after Abis
transmission is broken. When Abis transmission recovers, BTS applies parameter
refresh for BSC and checks the parameter with that locally set. After the check, BTS sets
the service status as “unblock”. Thus the service recovers.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

4.4.3 ZGB-03-04-004 Dry Contact Alarm

Benefits

With this feature, system monitors other equipments to ensure the BSS system stability.

Description

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GERAN UR14 Basic Feature Description

With this feature, BTS provides Dry Contact Alarm input and output interfaces. BSC can
monitor whether other equipments are functioning well without extra transmission.

Alarm type includes water alarm, fire alarm, smoke alarm and intruder alarm, etc. All
these alarm signals are connected with BTS through Dry Contact Alarm connector. BTS
collects these alarm messages, and sends to BSC. The OMCR’s Alarm Management
terminal shows these alarms.

Operator can define Dry Contact Alarm type in alarm management module.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

4.4.4 ZGB-03-04-006 Backward Compatibility for BTS

Benefits

This feature saves the investment on upgrading and reduces the impact on the existing
network.

Description

BTS reports current software version to BSC via Abis interface after reboot. This
procedure helps BSS to keep compatible to all previous versions of BTS. BTSs of
different versions can co-exist in the same network.

The operator can upgrade BSC and some BTSs to deploy new features in some area
without upgrading the BTSs in other parts of the network.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

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GERAN UR14 Basic Feature Description

None

4.5 GPRS/EGPRS

4.5.1 ZGB-03-05-001 Coding Scheme CS1~CS4

Benefit

This feature provides basic Packet Service for GPRS network.

Description

GPRS offers a number of coding schemes with different levels of error detection and
correction. Network can choose the Coding Scheme depend on data rate requirement
and radio channel quality. There are CS-1, CS-2, CS-3 and CS-4 four types of coding
scheme, CS-1 has the strongest error correction capability and has lowest requirement
for radio environment, but it offers the minimum data throughput. To the opposite, CS-4
offer highest data throughput and have the weakest error correction capability, so it
needs highest C/I.

The following data rates are calculated theoretically based on the selected coding
scheme depending on C/I:

Table 4-1 Coding Scheme CS1-CS4

Coding Scheme CS-1 CS-2 CS-3 CS-4

Modulation GMSK GMSK GMSK GMSK

Data throughput per timeslot


9.05 13.4 15.6 21.4
(kbps)

RLC/MAC data throughput per


8 12 14.4 20
timeslot (kbps)

CS-1: This coding scheme applies for the highest level of error detection and correction.
It is used in scenarios when interference levels are high or signal levels are low. When
applying CS-1, data is not necessarily been re-sent too often. CS-1 uses 1/2 encoder,
and results in data throughput of 9.05 kbps.

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CS-2: This coding scheme is used for better channel quality. It effectively uses a 2/3
encoder and results in data throughput of 13.4 kbps.

CS-3: This coding scheme uses 3/4 encoder, to result in 15.6kbps data throughput.

CS-4: This coding scheme is used in good channel condition which has very weak
interference, without error correction it can result in 21.4kbps data throughput. So for MS
using maximum 8 timeslots, 171.2kpbs data throughput can be achieved.

Introduced Version

BeforeV09R1

Enhancement

None

4.5.2 ZGB-03-05-002 Initial Coding Scheme per Cell Settable

Benefit

This feature offers operator capability to set initial coding scheme of MS based on
network condition. The coding scheme settable can provide MS with optimized access
data rate and make full use of network resources.

Description

The initial coding scheme of PS user assignment can be set from OMCR based on cell
level, by cell level configuration to differentiate GPRS and EGPRS service parameters.
When the MS set up the Temporary Block Flow (TBF) connection, the link quality and C/I
are reported to BSC after a period of time, during which the MS will use the coding
scheme initially settled by the network. And after the period, the coding scheme will be
optimized according to the quality information reported by the MS and BTS.

By analyzing the overall channel quality condition, network user can set an initial coding
scheme which is very close to optimal coding scheme for the cell. It can reduce the time
to adjust to the optimal coding scheme and increase the data rate.

Introduced Version

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GERAN UR14 Basic Feature Description

BeforeV09R1

Enhancement

None

4.5.3 ZGB-03-05-005 8/11 bit Access Burst

Benefits

8 bit access is the primary access mode of PS service and 11 bit access shortens the
access delay and increases the throughput of EGPRS MS, thus improving subscriber
satisfaction.

Description

Two types of packet random access burst are supported in GERAN network: 8 bits
random access burst and 11 bits random access burst called the extended packet
random access burst. The MS shall support both random access bursts. 8 bit access is
the primary access burst; 11 bit access burst includes extend parameters such as MS
multi-slot class, thus can use one phase access to reduce the access delay. BSS
broadcasts the access type in system message PSI1, PSI13 and SI13 to indicate which
access type MS shall adopted.

Please refer to ZGB-03-05-007 One Phase Access for the description on the one
phase access.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

4.5.4 ZGB-03-05-006 Class A, B, C Mobile Stations

Benefit

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This feature provides support for PS basic service.

Description

Not all GPRS/EDGE mobiles are designed to offer the same levels of service. In fact they
are split into three basic categories according to their capabilities to connect to GSM and
GPRS/EDGE network. GPRS/EDGE network can support the three types of mobiles
connection and provides differentiated services to different types of MSs. The three types
of mobiles are Class A, B and C, which are described as the following:

Class A: This class describes mobile phones that can be connected to both
GPRS/EDGE and GSM services at the same time.

Class B: This class mobile can be attached to both GPRS/EDGE and GSM services but
they can be used with only one service at a time. A Class B mobile can make or receive a
voice call, or send or receive a SMS message during a GPRS/EDGE connection. During
voice call or SMS session, the GPRS/EDGE service will be suspended and will be
re-established automatically after the voice call or SMS session is completed.

Class C: This classification covers mobiles that can be attached to either GPRS/EDGE
or GSM services but user needs to switch manually between the two different types.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

4.5.5 ZGB-03-05-007 One Phase Access

Benefit

This feature provides support for PS basic service, to allow MS with certain capability to
quick access to packet network, to reduce latency.

Description

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The packet access procedure using CCCH may be used to establish a Temporary Block
Flow (TBF) to support the transfer of LLC PDUs in the direction from MS to network or
from network to MS. For the uplink direction, there are two types of packet access: one
phase access and two phase access.

One phase access reduces initial TBF setup time by reducing signaling procedure and to
improved packet access speed. MS initiates one phase access mode and requests one
phase access in the “Channel Request” or “Packet Channel Request” message. Network
sends MS a packet uplink assignment message carrying information about resources
allocated to MS. Resource competition may be happened when different MSs request
the channel at same time. To handle the competition, the MS is asked to send the TLLI in
the begin RLC block after it receives the uplink assignment message. After receiving the
first RLC block, network side will fill the TLLI in PACKET UPLINK ACK and send to MS.
MS receives this ACK message and get the TLLI value. If this TLLI value is identical with
its own value sent to network side, it means the radio resource is allocated to this MS.
Then the one phase access procedure is completed, MS turns to packet transfer mode.

One phase access can be used directly if the requested RLC mode is acknowledged
mode and the amount of data need to be transferred is less than 8 RLC/MAC blocks.
Normally, MS requests one phase access when transmitting paging response, cell
update and MM layer messages through TBF establishment by this feature, MS with one
phase access conditions can quick access to GPRS/EDGE network to have improved
performance on latency.

Introduced Version

BeforeV09R1

Enhancement

None

4.5.6 ZGB-03-05-008 Two Phase Access

Benefit

This feature provides support for PS basic service, to ensure GPRS/EGPRS capable MS

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access to network.

Description

The packet access procedure using CCCH may be used to establish a Temporary Block
Flow (TBF) to support the transfer of LLC PDUs in the direction from MS to network or
from network to MS. For the uplink direction, there are two types of packet access: one
phase access and two phase access, they are chosen based on MS access reason or
network can force MS to use two phase access.

Two phase access has complex signaling procedure than one phase access. If two
phase access is initiated by MS, MS send two phase access request in the “Channel
Request” or “Packet Channel Request” message. The network sends a “Packet Uplink
Assignment” message containing single block assignment to MS to instruct second
phase access. Then MS sends a “Packet Resource Request” message on the allocated
single block. Upon receiving the message, the network returns a “Packet Uplink
Assignment” message in response. The competition solution on the network side ends
after the network receives TLLI used to identify MS. After MS receives the “Packet Uplink
Assignment” message, the competition solution on the MS side also ends if TLLI in this
message is identical with that in the “Packet Resource Request” message from MS. After
the competition solution succeeds, two phase access procedure ends and MS switches
to packet transmission mode. System can also be configured as “Force Two Phase
Access”, the network will force MS to adopt two phase access mode after receiving the
“Channel Request” or “Packet Channel Request” message from MS and ignore the
request reason of MS. Comparing with one phase access, by the second phase access,
network can acquire the MS capability such as Extended Uplink TBF Mode etc.; by the
information to effectively allocate radio resources.

The two phase access will be used in situations when the requested RLC mode is
unacknowledged mode or the RLC mode is acknowledge mode and the data need to be
translated is more than 8 RLC/MAC blocks. In addition, for EGPRS TBF mode capable
MSs (in an EGPRS capable cell), if the cell does not support EGPRS PACKET
CHANNEL REQUEST, then MS has to use two phase access no matter acknowledge
mode or unacknowledged mode.

Introduced Version

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GERAN UR14 Basic Feature Description

BeforeV09R1

Enhancement

None

4.5.7 ZGB-03-05-009 Network Mode of Operation (NMO) 1~3

Benefits

Based on the mode of operation provided by the network, the MS can choose, according
to its capabilities, to attach to GPRS/EDGE services, to non-GPRS/EDGE services, or to
both.

Description

According to 3GPP standards, three network operation modes are defined.

 Network operation mode I: the network sends a CS paging message for a


GPRS-attached MS, either on the same channel as the PS paging channel (i.e., the
packet paging channel or the CCCH paging channel), or on a PS traffic channel.
This means that the MS needs only to monitor one paging channel, and that it
receives CS paging messages on the packet data channel when it has been
assigned a packet data channel.

 Network operation mode II: the network sends a CS paging message for a
GPRS-attached MS on the CCCH paging channel, and this channel is also used for
PS paging. This means that the MS needs only to monitor the CCCH paging
channel, and that CS paging continues on this paging channel even if the MS has
been assigned a packet data channel.

 Network operation mode III: the network sends a CS paging message for a
GPRS-attached MS on the CCCH paging channel, and sends a PS paging
message on either the packet paging channel (if configured in the cell) or on the
CCCH paging channel. This means that an MS that wants to receive paging for both
circuit-switched and packet-switched services shall monitor both paging channels if
the packet paging channel is configured in the cell. No paging co-ordination is
performed by the network.

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Table 4-2 Three Network Operation Modes

Paging
Mode Circuit Paging Channel PS Paging Channel
Co-ordination

Packet Paging Channel Packet Paging Channel

I CCCH Paging Channel CCCH Paging Channel Yes

Packet Data Channel Not Applicable

II CCCH Paging Channel CCCH Paging Channel No

CCCH Paging Channel Packet Paging Channel


III No
CCCH Paging Channel CCCH Paging Channel

When the Gs interface is available, all MSC-originated paging of GPRS-attached MSs


shall go via the SGSN, thus allowing network co-ordination of paging. Paging
co-ordination shall be made by the SGSN based on the IMSI, and is provided
independently of whether the MS is in STANDBY or in READY state. The network
operates in mode I.

When the Gs interface is not available, all MSC-originated paging of GPRS-attached


MSs shall go via the A interface, and co-ordination of paging cannot be performed. The
network shall then either:

 Operate in mode II, meaning that the packet common control channel shall not be
configured in the cell; or

 Operate in mode III, meaning that the packet common control channel shall be used
for PS paging when the packet paging channel is configured in the cell.

 The network operation mode (mode I, II, or III) is indicated in system information to
MSs. For proper operation, the mode of network operation should be the same in all
cells of a routing area.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

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4.5.8 ZGB-03-05-011 Timeslot Multiplexing

Benefits

PS service has different timeslot allocation strategies from voice service, which helps to
improve efficiency of timeslot.

Description

PS timeslot allocation is different from voice service. The time slots for uplink and
downlink voice are allocated simultaneously and they will be used exclusively by a MS till
the call is terminated to release them. While PS time slots are allocated on uplink and
downlink respectively according to data transfer requirements. And several MSs are able
to use one time slot simultaneously to maximize the timeslot efficiency.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

4.5.9 ZGB-03-05-012 GPRS Link Adaptation

Benefits

This feature improves the adaptation of the link and increases the system throughput
efficiently.

Description

The link adaptation algorithm compares the estimated channel quality with threshold
preset in the OMC-R in order to select appropriate coding scheme. According to different
evaluated parameters: C/I, BLER and BER, different link adaptation algorithm models
are designed

The threshold consists of the switching points between four coding schemes: CS-1, CS-2,
CS-3 and CS-4. It is set in BSC parameters settings. These switching points between

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coding schemes are configurable, to make the user choose an optimal link adaptation
algorithm model according to the overall conditions of channel quality, hence improving
the efficiency of link adaptation.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

4.5.10 ZGB-03-05-013 Delayed TBF Release in DL

Benefits

When the PS channel carries the burst IP traffic, it sets up and releases the radio
resource frequently, while TBF’s release and setup takes some time and occupies radio
interface resource, which causes high signaling load and decreases the data transfer
efficiency. The delayed TBF release in DL avoids the unnecessary procedure of TBF
setup and release so as to improve the GPRS data transfer performance.

Description

When BSS sends the last RLC block, FBI is not set to 1, and the idle BIT in the RLC
block is filled with filling bit, sending the virtual LLC frame periodically to keep connection.
After a period of time, if it doesn’t yet have any new downlink or uplink traffic request, the
connection will be released. Otherwise it will transfer the data over the existing RLC link
immediately.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

UR12, Enhanced the strategy for signaling TBF, signaling TBF could release faster than
data TBF.

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4.5.11 ZGB-03-05-014 Delayed TBF Release in UL

Benefits

This feature speeds up the establishment of downlink TBF and improves the user
experience.

Description

Usually, BSS starts releasing an uplink TBF when MS sends a RLC block with CV=0
indicating there is no uplink data to be sent.

With Delayed TBF Release in UL feature, when BSS receives RLC block with CV=0 sent
by MS, if MS or BSC do not support Extended Uplink TBF Mode, and there is no
downlink TBF exists for this MS, then BSC starts a timer. Before this timer expires, if
there is downlink data, a downlink TBF is established via PACCH. Because establishing
a TBF via PACCH is more simple and more quickly than establishing a TBF via CCCH,
this feature speeds up the establishment of downlink TBF and improves the user
experience. When the timer expires, the uplink TBF is released. This feature is
implemented by BSC software and does not require MS modification.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

4.5.12 ZGB-03-05-015 RLC Acknowledged/ Unacknowledged Mode

Benefits

The feature is the basis for introduction of PS service.

Description

ZTE GSM BSS support two RLC modes defined in 3GPP: RLC acknowledged mode and
RLC unacknowledged mode.

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RLC acknowledged mode: each data block transmitted on the TBF should be
acknowledged by receiver. The sender shall resend the blocks indicated lost by receiver.
TBF can’t be released until each data block transmitted on the TBF is complete and
acknowledged. This mechanism ensures the transmission reliability of the RLC data
blocks.

RLC unacknowledged mode: the receiving party acknowledges the received RLC data
blocks as in RLC acknowledged mode. The data block, however, is not required to be
resent by sender. The TBF is released after the data transmission is complete although
maybe some data are lost during the transmission.

The RLC mode of the uplink TBF is dependent on the service type requested by the MS
and the RLC mode of the downlink TBF is dependent on the RLC mode in the QoS
parameters contained in the downlink LLC PDU.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

4.5.13 ZGB-03-05-016 Downlink BVC Flow Control

Benefits

This feature is a basic feature of PS services. The BVC flow control mechanism controls
the loading of the BSS LLC PDU queues per BVCI between SGSN and BSC in the
downlink direction. It prevents link congestion and improves service quality.

Description

The Gb interface and Um interface have different data transmission rate. Throughput on
the Gb interface is greater than that on the Um interface. Furthermore, the downlink
throughput on the Um interface is unstable that is impacted by various factors such as
radio quality, the multi-slot capability of the MS and traffic load in the cell. In order to
balance the throughput between Gb interface and Um interface, the downlink flow control

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is introduced.

The principle of the downlink flow control procedure is that PCU sends flow control
parameters to SGSN which allow SGSN to locally control its transmission output in the
direction from SGSN to PCU.

Downlink flow control includes downlink BVC flow control and downlink MS flow control.
This feature only describes the downlink BVC flow control. For downlink MS flow control,
please refer to “ZGB-03-05-017 Downlink MS Flow Control”.

There is a downlink buffer for each BVC, identified as BVCI, in a PCU. PCU reports to
SGSN the flow control parameters including the size of the maximum bucket of each
BVC cell, the cell leak rate, the default MS bucket size, the default MS leak rate and etc.
Based on the reported parameters, SGSN adjusts the downlink data rate of the cell to
implement the flow control to prevent frequent data loss caused by congestion or
transmission interruption due to insufficient flow.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

4.5.14 ZGB-03-05-017 Downlink MS Flow Control

Benefits

This feature is a basic feature of PS services. The MS flow control mechanism controls
the loading of the BSS LLC PDU queues per MS between SGSN and BSC in the
downlink direction. It prevents link congestion and improves service quality.

Description

Gb interface and Um interface have different data transmission rate. The throughput on
the Gb interface is greater than that on the Um interface. Furthermore, the downlink
throughput on the Um interface is unstable that is impacted by various factors such as
radio quality, the multi-slot capability of the MS and traffic load in the cell. In order to

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balance the throughput between Gb interface and Um interface, the downlink flow control
is introduced.

The principle of the downlink flow control procedure is that PCU sends flow control
parameters to SGSN which allows SGSN to locally control its transmission output in the
direction from SGSN to BSC.

Downlink flow control includes downlink BVC flow control and downlink MS flow control.
This feature only describes the downlink MS flow control. For downlink BVC flow control,
please refer to ZGB-03-05-016 Downlink BVC Flow Control.

The downlink data from SGSN to MS is buffered by PCU. PCU reports to SGSN the flow
control parameters, including the TLLI identifying the MS, the size of the maximum
bucket of each MS and MS leak rate. Based on the reported parameters, SGSN adjusts
the downlink data rate of the MS to implement the flow control to prevent frequent data
loss caused by congestion or transmission interruption due to insufficient flow.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

4.5.15 ZGO-03-05-003 EGPRS Packet Channel Request on CCCH

Benefits

This feature enables MS to access the network with packet channel request on CCCH,
so the control channel can be reduced and more timeslots can be used for traffic,
providing more timeslots for traffic and increasing system capacity.

Description

There are two ways to access the network for PS service, one is on CCCH, and the other
is on PCCCH. Because access on CCCH does not need dedicated PCCCH channel, the
number of traffic channel is increased to carry more PS traffic.

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An MS initiates PS access by sending a (Packet) channel request on RACH, and the


network responds on AGCH to start PS transfer.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

4.5.16 ZGO-03-05-007 EGPRS Activation per Cell

Benefits

This feature enables EGPRS network configured flexibly to make use of radio resource
more effectively and efficiently; and cell configuration is optimized.

Description

Each cell managed by BSS can be configured to support EGPRS when EGPRS function
is introduced, which means some cells can be enabled for EGPRS service while some
cells are disabled for EGPRS service. With the flexible mechanism, the operator can
select whether or not to activate the EGPRS function in every cell according to
subscribers’ request.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

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5 Network Performance

5.1 Coverage Enhancement

5.1.1 ZGB-04-01-001 Receiving Diversity

Benefits

This feature relieves the impact of interference due to fading as well as smoothes the
received signal and contributes to a more reliable and cost efficient network.

Description

Receiving Diversity is a coverage enhancement technology. It achieves by having two


antennas receive the same signal. Each signal is independently influenced by fading.
This improves the signal quality and diminishes the effects of fading.

Each cell has two antennas independently to receive the same signal. According to
ZTE’s receiving diversity algorithm, it improves the receiving sensitivity and system voice
service quality.

There are two algorithms for the receiving diversity: Max Rate Combining (MRC) and
Interference Rejection Combining (IRC). IRC technology is more suitable for
environment where uplink interference is very strong. For example: in an urban area
where there is frequent frequency multiplexing.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

5.1.2 ZGB-04-01-002 Support Tower Mounted Amplifier (TMA)

Benefits

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This feature enhances uplink receiving sensitivity. Together with downlink coverage
enhancement technology, it enlarges the coverage of the site, and quickly optimizes the
whole network.

Description

Tower Mounted Amplifier (TMA) is a low noise amplifier device which is installed close to
receiving antenna on the top of the tower. It amplifies the received signals before they go
into the cable.

BTS provides external interface to TMA and monitors the TMA working status. BTS
provides power supply to TMA and monitors the TMA working voltage. When the voltage
is abnormal, BTS reports the alarm to OMCR, and blocks the corresponding carrier when
alarms occur.

TMA will give 2-3 dB uplink gain to enlarge the coverage. This feature can be used with
ZGO-04-01-002 Delay Diversity Transmission (DDT) or ZGO-04-01-003 Dual Power
Combining Transmission (DPCT) to keep the balance of uplink and downlink.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

5.2 Network Quality Improvement

5.2.1 ZGB-04-02-001 Traffic Hold at Channel Blocking

Benefits

This feature increases the service performance of the network and decreases the call
drops caused by system maintenance.

Description

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When blocking cells, TRXs or TCH timeslots manually, new calls will not be assigned to
these pending cells, TRXs or TCH timeslots and if there are ongoing calls in these
pending cells, TRXs or TCH timeslots, forced handover to other TCH timeslots will be
executed to hold the ongoing calls and delay the blocking. The length of time delay to
block can be set, after the delay the failed handover calls will be forced release. Blocking
will not start until there is no service in these pending cells, TRXs or TCH timeslots.

If merely TCH timeslots or some certain TRXs are to be blocked, service will be handed
over to other unblocked TRXs in this cell with priority; but if the cell is blocked entirely,
service will be handed over to its best neighboring cell only.

When the channel is detected an error, the ongoing call on the channel will be released
before channel blocking.

Introduced version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

5.2.2 ZGB-04-02-002 Static BTS Power Control

Benefits

This feature allows the operator to adjust the cell coverage according to the requirement
of network planning and optimization. It reduces the interference between different cells
and improves the efficiency of frequency utilization.

Description

The purpose of static power control is to meet the requirement of various coverage
scenarios and reduce the interference. Static power control is configured according to
the maximum BTS output power and network planning results. Upon completion of
network planning and configuration, static power usually remains unchanged, but
certainly allows necessary adjustment yet.

ZTE BTS supports downward adjustment of its maximum output power with 6 levels by 2

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dB/per step within an error of ± 1 dB. The actual absolute output power of each level of
static RF power (N) must be 2 × N dB lower than the absolute output power of the static
RF power level 0; the power level 0 means the maximum output power.

TRX transmits signal with the configured output power. If dynamic power control is
enabled, BTS can further adjust the output power according to the radio link quality.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

From V09R2, the static power of ZTE SDR can be adjusted by step of one watt. For
example, the static power of one TRX can be configure from 1W to 80W if the maximal
allowed power of this TRX is 80W.

5.2.3 ZG0-04-02-019 Discontinuous Reception (DRX)

Benefits

This feature helps to save the battery power of MS in idle mode.

Description

The BSS divides the MSs within a cell into groups. The group in which an MS resides is
known locally at both the MS and the BSS. All paging requests to each group are
scheduled and sent at a particular time which is derived from the TDMA frame number in
conjunction with the IMSI of the MS and some BCCH transmitted data.

Thus both the BSS and the MS know when relevant page requests will be sent and the
MS can power down for the period when it knows that page requests will not occur, thus
the battery power of MS is saved.

The page request contains the IMSI or the TMSI in order to identify the MS concerned.
The IMSI is always used to identify the paging population.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

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Enhancement

None

6 Transmission

6.1 Flexible Networking

6.1.1 ZGB-05-02-001 Automatic Bridge in BTS Chain Networking

Benefits

The Chain networking saves transport resources compared to star or tree connection.
This feature improves the reliability of the transport resources by decreasing impact of
faults.

Description

BTS supports Chain networking to BSC. The depth of chain is less than 8. BTS
communicates with BSC by E1 interface.

In case one BTS is failing, Automatic Bridge Circuit over E1 link is activated to bypass
the failing BTS and ensures that the downstream BTS can run normally.

If an upstream BTS is in severe failure, the Automatic Bridge Circuit is activated. Then
the E1 link bypasses the failed BTS and ensures the connection of downstream BTSs to
BSC without any impact.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

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6.1.2 ZGB-05-02-002 Basic RAN Topology

Benefit

This feature provides flexible networking topology for BSC and BTS. A suitable
connection type is to be chosen to save the leased line costs according to actual
situation, such as transmission path and BTS location and capacity, etc.

Description

ZTE GSM BSS supports Star, tree and Chain connection on Abis interface between BTS
and BSC.

The following figure shows the possible link configurations on Abis interface between
BSC and BTS: star, tree and chain networking. Star networking is most commonly seen
in the actual network which is also mostly recommended. Star networking has simple
topology and most reliable on transmission; whereas tree and chain networking are of
higher multiplexing of the transmission resources and cost saving on it. But compared to
star networking, tree and chain networking are of less reliability and more complicated
which are often used for situations with restricted transmission.

Figure 6-1 Star, tree and Chain Networking

BTS

Star
BTS
Chain

BTS BTS BTS BTS


BSC
Tree
BTS BTS BTS

BTS
Crossconnect
BTS

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

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Enhancement

None

6.1.1 ZGO-05-02-010 Multi-band Networking

Benefits

This feature enables the operator to use frequencies belonging to multiple frequency
bands, to improve the network capacity in a given geographical area.

Description

As the user number increases in the GSM network, the operator needs more frequencies
to improve the network capacity in a given geographical area. ZTE GSM BSS supports
all the following frequency bands: 850MHz, PGSM 900MHz, EGSM 900MHz, 1800MHz
and 1900MHz.

The followings are the details for each frequency band:

 GSM 850MHz

824-849 MHz: uplink


869-894 MHz: downlink

 PGSM 900MHz

890-915 MHz: uplink

935-960 MHz: downlink

 EGSM 900MHz

880-915 MHz: uplink

925-960 MHz: downlink

 GSM 1800MHz

1710-1785 MHz: uplink

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1805-1880 MHz: downlink

 GSM1900MHz

1850-1910 MHz: uplink

1930-1990 MHz: downlink

Because the lower-frequency bands such as 850MHz, PGSM 900MHz and EGSM
900MHz fade more slowly than the higher-frequency bands such as 1800MHz and
1900MHz, the lower-frequency bands have wider coverage at the same transmitting
power. In multi-band networking, lower-frequency bands are often used to cover larger
areas, while higher-frequency bands are often used to provide high capacity.

This feature is implemented by MS, BTS, BSC and CN.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

6.1.2 ZGO-05-02-031 Distributed Architecture of BTS

Benefits

This feature saves equipment room and reduces cable loss and increases power output
in antenna port.

Description

Distributed BTS consists of baseband processing parts and radio processing parts.
Baseband processing parts are set in equipment room to make maintenance easily, and
radio parts are set close to antenna to reduce cable loss.

Distributed BTS uses fiber to connect baseband processing parts and radio processing
parts. Digital technology is adopted and no signal distortion happened in transmission
between two parts.

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Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhanced Function

None

6.2 Synchronization

6.2.1 ZGB-05-03-001 Clock Synchronization

Benefits

This feature enables BSS to realize clock synchronization, so as to meet such kind of
requirement for various transmission modes and ensure system performance.

Description

In order to satisfy different application scenarios’ demands, BSC and BTS support
multiple clock synchronization methods. Different clock reference sources are configured
as per actual application scenario to synchronize BSC and BTS.

ZTE BSC supports the following basic clock synchronization methods:

 Clock Synchronization Extraction from Traffic Interfaces

BSC extracts line recovered clock from the message that contains synchronization timer
information at traffic interface, including E1/T1. It traces and locks the clock.

 BITS Clock Synchronization

Electrical interface of Building Integrated Timing Supply System (BITS) is required being
coincided with ITU G.703. BITS clock reference quality should be in accordance with ITU
G.812. BSC supports BITS reference input with 2.048MHz/2.048Mbps/1.544Mbps.

Furthermore, ZTE BSC also supports the following optional clock synchronization
methods,

 GPS Clock Synchronization

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Refer to “ZGO-05-03-001 GPS Synchronization”.

 IEEE1588 V2 IP Clock Synchronization

Refer to “ZGO-05-03-002 IEEE1588 V2 IP Clock Synchronization”.

 Synchronous Ethernet

Refer to “ZGO-05-04-015 Synchronous Ethernet”.

Whether BSC to use clock references, which clock references to use and the master
clock reference can all be set on OMC. When current reference clock is lost, BSC
switches to available reference clock with lower priority automatically; if all the reference
clocks are lost, BSC will switch to clock hold on status.

ZTE BTS supports the following basic clock synchronization methods:

 Clock Synchronization Extraction from Abis Interfaces

If Abis interface adopts E1/T1 transmission, extract synchronization from Abis interface.
When one of the links fails, it automatically switches to another working link so as to
realize redundancy backup. Abis interface of BTS is available to be configured with
multiple E1/T1 to connect to BSC. If line recovered clock reference source is configured,
BTS automatically selects one E1/T1 in ascending order to extract clock.

BTS is also able to output 2.048 Mbps clock signals via E1 interfaces. The clock
complies with ITU-T G.703 and is provided as a clock reference to the other NodeB/BTS
or other equipment located in the same site.

 BITS Clock Synchronization

BTS supports BITS-2MHz and BITS-2Mbps clock. For BITS-2MHz, the physical layer
must comply with the requirement of interface T12 in Chapter 13. As for BITS-2Mbps, the
physical layer must comply with the requirement of interface E12 in Chapter 9.

Furthermore, ZTE BTS also supports the following optional clock synchronization
methods,

 GPS Clock Synchronization

Refer to “ZGO-05-03-001 GPS Synchronization”.

 IEEE1588 V2 IP Clock Synchronization

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Refer to “ZGO-05-03-002 IEEE1588 V2 IP Clock Synchronization”.

 Synchronous Ethernet

Refer to “ZGO-05-04-015 Synchronous Ethernet”.

BTS reference clocks are configured on OMC. Each reference clock is allowed to be
specified with certain priority; system then selects one with highest priority as its
reference clock. When current reference clock is lost, BTS switches to available
reference clock with lower priority automatically; if all the reference clocks are lost, BTS
will switch to clock hold on status.

Introduced Version

V09R1

Enhancement

None

7 Others

7.1 O&M

7.1.1 ZGB-06-01-001 Monitoring Um Interface

Benefits

This feature detects and releases faulty radio channels in time, thus increasing the
efficiency of radio resource utility.

Description

The BTS monitors radio channel in the uplink, while the MS monitors radio channel in the
downlink.

The BTS monitors radio channel in the uplink according to two criteria. The first criterion

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is the ratio of SACCH channel failure. The second criterion is the uplink signal level and
quality. Which criterion to apply is configured on OMCR.

If the first criterion is applied, a counter S is in work. Counter S has an initial value above
zero. Every time the BTS fails to decode an uplink SACCH frame, counter S decrements;
every time the BTS successfully decodes an uplink SACCH frame, counter S is
increased by 2. When the counter S is reduced to zero, BTS decides that this radio
channel is faulty and initiates a channel release procedure.

If the second criterion is applied, the BTS calculates the average value of uplink signal
level and quality. When the average value of uplink signal level or quality is worse than a
threshold, BTS decides that this radio channel is faulty and initiates a channel release
procedure.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

7.1.2 ZGB-06-01-002 Abis Interface Monitoring

Benefits

This feature enables the network operation and maintenance staff to detect the Abis
interface failure in time, so that they can take measures quickly.

Description

In ZTE GSM BSS the Abis interface adopts E1, T1 or IP access methods. Abis signaling
fault detection and alarming are provided for all these three methods.

When E1/T1 access is adopted, the Abis signaling is carried on LAPD links. When the
LAPD board of BSC detects LAPD links failure or the main processing board of BSC
detects communication failure with the LAPD board, LAPD link failure alarms are sent to
OMCR.

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When IP access is adopted, the Abis signaling is carried on SCTP protocol. The SCTP
protocol module of BSC manages the SCTP link state according to RFC 2960
specification. When protocol module of BSC detects SCTP links failure, Abis interface
failure alarms are sent to OMCR.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

7.1.3 ZGB-06-01-003 Performance Data Measurement

Benefits

This feature is a basic function and helps the operator to supervise the state and
performance of the whole BSS network.

Description

ZTE GSM BSS supports the collection, storage, analysis and report of performance data.
BSC collects the performance data and sends it to OMCR periodically. O&M staff can set
the measurement objects, measurement types and measurement frequency on OMCR.

Measurement objects include cell, TRX, channel, No.7 signaling office, BVC, etc;

Measurement types include TCH/F measurement, TCH/H measurement, TBF procedure


measurement, handover measurement, etc. Every type of measurement consists of
many counters.

Measurement frequency includes 15min, 30min, 1h, 12h and 24h. OMCR adds up the
counter values according to the frequency and stores the results into data base.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

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None

7.1.4 ZGB-06-01-005 BSC Monitor Functions

Benefits

This feature enables the operator to continuously monitor the BSC. If a problem occurs, it
easily detects and locates. This feature improves the stability of the BSS system and
increases the quality of the radio network.

Description

BSC monitors the process sources and wireless resources. If a problem occurs, alarm is
sent to the OMCR, and the boards are rebooted. The problem caused by software or
data processing can be solved automatically.

OMP continuously monitors the boards, for example:

The OMP continuously monitors the running of TC unit. If a board fails, it is to be blocked
and diagnosed immediately, then to be rebooted. And an alarm is sent to the OMCR to
remind the network maintenance engineer. The process of new service wouldn’t be
assigned to the failure board until the fault is recovered or the board is replaced.

BSC's control plane processing board CMP adopts 1 +1 backup mode. If the system
detects failure of the active board, the board is to be automatically rebooted; and the
service process goes to the backup board, ensuring service not to be interrupted.

OMP also monitors the overall business process. If it detects a fatal error, the BSC is to
be restarted; the system is capable of being resumed within 8 minutes because the
parameters access is local style instead of remote access from OMCR.

BSC continuously monitors the states of the cells. If the cell is abnormal, the non-traffic
alarm, serious interference alarm and other alarms will be sent to the OMCR to notify
maintenance person.

None-traffic Alarm:

System periodically checks the performance counters of cells and analyzes the
related counters such as number of SDCCH seizure success counter , number of

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SDCCH seizure failure counter, number of DL/UL TBF establishment success counter
and number of DL/UL TBF establishment failure counter. None-traffic and other abnormal
conditions of the cell can be detected. In this case, None-traffic alarm will be send to
OMCR and maintenance engineer is able to check the reason.

Serious Interference Alarm:

System periodically checks the wireless interference counters. Once a cell of the
interference exceeds the threshold pre-configured, serious interference alarm is to be
sent to OMCR to inform maintenance engineer.

Logical Channel Usage Monitoring:

System periodically checks the availability of the logical channels (TCH / SDCCH /
PDCH), if the free channel rate of a cell is lower than the threshold pre-configured, low
availability channel alarm is to be sent to OMCR to inform maintenance engineer.

Introduced version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

7.1.5 ZGB-06-01-006 BTS Software Loading

Benefits

ZTE GSM BTS’s modules are highly integrated, leading to less network congestion and
interference when loading the software. So the process is safer and more reliable, and
improves loading efficiency.

Description

The SDR BTS software version can be categorized into two types: major version and
special version.

The major version is a packet delivered to a binary file when the foreground version is

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released. For a specific BTS type, a major version packet contains all required board
software versions. It complies with standard naming conventions and format definition,
and has the capability of describing its own format. OMCB can extract a set of related
board software versions correctly by analyzing the packet. Major version is the normal
method to update software.

Special version is some board software version independent of the major version. The
special version is often used to verify the validity of single software instead of acting as
the main method to update the version.

The installation of BTS software contains the following steps:

1 Version warehousing

When new software version is released for the BTS, to ensure that the BTS can use
the latest software, this software should be added into the network management
server through the network management system, and synchronized to NEs, that is,
to be loaded into OMCB.

The OMCB resolves the major version packet into multiple separate version files
and stores them into its own hard disk. Meanwhile, the OMCB will record these
software versions in the database. This step is called version packet warehousing.

2 Version downloading

When the major version is warehoused, the version object can be opened on the
version tree to download the version packet.

Loading the major version, in fact, is loading all the board software in the major
version. This operation must be atomic. All the downloading operations either fail or
succeed.

The major version packet should be downloaded by using the differentiated method,
that is, only download the required board software after comparing the version
information. This method speeds the version downloading and relieves the network
congestion.

3 Version activation

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The major version supports non-compatible activation only. The activation of the
major version includes two parts: table data configuration command and BTS
activation. The new version file will be loaded in the restart process of BTS.
Successful loading means successful activation. If problems occur in the loading
process, the process is stopped, and the version file is restored. Thus, the
activation fails.

When the major version is activated, the original version packet will act as the spare
version file. If required, you can use the original version through the handover of
version packet.

This feature also includes other version commands, such as Version deletion, Version
query etc.

Version deletion can be used to delete the whole packet of the major version or a single
file in the version packet.

Version query can be used to query the currently running version information of BTS
through the network management system.

Introduced Version

V09R1

Enhancement

Null

7.1.6 ZGB-06-01-007 Cell Traffic Statistics

Benefits

This feature is very important input for network analyses. Traffic statistical data reflects
whether the network resource is optimally configured or not, as well as the load condition
of equipment resources. The operator then can determine if it is necessary to expand
system capacity or adjust equipment parameters and resources according to the result.
According to traffic changes, the operator can also monitor performance of the network
to identify potential problems in a timely manner. And the operator can also check the

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effect of network optimization by this feature.

Description

The traffic load of cell can be reported to operator through the performance statistics

BSC gathers the information of cell traffic and reports them to OMM by hour, OMM will
store them in the database and prepare report forms.

There are two kinds of traffic statistics, one is for SDCCH, and the other is for TCH.

System generates traffic reports every hour to compare the traffic difference of different
equipments in different time period, so as to analyze network traffic changing trend.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

7.1.7 ZGB-06-01-008 Equipment Health Check

Benefits

This feature enhances the efficiency of system maintenance; it’s specifically used in the
following scenarios.

Routine Maintenance: Users can set the routine tasks of equipment physical test and
communication links test. If the test results close to the outlier, the maintenance engineer
needs to pay attention to it and eliminate hidden dangers to avoid the real fault occurred.

Troubleshooting: Users can set the immediate task, to help maintenance engineer
identifies the cause of the failure and locate fault position as soon as possible.

Description

This feature includes immediate test and routine test.

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Immediate Test:

Maintenance engineer is able to select the test objects at any time and test items in the
network management client and triggers the test. The system runs the task and the test
results can be observed immediately.

Routine Test:

Maintenance engineer is able to select test objects and test items, and pre-set the test
time. When test time arrives, the diagnostic test will be triggered and the test results are
automatically saved in OMCR server. Routine testing is generally used for routine
maintenance in order to reduce the workload.

Both immediate test and routine test results are automatically saved. Therefore, the
users can check the test results when needed. Users can also inquire, delete, clean up,
export, refresh, print the results and customize the results list.

This feature includes the following test categories:

BSC TDM Link Loop Test:

BSC is enabled to set both E1 or 64K time slot loopback and send test packets whether
the TDM link works normally.

BSC Version Information:

This function gets the board types, the hardware version, the firmware version
information and other information to facilitate the users to determine whether to support
the feature which requires special hardware and firmware version.

BSC Media Stream Test:

Media stream test is to test the media flow state between two service boards. The test
includes the CS and PS domain media flow diagnostic tests. The system generates test
packets in the source boards, and the target boards receive and return the test packets
to the source boards. Media stream test checks whether the media stream flows are
working properly.

BSC Control Flow Test:

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Control flow test contains the control link between OMP and the external boards test, the
link between the external boards test, and the main communications link between the
main and standby board test. The system generates test packets in the source boards,
and the target boards receive and return the test packets to the source boards. Control
flow test checks whether the internal control links are working properly.

BSC Board Test:

This test comprehensively diagnoses whether the board to be tested encounters


hardware faults. It also checks whether the major functional units, interfaces, etc. are
working properly.

Introduction Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

7.1.8 ZGO-06-01-003 BSC LMT Interface

Benefits

This feature reduces construction investment because of more convenient construction;


even if the OMCR is not reachable, the BSC is commissioned. Operators can view the
BSC through the LMT to check the current status and alarms, as well as maintenance of
BSC.

Description

BSC LMT is the commission and maintenance tool when the OMCR is not reachable. It
provides the following functions:

Configuration management: Satisfy the commissioning requirements of the BSC.

Alarm management: View the current alarm of the BSC.

Diagnostic test: Provide the test of NE object to get more detailed information for the

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convenience to locate the fault for users.

Status Management: View the status and statistics of various physical and radio
resources and perform the operations such as block/unblock, activate/deactivate.

By installing the LMT client in a PC, users can connect the LMT client to the BSC LMT to
commission the BSC. Alternatively, users can directly connect the display and mouse to
the LMT server and start the LMT client directly, thus commissioning the BSC.

Introduced version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

7.1.9 ZGO-06-01-009 RX Diversity Imbalance Detection

Benefits

This feature enhances network quality and saves OPEX, when using diversity receiving.

Description

This feature gathers and analyses data on performance of main and diversity antenna
system, reports alarm when they are imbalance. Therefore, faulty antenna system will be
noticed in time, avoiding lowering traffic and revenues for the operator.

Radio module reads the data on Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI) of main and
diversity antenna system, when diversity receiving function is adopted and the receiving
port or receiving extend port is connected. Those valid RSSI data is stored and invalid
data is discarded.

If the set of valid RSSI data is enough, following statistic calculation is progressed.

If most balance of valid RSSI data exceeds the threshold, the imbalance alarm is
generated and reported.

If most balance of valid RSSI data is less than the threshold, and imbalance alarm has

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been reported already, then the imbalance alarm is restored and reported.

This feature has a switch on OMC.

Introduced Version

V10R1

Enhancement

None

7.1.10 ZGO-06-01-010 VSWR Detection

Benefits

This feature indicates whether the antenna construction, antennas, cables and joints
comply with the regulatory requirements, and monitors them while running the
equipments. VSWR slight alarm or VSWR serious alarm shall be generated and reported
while the feeder performance degrades, enhancing network quality and saving OPEX.

Description

In telecommunications, when antenna and feeder do not match the impedances, some of
the electrical energy cannot be transferred from the feeder to the antenna. Energy not
transferred to the antenna is reflected back towards the transmitter. The voltage ratio of
the amplitude of a partial standing wave at an anti-node (maximum) to the amplitude at
an adjacent node (minimum) is called Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR). Reflected
power has three main implications in radio transmitters: Radio Frequency (RF) energy
losses increase, distortion on transmitter due to reflected power from load and damage
to the transmitter occurs.

For the antenna port, a VSWR slight alarm and serious alarm shall be generated
according to the following condition:

VSWR < X1 no alarm

X1≤VSWR < X2 slight alarm

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X2≤VSWR serious alarm

The system automatically shuts down power amplifier, in order to protect the transmitter
from damage, when VSWR serious alarm generates.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

7.1.11 ZGO-06-01-014 BTS Operations & Maintenance Channel

Benefits

This feature is used to set up an O&M channel between OMC and BTS.

Description

BTS O&M channel is a data channel between the BTS and the OMC server. Comparing
with Abis interface, both in-band and out-of-band BTS O&M channel are supported by
ZTE GERAN. In-band BTS O&M channel means O&M data is transmitted banding with
the same transmission link with Abis interface from BTS to BSC. The OMC server is
connected to the BSC over Ethernet, and BSC severs as a router for O&M data between
BTS and OMC server. Out-of-band BTS O&M channel means O&M data is transmitted
separately from BTS to OMC server without routing of BSC, which only applies to IP
transmission network.

For in-band BTS O&M channel, transmission of O&M data depends on choice of
transmission link of Abis interface.

 Abis interface of IP over E1

BTS is connected to the BSC by IP over E1. The BSC provides, as the gateway for the
O&M channel between BTS and OMC, IP data transmission function, including TCP
packets, UDP packets and ICMP packets.

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 Abis interface of IP over Eth

If the IP mode is adopted for Abis transmission between BSC and BTSs, O&M data can
be remotely transmitted on the IP-in-IP tunnel between BSC and BTSs.

ZTE BTS also supports out-of-band BTS O&M channel, which means standalone IP
address for O&M for separating management of service network and O&M network.

Introduced Version

V09R1

Enhancement

UR11.1, standalone IP address for O&M in BTS is supported.

7.1.12 ZGO-06-01-015 Time Calibration via SNTP

Benefits

This feature helps local time in all BTS/BSC keep synchronization with an absolute time,
which facilitates the collection and process of operation and maintenance data like event
logs and system performance.

Description

SNTP protocol is applied to synchronize time among those processors inside the
BTS/BSC and other devices of external OMCR. OMM server acts as an NTP client which
acquires time from upper NTP server. On the other hand, it provides service of time
synchronization to BTS/BSC as the server of SNTP. BTS/BSC as a SNTP client, the time
synchronization can be initiated automatically and manually as well.

 Automatic synchronization
OMM Server acquires time from NTP server periodically, and then updates the local
time and the time value stored in built-in SNTP server. BTS/BSC acquires time via
SNTP client function from SNTP server built in OMM Server periodically, and then
distributes the time value to other processors in BTS/BSC.

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 Manual synchronization
OMCR operator can send a time synchronization command to initiate a time
synchronization process. BTS/BSC then acquires time from SNTP server built in
OMM Server via SNTP client function immediately, and then distributes the time
value to other processors inside BTS/BSC.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

No

7.2 Security

7.2.1 ZGB-06-02-001 A5/1 Ciphering Algorithm

Benefits

This feature enables the A5/1 ciphering algorithm to send all information during the air
interface encrypted, guaranteeing the private information and signal of the user, so as to
provide sufficient security and stability of service.

Description

This feature enables the ciphering algorithms A5/1, which is defined in 3GPP protocol.

ZTE GSM supports A5/1 ciphering algorithm to guarantee the private information and
signal of the user, thus providing sufficient security and stability of service.

Before the ciphering procedure, there is an authentication procedure first. The


authentication procedure evaluates a ciphering key (Kc), which is one of the input
parameters in A5/1. The other inputs include the Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)
frame number. Kc changes along with the TDMA frame number.

A5/1 lies at BTS and the terminal, and this function is initiated when MSC/VLR sending
the message Cipher Mode Command to BSC. The message “Cipher Mode Command”

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together with Kc and TDMA frame number is sent to BTS via the BSC, and then is sent to
the terminal forward. The terminal encrypts the message “Cipher Mode Complete” by
using A5/1, which is sent via the radio path to BTS. BTS decrypts the message “Cipher
Mode Complete” with Kc and TDMA frame number by using A5/1, and then sends the
message “Cipher Mode Complete” to BSC and MSC. After this procedure, all information
over the air interface is ciphered.

This feature requires CN, BTS and the terminal to support it.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

UR13, A5/1 encryption mechanism is enhanced in the following.

 Support early SDCCH handover, that when receiving cipher command from the
core network, BSC indicates the MS to perform SDCCH handover before
entering ciphering mode in order to make it difficult for the intruder to attack.

 Support neighbor cell description change, BSC changes the contents of the
Neighbor Cell Description information element by including ARFCNs not in a
frequency band supported by the MS when changing the ciphering mode from
“not ciphered” to “ciphered” with algorithm A5/1.

 Support random fit fitting in SI6, e.g. in SI6 Rest Octets.

8 Acronyms and Abbreviations


Abbreviations Full names
ACC Access Control Classes

ACCN Access Control Class N

ADPCM Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation

AGPS Assisted GPS

AH Antenna Hopping

AMPS Advanced Mobile Phone System

AMR Adaptive Multi-Rate

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Abbreviations Full names

AMR-WB Adaptive Multi-Rate Wideband

ARQ Automatic Repeat request

BA BCCH Allocation

BCCH Broadcast Control Channel

BER Bit Error Rate

BSC Base Station Controller

BSIC Base Station Identity Code

BSS Base Station Subsystem

BTS Base Transceiver Station

BVC BSSGP Virtual Connection

C/I Carrier/Interference

CAPEX Capital Expenditure

CBCH Cell Broadcast Channel

CCCH Common Control Channel

CDMA Code Division Multiple Access

CGI Cell Global Identity

CMB Controller & Maintenance Board

CMIS Common Manage Information Service

CMM Control and Maintenance Module

CN Core Network

CPICH Common Pilot Channel

CPU Central Processing Unit

CRO Cell Reselection Offset

CS Circuit Service

DD Delay Diversity

DDT Delay Diversity Transmission

DSL Digital Subscriber Line

DSP Digital Signal Processor

DTM Dual Transfer Mode

DTX Discontinuous Transmission

EDGE Enhanced Data rate for Global Evolution

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Abbreviations Full names

EFR Enhanced Full Rate

EGPRS Enhanced General Packet Radio Service

EGPRS2-A Enhanced General Packet Radio Service 2-A

FACCH Fast Associated Control Channels

FDD Frequency Division Duplex

FEC Forward Error Correction

FR Full Rate

FSMU Far Sub-multiplexing Unit

FTP File Transfer Protocol

FUC Frame Unit Controller

GERAN GPRS EGPRS Radio Access Network

GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node

GIPI GE IP Interface

GPP General Peripheral Processor

GPS Global Positioning System

GSM Global System for Mobile Communication

HLR Home Location Register

HR Half Rate

ICE Integrated Configuration Environment

IMSI International Mobile Subscriber Identity

IP Internet Protocol

IRC Interference Rejection Combining

ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network

ISP Internet Service Provider

LAC Location Area Code

LAN Local Area Network

LAPD Link Access Protocol for D-Channel

LFSR Linear Feedback Shift Register

LTE Long Term Evolution

MAIO Mobile Allocation Index Offset

MCPC Multiple Channels Per Carrier

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Abbreviations Full names

MIT Managed object Instance Tree

MMI Man Machine Interface

MMSE Minimum Mean Squared Error

MO Mobile Originating

MOC Mobile Originated Call

MOS Mean Opinion Score

MRC Macro Ratio Combining

MS Mobile Station

MSC Mobile Switching Center

MT Mobile Terminating

MTBF Mean Time Between Failure

MTC Mobile Terminated Call

NACC Network Assisted Cell Change

NECI New Establishment Cause Indicator

NSEI Network Service Entity Identifier

NSMU Near Sub-multiplexing Unit

NSS Network Switching Subsystem

NS-VC Network Service Virtual Channel

OMC-R Operation and Maintenance Center - Radio

OPEX Operational Expenditure

PBGT Power Budget

PCH Paging Channel

PCM Pulse Code Modulation

PCU Packet Control Unit

PDU Protocol Data Unit

PH Phase Hopping

PLMN Public Land Mobile Network

PoC Push to talk over Cellular

PS Packet Switch

PTP Point to Point

PTT Push To Talk

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Abbreviations Full names

QoS Quality of Service

RACH Random Access Channel

RAN Radio Access Network

RLA Received Level Average

RMM Radio Management Module

RNC Radio Network Controller

RR Radio Resource

RSCP Received Signal Code Power

RTP Real Time Protocol

SACCH Slow Associated Control Channel

SAPI Service Access Point Identifier

SCM Switching Control Module

SCPC Single Channel Per Carrier

SDCCH Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel

SDH Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node

SID Silence Descriptor

SMC Short Message Center

SNM Switching Network Module

SNR Signal-to-Noise Ratio

STM Synchronous Transport Module

TA Timing Advance

TBF Temporary Block Flow

TC Transcoder

TCH Traffic Channel

TCU Transcoder Unit

TDD Time Division Duplexing

TDMA Time Division Multiple Access

TD-SCDMA Time Division Synchronous CDMA

TFO Tandem Free Operation

TO Temporary Offset

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Abbreviations Full names

TRAU Transcoder and Rate Adaptation Unit

TRM Transceiver Module

TRANCEIVER Transceiver

TS Time Slot

TSC Training Sequence Code

UDP User Datagram Protocol

UIR Uplink Incremental redundancy

UTRAN Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network

VAD Voice Activity Detector

VLR Visitor Location Register

VSWR Voltage Standing Wave Ratio

WCDMA Wideband Code Division Multiple Access

WPA Wireless Packet Access

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