Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 44


A pleasing blend of fabric and designs

● Nurtured from a small state of gadwal in andhra pradesh.
● Entire saree is made of cotton while its borders are designed in silk.
● The saree is one of the reason for tremendous growth of textile
industries in andhra pradesh.
● This saree can be folded into the size of a matchbox.
● Recently known as sico sarees.
● Best known for its zari work, well crafted kuttu borders and light
weight body.
HISTORY Nurtured in a small town called Gadwal in Andhra Pradesh,
Gadwal sarees are known for its beautiful mix of fabric and

Origin and history

Mythology tells us that the Gadwal silk weavers are the

direct descendants of Jiveshwar Maharaj – the first weaver
of Hindu gods and goddesses. The sarees were originally
popular as festive and religious wear, worn during pujas
and other functions. The weavers of the saree were sent to
Benares (now Varanasi) so that they could perfect the art
of weaving. However, despite being perfected in Benares,
the art takes zero influence from the state of Uttar
Pradesh and relies instead on South Indian aesthetics.

Commercial sale of the Gadwal sarees saw a peak in the

1930s when spinning looms and other manual machines came in
existence and aided the weavers. History also points to the
efforts of late Ratan Babu Rao, a veteran in the trade of
handloom sarees who opened a Gadwal centre in Hyderabad in
1946 where the sarees fast climbed the popularity charts
and became famous across the country.
One of the most remarkable features of the
saree is the admirable zari pattern found on
the textile and the well-crafted Kuttu
borders. Kuttu is the art of joining in the
border and pallu of the saree after it has
been woven.

While a pure silk version of the Gadwal saree

does exist, the more popular version is where
the entire saree is made of cotton, while the
borders are designed in pure mulberry silk or
tussar (this is also known as the sico

The interwoven weft technique used to design

the Gadwal saree is locally known as
“Kupadam” and the weaving style for the
borders is “Kumbam”.
● Earlier they were only available in earthy colours.

● With more commercial sales and inclusion of dyeing and machinery, the
saree became available in multiple colours to appeal the global

● Now available in contrasting colours.

● Motifs have always been in shape of temples and architecture of
religious places.
● With globalisation, new geometrical shapes are introduced.
● The motifs of the murrugan (peacock) and the rudraksh are popular.
● The Most noteworthy feature remains its zari work in the border with
golden and silver in silk.
● It is influenced from barasi weaves but the design however do not show
any influence from banaras.
● The zari embroidery on the pallu of a traditional Gadwal sari fills the width and breadth
of the available area.
● It is not necessary that this work be done in strips or simple weaves.
● traditional patterns such as the nature inspired paisley and peacock motifs as well as
others that are inspired by religious architecture are also used to embellish this classic
● The border may be thick or thin and can usually be classified as traditional and modern.
● most Gadwal sarees have tassels made from the warp filaments of the fabric itself.
● The zari work in the borders is the cult that gadwal sarees have pepped
in fashion ramp.
● Gained a certain level of modern technique in terms of colours.
● Globally commercialised.
● Large scale export to countries like US, U.K and some parts of europe.
● Tradiional touch is intact while designs have gone up to the level of
● Designer Vinay Narkar is on a mission to revive every weave and make every handwoven
saree wearable on various occasion.
● He devises new ideas on how to make a saree more enchanting by customising it.
● He experiments with colours, materials and designs to revive the traditional Gadwal
weave, he makes sure he used the traditional kuttu weaving technique with contrast
borders when he does so. The gadwall weave comprising on interlock weaving, which is
traditionally called ‘Kuttu Weaving’. Narkar uses this technique and combines various
different yarns within a weave, which results in the production innovative fabric
● He is also in the process of integrating Ikat and Kuttu techniques that could create a
new market for weavers. Pochampally and Gadwal weavers share techniques to create
these designs. He is also trying to replace the traditional zari with silk so that
the product can be used for more occasions.”
● Mangalagiri Sarees and Fabrics
are produced by performing
handicraft weaving in
Mangalagiri, a town in Guntur
district of the Indian state
of Andhra Pradesh.

● It was registered as one of

the handicraft in the
geographical indication from
Andhra Pradesh by Geographical
Indications of Goods
(Registration and Protection)
It is believed that this temple has been
there since Satya Yuga and below the present
temple lies the erstwhile Lakshmi Narasimha
Swamy temple wherein Yudhistira had himself
installed the main idol in the temple.

It is said that as per the ancient

traditions, the pilgrims had to purchase a
sari from the local weavers after offering
obeisance to the lord, which was another way
of giving a livelihood to the local weavers.
Thus grew the popularity of the Mangalgiri

During the Qutub Shahi Dynasty in 1593, the

region had levied taxes on the handloom
sarees. Due to this, most of the weavers
fled from the town, which dealt a severe

blow to the flourishing handloom industry of

the town of Mangalgiri.
Mangalgiri sarees are adorned with traditional
motifs such as paisleys and flowers.

Modern motifs on mangalgiri sarees are a new style

statement and makes the wearer stand out from the
rest on the particular occasion.

Sticking to its inspiration from temple and nature,

the motifs have always been in the shape of
temples, and the architecture of religious places

Raw materials – pure cotton yarn, silver and
Technique gold zari, synthetic and natural dyes
and some chemicals.

Cotton purification – This process involves

boiling of hank cotton to remove
certain impurities, soaked overnight,
rinsed and made suitable for dyeing

Dyeing – it involves bleaching technique

for white saris and for colored ones,
Vat dyes are used.

Removal of excess dye – dyed or bleached yarn

undergoes soaking in boiling water
with some techniques to cut out
excess dyeing.

Drying – after the above process, the

yarn is dried
Pre-loom process
● Winding of hank yarn into warp
and weft – charka, shift bamboo
and bobbin are used to form
warp. While, the weft is made
with help of a pirn.
● Mangalagiri weavers use unique
way of processing warp yarn.
Each warp is for 4-5 sarees. So,
it is very important to make
sure all the threads in the warp
are smooth and not attached with
one other. The adjacent images
show the warp process.
● Once the warp is processed, it
is fixed to loom and start
weaving process is started. At
this point they also attach
zari threads to warp to make
zari boarders on Mangalagiri
● Street sizing – the warp
extension, spraying of rice
conjee ensures suitable
weaving followed by drying.
● In general, a weaver can
weave a Mangalagiri Saree in
1-2 days. The weaving time may
way based on the saree design.
● Weaving process – it involves
Warp and Weft method of
weaving and sometimes replaced
by Jacquard weaving. Usage of
only pitlooms for weaving,
designing and cutting per the
goods demand undertakes.
Mangalagiri saris are unique variety, woven
from cotton and has the most characteristic
features such like zari on the border and no
woven designs on the body. As the town is
also the abode of Lord Narasimha Temple, the
saris are also used by the devotees for
devotional purposes. These cotton saris are
known for featuring micro checks or stripes
on the field with a dense zari border giving
the sari a beautiful drape. Nizam design
borders with golden thread and plain body
are the main characteristics of the fabric.
Mangalagiri sarees are woven from pure
cotton. They are very popular for their
delicate and distinctive designs. The sari
is woven super finely in vibrant colours
giving a crisp finish. The other unique
feature of Mangalagiri Handlooms Products is
the thread knots at the end of sarees and
dupattas. Weavers are specialized and quick

to knot these threads once the weaving is
Mangalagiri fabric is available in
a breathtaking array of colors.
The fabric is affordable and does
not color bleed. This makes this
fabric more popular. Weavers use
basic designs but they incorporate
striking colors to add beauty to
the fabric. If the warp threads of
the fabric are yellow and the weft
threads are green, red or orange,
the end result always is greenish,
yellow, sunset orange or deep
yellow. Mangalagiri sarees usually
have striking color combinations.
Light tones of the fabric are
often paired with dark colored

Present Scenario
● There are as lot of challenges faced by the designers and weavers in
giving Mangalgiri, a modern twist.
● Apart from attractive sarees, Mangalgiri dress material is also
globally demanded in recent times.
● Highlighted ethnic designs are in a great demand for Mangalgiri
fabric in the present scenario. It is in demand for its simple
minded patterns, tough and durable behavior of cotton yarns and
striking color palette. Women of all age have a sudden inclination
towards Mangalgiri fabrics.
● Handloom weaving is the prime occupation of Mangalgiri town and
around half of the population depends on this cottage industry for
their living.
design & prooducts Mangalagiri light weight
silk saree with pochampally
border and buttas all over
● Attempts being made at giving a
modern twist to the Mangalagiri
and contrast pallu
textiles. Apart from the exquisite
and bright saree creations, the
Mangalgiri dress materials have a
global demand too. A lot of the new
generation enjoy wearing the cool
cotton kurtas, dupattas, and stoles

with the Mangalgiri weave which can
be teamed up with western wear for a
funky indowestern look. Apart from
plain mangalagiri cottons
that, jhola bags made with with cheerful printed
Mangalgiri fabric are also quite blouses (block prints like
popular. bagh, dabu, etc

Recycled sari to wrap dress



Venkatagiri sarees
Andhra pradesh

•Venkatagiri Sari is a sari style woven in Venkatagiri of Nellore district
in the Indian state of Andhra pradesh and telangana nd Pradesh.

•It was registered as one of the geographical indication from

Andhra Pradesh by Geographical Indications of Goods.

•These style of saris can also be found in the villages of

Sengunthapuram, Variyankaval, Elaiyur, Kallathur, Andimadam and
Marudhur villages.

Venkatagiri saris are known for their fine weaving .
•Venkatagiri Sarees are handwoven zari cotton sarees popular for
their Jamdani style weaving pattern.
The Venkatagiri Sarees, known for their fine weaving, date back to
early 1700 when these sarees were produced at an artisan cluster close
to Nellore called Venkatagiri. The place was then known as ‘Kali Mili’
and its famous product was patronized by the Velugoti Dynasty of
Nellore. The weavers back then used to weave these sarees only for the
royal families. In return, they used to get paid such handsome amounts
that it would last them a year or so till the next order was placed.
More recently, Venkatagiri Sarees got widespread publicity by importing
the Jamdani design from Bangladesh.
Raw materials and tools
Some of the tools and raw materials basically use

Raw Materials
• Cotton Yarn - Cotton yarns of generally high quality are generally
• Silk Yarns - Pure or Art silk yarns are preferred as per the cost at
which it is made.
• Zari - Pure or Artificial zari threads are used as per customer’s

Tools used are

• Charkha -It is an equipment that winds the yarns on to the pirns.
• Spools - It is used to input the Jamdani designs in the weaving process.
• Scissors - It is used to cut out the unrequired yarns.
• Shuttle (Paggu) - Generally used to supplement the weft yarn into the
• Pit Loom - To interlace the warp and weft yarns.
the Venkatagiri saris are mainly in off-white colour and decorated with dull golden motifs.
Dyeing - it involves bleaching technique for white saris and for colored ones, Vat and Naphthol dyes are

Venkatagiri sarees are mostly of one to two inch wide with gold border.

Designs on the borders are locally called Patti, which are nothing but dotted lines alongside the golden

These are also known as high quality muslins with high thread counts.
Though they are transparent with their most saturated colour of yarn dyed with hues such as purple, orange,
olive green, bright green, bright red.
● venkatagiri sarees are usually found with
various motifs, like of peacocks, rudraksha,
beetle leaves, gold coins, flowers, buds,
parrots, fish and geometric designs.

● These saree are usually found of cotton with

broad zari border, cotton with thin zari border,
cotton with silk, Venkatagiri silk saree etc.

● They generally measure around 5.18 meters of

length and 1.17 meters of width.
Making process
● Venkatagiri sarees are mostly of one to two inch
wide with gold border, it has a unique
characteristic of woven combinations of zari and
cotton threads. Designs on the borders are locally
called Patti, which are nothing but dotted lines
alongside the golden bands.

● They are woven to create fine checks and stripes,

the coloured muslins are woven with two relatively
wide, plain, weft bands at end pieces. These sarees
are usually of finely woven, soft to touch and
particularly light in weight and comfortable to
wear in any season.
● The warp yarns are spread as per the pattern of design in the
open space outside the house, special care is taken to insert
each yarn with colour. The adai system is carried out for the
laying of the Jamdani design, for the insertion of the weave
the adai arrangement is spread and the yarn is weaved along
with extra yarn insertion with spools as per the colour to be
inserted like the peacock, mango design etc.

● The raw materials such as cotton are brought from Coimbatore,

silk from Bangalore, zari from Surat and segregated as per the
end use to be obtained. In case of weft the yarns are winded to
the plastic pirns and spools, especially for the Jamdani design
insertion. Zari thread segregated as per in warp way and
Present Day scenario
● The production of these sarees have reduced alot. Since most of the
weavers in venkatgiri have left because of less income and orders.
The family yarns merely 8000 per month after working for several
● Venkatagiri is known for its variety of handlooms. They produce
sarees of pure cotton, cotton and silk mix, and pure silk. In their
days of prosperity, these artisans weaved exclusively for the kings
of the region and the income from this sufficed them for the whole
● However, the modern day story is very different. This famous village
of weavers is in crisis. The traditional art of weaving is likely to
be extinct there with the last generation of seasoned fingers
caressing the threads. Power looms have taken over and these
artisans, who had carried on the legacy for generations, are paid a
meagre remuneration for their labour
● The weavers, along with their old and the young, toil all day to keep the 500 odd looms in the village
running. Nonetheless, the silence of the looms at Venkatagiri seems imminent.

● Earlier, every house had at least two looms, but now there is only one.

● Handloom production is for the most part, de-centralised, and a master weaver (trader), commissions
small weavers to weave sarees,

● Being the second largest employer after agriculture, India’s handloom sector is not just an important
part of the economy, but it is also a part of the country’s cultural traditions.
● According to the third National Handloom census (2009-10)
there are 43.31 lakh (4.3 million ) weavers in India.
● The Indian government does allocate some resources to the
development of the handloom sector in its annual budget, but
the numbers are shrinking every year. For instance, the
allocation for the National Handloom Development Programme
has decreased from Rs. 362 crore in 2014-15 to Rs. 150.00
crore in 2015-16.
● The various schemes for the welfare of weavers, including
insurance, distress relief and occupational health would not
have a significant impact unless there is a marked increase
in the budgetary support.
● Handloom adopts environment friendly processes where energy
consumption, capital investment and infrastructure
requirements are minimal. In the current scenario where the
push for a greener technology is stronger than ever, the
survival of handlooms and hand-spinning is imperative.