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TAM6C

COMPLEX ANALYSIS

Unit : I-V
TM

Unit-I SYLLABUS :
ANALYTIC FUNCTIONS
Complex valed functions
Limit and continuity
Differentiability
Necessary and sufficient condition for
differentiability
Analytic functions
Harmonic functions
Construction of analytic functions

TAM6C – Complex Analysis 2


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Complex valued function

Definition:
Let A and B be two non-empty subsets of ℂ. A
function f from A to B is a rule, which assigns each
z0 ∈ A to a unique element w0∈ B . The number w0
is called the value of f at z0 .

Example:
Let 𝑓𝑓: ℂ → ℂ by 𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧) = 𝑒𝑒 𝑧𝑧

TAM6C – Complex Analysis 3


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Limit and Continuity


Limits
Definition:
A complex valued function 𝒇𝒇 defined on 𝑫𝑫 ⊆ ℂ and
� . Then 𝒇𝒇 is said to have a 𝑤𝑤0 as 𝒛𝒛 → 𝒛𝒛𝟎𝟎 if for
𝒛𝒛𝟎𝟎 ∈ 𝑫𝑫
any given 𝝐𝝐 > 0 there exists a 𝜹𝜹 > 0 such that
|𝒇𝒇(𝒛𝒛) − 𝑤𝑤0 | < 𝝐𝝐 whenever 𝒛𝒛 ∈ 𝑫𝑫 and
𝟎𝟎 < |𝒛𝒛 − 𝒛𝒛𝟎𝟎 | < 𝜹𝜹.
It will be denoted by 𝐥𝐥𝐥𝐥𝐥𝐥𝒛𝒛→𝒛𝒛𝟎𝟎 𝒇𝒇(𝒛𝒛) = 𝑤𝑤0 .

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Theorems on Limits:
Theorem:
The limit of a function is unique. ie) If 𝐥𝐥𝐥𝐥𝐥𝐥𝑧𝑧→𝑧𝑧0 𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧) = 𝑙𝑙,
then 𝑙𝑙 should be unique.
Theorem:
Let 𝑓𝑓 and 𝑔𝑔 be defined in a neighborhood of 𝑧𝑧0 except
possibly at 𝑧𝑧0 . Given 𝐥𝐥𝐥𝐥𝐥𝐥𝑧𝑧→𝑧𝑧0 𝑓𝑓 (𝑧𝑧) = 𝑙𝑙 and
𝐥𝐥𝐥𝐥𝐥𝐥𝑧𝑧→𝑧𝑧0 𝑔𝑔(𝑧𝑧) = 𝑚𝑚, then
(a) 𝐥𝐥𝐥𝐥𝐥𝐥𝑧𝑧→𝑧𝑧0 [𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧) + 𝑔𝑔(𝑧𝑧)] = 𝑙𝑙 + 𝑚𝑚
(b) 𝐥𝐥𝐥𝐥𝐥𝐥𝑧𝑧→𝑧𝑧0 [𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧)𝑔𝑔(𝑧𝑧)] = 𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙
𝑓𝑓 (𝑧𝑧) 𝑙𝑙
(c) 𝐥𝐥𝐥𝐥𝐥𝐥𝑧𝑧→𝑧𝑧0 � �= if 𝑚𝑚 ≠ 0.
𝑔𝑔(𝑧𝑧) 𝑚𝑚

TAM6C – Complex Analysis 5


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Continuity of a function:
Definition:
Suppose 𝒇𝒇(𝒛𝒛) is a function defined on 𝑫𝑫 and 𝒛𝒛𝟎𝟎 ∈ 𝑫𝑫.
If
i) lim𝑧𝑧→𝑧𝑧0 𝑓𝑓 (𝑧𝑧) exists and
ii) lim𝑧𝑧→𝑧𝑧0 𝑓𝑓 (𝑧𝑧) = 𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧0 )
Then 𝑓𝑓 is said to be continuous at 𝑧𝑧0 .
Definition:
A function 𝑓𝑓 is continuous on 𝐷𝐷 if it is continuous at
all points on 𝐷𝐷.
Example:
Let 𝑓𝑓: ℂ → ℂ defined by 𝑓𝑓 (𝑧𝑧) = 𝑧𝑧 2 .

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Differentiability:
Definition:
A complex function f defined in a non-empty open
set D is said to be differentiable at z0 ∈ D if the limit
f (z) − f(z 0 )
lim
z → z0 z − z0
exists. It is denoted by f ′(z 0 ) .
Remarks:
• The function f is said to be differentiable on D
if it is differentiable at every point of D .
• The points at which f (z) is not differentiable are
called singular points of the function.

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Necessary and sufficient condition :


Theorem:
Let 𝒇𝒇(𝒛𝒛) = 𝒖𝒖(𝒙𝒙, 𝒚𝒚) + 𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊(𝒙𝒙, 𝒚𝒚) is differentiable at 𝒛𝒛𝟎𝟎 . If 𝒇𝒇 is
differentiable at 𝒛𝒛𝟎𝟎 = 𝒙𝒙𝟎𝟎 + 𝒊𝒊𝒚𝒚𝟎𝟎 then Cauchy Riemann(C-R)
equations hold at 𝒛𝒛𝟎𝟎 :
𝒖𝒖𝒙𝒙 (𝒙𝒙𝟎𝟎 , 𝒚𝒚𝟎𝟎 ) = 𝒗𝒗𝒚𝒚 (𝒙𝒙𝟎𝟎 , 𝒚𝒚𝟎𝟎 ) and
𝒖𝒖𝒚𝒚 (𝒙𝒙𝟎𝟎 , 𝒚𝒚𝟎𝟎 ) = −𝒗𝒗𝒙𝒙 (𝒙𝒙𝟎𝟎 , 𝒚𝒚𝟎𝟎 )
Theorem:
Let 𝒇𝒇(𝒛𝒛) = 𝒖𝒖(𝒙𝒙, 𝒚𝒚) + 𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊(𝒙𝒙, 𝒚𝒚) be the complex valued
function. Suppose that
i) 𝑢𝑢𝑥𝑥 , 𝑢𝑢𝑦𝑦 , 𝑣𝑣𝑥𝑥 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 𝑣𝑣𝑦𝑦 exist at each point in a
neighborhood of 𝑧𝑧0 and are continuous at 𝑧𝑧0 .
ii) C-R equations hold at 𝑧𝑧0 .
Then 𝑓𝑓 is differentiable at 𝑧𝑧0 .

TAM6C – Complex Analysis 8


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Analytic Functions:
Definition
Let 𝒇𝒇: 𝑫𝑫 → ℂ be a function. The function 𝒇𝒇 is said to
be analytic on 𝑫𝑫 if it is differentiable at every point in
𝑫𝑫.
Example
Let 𝒇𝒇: ℂ → ℂ by 𝒇𝒇(𝒛𝒛) = 𝒆𝒆𝒛𝒛 is an analytic function
Theorem
Suppose that 𝒇𝒇 is analytic in a domain 𝑫𝑫 and
𝒇𝒇′ (𝒛𝒛) = 𝟎𝟎 in 𝑫𝑫, then 𝒇𝒇 is constant.

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Harmonic Function:
Definition:
Let 𝐷𝐷 ⊆ ℂ be a domain. A function 𝑢𝑢: 𝐷𝐷 → ℝ is said to
be harmonic function if
• 𝑢𝑢 has continuous second order partial derivatives
in 𝐷𝐷.
• 𝑢𝑢 satisfies the condition
𝑢𝑢𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 + 𝑢𝑢𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦 = 0 in 𝐷𝐷.
Example:
 Every analytic function is harmonic.

TAM6C – Complex Analysis 10


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Harmonic Functions:
Harmonic conjugate:
Definition:
If 𝑢𝑢 + 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 is analytic, then 𝑢𝑢 and 𝑣𝑣 are harmonic
functions and 𝑣𝑣 is said to be the harmonic conjugate
of 𝑢𝑢.
Remarks:
Suppose 𝑢𝑢 + 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 is analytic. Then 𝑣𝑣 + 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 need not be
analytic. For example 𝑢𝑢 = 𝑥𝑥 2 − 𝑦𝑦 2 and 𝑣𝑣 = 2𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥..
If 𝑢𝑢 and 𝑣𝑣 are two harmonic functions, then 𝑢𝑢 + 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖
need not be analytic. For example 𝑢𝑢 = 𝑥𝑥 2 − 𝑦𝑦 2
and 𝑣𝑣 = 4𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥.

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Construction of an analytic
function:
• Suppose a harmonic function 𝒖𝒖(𝒙𝒙, 𝒚𝒚) is given, we
can find another harmonic function 𝒗𝒗(𝒙𝒙, 𝒚𝒚) so that
𝒇𝒇(𝒛𝒛) = 𝒖𝒖 + 𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊 is analytic.

• Suppose 𝒖𝒖 or 𝒗𝒗 is given, we can find directly 𝒇𝒇(𝒛𝒛).

• There are three methods to find 𝒇𝒇(𝒛𝒛).


 Exact differential method
 Substitution method
 Milne Thomson method

TAM6C – Complex Analysis 12


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To know more about this unit :

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b5VUnapu-qs

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9QDFlyeQkwU

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Problems for practice:


1)Show that the function
𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧) = 𝑒𝑒 𝑥𝑥 (cos 𝑦𝑦 + 𝑖𝑖 sin 𝑦𝑦)
is analytic in the finite plane. Find its derivative.
2) Show that the functions
i) 𝑒𝑒 𝑥𝑥 (cos 𝑦𝑦 − 𝑖𝑖 sin 𝑦𝑦)
ii) 𝑒𝑒 𝑦𝑦 (cos 𝑥𝑥 − 𝑖𝑖 sin 𝑥𝑥 )
are nowhere differentiable
3) If 𝑒𝑒 𝑧𝑧 = 𝑢𝑢 + 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖, then show that 𝑢𝑢 and 𝑣𝑣 are
harmonic functions.
4) Construct an analytic functions 𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧) = 𝑢𝑢 + 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖,
given that 𝑢𝑢(𝑥𝑥, 𝑦𝑦) = 𝑒𝑒 𝑥𝑥 (cos 𝑦𝑦 − sin 𝑦𝑦)

TAM6C– Complex Analysis 14


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Unit-II Syllabus
Mappings:
 Elementary Mappings
 Linear fractional transformation
 Exponential transformation
 Transformation 𝑤𝑤 = 𝐬𝐬𝐬𝐬𝐬𝐬 𝑧𝑧
 Conformal mappings
 Cross-ratio

TAM6C– Complex Analysis 15


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Elementary Mappings:
 Elementary mappings are mappings which
transforms a set of points of the complex plane
onto another set of points on the complex plane.

 The points of the complex plane and their images


are denoted by 𝑧𝑧 and 𝑤𝑤 respectively.

 Elementary Mappings:
• Translation:
A map of the form 𝑧𝑧 ↦ 𝑤𝑤 = 𝑧𝑧 + 𝛼𝛼 , 𝛼𝛼 ∈ ℂ\{0}
If 𝛼𝛼 = 0, then it is an identity map.

TAM6C – Complex Analysis 16


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Elementary Mappings
• Magnification:
A map of the form 𝑧𝑧 ↦ 𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟 , 𝑟𝑟 ∈ ℝ \{0}.
 If 𝑟𝑟 = 0, it is a constant map.
 If 𝑟𝑟 = 1, it is the identity map.
 If 𝑟𝑟 > 1, it is a magnification.
 If 0 < 𝑟𝑟 < 1, it is a contraction map.

• Rotation:
A map of the form 𝑧𝑧 ↦ 𝑒𝑒 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 𝑧𝑧, 𝜃𝜃 ∈ ℝ.

• Inversion:
1
A map of the form 𝑧𝑧 ↦ 𝑤𝑤 =
𝑧𝑧

Sub Code - Sub Name 17


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Elementary Mappings:

TAM6C – Complex Analysis 18


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Linear Fractional Transformation:


Definition:
The transformation
𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 +𝑏𝑏
𝑤𝑤 = (𝑎𝑎, 𝑏𝑏, 𝑐𝑐, 𝑑𝑑 ∈ ℂ, 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 − 𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏 ≠ 0)
𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 +𝑑𝑑

is called Linear Fractional Transformation (or) Bilinear


transformation (or) Mobius transformation .
Theorem:
A bilinear transformation is a combination of
translation, rotation, magnification and inversion.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qjpLIlVo_6E

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Linear Fractional Transformation:


The following are particular cases of bilinear
transformations:
Particularity Transformation Nature of
transformation
𝑎𝑎 𝑏𝑏 Translation
𝑐𝑐 = 0 , = 1 𝑤𝑤 = 𝑧𝑧 +
𝑑𝑑 𝑑𝑑
𝑐𝑐 = 0, 𝑏𝑏 = 0 𝑎𝑎 Rotation and
𝑤𝑤 = 𝑧𝑧
𝑑𝑑 magnification
𝑐𝑐 = 0 𝑎𝑎 𝑏𝑏 Rotation and
𝑤𝑤 = 𝑧𝑧 +
𝑑𝑑 𝑑𝑑 magnification
followed
translation
𝑎𝑎 = 𝑑𝑑 = 0 , 𝑏𝑏 = 𝑐𝑐 1 Inversion
𝑤𝑤 =
𝑧𝑧

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Cross-ratio:
Definition:
If 𝑍𝑍1 , 𝑍𝑍2 , 𝑍𝑍3 , 𝑍𝑍4 are distinct points taken in the order
in which they have been given then the cross ratio of
these points is defined as
(𝑍𝑍 −𝑍𝑍2 )(𝑍𝑍3 −𝑍𝑍4 )
(𝑍𝑍1 , 𝑍𝑍2 , 𝑍𝑍3 , 𝑍𝑍4 ) = (𝑍𝑍1
2 −𝑍𝑍3 )(𝑍𝑍4 −𝑍𝑍1 )

Theorem:
Cross-ratio preserving property of bilinear
transformation.
Theorem:
Every bilinear transformation transforms circles or
straight lines into circles or straight lines.

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Exponential Transformation:
Let 𝑧𝑧 = 𝑥𝑥 + 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 in Cartesian coordinates.
The image of 𝑧𝑧 under exponential transformation
𝑤𝑤 = 𝑒𝑒 𝑧𝑧 as 𝑤𝑤 = 𝑅𝑅𝑒𝑒 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 in polar coordinates.
Then
𝑅𝑅𝑒𝑒 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 = 𝑒𝑒 𝑧𝑧 = 𝑒𝑒 𝑥𝑥+𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 = 𝑒𝑒 𝑥𝑥 𝑒𝑒 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 .
∴ 𝑅𝑅 = 𝑒𝑒 𝑥𝑥 , 𝜑𝜑 = 𝑦𝑦
i.e) |𝑤𝑤| = 𝑒𝑒 𝑥𝑥 , 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 𝑤𝑤 = 𝑦𝑦

TAM6C– Complex Analysis 22


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Exponential Transformation:

Preimage in 𝒛𝒛 plane Image in 𝒘𝒘 plane

𝑦𝑦 = 0 Right half of the real axis

Ray emanating from the


𝜋𝜋 origin and making an
𝑦𝑦 = 𝜋𝜋
4 angle with the real axis
4

𝜋𝜋 Upper half of the


𝑦𝑦 =
2 imaginary axis

𝑦𝑦 = 𝜋𝜋 Left half of the real axis

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Transformations:

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The transformation 𝑤𝑤 = 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠


Consider the transformation 𝑤𝑤 = sin 𝑧𝑧
Let 𝑤𝑤 = 𝑢𝑢 + 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖, 𝑧𝑧 = 𝑥𝑥 + 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖
∴ 𝑢𝑢 + 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 = sin 𝑥𝑥 + 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖
= sin 𝑥𝑥 cos 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 + cos 𝑥𝑥 sin 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖
= sin 𝑥𝑥 cos ℎ𝑦𝑦 + 𝑖𝑖 cos 𝑥𝑥 sin ℎ𝑦𝑦
∴ 𝑢𝑢 = sin 𝑥𝑥 cos ℎ𝑦𝑦
𝑣𝑣 = cos 𝑥𝑥 sin ℎ𝑦𝑦
Results:
 The upper half of the imaginary axis in the Z-
plane maps into the upper half of the imaginary of
the W-plane.
 The lines parallel to the real axis of the Z-plane
map into confocal ellipses in the W-plane.

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Conformal Mapping:
Definition:
• An analytic mapping 𝑤𝑤 = 𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧) in a domain 𝐷𝐷 is
called conformal at 𝑧𝑧0 if it preserves the angle
(both in size and in sense).
• If 𝑓𝑓 is conformal at each point of 𝐷𝐷, then 𝑓𝑓 is
conformal in 𝐷𝐷.
Theorem:
Let 𝑓𝑓 be an analytic function on 𝐷𝐷 and 𝑧𝑧0 ∈ 𝐷𝐷 such
that 𝑓𝑓 ′ (𝑧𝑧0 ) ≠ 0. Then 𝑓𝑓 is conformal at 𝑧𝑧0 .

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Problem for practice:


1)Find all bilinear transformations that map the unit
disk {𝑧𝑧 ∈ ℂ| |𝑧𝑧| < 1} onto the left half plane
{𝑤𝑤 ∈ ℂ| 𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅 𝑤𝑤 > 0}.

2)Check whether each of the following mappings is


conformal
i) 𝑧𝑧 + 𝑒𝑒 −𝑧𝑧 + 5 ii) 𝑧𝑧 + 𝑎𝑎𝑧𝑧 2

1+𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖
3) Prove that 𝑤𝑤 = maps the line segment
𝑖𝑖+𝑧𝑧
joining -1 and 1 onto a semicircle in the 𝑤𝑤 plane.

TAM6C– Complex Analysis 27


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Unit-III Syllabus
Complex Integration:
 Curves
 Complex integration
 Contour integrals
 Simply –connected domain
 Cauchy’s fundamental theorem
 Cauchy integral formula
 Liouville’s theorem
 Fundamental Theorem of algebra
 Maximum modulus theorem

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Curves:
Definitions:
Simple curve:
If a continuous curve which does not have a point of
intersection is called a simple curve. Simple curves
are called Jordan curves.
Simple closed curve:
A simple curve which does not have end points is
called a simple closed curve.
Positively-oriented simple closed curve:
A simple closed curve 𝐶𝐶 encloses a region. If the
region lies to the left of a person when he travels
along 𝐶𝐶, then the curve 𝐶𝐶 is called a positively-
oriented simple closed curve.

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Complex Integration:
Definition:
Let 𝑤𝑤 = 𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧) be a continuous function of the complex
variable 𝑧𝑧 = 𝑥𝑥 + 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖. Let 𝐶𝐶 be any simple curve of finite
length. Then the integral of 𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧) on 𝐶𝐶 is denoted by

∫ f ( z)dz
C

Complex line integral in terms of real line integral:


If 𝑓𝑓 (𝑧𝑧) = 𝑢𝑢(𝑥𝑥, 𝑦𝑦) + 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 (𝑥𝑥, 𝑦𝑦), then the value of
this integral can be written as

∫ f ( z)dz = ∫ (u + iv)(dx + idy)


C C

∫ f ( z)dz
C
=
∫ (udx − vdy) + i ∫ (vdx + udy)
C C

TAM6C– Complex Analysis 30


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Properties of complex integral:

∫ [ f ( z ) + g ( z )]dz = ∫ f ( z )dz + ∫ g ( z )dz


C C C

∫ af ( z )dz = a ∫ f ( z )dz
C C

C+D
∫ f ( z ) dz =
∫ f ( z )dz + ∫ f ( z )dz
C D

∫ f ( z )dz = − ∫ f ( z )dz
C −C

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Contour Integrals:
Contour Integral:
An integral along a simple closed curve is called a
contour integral.
Remark:
If 𝑓𝑓 (𝑧𝑧) is analytic in a simply connected domain, then
the values of the integrals of 𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧) along all paths in
the region joining two fixed points are the same.
Theorem:
If 𝐶𝐶 is a positively-oriented circle whose radius is 𝑟𝑟
and centre is 𝑎𝑎, then


1
dz = 2πi
z−a
C

Which is independent of 𝑟𝑟 and 𝑎𝑎.

TAM6C– Complex Analysis 32


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Domains in Complex plane:


Interior and exterior of a simple closed curve:
A simple closed curve 𝐶𝐶 divides the complex plane
(excluding the points on 𝐶𝐶) , into two disjoint domains
of which one is bounded and the other is unbounded.
The bounded domain is called the interior of 𝐶𝐶. The
unbounded domain is called the exterior of 𝐶𝐶.
Simply-connected domain:
A domain 𝐷𝐷 in ℂ is said to be simply connected if its
complement with respect to ℂ ∪ {∞} is a connected
subset of ℂ ∪ {∞}.
Multiply-connected domain:
A domain which is not simply-connected is called
multiply-connected.

TAM6C– Complex Analysis 33


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Cauchy’s Fundamental Theorem:


Weaker version of Cauchy’s theorem:
Suppose
i) 𝑪𝑪 is a simple closed curve
ii) 𝒇𝒇(𝒛𝒛) is an analytic function on and inside 𝑪𝑪
iii) 𝒇𝒇′ (𝒛𝒛) is continuous on and inside 𝑪𝑪.
Then the contour integral

∫ f ( z)dz = 0
C

Cauchy-Goursat theorem:
If 𝒇𝒇(𝒛𝒛) is a function analytic on and inside a simple
closed curve 𝑪𝑪, then

∫ f ( z)dz = 0
C

TAM6C– Complex Analysis 34


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Cauchy’s Integral Formula:


Theorem:
Suppose
i) 𝑪𝑪 is a simple closed curve
ii) 𝒇𝒇(𝒛𝒛) is an analytic function on and inside 𝑪𝑪
iii) 𝒂𝒂 is any point inside 𝑪𝑪.
Then


1 f ( z)
f (a) = dz
2πi z−a
C

Extension of Cauchy’s Integral formula:


If 𝒇𝒇(𝒛𝒛) is analytic in the annular domain 𝑹𝑹 in between
the simple closed curves 𝑪𝑪 and 𝑪𝑪𝟏𝟏 , where 𝑪𝑪𝟏𝟏 lies
inside 𝑪𝑪, then for any 𝒛𝒛 = 𝒂𝒂 in 𝑹𝑹,

∫ ∫
1 f ( z) 1 f ( z)
f (a) = dz + dz
2πi z−a 2πi z−a
C C1

TAM6C– Complex Analysis 35


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Cauchy’s Integral formula for


derivatives
Theorem:
Suppose
i) 𝑪𝑪 is a simple closed curve
ii) 𝒇𝒇(𝒛𝒛) is an analytic function on and inside 𝑪𝑪
iii) 𝒂𝒂 is any point inside 𝑪𝑪.
Then

∫ ( z − a)
1 f ( z)
f '( a ) = dz
2π i 2
C

Remark:
The integral formulas for higher derivatives are

∫ ( z − a)
n! f ( z)
f n (a) = dz
2π i n +1
C

TAM6C– Complex Analysis 36


TM

Theorems based on Cauchy’s


Theorem:
Morera’s Theorem:
Suppose
i) 𝑫𝑫 is a domain
ii) 𝒇𝒇(𝒛𝒛) is continuous in 𝑫𝑫
iii) 𝑪𝑪 is any simple closed curve in 𝑫𝑫
iv)
∫ f ( z)dz = 0
C

Then 𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧) is analytic in 𝐷𝐷.


Liouville’s Theorem:
If an entire function is bounded in the finite plane,
then it is a constant.
TAM6C– Complex Analysis 37
TM

Fundamental theorem of Algebra:


Every polynomial in 𝑧𝑧 of degree 1 or greater than 1,
has atleast one zero.
Extension of the fundamental theorem of algebra:
Every polynomial in 𝑧𝑧 of degree 𝑛𝑛 has exactly 𝑛𝑛
zeroes.
Maximum modulus theorem:
Suppose that 𝑓𝑓 is analytic in a bounded domain 𝐷𝐷
� Then |𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧)| attains its
and continuous on 𝐷𝐷.
maximum at some point on the boundary of 𝐷𝐷.

TAM6C– Complex Analysis 38


TM

Problem for practice: :

dz
∫ (z 2 + 1)(z 2 − 4)
3
1) where C is the circle |𝑧𝑧| = 2

2
2) Evaluate ∫ | z | dz around the square with vertices at
C
(0,0), (1,0), (1,1), (0,1).

TAM6C– Complex Analysis 39


TM

Unit-IV Syllabus
Sequences and Series:
Convergence of sequences and series

Taylor’s series

Laurent’s series

Zeros of analytic functions

TAM6C– Complex Analysis 40


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Convergence of Sequences
and Series :
Sequence of complex numbers:
A complex sequence is a function 𝑓𝑓: ℕ → ℂ by 𝑛𝑛 ↦ 𝑧𝑧𝑛𝑛 .
It is denoted by {𝑧𝑧𝑛𝑛 }.
Convergence sequence:
A sequence {𝑧𝑧𝑛𝑛 } is said to converge to a point 𝑧𝑧0 , if
for every 𝜖𝜖 > 0 there exists an 𝑁𝑁(𝜖𝜖) ∈ ℕ such that
|𝑧𝑧𝑛𝑛 − 𝑧𝑧0 | < 𝜖𝜖, for all 𝑛𝑛 > 𝑁𝑁(𝜖𝜖).
It is denoted by 𝐥𝐥𝐥𝐥𝐥𝐥𝑛𝑛 →∞ 𝑧𝑧𝑛𝑛 = 𝑧𝑧0 .

TAM6C– Complex Analysis 41


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Theorems on convergence sequences


Theorem:
If 𝒛𝒛𝒏𝒏 = 𝒙𝒙𝒏𝒏 + 𝒊𝒊𝒚𝒚𝒏𝒏 , then the sequence {𝒛𝒛𝒏𝒏 } converges
to 𝒛𝒛𝟎𝟎 = 𝒉𝒉 + 𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊 if and only if the real sequences {𝒙𝒙𝒏𝒏 }
and {𝒚𝒚𝒏𝒏 } converge to 𝒉𝒉 and 𝒌𝒌 respectively.

Cauchy’s criterion:
The sequence {𝒛𝒛𝒏𝒏 } is convergent if and only if, for any
𝝐𝝐 > 0, there exists a positive integer 𝒏𝒏𝟎𝟎 , depending on
𝝐𝝐, such that
�𝑧𝑧𝑛𝑛+𝑝𝑝 − 𝑧𝑧𝑛𝑛 � < 𝜖𝜖, for all 𝑛𝑛 > 𝑛𝑛0 and 𝑝𝑝 > 0

TAM6C– Complex Analysis 42


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Series:
Consider the infinite series of complex numbers

� 𝒛𝒛𝒏𝒏 = 𝒛𝒛𝟏𝟏 + 𝒛𝒛𝟐𝟐 + 𝒛𝒛𝟑𝟑 + ⋯ + 𝒛𝒛𝒏𝒏 + ⋯

It has infinite number of terms.


Sum of the first 𝒏𝒏 terms of ∑ 𝒛𝒛𝒏𝒏 is called a partial sum
of the series and it is defined by
𝑺𝑺𝒏𝒏 = 𝒛𝒛𝟏𝟏 + 𝒛𝒛𝟐𝟐 + 𝒛𝒛𝟑𝟑 + ⋯ + 𝒛𝒛𝒏𝒏
Convergence of series:
The series ∑ 𝒛𝒛𝒏𝒏 is said to converge to a limit when the
sequence {𝑺𝑺𝒏𝒏 } converges.

TAM6C– Complex Analysis 43


TM

Series:
Remark:
If the sequence {𝑺𝑺𝒏𝒏 } converges to 𝑺𝑺, then 𝑺𝑺 is said to
be the sum of the series. It is given by
𝐥𝐥𝐥𝐥𝐥𝐥 𝑺𝑺𝒏𝒏 = 𝑺𝑺
𝒏𝒏→∞

Divergence of a series:
If {𝑆𝑆𝑛𝑛 } does not converge to a limit, then the series is
said to be divergent.
Theorem:
If the series ∑ 𝑧𝑧𝑛𝑛 is convergent, then
𝐥𝐥𝐥𝐥𝐥𝐥 𝒛𝒛𝒏𝒏 = 𝟎𝟎
𝒏𝒏→∞

TAM6C– Complex Analysis 44


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Series:
Remark:
The condition
𝐥𝐥𝐥𝐥𝐥𝐥 𝒛𝒛𝒏𝒏 = 𝟎𝟎
𝒏𝒏→∞

is a necessary condition for the convergence of the


series.
If this condition fails, then the series is not convergent
but it is divergent.
Absolutely convergent series:
The series 𝑧𝑧1 +𝑧𝑧2 +𝑧𝑧3 +𝑧𝑧4 + ⋯ is said to be absolutely
convergence if the positive-termed real series
|𝑧𝑧1 |+|𝑧𝑧2 |+|𝑧𝑧3 |+|𝑧𝑧4 | + ⋯ is convergent.

TAM6C– Complex Analysis 45


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Power Series:
Definition:
Consider a series of functions 0f the form
∑𝒏𝒏≥𝟎𝟎 𝒂𝒂𝒏𝒏 (𝒛𝒛 − 𝒛𝒛𝟎𝟎 )𝒏𝒏 , where 𝒛𝒛 is a complex variable and
𝒛𝒛𝟎𝟎 , 𝒂𝒂𝒏𝒏 , 𝒏𝒏 = 𝟎𝟎, 𝟏𝟏, 𝟐𝟐, … are fixed constants. Such a
series will be called a power series with center 𝒛𝒛𝟎𝟎 and
coefficients 𝒂𝒂𝒏𝒏.
Theorem:
The power series ∑𝒏𝒏≥𝟎𝟎 𝒂𝒂𝒏𝒏 𝑧𝑧 𝒏𝒏 converges absolutely in
the open disk |𝑧𝑧| < 𝑅𝑅 where 𝑅𝑅 is given by
1
1
𝑅𝑅 = , 𝑈𝑈 = lim⁡𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑛𝑛 →∞ |𝑎𝑎𝑛𝑛 |
𝑛𝑛
𝑈𝑈

TAM6C– Complex Analysis 46


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Power Series:
Remarks:
 The series is absolutely convergent in |𝑧𝑧| < 𝑅𝑅 ,
then it is also convergent in |𝑧𝑧| < 𝑅𝑅.
 When = ∞ , the series is absolutely convergent in
the entire plane.
Theorem:
The power series ∑𝒏𝒏≥𝟎𝟎 𝒂𝒂𝒏𝒏 𝒛𝒛𝒏𝒏 converges absolutely in
the open disk |𝒛𝒛| < 𝑹𝑹 where 𝑹𝑹 is given by
𝟏𝟏 𝒂𝒂𝒏𝒏+𝟏𝟏 𝟏𝟏
𝑹𝑹 = , 𝑼𝑼 = 𝐥𝐥𝐥𝐥𝐥𝐥⁡𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒏𝒏→∞ | |𝒏𝒏
𝑼𝑼 𝒂𝒂𝒏𝒏

TAM6C– Complex Analysis 47


TM

Abel’s theorem:
Theorem:
If a power series in 𝑧𝑧 is convergent at 𝑧𝑧 = 𝑧𝑧1 , then it
converges absolutely in the open disk
|𝑧𝑧| < |𝑧𝑧1 |
Example:
• The geometric series ∑𝑛𝑛 ≥0 𝑧𝑧 𝑛𝑛 converges
absolutely in |𝑧𝑧| < 1 since 𝑅𝑅 = 1.
𝑧𝑧 𝑛𝑛
• The series ∑𝑛𝑛 ≥0 is absolutely convergent in
𝑛𝑛 !
the entire finite plane since 𝑅𝑅 = ∞..

TAM6C– Complex Analysis 48


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Power series:
Theorem:
i) The sum of a convergent power series in 𝑧𝑧 is
analytic in the interior of its circle of
convergence.
ii) A power series can be differentiated term by
term in the interior of its circle of convergence.
i.e) the derived series converges to the
derivative of the sum of the series.
Uniqueness Theorem:
If a power series in 𝑧𝑧 converges to a function 𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧) in
the interior of the circle of convergence, |𝑧𝑧|<R, then
no other power series converges to the same function
𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧) in |𝑧𝑧| < 𝑅𝑅.

TAM6C– Complex Analysis 49


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Taylor’s series:
Taylor’s theorem:
Given a function 𝒇𝒇(𝒛𝒛) and a point 𝒛𝒛 = 𝒂𝒂, if 𝑪𝑪 is the
largest circle with center at 𝒛𝒛 = 𝒂𝒂 such that 𝒇𝒇(𝒛𝒛) is
analytic in the interior of 𝑪𝑪 , then
𝒇𝒇′ (𝒂𝒂) 𝒇𝒇"(𝒂𝒂)
𝒇𝒇(𝒛𝒛) = 𝒇𝒇(𝒂𝒂) + (𝒛𝒛 − 𝒂𝒂) + (𝒛𝒛 − 𝒂𝒂)𝟐𝟐 + ⋯
𝟏𝟏! 𝟐𝟐!

For all 𝒛𝒛 in the interior of 𝑪𝑪.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uliv9TzeD6o

TAM6C– Complex Analysis 50


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Laurent’s series:
Laurent’s series:
Given a point 𝑧𝑧 = 𝑎𝑎 and a function 𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧), suppose 𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧)
is analytic in the annular domain 𝐷𝐷 in between the
largest and smallest concentric circles 𝐶𝐶1 and 𝐶𝐶2
having their centres at 𝑧𝑧 = 𝑎𝑎. Then for any 𝑧𝑧 in 𝐷𝐷,

𝑓𝑓 𝑛𝑛 (𝑎𝑎)
𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧) = � (𝑧𝑧 − 𝑎𝑎)𝑛𝑛
𝑛𝑛!
𝑛𝑛=−∞

Where


n! f ( z)
f n (a) = +
dz
2π i ( z − a ) n 1
C

TAM6C– Complex Analysis 51


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Zeroes of an analytic function:


Definition:
If a function 𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧) is such that
𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧) = (𝑧𝑧 − 𝑎𝑎)𝑘𝑘 𝜑𝜑(𝑧𝑧)
Where 𝑘𝑘 is a positive integer and 𝜑𝜑(𝑎𝑎) ≠ 0, then 𝑎𝑎 is
said to be a zero of 𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧) of order 𝑘𝑘.
Example:
The function 𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧)=(𝑧𝑧 − 𝑖𝑖 )2 (𝑧𝑧 + 1)3 has a zero 𝑖𝑖 of
order 2 and a zero −1 of order 3.
Theorem:
Zeros of an analytic function are isolated.

TAM6C– Complex Analysis 52


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Unit-V Syllabus
Calculus of Residues:
Isolated and non-isolated singular points

Residues

Residue theorem

Application of Residue Theorem

Problems for practice

Meromorphic Function

TAM6C– Complex Analysis 53


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Residues:
Singular points:
A singular point or singularity of a function is a point
at which the function ceases to be analytic.
The point 𝑧𝑧 = 𝑎𝑎 is a singular point of 𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧)
i) If 𝑓𝑓 (𝑎𝑎) = ∞ or
ii) If 𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧) is not defined at 𝑧𝑧 = 𝑎𝑎
iii) If 𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧) is not differentiable at 𝑧𝑧 = 𝑎𝑎
Remarks:
The point 𝑧𝑧 = ∞ is a singular point of all the
trigonometric functions and hyperbolic functions.

TAM6C– Complex Analysis 54


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Isolated and non-isolated singular


points:
Isolated singular points:
If 𝑧𝑧 = 𝑎𝑎 is a singular point of the function 𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧) and if
there exists a neighborhood of 𝑧𝑧 = 𝑎𝑎 containing no
other singular point of 𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧), then 𝑧𝑧 = 𝑎𝑎 is said to be
an isolated singular point of 𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧).
Example:
1
0 and 1 are isolated singularities of 𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧) = .
𝑧𝑧(𝑧𝑧−1)

Non-isolated singular points:


If 𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧) infinity of singular points in every neighborhood
of 𝑧𝑧 = 𝑎𝑎, then 𝑧𝑧 = 𝑎𝑎 is a non-isolated singular point,
i.e) , a limit point of the set of singular points of f(z).

TAM6C– Complex Analysis 55


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Classification of isolated
singularities:
Types of isolated singularities:
• A removable singularity
• A pole
• An essential singularity
According as the Laurent’s series about 𝑧𝑧 = 𝑎𝑎 of 𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧),
valid in a deleted neighborhood of 𝑧𝑧 = 𝑎𝑎 has
• No negative powers
• A finite number of negative powers
• An infinite number of negative powers

TAM6C– Complex Analysis 56


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Residues:
Definition:
If 𝑧𝑧 = 𝑎𝑎 is an isolated singularity of 𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧) and if the
Laurent’s expansion for 𝑓𝑓 (𝑧𝑧) about 𝑧𝑧 = 𝑎𝑎 is

� 𝑎𝑎𝑛𝑛 (𝑧𝑧 − 𝑎𝑎)𝑛𝑛


𝑛𝑛=−∞

Then the coefficient of (𝑧𝑧 − 𝑎𝑎)−1 is called the residue


of 𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧)at 𝑧𝑧 = 𝑎𝑎.
Residue of 𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧) at 𝑧𝑧 = 𝑎𝑎 is
1
𝑎𝑎−1 =
2𝜋𝜋𝜋𝜋 ∫ f ( z)dz
C

TAM6C– Complex Analysis 57


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Residue at a removable
singularity:
If 𝒛𝒛 = 𝒂𝒂 is a removable singularity of 𝒇𝒇(𝒛𝒛), then the
Laurent’s series about 𝒛𝒛 = 𝒂𝒂 has no negative powers
of 𝒛𝒛 − 𝒂𝒂. So the residue of 𝒇𝒇(𝒛𝒛) at 𝒛𝒛 = 𝒂𝒂 is 0.
Residue at a pole:
The following are methods of calculation of residues:
Method 1:
Evaluation of integral
1
2𝜋𝜋𝜋𝜋 ∫ f ( z)dz
C

Which is the residue.


TAM6C– Complex Analysis 58
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Residues:
Method-2:
Expansion of 𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧) about 𝑧𝑧 = 𝑎𝑎 in Laurent’s series to
1
find the coefficient of .
𝑧𝑧−𝑎𝑎

Theorem:
If 𝑧𝑧 = 𝑎𝑎 is a simple pole, then
Residue of 𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧) at 𝑧𝑧 = 𝑎𝑎 =lim𝑧𝑧→𝑎𝑎 [(𝑧𝑧 − 𝑎𝑎)𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧)]
Example:
The residue of cot 𝑧𝑧 at the simple pole 𝑧𝑧 = 0 is 1.

TAM6C– Complex Analysis 59


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Residues:
Theorem:
If 𝑧𝑧 = 𝑎𝑎 is a simple pole and if 𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧) is of the form
ℎ(𝑧𝑧)
𝑓𝑓 (𝑧𝑧) = ,
𝑔𝑔(𝑧𝑧)
Where ℎ(𝑎𝑎) ≠ 0 and 𝑔𝑔(𝑎𝑎) ≠ 0, then
ℎ(𝑎𝑎)
Res. Of 𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧) at 𝑧𝑧 = 𝑎𝑎 = .
𝑔𝑔 ′ (𝑎𝑎)

Theorem:
The residue of the function 𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧) at a pole 𝑧𝑧 = 𝑎𝑎 of
order 𝑚𝑚 is
1 𝑑𝑑 𝑚𝑚 −1
[ (𝑧𝑧 − 𝑎𝑎)𝑚𝑚 𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧)] at 𝑧𝑧 = 𝑎𝑎.
(𝑚𝑚 −1)! 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 𝑚𝑚 −1

TAM6C– Complex Analysis 60


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Residue Theorem:
Suppose 𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧) is a function
i) Analytic on a simple closed curve 𝐶𝐶 and
ii) Analytic in the interior of 𝐶𝐶 except at the
singularities in the interior of 𝐶𝐶 which are finite
in number.
Then

∫ f ( z)=
C
dz 2π i × N

Where 𝑁𝑁= Sum of the residues of 𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧) at the


singularities in the interior of 𝐶𝐶

TAM6C– Complex Analysis 61


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Applications of Residue theorem:


The Residue theorem is useful to evaluate certain
types of real definite integrals.
Type-1:
2𝜋𝜋
Integrals of the form ∫0 𝑓𝑓(cos 𝜃𝜃 , sin 𝜃𝜃) 𝑑𝑑𝜃𝜃

Where 𝑓𝑓 is a rational function in cos 𝜃𝜃 and sin 𝜃𝜃.


Type-2:
∞ 𝑃𝑃(𝑥𝑥)
Improper integrals of the form ∫−∞ 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑,
𝑄𝑄(𝑥𝑥)

Where 𝑃𝑃(𝑥𝑥) and 𝑄𝑄(𝑥𝑥) are polynomials in 𝑥𝑥 such that


the degree of 𝑄𝑄 exceeds that of 𝑃𝑃 atleast by two and
𝑄𝑄(𝑥𝑥) does not vanish for any 𝑥𝑥 .

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Problems for practice:

1) Using contour integration, evaluate


2𝜋𝜋 1
i) ∫0 𝑑𝑑𝜃𝜃
13+12 cos 𝜃𝜃

2𝜋𝜋 1
ii) ∫0 𝑑𝑑𝜃𝜃
2+cos 𝜃𝜃
2)Evaluate
2𝜋𝜋 1
𝐼𝐼 = ∫0 𝑑𝑑𝜃𝜃, 𝑎𝑎 > |𝑏𝑏| > 0
𝑎𝑎+𝑏𝑏 cos 𝜃𝜃
3) Evaluate
2𝜋𝜋 1
𝐼𝐼 = ∫0 𝑑𝑑𝜃𝜃
5−4 sin 𝜃𝜃

TAM6C – Complex Analysis 63


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Meromorphic Functions:
Definition:
Meromorphic Function:
A function which has no singularities in a region other
than a finite number of poles is said to be
meromorphic in that region.
Theorem:
Suppose
i) 𝐷𝐷 is a simply connected domain
ii) 𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧) is a meromorphic function in 𝐷𝐷.
iii) 𝐶𝐶 is a simple positively oriented curve in 𝐷𝐷, not
passing through a pole or zero of 𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧).


f '( z )
Then = dz 2π i[n( Z , f ) − n( P, f )]
f ( z)
C

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Where 𝑛𝑛(𝑍𝑍, 𝑓𝑓) and 𝑛𝑛(𝑃𝑃, 𝑓𝑓) denote respectively the


number of zeroes and number of poles of 𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧) in the
interior of 𝐶𝐶, the zeroes and poles being counted as
many times as their orders.
Rouche’s theorem:
Let 𝑓𝑓 and 𝑔𝑔 be meromorphic in a domain 𝐷𝐷 ⊆ ℂ and
have only finitely many zeroes and poles in 𝐷𝐷.
Suppose that 𝐶𝐶 is a simple closed contour in 𝐷𝐷 such
that no zeroes or poles of 𝑓𝑓 or 𝑔𝑔 lie on 𝐶𝐶, and
|𝑔𝑔(𝑧𝑧)| < |𝑓𝑓(𝑧𝑧)| on 𝐶𝐶
Then 𝑛𝑛(𝑍𝑍, 𝑓𝑓) − 𝑛𝑛(𝑃𝑃, 𝑓𝑓) = 𝑛𝑛(𝑍𝑍, 𝑓𝑓 + 𝑔𝑔) − 𝑛𝑛(𝑃𝑃, 𝑓𝑓 + 𝑔𝑔)

TAM6C– Complex Analysis 65


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To know more about


residues:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sSj7z-pz-yY

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YWIseo5LwgQ

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nfNzT2SpN4g

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MF2-IyzjzKA

TAM6C– Complex Analysis 66