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Influence of Striking Edge Radius (2

mm versus 8 mm) on Instrumented


Charpy Data and Absorbed Energies

Enrico Lucon
SCK•CEN, Institute for Nuclear Material Science
Mol (Belgium)

* Full paper accepted for publication in International Journal of Fracture (10 Nov 2008)
International Charpy standards

• ASTM E 23 and ISO 148 are relatively similar


• One of the most significant differences is the
configuration of the pendulum striker
Short literature review on striker
effect on absorbed energy (KV)
 Towers OL (1983), “Effects of Striker Geometry on Charpy Results”, Met Constr
15(11):682-686
 Revise G (1990), “Influence of Dimensional Parameter of an Impact Test Machine
on the Results of a Test”, ASTM STP 1072, 35-53
 Fink DA (1990), “Quantitative Comparison and Evaluation of Various Notch
Machining Methods and How They Affect ASTM E23 and ISO R442 Testing
Equipment Results”, ASTM STP 1072, 94-119
 Ruth EA (1995), “Striker Geometry and Its Effect on Absorbed Energy”, ASTM STP
1248, 101-110
 Nanstad RK, Sokolov MA (1995), “Charpy Impact Test Results on Five Materials
and NIST Verification Specimens Using Instrumented 2-mm and 8-mm Strikers”,
ASTM STP 1248, 111-139
 Tanaka M, Ohno Y, Horigome H, Tani H, Shiota K, Misawa A (1995), “Effects of the
Striking Edge Radius and Asymmetrical Strikes on Charpy Impact Test Results”,
ASTM STP 1248, 153-167
 Siewert TA, Vigliotti DP (1995), “The Effect of Charpy V-Notch Striker Radii on the
Absorbed Energy”, ASTM STP 1248, 140-152
 McCowan CN, Pauwels J, Revise G, Nakano H (2000), “International Comparison of
Impact Verification Programs”, ASTM STP 1380, 73-89
 Heping Li, Report on Relation of KV2 & KV8, presented at ISO TC164 SC4/P
meeting, Hannover, September 2008.
Summary results
of the literature review (1)
• Differences are small below a threshold energy
• Threshold mostly reported to be around 200 J (Ruth
1995; Naniwa et al. 1995; McCowan et al 2000)
• Other values have also been reported
 60 J (Towers 1983; Morita and Kobayashi 2004)
 100 J (Siewert and Vigliotti 1995)
• Threshold energy appears to be
 material-dependent (Nanstad and Sokolov, 1995)
 related to the fracture characteristics of the material
(Tanaka et al. 1995)
• Above the threshold, KV2 < KV8
Summary results
of the literature review (2)
• Main reasons for KV increase above the threshold
(all interrelated):
 non-separation of the specimen halves
 interaction between specimen and 8mm-striker corners
 increased friction between specimen and anvils
• Standard deviation significantly larger for KV2 (Siewert
and Vigliotti 1995)
• Below the threshold, KV2 ≈ KV8 or KV2 slightly larger:
KV2 mm = 1.042 KV8 mm + 0.70 (Fink 1990)
• Other parameters (Naniwa et al. 1990; Nanstad and
Sokolov 1995; McCowan et al 2000):
 LE2 generally larger than LE8
 SFA2 ≈ SFA8
Much more limited information is
available for instrumented parameters

 Naniwa T, Shibaike M, Tanaka M, Tani H, Shiota K, Namio H,


Shiraishi T (1990), “Effects of the Striking Edge Radius on the
Charpy Impact Test”, ASTM STP 1072, 67-80
 Nanstad RK, Sokolov MA (1995), “Charpy Impact Test Results on
Five Materials and NIST Verification Specimens Using
Instrumented 2-mm and 8-mm Strikers”, ASTM STP 1248, 111-
139
 Tanaka M, Ohno Y, Horigome H, Tani H, Shiota K, Misawa A
(1995), “Effects of the Striking Edge Radius and Asymmetrical
Strikes on Charpy Impact Test Results”, ASTM STP 1248, 153-
167
 Morita S, Kobayashi T (2004), “Ductile-Brittle Transition
Behaviors with Two Striker Geometries in the Instrumented
Charpy Impact Test”, Mat Sc Forum 449-452:861-864
Example of fully ductile test
performed with 8 mm striker
20

Fm
16

12
"Bump"
Force (kN)

Fgy

0
0 sm 5 10 15 20 25
Displacement (mm)
Analytical approach
and data sets considered (1)
No of materials No of tests No of tests
Round-Robin Period Refs*
tested with 2mm-striker with 8mm-striker
ASTM E28.07 1997-98 a 4 68 106
NIST 2006-07 b 2 99 60
IAEA CRP-8 2007 c,d 1 10 8
TOTAL 7 177 174

Also: tests on “half-size” specimens (4.83×4.83mm²) [89 with 2mm;36 with 4mm]

References
a - Manahan MP, Martin FJ, Stonesifer RB (2000), “Results of the ASTM
Instrumented/Miniaturized Round Robin Test Program”, ASTM STP 1380, 223-241
b - McCowan CN, Splett JD, Lucon E (2008), “Dynamic Force Measurement: Instrumented
Charpy Impact Testing”, NISTIR 6652, NIST, Boulder CO
c - Viehrig H-W and Lucon E (2007), “IAEA Coordinated Research Project on Master Curve
Approach to Monitor Fracture Toughness of RPV Steels: Effect of Loading Rate”, ASME PVP
2007/CREEP 8, San Antonio TX, paper PVP2007-26087.
d - Lucon E, Viehrig H-W (2007), “Round-Robin Exercise on Instrumented Impact Testing of
Precracked Charpy Specimens (IAEA Coordinated Research Program Phase 8)”, ASME PVP
2007/CREEP 8, paper PVP2007-26088.
Analytical approach
and data sets considered (2)
SCK•CEN data (mostly unpublished)
No of tests No of tests
Material Remarks
with 2mm-striker with 8mm-striker
ERM low energy
4 5
(batch 1-30-E11)
ERM low energy Tests at room temperature
5 4
(batch 1-AF-30)
ERM medium energy 2 2
DIN 22NiMoCr37 4 13
Tests at multiple temperatures
JSPS (A533B) 20 11
TOTAL 35 35

• Variables considered: Fgy, Fm, sm, Wt, KV


• Comparison mean values and standard deviations 2mm/8mm
• Statistical significance of mean value differences analyzed using
the unpaired t-test (two-tailed probability P with threshold value
0.05; P > 0.05 not significant; P < 0.001 very significant)
Results of the statistical analyses
2mm >> 8mm
(very significant) (t-test)
2mm < 8mm (significant)

2mm <<< 8mm


(extremely significant)

2mm ~ 8mm (not significant)


Analysis of the t-test results

• Mean values of probability P calculated (P = 0 assumed when P


< 0.0001)
• “Striker Influence Index” (SII) defined by replacing symbols
for ∆ with numbers (> = +1; >> = +2; >>> = +3; < = -1;
<< = -2; <<< = -3; ~ = 0)
Fgy Fm sm Wt KV
0.066 0.050 0.070 0.305 0.296
Full-size specimens P
SII +0.66 -1.60 -1.71 +0.60 +0.70
0.221 0.000 0.047 0.052 0.310
Sub size specimens P
SII -0.66 -3.00 -0.25 -0.75 0.00

 Highest P = least sensitive to striker radius; lowest P = most sensitive


 SII > 0 ⇒ higher values with 2mm-striker; SII < 0 ⇒ higher values with 8mm
 Low absolute value SII ⇒ low sensitivity to striker or effects compensate
Assessment of the t-test results

Fgy Fm sm Wt KV
0.066 0.050 0.070 0.305 0.296
Full-size specimens P
SII +0.66 -1.60 -1.71 +0.60 +0.70

 Absorbed energy values are not very sensitive to striker configuration;


slight tendency for 2mm to provide higher values
 Largest influence on Fm and sm, with higher values yielded by 8mm
strikers
 Fgy also significantly affected (higher values for 2mm strikers), but
some inconsistencies are observed

Fgy Fm sm Wt KV
0.221 0.000 0.047 0.052 0.310
Sub size specimens P
SII -0.66 -3.00 -0.25 -0.75 0.00

 Available data is limited, particularly for 4mm strikers


 Similar effects for KV, Fm and sm; opposite effects for Wt and Fgy
SCK•CEN transition curves
22NiMoCr37 (high upper shelf)
20 25

2 mm 2 mm
8 mm 8 mm
17 22
General yield forces Fgy (kN)

Maximum forces Fm (kN)


14 19

11 16

8 13

5 10
-100 -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Temperature (°C) Temperature (°C)
4.5

3.5
Displacement sm (mm)

2.5

1.5

1
2 mm
8 mm
0.5

0
-100 -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Temperature (°C)
SCK•CEN transition curves
22NiMoCr37 (high upper shelf)
250

USE2mm/USE8mm = 0.88

200
Absorbed energies Wt (J)

150

100

50
2 mm
8 mm
250
0
USE2mm/USE8mm = 0.87
-100 -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Temperature (°C)
200

Absorbed energies KV (J) 150

100

50
2 mm
8 mm

0
-100 -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Temperature (°C)
SCK•CEN transition curves
22NiMoCr37 (high upper shelf)
2.5

2
Lateral expansion (mm)

1.5

0.5
2 mm
8 mm 100

0
-100 -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Temperature (°C)

Shear Fracture Appearance (%)


75

50

25

2 mm
8 mm

0
-100 -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300
Temperature (°C)
SCK•CEN transition curves
JSPS (low upper shelf)
20 22

2 mm 2 mm
8 mm 8 mm
17
General yield forces Fgy (kN)

19

Maximum forces Fm (kN)


14

16

11

13
8

5
10
-100 -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
-100 -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Temperature (°C) 2.5 Temperature (°C)

2
Displacement sm (mm)

1.5

0.5 2 mm
8 mm

0
-100 -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300
Temperature (°C)
SCK•CEN transition curves
JSPS (low upper shelf)
90

75
Absorbed energies KV (J)

60

45

30

15 2 mm
8 mm

0
-100 -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300
Temperature (°C)
SCK•CEN transition curves
JSPS (low upper shelf)
1.75

1.5

1.25
Lateral expansion (mm)

0.75

0.5

2 mm
0.25
8 mm 100

0
-100 -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300

Shear Fracture Appearance (%)


Temperature (°C) 75

50

25

2 mm
8 mm

0
-100 -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300
Temperature (°C)
Analytical correlations between
2mm and 8mm strikers
40

Fgy Standard error of estimate


35 Fm • Fgy : 1.55 kN
• Fm : 0.99 kN
30
Force using 2mm-striker (kN)

25
Fgy,2mm = 0.873 Fgy,8mm + 2.71
2
20 R = 0.9067
Fm,2mm = 1.037 Fm,8mm - 1.83
R2 = 0.9797
15

10

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Force using 8mm-strikers (kN)
Analytical correlations between
2mm and 8mm strikers

3.5
Standard error of estimate : 0.16 mm

3
sm using 2mm-striker (mm)

2.5

sm,2mm = 0.889 sm,8mm - 0.045


1.5
R2 = 0.9778

0.5

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5
sm using 8mm-strikers (mm)
Analytical correlations between
2mm and 8mm strikers
225

Wt Standard error of estimate


200
KV • Wt : 2.54 kN
175 • KV : 3.08 kN
Energy using 2mm-striker (J)

150 KV2mm = 1.0255 KV8mm + 0.0141


2 Upper shelf values
R = 0.9966
22NiMoCr37
125

Upper shelf values


100
JSPS
Wt,2mm = 1.0281 Wt,8mm - 0.406
75 2
R = 0.9977

50

25

0
0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225
Energy using 8mm-strikers (J)
Overall correlation between
strikers in terms of KV
500
Fink 1990
Revise 1990 113 data
Ruth 1995
Siewert-Vigliotti 1995 points (77%
400 Tanaka et al. 1995 below 200 J)
McCowan et al. 2000
KV using 2 mm-strikers (J)

Heping 2008
This study
USE 22NiMoCr37 (SCK-CEN)
300
Below 200 J
KV2mm = 1.01 KV8mm + 0.545
R2 = 0.996
200
Above 200 J
KV2mm = 0.5747 KV8mm + 76.423
R2 = 0.775
100

0
0 100 200 300 400 500
KV using 8mm-strikers (J)
Influence of material toughness
on 2mm/8mm relationship
1.20

Fgy
1.15 Fm

1.10
Ratio 2mm/8mm

1.05

1.00

0.95

0.90
1.10

0.85
1.05
0.80
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 1.00
Average KV (J)

Ratio 2mm/8mm
0.95

0.90

0.85

0.80

0.75

0.70
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
Average KV (J)
Influence of material toughness
on 2mm/8mm relationship
1.20

Wt
1.15 KV

USE2mm/USE8mm
1.10 (JSPS)
Ratio 2mm/8mm

1.05

1.00

0.95

0.90

USE2mm/USE8mm
0.85
(22NiMoCr37)

0.80
0 50 100 150 200
Average KV (J)
Influence of striker configuration
on data scatter
6

KV
5 Fgy
Fm
sm
4 Wt
2mm/8mm SD ratio

3
KV < 200 J
All data
2

0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
Average KV (J)
Conclusions

 Fgy values are affected, but not systematically; larger values


are observed for 2mm strikers, but difference decreases with
toughness
 Fm and sm show the most significant effect, with 8mm strikers
delivering higher values with increasing toughness
 Wt and KV behave similarly. The effect is marginal (a few %)
below 200 J. Above 200 J, 8mm strikers deliver progressively
higher values
 Data scatter tends to be higher for 2mm strikers
 Our results are consistent with the existing literature
 For sub-size specimens:
• Effect on Fm, sm is consistent with full-size specimens
• Effect on Fgy is unclear
• Up to 10-11 J, Wt and KV do not show large sensitivity to striker radius
• Due to the limited database, analytical correlations were not derived