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Authors

Cryster C. Sagritalo
Jennifer F. Calabita
Maricel T. Taghap Module Consultant
Mrs. Sandra P. Mesina
Module Adviser
Mr. For-Ian V. Sandoval
The University shall serve as the center
of excellence in agriculture, fisheries, forestry,
science engineering and industrial
technologies, teacher education, information
technology, and other related fields in arts and
sciences. It shall also serve as research and
extension service centers in its field of
expertise.
The Five-Year Development Plan is
anchored on a vision which states by the
year 2012, the University shall be known as:

A premier university in CALABARZON,


offering academic programs and related
services designed to respond to the needs
of the Philippines and the global economy
particularly Asian countries.
In pursuit of the college vision/mission,
the college of education is committed to
develop the full potentials of the individuals and
equip them with knowledge, skills and attitudes
in Teacher Education allied fields to effectively
respond to the increasing demands, challenges
and opportunities of changing times for global
competitiveness.
The College of Education operates the
following objectives:

3.Acquire basic and major trainings in BEEd


focusing on General Education and Pre-School
Education.

2.Produce mentors who are knowledgeable and


skilled in teaching Pre-School learners and
Elementary grades and with desirable values
and attitudes for efficiency and effectiveness.
3.Conduct research and development in
teacher education and other related fields.

4.Extend extension services and other related


activities for the advancement of
community life.
This Teacher’s Visual Presentation Hand-out
entitled “THE UNIVERSE A Module in Science and
Technology for Grade V Pupils” is part of the
requirements in Educational Technology 2 under
the revised curriculum for Bachelor in Elementary
Education based on CHED Memorandum Order
(CMO)-30, Series of 2004. Educational Technology
2 is a three (3)-unit course designed to introduce
both traditional and innovative technologies to
facilitate and foster meaningful and effective
learning where students are expected to
demonstrate a sound understanding of the nature,
application and production of the various types of
educational technologies.
The students are provided with guidance
and assistance of selected faculty members of the
College through the selection, production and
utilization of appropriate technology tools in
developing technology-based teacher support
materials. Through the role and functions of
computers especially the Internet, the student
researchers and the advisers are able to design
and develop various types of alternative delivery
systems. These kind of activities offer a
remarkable learning experience for the education
students as future mentors especially in the
preparation of instructional materials.
The output of the group’s effort may serve as
an educational research of the institution in
providing effective and quality education. The
lessons and evaluations presented in this module
may also function as a supplementary reference
for secondary teachers and students.
FOR-IAN V. SANDOVAL
Computer Instructor / Adviser
Educational Technology 2

SANDRA P. MESINA
Module Consultant

LYDIA R. CHAVEZ
Dean
College of Education
The authors wish to express their deepest
gratitude and profound thanks to those who
extended their enormous and immeasurable
support for the completion of this module.

Above all, they owe all the blessings and


greatness to Almighty God, for without his graces
and blessings this would not have been possible.

Mr. For-Ian V. Sandoval, Instructor and


adviser in Educational Technology 2, for his
untiring and unselfish guidance and constant
encouragement.
Mrs. Sandra P. Mesina, their module
consultant, for her constructive criticism, comments
and suggestions for improvement.

Prof. Fortunata Certifico, their adviser for her


untiring support and encouragement to finish this
module.

Prof. Corazon San Agustin, for her kindness


and understanding to this module.
Their parents for giving financial and moral
support. Their brothers and sisters for their
understanding and never ending encouragement and
assistance.

Their BEEd classmates and friends, Kuya BJ


and Ate Mara for their never ending support.

The Authors
The Universe: A Module in Science and
Technology for Grade 5 Pupils is designed to
help the pupils gain a comprehensive knowledge,
to enable them to share their ideas and perform
activities.

This module covers a thorough discussion


of different theories of the origin of the universe,
the members of the Solar System, beyond the
Solar System and the Earth.
Several researches by different authors
have been presented here. Topics are presented
in the simplest way and in the most
understandable manner.

To assess the knowledge gained by the


pupil, various activities have been provided.

We hope that the pupils/readers of this


module will gain and develop their intense
interest so that they will continuously explore
what they have learned.

The Authors
Title Page
Mission/Vision Goals and Objectives of BEEd
Foreword Acknowledgment
Preface Table of Contents

Chapter I The Origin of the Universe


Lesson 1 Big Bang Theory
Lesson 2 Big Crunch Theory
Lesson 3 Steady State Theory
Lesson 4 Nebular or Dust Cloud Theory
Chapter II The Solar System
Lesson 1 The Sun
Lesson 2 Different Parts of the Sun
Lesson 3 The Planets
Lesson 4 Distances of Planets from the Sun
Lesson 5 Revolution of Planets around the Sun
Lesson 6 Planetary Orbit
Lesson 7 Planetary Moons and Earth Moon
Lesson 8 Phases of the Moon
Lesson 9 Eclipse and Tides
Lesson 10 Asteroids, Meteoroids and Comets
Chapter III Beyond the Solar System
Lesson 1 The Galaxies
Lesson 2 The Stars
Lesson 3 The Formation of Stars
Lesson 4 The Constellations
Chapter IV The Earth
Lesson 1 Structure of the Earth’s Atmosphere
Lesson 2 The Layers of the Earth
Lesson 3 The Water Cycle
Lesson 4 Rock Cycle

References
Curriculum Vitae
When we observe a clear night sky, thousands of
stars can be seen. We then realize the vastness of outer
space and wonder how the universe came to be. Did it
begin at all? How did the universe begin?

At the end of this chapter the pupils will be able to


● distinguish the origin of the universe.
● differentiate the origin of the universe.
● react actively on the different theory of the origin
of the universe.
● demonstrate or draw the different theories of the
origin of the universe.
Lesson 1
Big Bang Theory

At the end of the lesson the pupils will be able to


• know what the Big Bang Theory is.
• share ideas about the theory.
• draw the Big Bang Theory.
According to modern theory the cataclysmic
event, called the Big Bang Theory marked the
beginning of the universe. According to this theory, the
universe started as one very hot and dense
concentration of matter. The dense concentration of
matter exploded with its fragments moving outward
and away from one another at different speeds.
Hydrogen and helium nuclei were formed from the
very hot concentration of matter.
Fig.1.1 Big Bang Theory. (A) A concentration of
matter exploded (B) Fragments moving outward,
forming galaxies (C) Fragments continue to move
away from each other.

The Big Bang Theory is the dominant scientific


theory about the origin of the universe. According to the
big bang, the universe was created sometime between 10
billion and 20 billion years ago from a cosmic explosion
that hurled matter and in all directions.
In 1927, the Belgian priest Georges Lemaître was
the first to propose that the universe began with the
explosion of a primeval atom. His proposal came after
observing the red shift in distant nebulas by astronomers
to a model of the universe based on relativity. Years
later, Edwin Hubble found experimental evidence to
help justify Lemaître's theory. He found that distant
galaxies in every direction are going away from us with
speeds proportional to their distance.
The big bang was initially suggested because it
explains why distant galaxies are traveling away from
us at great speeds. The theory also predicts the existence
of cosmic background radiation (the glow left over from
the explosion itself). The Big Bang Theory received its
strongest confirmation when this radiation was
discovered in 1964 by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson,
who later won the Nobel Prize for this discovery.
Lesson 2
Big Crunch
Theory
At the end of the lesson the pupils will be able to
• know what the Big Crunch Theory is.
• share ideas about the theory.
• draw the Big Crunch Theory.

Another theory explaining the origin of the


universe is the Big Crunch Theory.
Some astronomers believe that the universe began
form the Big Bang explosion of a dense globe of
hydrogen. However, because of the force of gravity, the
billions of galaxies moved towards one another. The
state of extremely high density and temperature into
which a closed universe will recollapse in the distant
future.
Fig. 1.2 Big Crunch Theory

If the universe has a mass density exceeding the


critical mass density, then gravity will eventually
reverse the expansion, causing the universe to
recollapse into what is often called the big crunch.
One hypothesized future for the universe in which the
current expansion stops, reverses, and results in all
space and all matter collapsing together; a reversal of
the big bang.
Lesson 3
Steady State Theory

At the end of this lesson the pupils will be able to


• know what the Steady State Theory is.
• share ideas about the theory.
• draw the Steady State Theory.

Some astronomers believe that the universe is


expanding but its expansion is similar to its original
state and will not change anymore. This theory is
called the Steady State Theory.
Fig. 1.3.Steady State Theory. (A) Galaxies
spreading (B) New matter being created
(C) More new matter being created then spreading.

The steady-state theory is a view that the universe


is always expanding but maintaining a constant average
density, matter being continuously created to form new
stars and galaxies at the same rate that old ones become
unobservable as a consequence of their increasing
distance and velocity of recession.
A steady-state universe has no beginning or end
in time; and from any point within it the view on the
grand scale--i.e., the average density and arrangement
of galaxies--is the same. Galaxies of all possible ages
are intermingled.
The theory was first put forward by Sir James
Jeans in about 1920 and again in revised form in 1948
by Hermann Bondi and Thomas Gold. It was further
developed by Sir Fred Hoyle.
Lesson 4
Nebular or Dust
Cloud Theory

At the end of the lesson the pupils will be able to


•know what the Nebular or Dust Cloud Theory is.
•share ideas about the theory.
•draw the Nebular or Dust Cloud Theory.
Another theory explaining the origin of the
universe is the Nebular or Dust Cloud Theory.
According to this theory, planets, stars and other
heavenly bodies came from dust of clouds. These
materials combined together as they spin in space.
They later moved around a central body and cooled
off. The big spinning materials formed the heavenly
bodies.
Fig.1.4. Nebular or Dust Cloud Theory

A great cloud of gas and dust (called a nebula)


begins to collapse because the gravitational forces that
would like to collapse it overcome the forces associated
with gas pressure that would like to expand it (the
initial collapse might be triggered by a variety of
perturbations---a supernova blast wave, density waves
in spiral galaxies, etc.).
Group No.:__________
Name:________________________ Score:______
%____
Section: __________
Teacher: __________________

CHAPTER’S ACTIVITY 1
DISTINGUISHING THE ORIGIN
OF THE UNIVERSE
MATERIALS:

Paper
Color
Pencil
PROCEDURES:
1. The teacher will arrange your class into 4 groups.
2. Discussed the assigned theory of the origin of the
universe.

____________________________________________
____________________________________________
____________________________________________
____________________________________________
3. Draw the process of the assigned theory.
Name:________________________
Score:______%_______
Section: _________
Teacher: _________________

CHAPTER TEST I

Multiple Choice. Direction: Encircle the best answer.


1. What theory explains that planets, stars, and other
heavenly bodies came from dust of clouds?
a. Big Crunch Theory
b. Big Bang Theory
c. Nebular or Dust Cloud Theory
d. Steady State Theory
2. What theory explains that the universe began from the
Big Bang explosion of a dense globe of hydrogen?
a. Big Bang Theory
b. Big Crunch Theory
c. Steady State Theory
d. Nebular Theory
3. What do you call to a great cloud of gas and dust?
a. Nebula
b. Supernova
c. Galaxy
d. None of the above.

4. According to this theory, the universe is expanding


but its expansion is similar to its original state.
a. Steady State Theory
b. Nebular Theory
c. Big Bang Theory
d. Big Crunch Theory
5. Who is the first to propose that the universe began
with the explosion of a primeval atom?
a. Edwin Hubble
b. James Jeans
c. Georges Lemaitre
d. Thomas Gold

6. According to this theory, the universe started as one


very hot and dense concentration of matter.
a. Big Bang Theory
b. Steady State Theory
c. Big Crunch Theory
d. Nebular Theory
7. Who is the first to put forward the theory of Steady
State Theory?
a. James Jeans
b. Georges Lemaitre
c. Thomas Gold
d. Edwin Hubble

8. According to this theory, the universe is expanding


and accelerating.
a. Steady State Theory
b. Big Bang Theory
c. Nebular Theory
d. Big Crunch Theory
9. Who discover the radiation in 1964 when the Big
Bang Theory received its strongest confirmation?
a. Arno Penzias
b. Robert Wilson
c. Edwin Hubble
d. Both a and b.
10. Which is the dominant scientific theory about the
origin of the universe?
a. Big Bang Theory
b. Steady State Theory
c. Nebular Theory
d. Big Crunch Theory
Our planet belongs to a group of heavenly bodies
called the solar system. Why this group is called solar
system?

At the end of this chapter the pupils will be able to


• identify the members of the solar system.
• share many ideas about the sun and planets.
• draw the members of the solar system.
Solar means sun. It indicates that the sun is
the most important body in that group. The sun is
the largest body in the solar system and it is in the
center.

The word system indicates that the whole


solar system behaves as one family with the sun at
the center and the other members revolving around
the sun regularly in their own paths.
The solar system consists of the sun, the planets
and their satellites or moons, asteroids, comets and
meteors. The orbits of the planets lie in almost the same
plane as that of Earth. Planets have different sizes and
distances from the sun. Since planets vary in their
distances from the sun, their temperatures and amount
of sunlight received also vary.

The so-called asteroid belt lies between the


orbits of the planet Mars and Jupiter. The planets
revolve around the sun in their respective paths or
orbits. Most planets have satellites or moons.
Lesson 1
THE SUN
If you were asked to think about stars, you would
probably think of the stars you see in the sky at night.
You see one star in the day. This star is the sun.

At the end of the lesson the pupils will be able to


• define what the sun is.
• develop their awareness about the sun belonging
to the solar system.
• draw the sun as the major source of energy on
Earth.
The sun is the nearest star
to our planet Earth. The sun,
center of our solar system is a
free star. It is considered as an
average star, classified as a G2
dwarf and falling in the middle
of the main sequence of the
Hertzsprung Russel.
Fig. 2.1 The Sun
The sun is a huge ball of burning gas. The
chemical composition of the sun shows that 94% of the
atoms and nuclei in the outer portion are made of
hydrogen, 5.9% helium and 1% mixture of all other
elements.
It has a diameter of 1,393,000 km or 1.4 x 106
km compared to earth’s 12,756 km. It is big enough to
hold as many as 1,300,000 earth’s. It has a mass of
1.99 x 1,030 kg. Its temperature ranges from
15,000,0000°K at the center and 5,000°K-6,000°K on
its surface.
Sun rotates about its axis every 24.65 earth-days
as its equator and every 35 earth-days near its poles.
This is because the sun is not a solid body like earth.
Its differential rotation extends down into the interior
of the sun, but rotates as a solid body.

It appears as yellowish disk, darker at the edge


than the center. The darkening of the edge gives a hint
that it has a gaseous material, solid inner portion.
Sunspots are conspicuous marking on the sun’s
surface. The surface grows and diminishes that last for
a day or several months. They are believed to be the
disturbances in the lower atmosphere of the sun. They
are temporary in nature. Most sunspots are found
within about 30ºC of the sun’s equator.

The sun is the major source of energy on earth.


Plants, animals and humans use this energy for growth
and maintenance of life. Humans use the energy of the
sun to produce electricity. They also use the energy of
the sun as the source of fuels for burning and as source
of fuel for transportation.
The energy that reaches earth comes mostly in the
form of sunlight and heat. It is more than 12,000 times
greater than the amount of fuel the world can consume.
Since the sun sheds its rays thinly over a wide area, its
heat must be collected and concentrated. Concentrated
solar energy can be in homes or power plants.

For domestic use, there are solar panels (called


collectors) that can be mounted on roofs facing the sun.

As well as heat and light, the sun also emits a low


density stream of charged particles known as the solar
wind and reaches the solar system.
Name:________________________ Score:______
%____
Section: __________
Teacher: __________________

ACTIVITY 1
DEFINING WHAT THE SUN IS.
PROCEDURES:

I. Draw the sun on the box.


II. Answer the following questions:
1. Is the sun a star or a planet? Why?

_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
____________________________

2. Describe the sun.

_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
____________________________
3. Why the sun is important?

_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
______________________________

4. If the sun stops shining, what would happen to life on


earth?

_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
______________________________
Lesson 2
DIFFERENT
PARTS OF THE SUN
The sun, a mass of glowing gas has distinct parts
namely: the photosphere, the chromospheres and the
corona or crown.

At the end of the lesson the pupils will be able to


• identify the parts of the sun.
• lend attention on each part of the sun.
• draw and label the parts of the sun.
Fig. 2.2 Different Parts of the Sun
The sun has different parts. The innermost of the
sun is the core. This has a diameter of about 400,000
km. It generates a tremendous amount of energy from
nuclear reactions.

Radiation zone is about 300,000 km thick,


above the core and transports solar energy toward the
surface by electromagnetic radiation. Above the
radiation zone is the convection zone. This zone is
about 200,000 km thick and transports energy toward
the surface by convection movement of the sun’s
material. The convection and radiation zones are
referred to as solar interior.
Its bright and visible surface is called the
photosphere. It estimated to be from 500 to 800 km
thick. The temperature is about 5,500ºK. In this part
sunspots appear. The photosphere appears black when
it is blocked out by the moon during an eclipse. It is
also known as lightsphere.
Above the photosphere is a 8,000 km thick on
the surface and it flashes like a brilliant red rings
called the chromospheres. When the moon blocked
the photosphere during an eclipse, a thin layer of red
light around the sun appears.
Above the chromospheres and extending over
million kilometers beyond the surface of the sun is the
corona or crown. It is a halo to faint silver white light
during total eclipse and it becomes visible to earth. It is
composed of extremely gas and thin dust.
Name:________________________ Score:______
%____
Section: __________
Teacher: __________________

ACTIVITY 2
IDENTIFYING THE DIFFERENT PARTS
OF THE SUN
MATERIALS:
An illustration of the sun

PROCEDURES:
I. Examine the parts of the sun as shown in the diagram.
II. Draw the sun and label its parts: the core, the
radiation zone, the convection zone, the photosphere,
the chromospheres and the corona or crown.
III. Answer the following questions:

1. Describe each part of the sun.

___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________

2. In which part of the sun extends beyond earth?

___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
3. Which part of the sun is blocked out by the moon
during an eclipse?

_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
________________________________________
4. When is corona seen?

_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
________________________________________
5. Why does the chromosphere glow?

_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
________________________________________
Lesson 3

THE
PLANETS
Planets emit no light. They merely reflect
sunlight. How big are the planets? Are there living
things on the planets?

At the end of the lesson the pupils will be able to


• tell what a planet is.
• enumerate the different planets.
• increase their awareness on different planets.
• demonstrate and illustrate each planet.
The members of the International astronomical
Union (IAU) agreed that for a celestial body to be
considered a planet, it must be in orbit around the sun;
be massive enough for its own gravity to make it round
and have cleared its neighborhood of smaller objects
making it dominant in the area.

Pluto classified as a major planet since its


discovery in 1930, does not meet these criteria. Pluto has
not cleared its neighborhood around its orbit. It is now
classified as a dwarf planet. The number of planets in the
solar system is reduced from nine to eight.
The eight planets in the solar system are divided
into two groups: the inner planets and the outer planets.

Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars are the four


planets closest to the sun are the inner planets. They are
small dense bodies with thin atmosphere. Each inner
planet has a solid, mineral containing crust. This is the
reason why they are called terrestrial planets.
The outer planets are Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and
Neptune. They are giant planets and they are called the
jovian planets. They are very different from the inner
planets in size, composition and the way they are formed.
All have rings. The most prominent of which are those of
Saturn.
MERCURY: A Planet the Size of the Moon
Mercury is the planet closest
to the sun; it is a little bit larger
than our moon. The spacecraft
Mariner 10 took picture of this
planet. The pictures showed the
surface of Mercury to be full of
craters.

Fig.2.3.1 Mars Mercury is only 52 million


km away from the sun, it has no
plate tectonics, it much denser than
the moon (5.43 g/cm3). It also has a
small magnetic field.
The temperature can reach as high as 430ºC.
Mercury is small, so it has a weak gravitational
force and holds very little atmosphere and scarcity
of winds.

The inner core of Mercury is made of iron,


with a diameter of 3,600 km.
VENUS: The Greenhouse Planet

Venus is still a sight of


natural beauty and the brightest
solar body visible from earth.

Venus is the second planet


from the sun. It is brighter than
Mercury and can be seen near the
sun during sunrise or sunset. It
most closely resembles earth in Fig.2.3.2 Venus

size, density and distances from


the sun.
It is 108 million km from the sun. It has a
diameter of 12,104 km and has a solid surface and an
atmosphere.

Venus has an iron core of about 600 km in


diameter, a molten rocky mantel and a crust which is a
lot stronger and thicker. Venus doesn’t have a
magnetic field.

The thick clouds in Venus cause a greenhouse


effect, making the temperature to rise to 460ºC. Carbon
dioxide which makes up 95% of its atmosphere adds
up to the greenhouse effect.
Spacecraft Pioneer Venus in 1978 and Magellan in
1993 gathered data on its surface and provided that life
cannot thrive on Venus. Venus has been volcanically
active, which makes its surface very rough.
EARTH: The Blue Planet

The Earth is a blue planet


with more water surface than
land. Its total surface are, about
30% is land and about 70% is
water. Water an essential
ingredient for life; also helps
regulate the temperature of the
Fig.2.3.3 Earth
planet.
Earth is the only planet in our solar system
capable of sustaining life. Located at 150 million km
from the sun, with the diameter of 12,756 km.

Earth is just right distance from the sun so it is


either too hot or too cold. It is surrounded by an
atmosphere which contains enough oxygen, a gas
needed to support life.
Temperatures on earth vary from 60°C-100°C,
although the mean temperature is 15°C, suitable for
sustaining life.

Earth has gravity that pulls things toward it so


they will not fall into space. Among the planets, Earth
is unique because it is the only one which has the right
conditions to support life.
MARS: A Search for Lost Water

Mars is called a red planet.


The bright areas on the surface of
Mars are yellow-orange while the
dark areas are gray-red. Iron oxide
(rust) in Mars soil gives it a reddy
complexion.

Mars has a diameter of 6,739 Fig.2.3.4 Mars


km, a mass of 6.421 E23 and has a
mean density of 3.94 g/cm3.
Mars has polar ice caps
very similar to Earth. Mars has
rocks and soil, mountains,
valleys as well as volcanoes.

In 1965, Mariner 4
spacecraft transmitted pictures of
the planet. The strong winds of
Fig.2.3.4.1 Surface of Mars
Mars blow soil into the
atmosphere and cause large dust
storms.
Its axis tilts from the perpendicular to its orbital
plane which explains its polar ice caps and seasons that
are nearly twice as long as the seasons of the earth.
JUPITER: A Star That Failed

Jupiter is the largest planet in


the solar system with a diameter of
142,984 km, has a mean density of
1.31 g/cm3.

Fig.2.3.5 Jupiter
Its very active atmospheric weather pattern gives
Jupiter a very violent appearance. Jupiter does not have
a solid surface or a molten core, but rather it is gaseous
and has a small, solid core. Jupiter is made mostly of
hydrogen and helium. Its surface is very cold, with a
temperature of about -150ºC.
The upper atmosphere is composed of
alternating bands of bright colors caused by the rising
and falling of gases due to heat from the core.
The most outstanding feature on
Jupiter is the Great Red Spot which is
over three times the size of earth.

Information gathered by voyager


1 and voyager 2 in 1974 show that
Jupiter has a thin ring like that of
Fig.2.3.5.1 Great Red Spot
Saturn. This ring appears to be
composed of very hot electrified sulfur
particles.

Jupiter has a strong magnetic


field ten times that of the earth.
SATURN: The Ringed Giant

Saturn is the second largest


planet. Saturn is the last planet that
is visible with the naked eye from
Earth. Like Jupiter, it is made up of
hydrogen, helium and other few
gases.

Fig.2.3.6 Saturn
Saturn has a diameter of
120,000 km making it the second
largest planet in the solar system,
has a temperature of -180°C.
Saturn has no solid surface, but rather a small
rocky core the size of Earth, which is covered by a layer
of frozen water.

Saturn is easy to recognize because of its rings. It’s


literally thousands of rings. The most prominent feature
of Saturn is its ring system. The diameter of these rings is
the same distance between the earth and the moon. The
rings are divided in the 7 main rings. The rings are
named in order of their discovery, and from the planet
outwards. They are the D, C, B, A, F, G, and E rings.

The most noticeable feature in Saturn’s


atmosphere is Anne’s spot. It is a pale red feature in the
southern hemisphere.
URANUS: The Lazy Giant

Uranus is the planet where


the sun never rises. Uranus
revolves around the side on its
side.

Uranus has a diameter of


51,000 km, a mass of 14.6E, has a
mean density of 1.3 g/cm3. Fig.2.3.7 Uranus

It has also a ring system


which was discovered in 1977.
Uranus is a gaseous planet like Saturn and Jupiter;
it looks like a large, smooth, blue-green ball. The Uranus
core composed of silicate rock and metals. The most
abundant elements in Uranus’ atmosphere are hydrogen
and helium.

Uranus is too far away from the sun that it reflects


only very little light.
NEPTUNE: A Distant Giant

Neptune is the eight planets


from the sun. it does not shine very
brightly so it cannot be seen by the
naked eye.

It has a diameter of 49,500


km. The existence of the magnetic
Fig.2.3.8 Neptune
field was confirmed. Has a mass of
17E, a density of 1.66 g/cm3.
Neptune is very much like
Uranus in physical composition,
primarily a hydrogen, helium,
methane and ammonia atmosphere.

The most noticeable aspect


about Neptune is the Great Dark
Spot (GDS). GDS is an elliptical,
Fig.2.3.8.1 Great Dark Spot
storm like feature.

Neptune’s rings are very


irregular. It is known that there are
four thin rings around the planet.
DWARF PLANET

A dwarf planet is defined


by the IAU as a celestial body
that orbits around the sun, has
sufficient mass for its self gravity
to overcome rigid body forces so
it assumes a nearly round shape,
Fig.2.3.9 Pluto
has not cleared its neighborhood
around its orbit and is not a
satellite.
Currently Pluto was included in the dwarf planet.
Pluto’s size is estimated to be between 3,456 km-2,200
km. Pluto is thought to have a rocky core and might have
a tenuous methane vapor atmosphere.
ASTEROID BELT

The asteroid belt is a belt of rocky bodies between


Mars and Jupiter. Most asteroids in the Main Belt are
composed of three materials, 92.9% are composed of
silicates, 5.7% metals and the rest as a mix of those
materials and carbon-rich substances.

If all the asteroids were combined together, their


diameter would be about 1,300 km-1,500 km.

The asteroids revolved around the sun in a


counterclockwise direction, or eastward, in the same
manner as the planet’s do.
The largest asteroid in the main asteroid belt is
Ceres.

Fig.2.3.10 Asteroid Belt


Name:________________________ Score:______
%____
Section: __________
Teacher: __________________

ACTIVITY 3
ENUMERATING THE DIFFERENT PLANETS
MATERIALS:

Illustration of the planets

PROCEDURES:

1. Study the illustration of the planets according to its


order from the sun.
2. Identify the order of each planet from the sun by
placing with number

PLANETSORDER FROM THE SUN

Saturn
Mars
Jupiter
Earth
Uranus
Neptune
Venus
Mercury
3. Enumerate the names of inner planets in the order
from the sun.
a. ______________________
b. ______________________
c. ______________________
d. ______________________

4. Enumerate the names of outer planets in the order


from the sun.
a. _____________________
b. _____________________
c. _____________________
d. _____________________
5. What does each planet have? Give your reasons.

_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
____________________________________

6. Why is life not possible in other planets?

_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
________________________________________
Lesson 4

DISTANCES OF
PLANETS FROM THE
SUN
At the end of the lesson the pupils will be able to
• enumerate the planets according to its distances
from the sun.
• share in class their ideas which planet is the nearest
and farthest.
• draw or make a table that illustrates the relative
distances of the planets from the sun.
Different planets have different distances from the
sun. The distances between the planetary orbits are not
uniform. The orbits are spread out farther from each
other as their distances from the sun increases.

The nearest planet from the sun is Mercury and the


farthest is Neptune.
PLANET DISTANCES FROM
THE SUN (IN)
MILLION
KILOMETERS
1. Mercury 58 Million
2. Venus 108 Million
3. Earth 150 Million
4. Mars 229 Million
5. Jupiter 778 Million
6. Saturn 1420 Million
7. Uranus 2860 Million
8. Neptune 4490 Million
Table 1. Showing the Distances of the Planets from the Sun.
Name:________________________ Score:______
%____
Section: __________
Teacher: __________________

ACTIVITY 4
IDENTIFYING AND ENUMERATING THE
PLANETS AND ITS DISTANCES
MATERIAL:

Basic information about the distances of the planets

PROCEDURES:

1. Study the information given about the distances of the


planets.
2. Identify the planets that correspond to the distances.
3. Fill in the table with information needed.

PLANET DISTANCES FROM THE


SUN (IN MILLION
KILOMETERS)
1.___________________ 58 Million
2.___________________ 108 Million
3. Earth _________________
4. Mars _________________
5. ___________________ 778 Million
6.___________________ 1420 Million
7. Uranus _________________
8. Neptune _________________
Lesson 5
REVOLUTION OF
PLANETS AROUND
THE SUN
The planets revolve or turn around the sun in the
same direction. The planets rotate or spin on their axes.
At the end of the lesson the pupils will be able to
• distinguish the time of planets to revolve around the
sun.
• determine the importance of revolution of the
planets.
• make a chart showing the number of days of
revolution of different planets around the sun.
Fig.2.5.1 Revolution of Planets
Revolution is the movement of planets around the
sun. The nearer a planet is to the sun, the faster it makes
a complete turn around the sun. The farther planets take a
longer time to make a complete turn around the sun.
The period of revolution of the inner planets is in terms
of Earth days only. On the other hand, that of the outer
planets is in terms of Earth-years.

While the inner planets complete one revolution


around the sun faster than the outer planets, they rotate
on their axes much slower than the outer planets.

Of the 8 planets, Venus and Uranus rotate on their


axes from east to west. The remaining 6 planets rotate
from west to east.
PLANET PERIOD OF PERIOD OF
REVOLUTION (IN ROTATION (IN
EARTH- EARTH-
YEARS/DAYS) DAYS/YEARS)
1. Mercury 88 days 59 days
2. Venus 225 days 243 days
3. Earth 365 days 24 hours
4. Mars 687 days 25 hours
5. Jupiter 12 years 10 hours
6. Saturn 29 years 10 hours
7. Uranus 84 years 17 hours
8. Neptune 165 years 16 hours
Table 2. Showing the Time of Revolution and Rotation of Planets
Fig.2.5.2 Rotation of Planets
Name:________________________ Score:______
%____
Section: __________
Teacher: __________________

ACTIVITY 5
DISTINGUISHING THE TIME OF
REVOLUTION OF PLANETS AROUND THE
SUN AND THE TIME OF ROTATION OF
PLANETS ON ITS OWN AXIS
MATERIAL:

Chart showing the time of revolution of planets


and the time of planets to make a complete rotation.

PROCEDURES 1:
I Study the chart with the time of revolution.
II. Answer the following questions:

1. Which planet has the shortest year?


_________________________

2 Which planet has the longest year?


_________________________
3. How many earth days will it take each planet to
complete one revolution?
Mercury - _______________
Venus - _______________
Mars - _______________
Jupiter - _______________
Saturn - _______________
Uranus - _______________
Neptune- _______________

4. How many times has the planet earth revolved around


the sun before Neptune will complete one revolution?
________________________
PROCEDURES 2:

I. Study the chart.


II. Answer the following questions:
1. Which planet has the shortest day?
___________________

2. Which planet has the longest day?


____________________
3. Which planet takes the shortest time to make a
complete rotation?
__________________________

4. How old were you on your most recent birthday:

a. If you were a citizen of Venus instead of Earth,


would you be younger or older than your age now?
________________
Lesson 6

PLANETARY
ORBIT
At the end of the lesson the pupils will be able to
• interpret the orbit of different planets.
• react actively on how the planet moves around
the sun.
• share their ideas about the orbit of different
planets.
• make a graph showing the speed of motion of
different planets
The solar system is a group of planets and moons
which travel around in its orbit. Every star is actually a
sun, which may have its own solar system.
How long does it take each planet to orbit the sun?
It takes Earth a year to travel once around the sun.
Planets nearer the sun take less time and planets further
away take longer.
PLANETS NO. OF DAYS/
YEARS
Mercury 87.97 days
Venus 224.70 days
Earth 365.26 days
Mars 686.98 days
Jupiter 11.86 days
Saturn 29.50 days
Uranus 84.01 days
Neptune 164.79 days
Table 3. Showing how long it takes each planet to orbit the sun.
The planets revolve around the sun in their
respective paths or orbits. The orbits of planets are not
exactly circular but a little bit oval or a closed curved that
is elongated, they are elliptical. Hence, they are at one
point closest to the sun called perihelion and at another
point farthest from the sun called aphelion.

Fig.2.6 Planetary Orbit


Name:________________________ Score:______
%____
Section: __________
Teacher: __________________

ACTIVITY 6
DOES THE PLANET STAY IN THEIR ORBIT?
MATERIALS:

2 pieces Yoyo

PROCEDURES:

I. Ask the pupil who will volunteer to swing the yoyo


up in the air.
II.. Observe the yoyo while it turns.
III. Ask another pupil to handle another yoyo, and then
both of them swing it on the air at the same time
IV. Observe what happen.
V. Answer the following questions:
1. How does the orbit look like?
________________________________
2. How is a circle similar to an ellipse?
________________________________________
________________________________________
________________________________________
3. How is a circle different from an ellipse?
________________________________________
________________________________________
4. Does the planet stay in its orbit as it revolve
around the sun? Explain your answer.

___________________________________________
___________________________________________
VI. Illustrate the orbit of the planet earth inside the box.
Lesson 7
PLANETARY MOONS
& EARTH MOON
At the end of the lesson the pupils will be able to
• define what the moon is.
• differentiate the number of moons of different
planets.
• draw the moon to show the craters in it.
• be aware of the effect of the moon to the earth.
From the Earth, the most splendid object to be seen
in the night sky is the moon. From our study of solar
system we know that it is a mere satellite of the Earth,
shining only by reflected sunlight. Although the moon
cannot be considered a large or important body within the
solar system, it is an unusual satellite. The moon is very
large compared with its planet, 2160 miles in diameter
compared with the Earth’s diameter of 7926 miles.
Relatively speaking, no other planet has a satellite of such
large size. Some of the satellites of Jupiter, Saturn, and
Neptune are larger in diameter than the moon. But these
are not large when compared with the size of the giant
planets around which they revolve. Titan, the largest
satellite of Saturn is almost as large as Mars. However, it
is only one-twentieth of Saturn’s diameter.
Because the moon and the
Earth are so close in size, they are
more like twin planets than a planet
and a satellite. Does another planet
have moons? Yes, most planets have
moons. According to Guinness
World Records 2008, the planet in
the solar system with the most
satellites is Jupiter with 63 moons,
Fig.2.7 The Moon Saturn with 47 moons, Uranus with
27, Neptune with13 moons, Mars
with 2 moons and Earth has only
one. Mercury and Venus are the only
planets that do not have moons.
Could people live on the moon? There is no
atmosphere on the moon, so you would not be able to
breathe. It’s possible to set up scientific bases there, but
anyone walking around on the moon would need a space
suit. The force of gravity at the surface of the moon is
determined by its mass and diameter. A 180-pound man
would weigh only 30 pounds on the moon. Climbing the
moon’s rugged mountains would be a great deal easier
than mountain climbing on Earth.
Some of the moon was covered with craters. Most
of those craters were caused about three billion years ago
by meteorites. This lumps of rock and iron hurtled though
space crashed into the moon at high speed. When people
first looked though telescopes at the moon, they thought
that the dark areas were seas. They gave them names, such
as the sea of tranquility. It was later discovered that these
seas were really areas of day dark lava from volcanic
eruptions.
Name:________________________ Score:______
%____
Section: __________
Teacher: __________________

ACTIVITY 7
IDENTIFYING THE NUMBERS OF THE
MOONS OF DIFFERENT PLANETS
PROCEDURES:

1. Study the moon of every planet.


4. Know the number of moons of every planet.
3. Fill in the blank with numerical data in the chart below:

Planets Number of
Moons
Mercury
Venus
Earth
Mars
Jupiter
Saturn
Uranus
Neptune
4. Answer the following questions:
A. Is there anyone who can live in the moon? Explain
your answer.

___________________________________________
___________________________________________
_________________________________
B. Why the moon affects the earth?

___________________________________________
___________________________________________
__________________________________
C. What is the feature of the surface of the moon?

___________________________________________
Lesson 8
PHASES OF
THE MOON

At the end of the lesson the pupils will be able to


• remember what are the faces of the moon.
• be aware why the moon seems to change its
shape.
• share to their classmates the quarters of the
moon.
The apparent changes in the shape of the moon that
we see are called phases of the moon. The moon goes
though this phases in 29 1/2 days. As the moon revolves
around the earth, its orbit takes it first between the sun
and the earth and then to the other side of the earth away
from the sun. The moon seldom passes directly between
the sun and earth because its orbit is tilted about 50° from
the plane of the earth’s orbit around the sun.
When the moon is in the area between the earth
and sun, the side of the moon toward us is not lighted
directly by the sun. Still, the moon is faintly visible
because of sunlight reflected by the earth. This light
reflected by the earth is called earth shine. It must be
much brighter on the moon than moonlight ever is on
earth because the earth is a much better reflector than
the moon’s rocky surface. After the moon has gone
halfway around in its orbit, it is on the side of the earth
away from the sun. Then the face of the moon we see is
fully lighted.
Fig.2.8 Phases of the Moon
The moon rises & sets at different times. In the
new moon phases, the moon rises with the sun. It occurs
when the moon is between the earth and the sun in the
days that follow; it rises later than the sun. In the first
quarter phase, it rises at noon time and sets at midnight
and sets at midnight. The moon is right angles with the
sun and the earth. During the full moon, it rises at the
time the sun sets and sets at the time the sun rises, it
occurs one week after the first quarter moon. During the
last quarter, it rises at midnight and set noontime it
appears like the first quarter moon. Half of the lighted
part is visible.
The moon seems to change shape because, as it
evolves around the Earth, the Sun light only falls on
one side of the moon. The term “month” came from the
length of time it takes the moon one month to complete
one revolution around the earth.
Group No.:__________
Name:________________________ Score:______
%____
Section: __________
Teacher: __________________

ACTIVITY 8
KNOWING THE PHASES OF THE MOON
MATERIAL:

Calendar of a current year

PROCEDURES:

1. The teacher will group your class into teams.


8. Study the calendar of a current year that shows the
dates of phases of the moon. You can choose the
present month.
9. Observe how many days it takes the moon to go
through different phases.
4. Fill up the table below:

Movement of Moon Number of Days


New moon - first quarter
First-quarter - full moon
Full moon – last quarter
Last – quarter – new
moon
5. Answer the following:

A. Why the moon seems to change shape?

__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________

B. Why the moon rises and sets at different times?

__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
Lesson 9
ECLIPSES AND
TIDES
At the end of the lesson the pupils will be able to
• differentiate solar from lunar eclipse.
• react actively on solar and lunar eclipse.
• develop their awareness about eclipses and tides.

Eclipse occurs when the earth and the moon cuts


off light from the sun. A solar eclipse occurs when the
moon blocks the light coming from the sun. It maybe
total or partial eclipse.
Fig.2.9.1 Solar Eclipse
When moon passes directly between the earth and
sun, the moon’s shadow falls on the earth, producing
solar eclipse. As the moon slides in front of the sun, an
unnatural darkness descends, and the earth becomes still
and quite. Birds return to their nest and stop singing.
While the eclipse is total, the moon blocks out the entire
surface of the sun, but the outer solar atmosphere, or
corona, normally invisible owing to the sun’s brilliance,
appears as a halo around the black moon. Due to the
relative distances between sun, moon, and earth and their
respective sizes, the moon’s shadow is only a narrow
band on the earth. The band where the sun is totally
eclipse, called the umbra is never wider than 275km. In
the penumbra, a wider band outside the umbra, only a
portion of the sun is eclipsed.
During the partial eclipse of the sun, the sky loses
some of it’s brilliance but does not become dark. Solar
eclipse occurs during a new moon because, at this time,
the moon is between the earth and the sun. But it does
not happen every month when there is new moon. This is
because the moon’s orbit is a little bit tilted to the earth’s
orbit around the sun. As a result, the shadow of the moon
falls into space and not on earth.

Fig.2.9.2 Lunar Eclipse


Lunar Eclipse occurs when earth block’s the
sun’s light from the moon, so the moon passes through
the earth’s shadow, it stop the sun’s light reaching the
moon, so the moon seem to disappear. When the earth
lies directly between the sun and moon, the earth’s
shadow falls on the moon and the moon temporarily
darkens to produce a lunar eclipse. Lunar eclipse is
more common and last longer than solar eclipse because
the earth is larger than the moon, and therefore its
shadow is more likely to cover the entire lunar surface.
A lunar eclipse can last a few hours and occurs only
during full moon.
A solar eclipse usually takes place during only
two to five new moons instead of twelve a year. While
lunar eclipses are even more rare. The maximum in a
one year is only three lunar eclipses. In general, when
five solar eclipses happen in one year, only two lunar
eclipses take place.

The Moon affects the earth because it has its own


gravity which pulls Earth’s seas towards it, making them
bulge. As the earth spins, the bulges move around its
surface. When the moon is overhead, the sea reaches its
highest level. When the moon is over the coast, there is a
high tide. Tides are the periodic rise and fall of ocean
waters on a coast line. We call these high tide and low
tide.
People long ago already know that the moon and
tides are related. When there is a new moon or a full
moon, they observed the water level to be low. Just as
they observed that the moon rises about less than an
hour late each night, they also observed that the tide
rises about less than an hour late. Newton explained the
tides by showing how the moons gravity affects us on
earth.
Spring tides – the sun and the moon are aligned with
earth. The gravitational effects of the sun and the moon
combine. During this time, high tides are higher than
average and low tides are lower.

Fig.2.9.3 Spring Tide


Neap tides – the sun is at right angle to the moon, the sun
gravitational force diminishes the tidal effects of the
moon. When the moon and sun are 90°C out of alignment
with earth, each partially offsets the effect of the other
and tidal differences are less. These smaller tidal
differences are called neap tides.

Fig.2.9.4 Neap Tide


Name:________________________ Score:______
%____
Section: __________
Teacher: __________________

ACTIVITY 9
IDENTIFYING AND DRAWING OF THE
DIFFERENT TIDES AND ECLIPSES
Fill the blank w/ the correct word (s) chooses the
answers from the blank below:

Earth’ shadow Moon


Total solar eclipse Straight line
New moon Horizon

_____________ 1. The body that cast shadow on earth,


in solar eclipse.
_____________2. A very bright day suddenly turn
into a night
_______________ 3 .It appears to be during new
moon & pull moon phases, the sun, the Earth and
moon.
_______________ 4. During this phase of the
moon, only a solar eclipse can occur.

_______________ 5. A lunar eclipse does not occur


when the moon phases below or above.
PROCEDURE A:
Draw the position of sun, moon & earth during a full
moon phase. Show the areas of high & low tides.
2. Draw the position of sun moon and earth during a
quarter moon phase. Show the areas of high & low
tides.
PROCEDURE B:
1. Draw the position of the sun, earth, and moon during a
solar eclipse.
2. Draw the position of the sun, earth and moon during
lunar eclipse.
Lesson 10
ASTEROIDS,
METEOROIDS AND
COMETS

At the end of the lesson the pupils will be able to


• define the meaning of asteroid, meteoroids and
comets.
• differentiate the asteroid from meteoroids.
• draw different size of asteroid and meteoroids.
There are thousand of pieces of rock, called
asteroids, in orbit around the sun. Most of these
asteroids are grouped together between mars and
Jupiter. This large group of rock is known as asteroid
belts. Asteroids are bigger than the meteors and are like
small planets. The largest asteroid in our solar system is
Ceres.
The number and size of
asteroids, estimate is that few have
diameters greater than 300 km.
Much of the asteroids have a
greater number just boulders,
gravel, and grains of sand and
astronomers tell us that all the
Fig.2.10.1 Asteroids asteroids together have a total mass
that is much less than of earth’s
moon.
Meteoroids are an asteroids or a fragment of a
comet that orbits the inner planets. If it comes close to
earth it is pulled by earth’s gravity and falls. Friction
with atmosphere cause it to burn so that we see it as a
burning stick in the sky we call it a meteor or a shooting
star. A fallen meteoroid is called a meteorite. They may
provide a window into the past by reflecting the
primordial composition of the solar system.

Fig.2.10.2. Meteor Fig.2.10.3 Meteor Shower


A comet is a chunk of dust and ice that orbits the
sun and slowly vaporizes as it goes near the sun. The
orbit of comets is highly elliptical and extends far
beyond the orbit of Pluto. As it goes near the sun, solar
heat vaporizes the ice. Escaping vapors glow to produce
a luminous ball called the coma. Within the bright coma
is the nucleus which is the solid part of the comet. The
nucleus contains the chunk of ice, dust and other
materials. As the coma orbits the sun, radiation repels
the luminous vapor so the comet’s tail develops. The
long flowing tail is always away from the sun.
Fig.2.10.4 Comet

Fig.2.10.5 Halley Comet


Name:________________________ Score:______
%____
Section: __________
Teacher: __________________

ACTIVITY 1O
DEFINING AND DIFFERENTIATING THE
ASTEROIDS AND METEOROIDS
Answer the following questions:
2. In your opinion, which is more appropriate term –
asteroids or planetoids? Explain your answer.

__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
_________________________________________
2. Differentiate meteor from meteorite.

__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
3. What is the tail of a comet composed of?

_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
________________________________
Name:________________________
Score:______%_______
Section: _________
Teacher: _________________

CHAPTER TEST II

Multiple Choice. Direction: Encircle the best answer.


1. Which is the center of the solar system?
a. asteroids c. sun
b. moon d. planet

2. Which of the following is a member of outer planets?


a. Mercury c. Uranus
b. Mars d. Venus

3. What holds the solar system together?


a. The orbit of each planet
b. The temperature of different planets
c. The suns gravitational force
d. The earth’s gravity
4. What do you call when the earth and the moon cuts
off light from the sun?
a. Tides
b. Sunspots
c. Eclipse
d. Solar Powers

5. How will you describe the sun?


a. It is a ball of burning gases
b. It is a source of energy
c. It is one of the stars in the universe
d. All of the above
6. Which of the following is NOT a member of the
solar system?
a. Meteor c. Tide
b. Planet d. Comet

7. Why is the sun the main source of energy on Earth?


a. It contains a large amount of heat
b. It is the center of the solar system
c. The sun’s energy can be changed into other
forms of energy
d. It is a ball of burning gases
8. Which planet is termed as red planet?
a. Saturn c. Venus
b. Mercury d. Mars

9. Which planet whose period of rotation is equal to its


period of revolution?
a. Mercury c. Saturn
b. Mars d. Neptune

10. Which is a common characteristic of planets?


a. All of them have moons
b. All of them revolve around the sun
c. All of them can sustain life
d. All of them have atmosphere
11. What is the term that came from the length of time
it takes the moon to compare one revolution around
the earth.
a. Month
b. Day
c. Year
d.. None of the above
12. The movement around its axis is called __________.
a. Revolution
b. Rotation
c. Perihelion
d. None of the above
13. Which of the following do NOT have their own
supply of light?
a. Asteroids
b. Meteors
c. Comets
d. All of the above

14. What is the type of eclipse when Earth is between


the sun and moon?
a. Lunar eclipse
b. Solar eclipse
c. Partial eclipse
d. Total eclipse
15. The following have something to do with the
characteristics and movement of the moon EXCEPT
____________.
a. Meteor shower
b. Phases of the moon
c. Tides
d. Eclipse
At the end of this chapter, the pupils will be able to
• know the galaxies.
• share their ideas by comparing stars in terms of
brightness, size, mass, temperature and other
characteristics.
• draw the objects that can be found beyond the solar
system.

The solar system fascinates us with the distinct


structures and characteristics of its members. But there
are still other heavenly bodies.
Stars are naturally fascinating to people. They
are objects wonder to those who feel deeply grateful
for the beauty and magnificence of creation. A star is
born, it radiates energy for a long time. Toward the
end it expands, it may or may not explode and then it
dies.

How stars are distributed in space?

Are they just scattered in space?


Lesson 1
THE GALAXIES
At the end of the lesson the pupils will be able to
• define the meaning of galaxy.
• describe the different shape of galaxy.
• draw the different structure of galaxy.

Fig. 3.1.1. Galaxy


A galaxy is a huge group of billions of stars that
move through space as a unit. The galaxy to which our
sun belongs, called Milky Way, it has about 200 billion
stars. The center of the milky way can sometimes be
spotted at night. It looks like a misty streak across the
sky.

The andromeda galaxy is the biggest galaxy of


those near the milky way. On the clearer night, all you
can see of these galaxies is a small fuzzy blob, but it has
twice as many stars as the milky way, perhaps as many as
200 billion.

Edwin P. Hubble identified the four shapes of


galaxies, the spiral, elliptical, barred spiral, and irregular
galaxy.
A spiral galaxy has a circular bulge at the center
and arms, which of course indicate the direction of its
spin. The central bulge of some spirals, however, is
longer that it is wide; this is the case of the barred spiral
galaxy.

An elliptical galaxy looks the central bulge of a


regular spiral galaxy. Elliptical galaxies are reported to
contain mostly older stars. A few galaxies have no
definite form; such is describing as an irregular galaxy.
It contains interstellar material and young stars
Fig.3.1.1 Milky Way Fig.3.1.2 Andromeda Galaxy
Different Shapes of Galaxies

Fig.3.1.3 Spiral Galaxy Fig.3.1.4 Barred Spiral Galaxy

Fig.3.1.5 Elliptical Galaxy Fig. 3.1.6 Irregular Galaxy


Group No.:__________
Name:________________________ Score:______
%____
Section: __________
Teacher: __________________

ACTIVITY11
PRESENTING DIFFERENT SHAPES OF
GALAXY
MATERIALS:
Crayons and pencils

PROCEDURES:

6. The teacher will arrange your class into four groups.


2. Every group has an assigned shape of galaxy.
3. Draw the assigned galaxy on the box.
4. Answer the following :

A. What are the different shapes of the galaxy?

________________________________________
________________________________________
________________________________________
B.Where in the milky way is our sun located?

________________________________________
________________________________________
________________________________________
C. How large a galaxy is?
________________________________________
__________________________________________
______________________________________
Lesson 2
THE STARS

At the end of the lesson the pupils will be able to


• know the meaning of stars.
• be aware of the size, brightness, distance & life
history of a star.
• draw a star.
Look up at the sky on cloudness, starry night.
What bright objects do you see? Can you count all the
stars that you see? Stars fascinate us. They make the
night sky wonderful. Stars are giant balls of hydrogen
gas. They are so massive that the pressure inside is
great enough to combine hydrogen, atoms together.
This fusion yields a great deal of energy which we can
see as visible light.
Fig.3.2.1 Stars
Sizes of Stars

Observe the sizes of the stars that you see. You


will notice that some stars look big, some look small.
The smallest known star has a diameter of about 4800
kilometers. The largest known star has a diameter nearly
3000 times that of the sun.
Star Diameter(kilometers)
Sun 1,390,000
Capella 16,000,000
Arcturus 41,800,000
Betelgeuse 402,000,000
Antares 539,000,000
Table 4. Showing the diameter of some stars. The diameter gives us an
idea of the size of a round object.
Some stars are so large yet they may not be seen by
the naked eye because they are too far away. In size, our
sun is an average star.

Brightness of stars

Which star has the lowest temperature? What is its


color?

Which star has the hottest temperature? What is its


color?

Some stars such as Vega & Rigel are much hotter


than the sun. Their colors are different from the color of the
sun. Betelgeuse & Arcturus are different in color of the sun.
Fig.3.2.2 Brightness of Stars
STAR COLOR TEMPERATURE
Betelgeuse Red 3000°C
Arcturus Orange 4200°C
Sun Yellow 6000°C
Vega White 11000°C
Rigel Bluish white 20000°C
Table 5. Showing the color and temperature of some stars.

Scientist have found out that a star may change


in color since color is related to brightness, brightness
also changes when star change in color.
When talking about the brightness of a star, three
things should be considered. They are the distance of
the star from the earth, its temperature, & its size.

A star may actually be bright but because it is too


far away from the earth it may look dim. The brightness
of the star as seen from the earth is called apparent
magnitude. The true brightness of a star is its actual
brightness or the actual amount of light will cause it to
expand. When most of the nuclear fuel is consumed,
the star will pulsate & finally contract to a cooling
white dwarf.
Star Distances

The distance of the star from the earth affects its


apparent magnitude. The father it is from the earth the
less bright it will appear. The temperature of the star also
affects its brightness. The higher its temperature the
brighter it is the size is also another factor that affects the
brightness of a star. The red giant stars give off reddish
light & they have lower temperature. The very high
temperature of super giant stars enables them to give off
more light.
The magnitude scale of stars is used to describe
the apparent brightness of a star as seen from the earth.
The stars that look brightest have a magnitude of 1.
Those that are dimmer have a magnitude of 6.
Name:________________________ Score:______
%____
Section: __________
Teacher: __________________

ACTIVITY 12
DETERMINING THE RELATIONSHIP OF
COLOR AND
THE TEMPERATURE OF STARS
Procedures:

I. Put a number on the blank according to the


temperature of stars. Arrange it from lowest to
highest.
___________ Red
___________ Orange
___________ Bluish White
___________ Yellow
___________ White
II. Answer the following questions:

1. Which stars has the highest temperature? What


is its color?
________________________________________

2. Which star has the lowest temperature? What is


its color?
________________________________________

3. How do their temperature compare with the


sun?

________________________________________
________________________________________
_______________________________________
4. Is the temperature of a star is related to its color?
Explain your answer.

_________________________________________
_________________________________________
___________________________________
Lesson 3

THE
FORMATION
At the end of theOF
lessonSTARS
the pupils will be able to
• determine how stars were formed.
• appreciate the super nova, pulsar & the black hole.
• each group can report in front of the class what they
have learned.
Stars form when hydrogen atoms in space are
attracted to each other & clump together. The gas
begins to burn &the star shines. The larger a star is, the
shorter its life will be
A super nova is a huge star which has blown up
after running out of fuel. After it explodes, the star
collapses & debris is flung into space to form new stars
& planet. All that is left of the super nova is a small
neutron star.

Fig.3.3.1 Super Nova Star


Pulsar is a spinning neutron star, left behind after
a large super nova explosion. It is called a pulsar
because of the pulses, or flashes of energy, it sends out
as it spins.

Fig.3.3.2 Pulsar Star


Black hole formed when squashed star has so much
gravity that it attracts other material, even light, towards it &
sucks it all in, so that it can never escape.

Fig.3.3.3 Black hole


STAR CONSTELLATION APPARENT MAGNITUDE
Aldebaran Taurus 1.0
Rigel Orion 0.3
Capella Auriga 0.2
Sirius Canis major 1.6
Pollux Gemini 1.2
Shaula Scorpios 1.7
Sun 26.5
Polaris 2.1
Table 6. A List of Stars and their apparent magnitude.
Fig.3.3.4 Vega Stars
Fig.3.3.5 Betelgeuse Star

Fig.3.3.5 Rigel Stars


Fig.3.3.6 Arcturus Star
The astronomers talk of light- years when they
describe the distance of the star Scientist measure the
distance of stars in terms of light years. a light year is the
distance light travels in one year at a speed of 300,000
kilometers per second. The light of some stars reaches the
earth after hundred of the years & some after a thousand
or more years to express these distances in terms of
kilometers would make use of as many as 15 digit
numbers1 how do you read 15 digit numbers?
STAR DISTANCE (light-
years)
Alpha Centauri 4.3
Sirius 8.7
Vega 26.5
Betelgeuse 520
Denelo 1600

Table 7. The distances of some stars from the earth in light years.
Life History of a star

During the early stage of the star’s revolution, the


temperature rises due to nuclear reactions within the star.
The young star then becomes a mature white star, like
the sun. Eventually, a star will undergo a new series of
internal reactions within the star.

Most astronomers agree that the general events in


thee life cycle of a typical star are as follows:
1. Clouds of interstellar material or nebulae, made up of
dust, hydrogen and other gases begin to contract as a
result mostly of gravitational attraction. The greater the
mass of instellar material, the faster the contraction into a
protostar.

2. As the protostar continues to contract, its


temperature rises soon it becomes hot enough to allow
nuclear reaction and it begins to generate its own,
supply of radiant energy. A star is born!

3. The stars position in the main sequence of the H-R


diagram depends on its mass. It will continue to radiate
energy.
4. As more and more hydrogen its converted into
helium, the star’s core begins to collapse.

5. Soon the temperature at the star’s core becomes so


high that other nuclear reactions take place. If the
nuclear reactions in the core would continue at a rapid
rate, the large star may explode into a supernova.

6. When the star’s hydrogen supply has been


exhausted, what remains of the star begins to collapse
due to gravitational attraction.
Name:________________________ Score:______
%____
Section: __________
Teacher: __________________

ACTIVITY 13
FORMATION OF STARS
PROCEDURE:

I. Answer the following questions:

2. How a star formed?

_______________________________________
_______________________________________
_____________________________________
2. What is the so-called life cycle of a star?

_______________________________________
_______________________________________
_____________________________________
3. Does a star last forever or does it ends? Explain
your answer.

______________________________________________
______________________________________________
_______________________

4. Why that the larger a star is, the shorter its life will
be?

______________________________________________
______________________________________________
_______________________
Lesson 4
THE
CONSTELLATIONS
At the end of the lesson the pupils will be able to
• know the meaning of constellation & the different
constellation.
• differentiate the North Polar Constellation to South
Polar constellation.
• draw the constellation in Zodiac.
Have you ever experienced observing the sky on
a clear dark night & recognized loose groups of stars
arranged in a pattern?
Star clusters are hundreds or thousands of
associated stars..Star clusters arrange in definite
pattern from constellation. These constellations are
usually named after gods, heroes & animals. After
constellation like the Ursa, major, Draco &
Cassiopeia are always visible around Polaris the
North Star.

The polar constellation seen in the northern


skies called the north polar constellation &
constellation seen in the southern skies called the
south polar constellation.
Visible stars are usually named by their
location in a constellation and by their degree of
brightness with respect to the other stars of the
constellation. The letters of the Greek alphabet are
used to indicate rank. Thus, Alpha (a) Lyrae is the
brightest star in the constellation of Lyra, the lyre:
Beta (b) Pagasae is the second brightest star in
Pegasus, the winged horse, Cysoon. Many of the
brightest stars have individual names in addition. The
five brightest stars of the northern sky, in order of
their brightest, are called Sirius, Canopuss, Vega,
Capella and Arcturus.
The motion of the earth as it turns on its axis
makes the constellations seem to move trough the sky.
They seem as if they were on a transparent globe
surrounding the earth. If the axis of the earth were
extended out into space it would also form the axis of
this imaginary globe on which stars appear to be located.
From the northern half of the earth, all stars seem to turn
around a point in the sky, called the celestial North Pole.
A star located directly on the celestial North Pole would
not appear to move.
The North Star, called Polaris, is very close to
the celestial North Pole. It seems to move only very
slightly. All other stars follow circular paths around the
celestial pole. However, those farther to the south are
visible for only a part of their total path. These stars
rise in the eastern part of the sky and set in the west as
they pass out of view behind the earth.
Fig.3.4.1 The Constellations
Constellations in the Zodiac

Zodiac is an imaginary celestial belt whose


outer limits lie on both sides of the apparent yearly
path of the sun & the paths of the planet. Zodiac
constellation divides into twelve equal zones of 30co
each they are. Aries (the ram); Taurus (the bull);
Gemini (the twins); Cancer (the crab); Leo (the lion);
Virgo (the virgin); Libra (the balance); Scorpio (the
Scorpion); Sagittarius (the archer); Capricorn (the
goat); Aquarius (the water carrier); & Pisces (the
fishes);.
Fig.3.4.2 Constellations of the Zodiac
Name:________________________ Score:______
%____
Section: __________
Teacher: __________________

ACTIVITY 14
KNOWING THE CONSTELLATION OF
ZODIAC
MATERIALS:

Picture of the constellation of zodiac


List of Zodiac Sign

PROCEDURES:

1. Study the picture of the constellation of zodiac.


2. Know your zodiac sign.
3. In the box make a pattern of constellation of your
zodiac sign using a dot showing the formation of star to
form a constellation.
4. Trace it as how they look.
Name:________________________
Score:______%_______
Section: _________
Teacher: _________________

CHAPTER TEST III

Multiple Choice. Direction: Encircle the best answer.


1. Which of the following does not affect the color of
the star?
a. Shape
b. Size
c. Surface
d. Age or stage

2. What do you called a huge group of billions of stars


that move through space as a unit?
a. Milky Way
b. Galaxy
c. Andromeda Galaxy
d. Elliptical
3. The group of stars that forms images of animals,
heroes or gods is a ________.
a. Solar System
b. Galaxy
c. Milky Way
d. Constellation
4. The apparent brightness of star due to their size
and distance from earth is called _____________.
a. Apparent magnitude
b. Light year
c. Color
d. Size
5. Which color of the star is the hottest?
a. Yellow
b. Bluish White
c. Red
d. White

6. Which of the following is the color of a young star?


a. Red star
b. Yellow star
c. Bluish white star
d. Both a and b.
7. Which star is an exploding star?
a. Supernova
b. Black dwarf
c. Black hole
d. White dwarf

8. As a star gets older, it changes in a ______________.


a. Bluish white star
b. Yellow star
c. Red star
d. White star
9. It is a unit for distance used in describing instellar
distances.
a. Apparent magnitude
b. Protostar
c. Supernova
d. Light year
10. It is a constellation divides into twelve equal zones of
300C each.
a. Big dipper
b. Zodiac
c. Sirius
d. Lyrae
At the end of this chapter the pupils will be able to
• define the earth.
• know how far is the Earth from the sun, the gases that
formed the Earth
• cooperate in answering the following questions about
the planet Earth.

Fig.4.1 The Earth


The earth we live in is only one of the countless
objects found in space. Earth is one of the nine planets
that revolve around the sun as it rotates on its axis. The
earth is a planet that is almost spherical in shape & is
made up of land, water & air.

Earth is one of the smaller planets of the solar


system. Its diameter is 7,926 miles through the poles and
about 27 miles greater at the equator. The earth’s
rotation has apparently caused this slight bulge. The
earth is much closer too perfect sphere, however, than
some of the larger planets such as Jupiter and Saturn.
Like most of the planets, the earth is surrounded
by a thick blanket of gases. The earth atmosphere is
unusual in that it contains a large amount of free
oxygen. This gas is not found. Its appreciable amount of
water it possesses.

The one characteristics of the earth that makes it


stand out among the planets is its weight compared to
its size, the earth is denser than any other planet. In
density, the earth is distinctly unusual. It has the highest
density of any other except possibly Pluto, whose
density is unknown.
Lesson 1
STRUCTURE OF
EARTH’S
ATMOSPHERE
At the end of the lesson the pupils will be able to
• know the structure of the earth’s atmosphere.
• become aware about the Earth’s atmosphere.
• participate in class discussion about structure of
earth’s atmosphere.
Fig.4.1.1. Structure of the Earth’s Atmosphere
Troposphere is the layer of the atmosphere
closest to the earth’s surface. It has an average height
of 13 kilometers. It is here where whether phenomena
occur.

On top of the troposphere is the tropopause, the


layer that separates the troposphere from the
stratosphere. It is about 17 kilometers thick at the
equator and 6.4 kilometers at the poles.
The stratosphere is the weather less part of the
atmosphere. It extends from the tropopause to an altitude
of about 32 kilometers. There are no clouds and air
movement is fairly uniform in this layer. Beyond this
layer, there is a gradual rise of temperature until the
stratopause. The stratopause is around 50 kilometers
above the earth’s surface. The upper part of the
stratopause is the ozonosphere. It consists of oxygen
molecules called ozone that filters the ultraviolet rays
from the sun. These layers are essential for the survival
of life on earth.

Above the stratosphere is the mesosphere which


extends about 80 kilometers above the earth. The
temperature here decreases with height until the
mesopause.
The thermosphere is the layers that extend
upward from the mesopause. Air here is exceedingly
thin.

The ionosphere is the layer extending about 640


kilometers beyond the earth’s surface. It is composed of
electrically charged particles called ions. These charged
particles are caused by strong cosmic rays. The
ionosphere is responsible for the transmission of radio
waves used in broad casting. It also protects us from
falling meteors. The northern lights called aurora
borealis and the southern lights known as aurora
australis originate in the ionosphere. The exosphere is
the highest layer of the atmosphere. It is about 16,000 to
28,000 kilometers above the earth’s surface.
Name:________________________ Score:______
%____
Section: __________
Teacher: __________________

ACTIVITY 15
IDENTIFYING THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE
MATERIAL:

An illustration of the earth’s atmosphere

PROCEDURES:

I. Examine the layers of the earth’s atmosphere as


shown in the illustration.
II. Draw the earth’s atmosphere
III. Label it as the troposphere, stratosphere,
mesosphere and the ionosphere.
IV. Describe each layer of the earth’s atmosphere.

___________________________________________
___________________________________________
_____________________________
Lesson 2
THE LAYERS OF
THE EARTH
At the end of the lesson the pupils will be able to
• know the three layers of the Earth
• describe the three layers and its composition.
• make an illustration showing the characteristics of
the three layers
What is inside the earth? In gravel quarries on
mountain side opened for road – building we see layers
of soil & rocks. We sometimes ask ourselves. “Is the
earth composed of soil & rocks all throughout?” What
have geologists learned about the earth’s composition?
Fig.4.2 Layers of the Earth
The Crust

The surface makes up the earth’s crust or the


outermost layer of the earth. Scientist believe that the
earth’s crust consist of an upper crust & a lower crust.
The upper crust is made up of granite rock formed from
magma rich in silicon & oxygen. Scientist have called
this layer the sial, from a combination of the first two
letters of the names of the two most abundant elements
founding it, silicon (Si) & aluminum (Al). The lower
crust is made up of basalt like rock. Basalt is a dark
colored igneous rock formed from magma rich in iron,
silicon & magnesium. Scientist have called this layer
the sima, from silicon (Si) & magnesium (Mg), the two
most abundant elements found in the lower crust.
Mantle

The mantle is the thickest layer of the earth


extending to a depth about 2900 kilometers. It is made
mostly of very hot rocks containing silica, oxygen,
magnesium, iron & aluminum. Mantle rocks are
different from rocks in the crust. They are more tightly
packed & therefore, have a much higher temperature.
The temperature is so high that some of them,
especially those near the core, are partly melted.
Scientist believes that the temperature ranges from
860oc in the upper part of the mantle to about 2200oc
in the lower mantle.
Core

The innermost part of the earth is the core. the


core has two layer the outer core consists of molten
iron & nicked. This outer surrounds an inner core
consisting of solid iron & nickel.

The core is the hottest part of the earth.


Estimated temperature of boiling water is 100oc which
is enough to burn your skin.
Name:________________________ Score:______
%____
Section: __________
Teacher: __________________

ACTIVITY 16
KNOWING THE LAYERS OF THE EARTH
MATERIAL:
Illustration of the layers of the earth
PROCEDURES:
1. Study the illustration.
2. Draw the earth showing the earth’s layers on the box.
3. Make a table showing the characteristics of the three
(3) layers of the Earth. Fill up the information needed.

Layers of the earth Characteristics


Lesson 3

THE WATER CYCLE

At the end of the lesson the pupils will be able to


• explain the importance of water cycle.
• be aware of the different stages of Water Cycle.
• enumerate the stages of Water Cycle.
Fig.4.3.1 The Water Cycle
Water Cycle or hydrologic cycle remaining water
of the earth follows an unending sequence of
evaporation, precipitation, runoff, and storage. The cycle
may be illustrated in terms of a limited area. The average
rainfall for the United States is about 30 inches per year.
This varies from the 100-inch totals in the Pacific
Northwest to the 5 inches or less that fall in the deserts.
Of the 30 inches of annual precipitation, 5 1/2 inches
runs off directly into streams or travels through the
uppermost soil layers and enters the nearest stream
channel. Another 3 inches seeps down through the soil to
the ground water table. After flowing through round
about subterranean paths, it eventually reaches stream
channels or flows directly to the sea. The remaining 21 ½
inches evaporated into the atmosphere from the soil,
from plants, or from the surfaces of lakes and streams.
Fig.4.3.2 Showing the Evaporation of Water
Thus the amount of water returned to the
atmosphere by evaporation is about 70 percent of the
total precipitation the land. It might seem logical to
assume that most of the precipitation is simply the
return of the recently evaporated moisture. Until a few
years ago, this was generally accepted as correct. It was
supposed that evaporation from lakes and large rivers
or forests made the climate of the immediate vicinity
appreciably rainier. Measurements over a long period
do show that large amounts of water are lost by
evaporation. However, they also show that this
moisture is quickly carried away by air movements and
does not return to the land. Most of it falls into the sea
as rain.
The oceans are the source of most of the water
received by the land surfaces. Rainfall is produced from
the moist air that has moved over the sea surface, the
over land. Here it meets conditions that cause it to
precipitate its water vapor. Air currents moving from the
land to the sea actually function as great invisible rivers
which carry water back to the sea. These rivers in the
sky are far mightier than any of the surface streams,
which carry only a small fraction of the total water
received by the land.
The oceans, then, are the basic source of water for
the hydrologic cycle. The moist air must generally come
to the land from the sea. Thus the direction of air
movements is of great importance in determining the
rainfall received at any location. Without the constant
flow of the sea air, precipitation usually does not occur
and a dry climate results.
Name:________________________ Score:______
%____
Section: __________
Teacher: __________________

ACTIVITY 17
KNOWING THE SEQUENCE OF WATER
CYCLE
MATERIAL:
Illustration of the water cycle

PROCEDURE:
1. Study the illustration of the water cycle.
2. Draw the water cycle and label every stage.
3. Explain the different stages of the water cycle.

_________________________________________
_________________________________________
_________________________________

4. How does the water move?

_________________________________________
_________________________________________
_________________________________
Lesson 4

THE ROCKS

At the end of the lesson the pupils will be able to


• know what rock is.
• be aware on different types of rocks and their
texture.
• differentiate the different types of rocks.
What is rock? We think of rocks as small pieces
of hard substances that vary widely in color and texture.
However, in earth science, the word applies to great
masses of material that cover large areas of the earth.
The smaller rocks we know are merely fragments
broken from large masses that may extend for many
miles. The study of rocks is called petrology.
Rocks are classified in several ways: by their
origin, their mineral composition, their texture, and
their color. The last three properties may be
determined directly by examinations of rock samples.
Origin can be determined indirectly according to
theories developed from experience and observation of
geologists over the years. It can also be determined
from the evidence of the rocks themselves and the
circumstances in which they were found.
Igneous Rocks

Fig.4.4.1 Igneous Rocks


Rock origins. The composition of rocks reveals much
of their origin. Most rocks are mixtures of the minerals.
Some rocks, such as coal, are of organic origin. As we
have seen, the rock-forming minerals are relatively few.
However, the number of possible mixtures is many. This
makes classification difficult. One type of rock grades
into another by small degrees. The colors, textures, and
other properties of the minerals cause great variety of
appearance. Nevertheless, certain features of rocks
provide clues to the circumstances under which the rock
masses where formed. These features indicate whether
the rock are igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic.
Sometimes it is obvious that metamorphic rocks were
formerly either igneous or sedimentary types. Some
metamorphic rocks, however, may be so changed that
their origin cannot be determined.
The formation of igneous rocks. The hot liquid
magma, which is the source of the igneous rocks, comes
from deep within the earth’s crust. Scientist believes that
the material below the earth’s surface, though very hot, is
kept in a rigid state by the great pressures in the depths.
If the pressure is lessened at any place, the material
becomes liquid. This forms a body of magma. The
magma may work its way upward through the overlying
layers of rock. The heat and pressure of magma may
cause the rocks above to move or breakup. This makes
room for magma to rise. The processes probably
hastened by melting of the overlying rock. The hot
magma may then break through cracks in the earth’s
surface. Then the molten rock or lava spreads over wide
areas of the land. A small cone or large mountain of rock
may form at the opening.
The term volcano is used for both the opening
and the accumulation of material. Magma that reaches
the surface cools to form extrusive rocks. Literally,
these rocks have been “push out”. Such rocks are
usually glassy or finely crystalline in texture. Large
crystals have not have time to develop. Sometimes the
rock that overlies the mass of magma prevents it from
reaching the surface. Then the magma cools slowly to
form intrusive or plutonic rocks. These have a coarser
texture, composed of masses of larger crystalline grains
of varying sizes. Intrusive rocks are often exposed by
erosion of the overlying rocks.
Sedimentary Rocks

Fig.4.4.2 Sedimentary Rocks


The formation of sedimentary rocks. The
weathering of granite illustrates the general process of
formation of sedimentary rocks. First a large mass of
granite may be exposed when the overlying rocks are
weathered and eroded. Gradually, wind and weather
break up the surface of granite. Some of this
decomposed rock waste remains on the surface to form
part of the residual soil. Some of it is carried away by
wind an streams and deposited elsewhere, making up
part of transported soil. A considerable amount of soil
and broken bits of rock is carried by streams to bodies of
water such as lakes or oceans. The streams themselves
help to break up the granite as they flow over its surface,
carving out a bed. The faster a stream flows, the more it
can carry away.
Thus the materials are carried away in two forms.
Solid fragments of both decomposed and
undecomposed rock {clays, sands, pebbles, and
boulders} are mechanically carried. Materials derived
from chemical decomposition of minerals {carbonates
of potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, iron, etc.
together with sulfates and chlorides of the above
elements} are carried in solution.
When the solid materials enter a sea or lake,
assorting, or grading takes place. In this respect the sea
may be likened to a series of graded sieves. As a stream
enters the sea, its speed of flow, and therefore its ability
to transport solid material, s lessened. This causes the
stream to drop the coarsest materials of its load first.
This, if left undisturbed, may later form conglomerate.
As the stream proceeds, its speed becomes less and
less.
Correspondingly finer and finer materials are
deposited. Ranging from coarse sand to very fine sand.
These materials will become sandstone. Finally, the
force of the stream is entirely spent. There still remain
suspended in the sea exceedingly small particles of clay
and other finely divided materials. These particles often
give the ocean a muddy appearance near the mouth of a
river. This is especially true in times of heavy rains over
the lands drained by the river. The particles drift out to
deep water, where they eventually settle in layers to
form shale.
The amount and quality of the rock waste
entering the sea varies from very large amounts to
practically nothing, depending on weather and other
factors. Also, the current entering the sea is at times
much stronger than at others. As a result, zones of
sedimentation are farther out at some times than at
others therefore deposition is subject to continual
variations, overlappings and interruption. These
variations cause the layers of sediments to stand out
more or less distinctly. The deposits show bedding
planes or sedimentation lines which are often
conspicuous in sandstones and shales.
As time goes on these sediments are converted
into rocks. The sands are slowly cemented together by
small amounts of substances, usually dissolved from
the sands themselves. These cementing substances are
deposited upon and between the particles, gradually
filling the spaces between the grains of sand. The main
cementing substances are silicon dioxide, calcium
carbonate and ferric oxide.
Metamorphic Rocks

Fig.4.4.3 Metamorphic Rock


The effects of the forces that shape the surface of
the earth are far-reaching. The rocks of the crust are
warped, folded, and compressed by tremendous heat and
pressure. These may result from broad adjustments of the
crust to igneous intrusion, the weight of accumulated
sedimentary rocks, and earth movements due to various
other causes. Heat and pressure bring about both physical
and chemical changes in the rock-forming minerals.
Thus, the rocks may also be very much altered by these
factors. The heat at the contact areas of intrusions may
cause recrystallization of minerals in the surrounding
rocks.
Beds of sedimentary rocks may be folded so
sharply that there is tearing, Stretching, and mashing of
the minerals. Gases and liquids escaping from the
magma of intrusions may penetrate the surrounding
rocks. Some new minerals are formed by this process.
Chemical reactions between existing minerals may
produce large crystals of garnet or other common
metamorphic minerals. When rocks are buried deeply,
the heat of the depths of the earth also brings about
chemical changes.
The most noticeable effect of metamorphism on a
rock is foliation. This characteristic serves to divide
these rocks into two groups. In foliated rocks, the
minerals are drawn out, flattened, and arranged in
parallel layers or bands. Rocks that contain mica or iron
magnesium minerals show foliation. These minerals
tend to form flakes or needles, growing larger in certain
directions only. This tendency is increased by pressure
that squeezes and mashes the grains as they form.
Foliated rocks tend to split parallel to the banding.
Unfoliated rocks fracture without definite pattern.
The rock is
coarse- ROCK KEY
grained.

Grains are Crystals are


present. present.
No

SEDIMEN- Knife blade


TARY can scratch Is it glossy?
ROCKS it.

Yes No Yes No

METAMOR- It contains Knife-blade


IGNEOUS
PHIC dark and light can scratch
bands.
ROCK
ROKCS it.

Yes No Yes No

METAMOR- It contains It contains


IGNEOUS
PHIC one kind of dark and
ROCKS
ROCKS mineral. light.

Yes No Yes No

METAMOR- METAMOR- SEDIMEN-


IGNEOUS
PHIC PHIC TARY
ROCKS
Name:________________________ Score:______
%____
Section: __________
Teacher: __________________

ACTIVITY 18
IDENTIFYING AND DIFFERENTIATING
IGNEOUS, SEDIMENTARY AND
METAMORPHIC ROCKS
MATERIALS:

Sample of rocks Magnifying Glass


Knife Hammer

PROCEDURE:

1.The teacher will group your class.


2.Place the rocks on the table. Label each sample from a,
b and c.
3.Observe each under the magnifying glass.
4.Scratch each rock using a knife blade. Observe.
5.Pound each with a hammer. Observe.
6. Enter your observations in a table.

ROCKS CHARACTERISTICS

COLOR HARDNESS TEXTURE


7. Enter your observations in a table.

_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
_________________________

8. Describe an igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic


rock.
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
_________________________
Name:________________________
Score:______%_______
Section: _________
Teacher: _________________

CHAPTER TEST IV

Multiple Choice. Direction: Encircle the best answer.


1. What is the planet we are live in?
a. Earth c. Mars
b. Jupiter d. Saturn

2. What layer of the atmosphere is closest to the


earth’s surface?
a. Troposphere c. Mesosphere
b. Stratosphere d. Ionosphere

3. This is the weather less part of the atmosphere.


a. Mesosphere c. Troposphere
b. Stratosphere d. Ionosphere
4. How many layers our planet has?
a. 1 c. 3
b. 2 d. 4

5. What is the outer most layer of the earth?


a. Crust c. Core
b. Mantle d. Outer Core

6. What is the thickest layer of the earth?


a. Mantle c. Crust
b. Core d. Outer Core
7. What is the inner most part of the earth?
a. Outer Core c. Mantle
b. Crust d. Core

8. It is the unending sequence of water such as


evaporation, precipitation, runoff and storage?
a. Water cycle c. Ocean
b. Sea d. Water Vapor

9. It is produced from the moist air that has moved


over the sea surface to over land?
a. Flood c. Climate
b. typhoon d. Rainfall
10. This is the basic source of water for the
hydrologic cycle?
a. Oceans c. Seas
b. River d. Lakes
11. A small piece of hard substances that vary
widely in color and texture is called
_____________.
a. Sediment c. Rock
b. Clays d. Magma
12. Rocks that form from hot liquid magma is called
____________.
a. Metamorphic Rock c. Marble
b. Igneous Rock d. Sedimentary Rock

13. A rock that form when carried away by water, wind


and formed from materials precipitated from solution
in water is called ____________.
a. Limestone c. Metamorphic Rock
b. Sedimentary Rock d. Igneous Rock
14. It is the most noticeable effect of metamorphism on
a rock.
a. Hematite c. Limonite
b. Crystallization d. Foliation

15. It is the evidences of animals or plants that were


buried when the sediment was deposited.
a. Sands c. Pebbles
b. Clays d. Fossils
Books

Barnham, Kay and Ford, Harry ( 2006 ). Hot


Topic Space. London: Alligator Book Limited

Coronel, Carmelita C..et.al (1999). Science and


Health Textbook for Grade V, Quezon City: SD
Publication,Inc.

Cruz, Juanita et.al (2003). IntoThe Future :


Science and Health. Makati City: Diwa Scholastic
Press Inc.
Felecita, Corazon N. and Pinar, Lecita B. (2006).
Breaking Through Integrated Science , Quezon
Ave: C&E Publishing Inc.

Flores, Alvin C. and Rabago, Lilia M. (2003).


Dynamic Science an Integration of Physical and
Biological Science Modular Approach, Quezon
City: Vibal Publishing House,Inc.

Ilarde , Isabelina and Realuya, Zenaida M. (1987).


Today”s Basic Concepts In Earth Science. Sta.
Cruz Manila: Goodwill Trading Co., Inc.
Mingoa,Thelma R.et.al (2006 ). Exploring and
Protecting Our World. Davao: Vibal Publishing
House, Inc.

Thomson, Graham R. and Turk, Jonathan (1995).


Earth Science and The Environment. Usa:
Sounders College Publishing, Inc.
PHOTO CREDITS
Chapter 1
Opener: From http://www.flickr.com/
1.1 (Big Bang Theory): From http://www.iteachmykid.org/
1.2 (Big Crunch Theory): From http://ca.geocities.com/
1.3 (Steady State Theory): From http://www.gilsononline.karoo.net/
1.4 (Nebular or Dust Cloud Theory): From http://www.astro.phast.umass.edu/

Chapter 2
Opener: From http://astro.cf.ac.uk/
2.1 (Sun): From http://www-istp.gspc.nasa.gov/
2.2: From http://www.gpe.edu/
2.3.1 (Mercury): From http://www.novoaemfolha.com/
2.3.2 (Venus): From http://www.easy2search.info/
2.3.4 (Mars): From http://www.nibaru.nl/
2.3.4.1 : From http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/
2.3.5 (Jupiter): From http://www.blinde-kuh.de/
2.3.5.1 : http://www.the-planet-jupiter.com/
2.3.6 (Saturn): From http://boojum.as.arizona.edu/
2.3.7 (Uranus): From http://www.scholastic.com/
2.3.8 (Neptune): From http://www.mikeoates.org/
2.3.8.1: From http://stardate.org/
2.3.9 (Pluto): From http://schoolhousevideo.org/
2.3.10: From http://www.astro.virginia.edu/
2.5.1: From http://www.thegraceacademy.org/
2.5.2: From http://www.onr.navy.mil/
2.6: From http://singingsun.com/
2.7 (Moon): From http://www.yankeerobotics.com/
2.8: From http://www.utahskies.org/
2.9.1 (Solar Eclipse): From http://home.cwru.edu/
2.3.7 (Uranus): From http://www.scholastic.com/
2.3.8 (Neptune): From http://www.mikeoates.org/
2.3.8.1: From http://stardate.org/
2.3.9 (Pluto): From http://schoolhousevideo.org/
2.3.10: From http://www.astro.virginia.edu/
2.5.1: From http://www.thegraceacademy.org/
2.5.2: From http://www.onr.navy.mil/
2.6: From http://singingsun.com/
2.7 (Moon): From http://www.yankeerobotics.com/
2.8: From http://www.utahskies.org/
2.9.1 (Solar Eclipse): From http://home.cwru.edu/
2.9.2 (Lunar Eclipse): From http://www.windows.ucar.edu/
2.9.3 (Spring Tide): From http://www.astunit.com/
2.9.4 (Neap Tide): From http://www.astunit.com/
2.10.1 (Asteroids): From http://astro.berkeley.edu/
2.10.2: From http://www.eso-garden.com/
2.10.3: From http://www.aftertek.com/
2.10.4: From http://apod.nasa.gorv/
2.10.5: From http://www.galaxyphoto.com

Chapter 3
Opener: From http://www.rps.psu.edu/
3.1: From http://ovnis21.4t.com/
3.1.1: From http://www.flickr.com/
3.1.2: From http://www.wolaver.org/
3.1.3 (Spiral Galaxy): From http://www.religiousworlds.com/
3.1.4 (Barred Spiral Galaxy): From http:/r/www.flickr.com/
3.1.5 (Elliptical Galaxy): From http://www.flickr.com/
3.1.6 (Irregular galaxy): From http://sci.esa.int/
3.2.1: From http://lithops.as.arizona.edu/
3.2.2: From http://www.le.ac.uk/
3.3.1 (Super nova Star): From http://45870.rapidforum.com/
3.3.2 (Pulsar Star): From http://wrww.grantchronicles.com/
3.3.4 (Vega Star): From http://www.windows.ucar.edu/
3.3.5 (Betelgeuse Star): From http://www.dust.bunny.com/
3.3.6 (Rigel Stars): From http://www.windows.ucar.edu/
3.3.7 (Arcturus Star): From http://www.windows.ucar.edu/
3.4.1 (Constellations): From http://wwwstephaniebrooks.com/
3.4.2: From http://physics.fortlewis.edu/
Chapter 4
Opener (Revised): From 1. http://volcano.und.edu/
2. http://wp.li-ru/natural/nature/
4.1: From http://mrnizz.blogspot.com
4.1.1: From http://www.boseobel.k12.wi.us/
4.2: from http://www.travel-university.org/
4.3.1 (Water Cycle): from http://student.acu.edu/
4.3.2: From http://ellerbrunch.nmu.edu/
4.4.1 (Revised): From 1. http://www.flickr.com/ 2.
http://www.scottsdalecc.edu/ 4.4.2 (Revised): From 1&2
http://www.scottsdalecc.edu/
4.4.3 (Revised): From http://ratw.asu.edu/
Curriculum Vitae
Of the Authors,
Module Consultant
and Module Adviser
NAME : Cryster C. Sagritalo
ADDRESS : #161 Isla Street Pangil, Laguna
CELL NUMBER : 09186322494
E-MAIL ADD : cryster_sagritalo@yahoo.com
BIRTHDAY : January 28, 1990
EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

ELEMENTARY : Pangil Central Elementary School


Pangil, Laguna

SECONDARY : Laguna State Polytechnic College


Siniloan, Laguna

TERTIARY : Laguna State Polytechnic University


Siniloan, Laguna

COURSE : Bachelor in Elementary Education

MAJOR : General Elementary Education


NAME : Jennifer F. Calabita
ADDRESS : #90 P. Burgos St. Siniloan, Laguna
CELL NUMBER : 09098013671
E-MAIL ADD : jennifer_calabita@yahoo.com
BIRTHDAY : January 13, 1990
EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

ELEMENTARY : Buhay Elementary School


Siniloan, Laguna

SECONDARY : Siniloan National High School


Siniloan, Laguna

TERTIARY : Laguna State Polytechnic University


Siniloan, Laguna

COURSE : Bachelor in Elementary Education

MAJOR : General Elementary Education


NAME : Maricel T. Taghap
ADDRESS : Brgy. Igtuble, Tubungan, Iloilo
CELL NUMBER : 09214252040
E-MAIL ADD : ycel_taghap@yahoo.com
BIRTHDAY : May 4, 1983
EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

ELEMENTARY : Igtuble Elementary School


Tubungan, Iloilo

SECONDARY : Tubungan, National High School


Tubungan, Iloilo

TERTIARY : Laguna State Polytechnic University


Siniloan, Laguna

COURSE : Bachelor in Elementary Education

MAJOR : General Elementary Education


NAME : Sandra P. Mesina
ADDRESS : #69 Gen. Cailles Street
Cavinti, Laguna
CELL NUMBER : 09183134589
E-MAIL ADD : spmesina@yahoo.com
BIRTHDAY : September 4, 1977
EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

ELEMENTARY : Siniloan Elementary School


Siniloan, Laguna

SECONDARY : Laguna State Polytechnic College


Siniloan, Laguna

TERTIARY : Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila


Intramuros, Manila

COURSE : Bachelor of Science in Biology


NAME : For – Ian V. Sandoval
ADDRESS : Siniloan, Laguna
CELL NUMBER : 09162217711
E-MAIL ADD : fvsandoval@yahoo.com
BIRTHDAY : April 5, 1979
EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

ELEMENTARY : Palasan Elementary School


Sta. Cruz, Laguna
SECONDARY : Union College of Laguna
Sta. Cruz, Laguna

TERTIARY : Far Eastern University


COURSE : Bachelor of Science in Mathematics
MAJOR : Major in Computer Science

Bachelor in Secondary Education


(18 units)

MASTER’S DEGREE : Master of Arts in Education

MAJOR : Educational Management


(undergraduate)