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Kiln Gas Bypass Systems

■ Complete customised solutions


■ Reduced off-gas volume
■ High efficiency and reliability
KILN GAS BYPASS SYSTEMS

MAIN FEATURES The key to good performance


All bypass systems are not created equal-
• Dual layer dip tube ly. At the take-off point from the kiln
system, a properly designed quench mix-
• Quench air inlet flap ing chamber is critical for the highest
valve performance efficiency and minimum
interference to stable kiln operation.
• Control scheme for
FLSmidth has developed such a chamber
maximum stability
through a number of innovative design
features.
• Special lining design in
Kiln gas bypass systems have tradition-
transition pipe section
ally only been used in regions where the
local raw materials are naturally high in
• Constant force support
system chloride, sulfur or alkalis. The growing
use of alternative fuels and other materi-
• Multiple layout possibil- als is also increasing the input of chlo- rience with the design and use of kiln
ities ride to kiln systems to the point that bypass systems. While the fundamental
may require a bypass in order to main- principles of a bypass system have not
tain process stability or product quality. changed, state-of-the-art technology
FLSmidth has extensive, long-term expe- and design tools have been incorporated
to improve bypass efficiency and max-
imise reliability. Most projects today will
at least have the space for a future small
chloride bypass (less than 10%) with
respect to use of alternative fuels and
materials.

CFD stream lines

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Dual layer dip tube CFD temperature map

A dip tube eliminates short-circuiting of


quench air directly to the outlet of the
chamber. The dip tube ensures that the
complete amount of quench air always
enters the gas swirl and mixes with the
kiln gas.
As the dip tube is exposed to the cold
quench air on the outside and the hot
kiln gas on the inside, it is designed as a
dual cone system with a thermal insula-
tion between the two steel sections. This
ensures long life time of the compo-
nents. By keeping the inside hot, the risk
of sticky build ups on the inside is min-
imised.

Quench air inlet flap valve


The quench air inlet flap valve offers control
of the inlet velocity which enables the swirl notably oxygen level and temperature, of having surface areas exposed to
and the mixing of hot gas and cold air to remain constant despite any operational either higher or lower temperatures than
be optimised in a wide capacity span. The disturbances. anticipated, which could create structur-
flap valve is operated with an electrical lin- al failure on hot areas and severe con-
ear actuator. Thermal insulation in transition pipe densation on cold surfaces, is also elimi-
To keep the surface of the transition pipe nated.
before the quench chamber hot, it is
equipped with a highly insulating lining Reduced off-gas volume
design. This effectively reduces any poten- Good mixing allows operation with high
tial for build-up in this area. exit temperature from the mixing cham-
ber so that a higher proportion of the
Constant force support system cooling may be provided by water
The complete quench chamber is support- instead of air. In this way the volume of
ed in a constant force spring system, gas to be treated by a filter installation
which eliminates the need for a thermal and later discarded is greatly reduced.
expansion joint on the transition pipe with- This can be translated into reduced
out stressing the structure of the riser duct. investment and/or operational costs
(kWh per kg gas removed) for the
Superior mixing of hot kiln gas and quench air blower, filter, bypass fan,
Bypass system quench chamber cold air ductwork, and stack.
Superior mixing of hot gas and cold air
System control is created by the inlet flap and the dip Reduced risk of build ups in transi-
The flow rates of the quench air and tube for a wide capacity span. Good tion pipe
mixed gas after the quench chamber are mixing is synonymous with an even tem- The special lining concept and no
measured continuously, so that the exact perature profile, which is one of the requirement of a thermal expansion joint
amount of gas extracted from the kiln overall criteria for optimum operation of in the transition pipe generates a hot
system is known at all times. Control the chamber. Local areas with high tem- and smooth surface which greatly
loops will maintain flow stability so that peratures and increased stickiness of reduces the risk of getting build-ups in
the burning zone conditions of the kiln, dust are effectively avoided. The problem this critical area.

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Layout Arrangements Controller
FLSmidth offers a number of different
solutions for bypass installations to fit
specific plant requirements and layout.
The traditional arrangement with spray
tower and fabric bag filter is shown in
Optional H2O
the schematic. Cyclone

Other system types could include:

• Small systems without the spray tower


and only bleed air cooling
• Systems that return the de-dusted gas
back to the preheater, calciner, clinker
cooler, or raw mill system
• Systems with return of coarse dust
fractions from the inlet section of the
filter back to the kiln system Full or partial kiln bypass systems are FLSmidth's solutions for kiln gas bypass
• Systems with cyclone to catch coarse available for both new and existing plant systems are further examples of the com-
dust fraction for return back to the installations, supported by a full Process mitment to being the preferred partner
kiln or cement grinding systems design assessment based on the type of and leading supplier of equipment and
kiln and the raw fuel and materials services to the global cement industry.
analyses. Complete supply is available
from FLSmidth with all the required
equipment and controls.

Our brochure makes no offers, representations or warranties (express or implied), and information and data contained in this brochure are for general
reference only and may change any time. Please contact us for specific information or data that may relate to your interests.

DENMARK USA INDIA


FLSmidth A/S FLSmidth Inc. FLSmidth Private Limited
10-07-000 FLSmidth

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www.flsmidth.com DK-2500 Valby Bethlehem, PA 18017-2188 34, Egatoor, Kelambakkam
Copenhagen Tel: +1 610-264-6011 (Rajiv Gandhi Salai – Chennai)
Up-to-date addresses of worldwide
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