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COVER PAGE

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

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HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINE POLITICAL SYSTEM

Date Event
01 January 2020

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HISTORY OF THE BRITISH POLITICAL SYSTEM

Date Event
01 January 2020

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THE PHILIPPINE AND THE BRITISH POLITICAL SYSTEMS

Salient Features Philippines United Kingdom


General Information
1. Background The Philippine Islands became a The United Kingdom has historically
Spanish colony during the 16th century; played a leading role in developing
they were ceded to the US in 1898 parliamentary democracy and in
following the Spanish-American War. In advancing literature and science. At
1935 the Philippines became a self- its zenith in the 19th century, the
governing commonwealth. Manuel British Empire stretched over one-
QUEZON was elected president and fourth of the earth's surface. The first
was tasked with preparing the country half of the 20th century saw the UK's
for independence after a 10-year strength seriously depleted in two
transition. In 1942 the islands fell under world wars and the Irish Republic's
Japanese occupation during World War withdrawal from the union. The
II, and US forces and Filipinos fought second half witnessed the
together during 1944-45 to regain dismantling of the Empire and the
control. On 4 July 1946 the Republic of UK rebuilding itself into a modern
the Philippines attained its and prosperous European nation. As
independence. A 21-year rule by one of five permanent members of
Ferdinand MARCOS ended in 1986, the UN Security Council and a
when a "people power" movement in founding member of NATO and the
Manila ("EDSA 1") forced him into exile Commonwealth, the UK pursues a
and installed Corazon AQUINO as global approach to foreign policy.
president. Her presidency was The Scottish Parliament, the
hampered by several coup attempts National Assembly for Wales, and
that prevented a return to full political the Northern Ireland Assembly were
stability and economic development. established in 1998.
Fidel RAMOS was elected president in The UK has been an active member
1992. His administration was marked by of the EU since its accession in
increased stability and by progress on 1973, although it chose to remain
economic reforms. In 1992, the US outside the Economic and Monetary
closed its last military bases on the Union. However, motivated in part by

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islands. Joseph ESTRADA was elected frustration at a remote bureaucracy
president in 1998. He was succeeded in Brussels and massive migration
by his vice-president, Gloria into the country, UK citizens on 23
MACAPAGAL-ARROYO, in January June 2016 narrowly voted to leave
2001 after ESTRADA's stormy the EU. The UK and the EU are
impeachment trial on corruption currently negotiating the terms of the
charges broke down and another UK's withdrawal and a framework for
"people power" movement ("EDSA 2") their future relationship ahead of the
demanded his resignation. UK's scheduled departure, now
MACAPAGAL-ARROYO was elected to tentatively set for 31 January 2020.
a six-year term as president in May
2004. Her presidency was marred by
several corruption allegations but the
Philippine economy was one of the few
to avoid contraction following the 2008
global financial crisis, expanding each
year of her administration. Benigno
AQUINO III was elected to a six-year
term as president in May 2010 and was
succeeded by Rodrigo DUTERTE in
May 2016.
The Philippine Government faces
threats from several groups, some of
which are on the US Government's
Foreign Terrorist Organization list.
Manila has waged a decades-long
struggle against ethnic Moro
insurgencies in the southern
Philippines, which led to a peace accord
with the Moro National Liberation Front
and a separate agreement with a break
away faction, the Moro Islamic
Liberation Front. The decades-long

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Maoist-inspired New People's Army
insurgency also operates through much
of the country. In 2017, Philippine
armed forces battled an ISIS-
Philippines siege in Marawi City, driving
DUTERTE to declare martial law in the
region. The Philippines faces increased
tension with China over disputed
territorial and maritime claims in the
South China Sea.

2. Official Name Republic of the Philippines United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland
3. Date Founded 4 July 1946 1 January 1801
4. Capital City Manila London
5. Nationality Filipino British
6. Motto “Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan “Dieu et mon droit” (God and my
at Makabansa” right)
(For the Love of God, People, Nature,
and Country)
7. National Anthem Lupang Hinirang God Save the Queen
8. Official Languages Filipino and English English
9. Ethnic Groups Tagalog 24.4%, Bisaya/Binisaya 11.4%, white 87.2%,
Cebuano 9.9%, Ilocano 8.8%, black/African/Caribbean/black British
Hiligaynon/Ilonggo 8.4%, Bikol/Bicol 3%, Asian/Asian British: Indian 2.3%,
6.8%, Waray 4%, other local ethnicity Asian/Asian British: Pakistani 1.9%,
26.1%, other foreign ethnicity .1% (2010 mixed 2%, other 3.7% (2011 est.)
est.)
10. Religions Roman Catholic 80.6%, Protestant Christian (includes Anglican, Roman
8.2% (includes Philippine Council of Catholic, Presbyterian, Methodist)
Evangelical Churches 2.7%, National 59.5%, Muslim 4.4%, Hindu 1.3%,
Council of Churches in the Philippines other 2%, unspecified 7.2%, none

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1.2%, other Protestant 4.3%), other 25.7% (2011 est.)
Christian 3.4%, Muslim 5.6%, tribal
religions .2%, other 1.9%, none .1%
(2010 est.)
11. Climate Tropical Marine Climate Temperate Maritime
12. Location 12.8797° N, 121.7740° E 55.3781° N, 3.4360° W
13. Land Area 300,000 km² 242,495 km²
14. Currency Philippine Peso Pound sterling
15. Employment and Unemployment 8.22 % 4.1%
Rate
16. Inflation Rate 2.9 percent 1.94%
17. Gross Domestic Product 375.00 USD Billion 3020.00 USD Billion
18. Gross National Product 1.053 trillion PPP dollars (2017) 2.85 trillion PPP dollars (2017)
19. General Government Gross Debt 152.3 USD bn £1,821.3 billion
20. Human Development Index 0.712 0.920
Demographics
1. Population 109,180,815 67,886,011
2. Growth Rate 1.35% 1.8%
3. Birth Rate 20.177 births per 1000 people 11.433 births per 1000 people
4. Death Rate 5.968 deaths per 1000 people 9.413 deaths per 1000 people
5. Life Expectancy 71.16 years
6. Age Structure 0-14 years: 32.42% (male 0-14 years: 17.59% (male 5,871,268
18,060,976/female 17,331,781) /female 5,582,107)
[see also: Age structure - 0-14 years 15-24 years: 11.71% (male
country ranks ] 3,895,850 /female 3,726,311)
15-24 years: 19.16% (male 25-54 years: 40.29% (male
10,680,325/female 10,243,047) 13,387,119 /female 12,843,549)
[see also: Age structure - 15-24 years 55-64 years: 12.22% (male
country ranks ] 3,936,466 /female 4,022,245)
25-54 years: 37.37% (male 65 years and over: 18.19% (male
20,777,741/female 20,027,153) 5,321,392 /female 6,518,939) (2018
[see also: Age structure - 25-54 years est.)

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country ranks ]
55-64 years: 6.18% (male
3,116,485/female 3,633,301)
[see also: Age structure - 55-64 years
country ranks ]
65 years and over: 4.86% (male
2,155,840/female 3,154,166) (2020
est.)

7. Sex Ratio 1.010 (1,010 males per 1 000 females) 0.970 (970 males per 1 000 females)
8. Fertility Rate 2.555 births per woman 1.7 births per woman
9. Infant Mortality Rate 22.5 deaths per 1,000 live births 4.0 deaths per 1,000 live births
10. Net Migration Rate -1.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 3.898 per 1000 population (2018
est.) est.)
11. Literacy Rate 97.95 percent 99.00%
12. Poverty Rate 20%
20.80%
Political System
1. Government Type Presidential System, Unitary State Parliamentary System, Unitary State,
Constitutional Monarchy
2. Type of Constitution Written Unwritten
3. Legal System Roman civil law, Anglo- Anglo-American common law
American common law, and Muslim
Islamic law
4. Citizens’ Liberty and Rights
5. Citizenship jus sanguinis
6. Suffrage
7. Legislative Branch
8. Executive Branch
9. Judicial Branch
10. Party System multi-party system

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11. Current Political Leaders
12. Current Political Context
13. Main Political Parties
14. Electoral System majoritarian/ plurality the single member
plurality system (first-past-the-post),
the multi-member plurality system,
the single transferable vote, the
additional member system and the
supplementary vote
15. Local Government Units
Investment Climate
1. Global Competitiveness Index 61.9 82.11
2. Business Environment
3. Political Stability
4. Crime Rate 9.84 per 100,000 1.23 per 100,000
5. Rule of Law
6. Corruption Index
7. Investment Risks
8. Major Industries
9. Tax Rate 35.00%
10. Exchange Rate vs. US Dollars 50.50 Philippine peso 0.77 Pound sterling
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PHILIPPINE AND THE BRITISH POLITICAL SYSTEMS

Unit of Comparison Similarities Differences


Legislature  

Executive  

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Judiciary  

Electoral and Party Systems  

Political Culture  

SYNTHESIS

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PHOTOS OF THE PHILIPPINE AND THE BRITISH POLITICAL SYSTEMS

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PHOTOS DURING THE FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION

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