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COVER PAGE

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Great Britain has one of the oldest governments in the world. The British political system is a parliamentary
democracy under a constitutional monarchy. This means that Great Britain is a country governed by a King or Queen who
accepts the advice of the parliament and one which government is controlled by the parliament, was elected at large by
the people. This further means that the highest positions in the British government are filled by the members of the directly
elected parliament by which the official head of the state, a monarch, has little power. The monarch, for instance, is the
head of state, she is not the head of government. She does not get to make most of the decisions about how the
government is run; that job belongs to the Prime Minister, or PM.

The political system of Great Britain is held unique because of its flexibility. Unlike the Philippine government, UK is
a republican with a presidential form of government wherein power is equally divided among its three branches: executive,
legislative, and judiciary, the sovereign political power in Great Britain resides to its Parliament whereas in the Philippines,
it is the people who hold sovereign power whereby they elect at large their head of state (President) while in Britain, their
head of the government was appointed by the House of Commons (lower house of its Parliament).

This comprehensive study provides an analysis and evaluation of the current political system of Great Britain and
its differences compared to the system of government of the Philippines mainly through the help of organizing a Focus
Group Discussion, a method that involves gathering people from similar backgrounds or experiences together to discuss a
specific topic of interest. It is a form of qualitative research where questions are asked about their perceptions attitudes,
beliefs, opinion or ideas. In focus group discussion participants are free to talk with other group members; unlike other
research methods, it encourages discussions with other participants within the class to provide a smooth flow for the give
and take of relevant information with regards to the given topic, from the moderator to the students and vice versa.
Moreover, a strategy called Socratic Questioning Method, a dialectical method of inquiry and debate by means of a
carefully constructed series of leading questions to arrive at logical responses and to stimulate rational thinking, was
also used. It involves the use of systematic questioning, inductive reasoning, universal definitions, and a disavowal of
knowledge (Carey and Mullan 2004). These methods helped a lot in laying down the objectives of the activity and to the
fulfillment of the discussion.

(Provide Methodologies)

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HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINE POLITICAL SYSTEM

Date Event
01 January 2020

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HISTORY OF THE BRITISH POLITICAL SYSTEM

Date Event
01 January 2020

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THE PHILIPPINE AND THE BRITISH POLITICAL SYSTEMS

Salient Features Philippines United Kingdom


General Information
1. Background
2. Official Name
3. Date Founded
4. Capital City
5. Nationality
6. Motto
7. National Anthem
8. Official Languages
9. Ethnic Groups
10. Religions
11. Climate
12. Location
13. Land Area
14. Currency
15. Employment and Unemployment
Rate
16. Inflation Rate
17. Gross Domestic Product
18. Gross National Product
19. General Government Gross Debt
20. Human Development Index
Demographics
1. Population
2. Growth Rate
3. Birth Rate
4. Death Rate

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5. Life Expectancy
6. Age Structure
7. Sex Ratio
8. Fertility Rate
9. Infant Mortality Rate
10. Net Migration Rate
11. Literacy Rate
12. Poverty Rate
Political System
1. Government Type
2. Type of Constitution
3. Legal System
4. Citizens’ Liberty and Rights
5. Citizenship
6. Suffrage
7. Legislative Branch
8. Executive Branch
9. Judicial Branch
10. Party System
11. Current Political Leaders
12. Current Political Context
13. Main Political Parties
14. Electoral System
15. Local Government Units
Investment Climate
1. Global Competitiveness Index
2. Business Environment
3. Political Stability
4. Crime Rate
5. Rule of Law
6. Corruption Index

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7. Investment Risks
8. Major Industries
9. Tax Rate
10. Exchange Rate vs. US Dollars
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PHILIPPINE AND THE BRITISH POLITICAL SYSTEMS

Unit of Comparison Similarities Differences


Legislature  

Executive  

Judiciary  

Electoral and Party Systems  

Political Culture  

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SYNTHESIS

The activity synthesizes that the British government way back then has been removing the formal power of royalty
over the past eight hundred years which resulted to struggles and conflicts on governmental, social and religious levels
that led to its today’s government by which the British governmental and political system now rests to the Prime Minister
(currently Boris Johnson), which was belonged once to the Monarch (currently Queen Elizabeth ll).

In Great Britain, the Prime Minister leads the government with the support of the Cabinet and ministers. The Prime
Minister is the leader of Her Majesty’s Government, the principal government figure in the House of Commons and is
ultimately responsible for all policy and decisions as well as oversees the operation of the Civil Service and government
agencies and appoints members of the government. While the monarch retains a symbolic role in government. She
formally opens Parliament every year, and when the government passes a bill, it cannot become an Act of Parliament until
it receives her stamp of approval, a process called Royal Assent.

Under the British government, its constitution has fourteen salient features: evolved, unwritten, evolutionary,
flexible, has disparity between theory and practice, parliamentary sovereignty, unitary, parliamentary, rule of law, judicial
independence, checks and balances, absence of the doctrine of separation of powers, a blend of monarchy, aristocracy
and democracy, and cabinet system.

The three basic types of power also existed in the British government also known as its three arms of the state:
legislative, executive and judiciary. The legislative power is the power to make new laws or remove old ones and this was
held by the Parliament, which is made up of the House of lords and the House of Commons. The former was tasked to
examine and discuss the bills introduced in the other house and they can also delay the legislation for a year but they
can’t stop those bills completely. They have also the function to approve a bill before it becomes an act. While the latter
functions in defining and passing the laws and regulations governing the Great Britain. For instance, the executive power
is the power to implement and enforce laws which works on behalf of the Monarch, the Queen. Judiciary power is the
power to prosecute those who break the law and is kept independent of the legislature and executive. Its highest court is
the Supreme Court of United Kingdom.

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Great Britain has named three important political departments in its governing system. First is ‘The Treasury’ which
is responsible for the raising of all taxes and the control of all government expenditure plus the general management of the
economy such as public spending including departmental spending, public sector pay and pension, Annually Managed
Expenditure (AME) and welfare policy, and capital investment, financial services policy including banking and financial
services regulation, financial stability, and ensuring competitiveness in the City, strategic oversight of the UK tax system
including direct, indirect, business, property, personal tax, and corporation tax and the delivery of infrastructure projects
across the public sector and facilitating private sector investment into UK infrastructure. The head of the Treasury is called
the Chancellor of the Exchequer and is currently Sajid Javid. Second is ‘The Home Office’ responsible for criminal matters,
policing, and immigration. The Head of the Home Office is called the Home Secretary and is currently Priti Patel. And ‘The
Foreign and Commonwealth Office’ which is responsible for all international relationships, especially membership of the
European Union. The head of the Foreign Office is called the Foreign Secretary and is currently Dominic Raab.

Today, there are major political parties in British parliamentary system which is normally described as having a two-
party-system. One of the two big parties is the Conservative Party, also known as the Tories, which is right of center and
standing for hierarchical interference in the economy. They would like to reduce income tax and the give a high priority to
national defense and internal law and order. The second big party is the Labour Party, which is left of center and stands
for equality, for the social weaker people and for more government involvement in the economic issues. Another smaller
party is the Liberal Democratic Party. It was formed from a union of Liberals and the Social Democrats - a breakaway
group of Labour politicians. It is regarded to be slightly left of center and has always been strongly in favor with the
European Union.
The rights and responsibilities of the British citizens today come from a number of different sources. They can
come through Acts of Parliament and laws made by judges, and some from European law. Together, they form the British
Constitution. Unlike most other countries, such as the United States of America or India, the British Constitution is not
written down in a single formal document. Instead the rights and responsibilities of individuals and as a society are formed
from a number of different sources. Much of the constitution is based on unwritten customs and rules called conventions.
In addition, further protection is provided by formal written legislation created and agreed by Parliament (statute law), law
developed by judges as part of the justice system (common law), and the law made in Europe which affects the UK as a
factor of membership in the European Union. In the same manner, the members of the Parliament are elected in General
Election which takes place every five years. However, to vote in the election requires one to be a registered voter,
eighteen or over on the day of the election, a British, Irish or qualifying commonwealth citizen, resident at an address in
UK (or a British citizen living abroad who has been registered to vote in UK in the last fifteen years), and is eligible to vote.
Just like any political system, there come also various pressure groups in the British government. They are certain
groups that aim to change opinions and attitudes in the British political system that comes from various aspects in the

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British government such as British Bankers Association, Federation of Small Businesses, LGBT Foundation, Climate
Camp, Waste Watch, etc.
The British political system was anchored by the customs and traditions of people that have evolved over time.
Thus, the British government is observing both the parochial, subject and participant culture which was driven mainly by
their societies, schools, family and among others. And political recruitment was exercised at large through the right to
suffrage by its people.

https://www.herd.org.np/uploads/frontend/Publications/PublicationsAttachments1/1485497050Focus%20Group%20Discu
ssion_0.pdf

https://www.google.com/search?q=differences+of+political+system+of+philippines+and+uk&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=
X&ved=2ahUKEwiH47_QlY_oAhWRGqYKHafAUIQ_AUoAnoECA4QBA&biw=1366&bih=576#imgrc=u96c2BkqRjJ
5HM

https://www.theweek.co.uk/royal-family/97645/how-much-power-does-the-royal-family-have

https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/hm-treasury/about

https://www.gov.ph/philippine-government
https://m.grin.com/document/98364
https://greatbritishmag.co.uk/uk-culture/how-the-british-political-system-works/
https://www.gov.uk/government/how-government-works

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PHOTOS OF THE PHILIPPINE AND THE BRITISH POLITICAL SYSTEMS

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PHOTOS DURING THE FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION

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