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SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT

ON

PRECAST CONSTRUCTION

AT

KEF INFRA, BANGALORE

A report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of


Bachelor of Technology in Civil Engineering

By

VAIJAYANTI JENA
(Roll No. 1517028)

School of Civil Engineering


Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology
Deemed to be University
Bhubaneswar, 751024

November 2018
DECLARATION

I hereby certify that the work which is being presented in the report entitled "Summer
Internship Report on Precast Construction at KEF INFRA, Bangalore" in partial fulfilment
of the requirements for the award of the Degree of Bachelor of Technology in School of
Civil Engineering under Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology, Deemed to be
University, Bhubaneswar is an authentic record of my own work. I have tried my best to
keep report simple yet technically correct.

The matter embodied in this report has not been submitted by me for the award of any other
degree of this or any other University/Institute.

Vaijayanti Jena

Date: 22nd November 2018

ii
ABSTRACT

The summer internship report contains broadly the chapters in which I have tried to explain
my one month training done in my hosting organization namely KEF INFRA, a world class
precast industry leader working on a wide range of construction projects pan India.

As I was posted at the company‟s state of the art fully automated precast plant site I covered
the complete precast process from design to erection works by doing rotation through
various departments like Design, Planning and Shop floors for all manufacturing process of
precast elements required by the projects. I also had an opportunity to go on site to see the
erection works. The contents of all chapters cover the practical aspect at factory works as
seen and learnt by me during the internship period.

In the opening chapter, I have mentioned the company‟s background details including its
mission, vision, key projects. The plan layout of the organization is world class as can be
seen from the details provided.

The second chapter explains about precast and its various systems. Also types of
connections required in precast construction are mentioned and described.

Further chapters cover detailed workings and processes involved in manufacturing of


precast elements. The shop floor details are supported with actual photographs for better
understanding of the process involved.

Overall, the internship program that I undertook at KEF INFRA has given me an in-depth
knowledge about the works done in a precast industry. I am confident that precast process is
going to be the future of construction industry in India.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION .............................................................................................................ii
ABSTRACT .....................................................................................................................iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS .................................................................................................iv
1. INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................1
1.1 About the Organization ..................................................................................1
1.2 Work Culture .................................................................................................2
1.3 Vision .............................................................................................................2
1.4 Mission...........................................................................................................2
1.5 Core Values ....................................................................................................2
1.6 Manufacture ...................................................................................................3
1.7 Company Address ..........................................................................................3
1.8 Global Presence ............................................................................................3
1.9 Organization Structure ...................................................................................4
1.10 Awards .........................................................................................................4
1.11 Key Project ..................................................................................................5
2. PRECAST ....................................................................................................................7
2.1 Types of Precast System ................................................................................7
2.2 Difference with cast in-situ ............................................................................8
2.3 Typical Connections of Precast Concrete Elements ......................................8
2.4 Precast Connections .......................................................................................9
3.DEPARTMENTS COVERED DURING INTERNSHIP .........................................12
4. DESIGN .......................................................................................................................13
5. PLANNING .................................................................................................................18
6. PRODUCTION ............................................................................................................19
6.1 Bay 1 Hollow Core Slab ................................................................................20
6.2 Bay 2 Column & Beam ..................................................................................29
6.2 Bay 3 Wall Panels ..........................................................................................36
6.4 Bay 4 Mesh ....................................................................................................38
6.5 Bay 5 Stirrup Binder ......................................................................................42
6.6 Bay 6 Column, Beam & Staircase (Customised Elements) ...........................43
7. ERECTION ..................................................................................................................45
REFERENCES ................................................................................................................46
ACKNOWLEDGMENT..................................................................................................47

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1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 About the organization

Mr. Faizal E. Kottikollon set up his first business - Al Ahamadi General Trading, a scrap
metal trading and recycling business in Ajman, UAE in 1995. In 1997, he set up the first
foundry Emirates Techno Casting (ETC) in Ajman, UAE. JC Middle East was established
in year 2002 for trading valves at Hamriyah Free Zone, UAE. Then in 2003 Emirates
Techno Casting FZE was set up in Sharjah and in the next 3 years it grew quickly to
become an internationally renowned valve-casting brand.

Inspired by the desire to contribute to society, the founder of KEF Holdings set up the
Faizal & Shabana Foundation as well as KEF Holdings was created as parent company to
the group in 2007. ETC became a fully automated and integrated valve manufacturing
facility when a manufacturing agreement was signed with JC Valves.

In 2008 Dubai International Capital, the investment arm of Dubai Holdings, acquired 45%
stake in KEF Holdings and also forged a key partnership that supported the company‟s
expansion plans. And by the year 2011, Tyco International, a 20 billion USD global
conglomerate, acquired a 75% stake in KEF Holdings for 300 million dollars. The
remainder of the 25% stake was sold in 2012, making the total sale value a 400 million
USD.

The KEF Company Ltd. established as the corporate headquarters of the group in Dubai‟s
International Financial Center (DIFC). And plans for innovation in the hospital sector in
India was unveiled by the year 2013. Precast and modular construction technology to be
used to make the hospital projects affordable and build facilities at a rapid pace.

KEF INFRA was founded in 2014 in India by successful entrepreneur Faizal E.


Kottikollon, is a technology-driven company that is automation and robotics and tools such
as Building Information Modelling (BIM), and pioneers in end-to-end offsite
manufacturing in the country. In a short span of four years, they have demonstrated their
ability to bring world-class proficiency in design, engineering, assembly and project
management all under one roof.

At KEF INFRA they are transforming the way buildings and basic services are created and
delivered in India. KEF INFRA is ushering in Industrial Revolution 4.0 i.e smart factory
by integrating world-class technology with software solutions thus significantly reducing
costs and increasing efficiency in infrastructure development.

1
Offsite Manufacturing Facility

KEF INFRA- One Industrial Park in Krishnagiri, Tamil Nadu, is the world‟s largest and
most integrated offsite manufacturing facility. It is spread over 42 acres and features
cutting edge manufacturing. Its integrated factory has units for:

 Precast

 Prefabricated bathroom pods

 Joinery works

 Aluminum glazing & PVC

 Stone processing

1.2. Work Culture

 Continuous learning and training

 Transparency

 Quality in all aspects of work

 Rewards based on performance & potential

1.3. Vision

Together, we make a difference to people and societies by improving their quality of life.
KEF INFRA shall move beyond incremental fixes to an era of transnational change in how
we design, engineer, and deliver building.

1.4. Mission

Be Different, Make a Difference.

1.5. Core values

KEF INFRA has four basic values:

 Innovation: We bring unique solutions to the problems we solve.

 Excellence: We pave the way for people and societies to excel.

 Integrity: We build relationships based on mutual respect, and always behave with
integrity.

 Humility: We enjoy working collaboratively and care about people and the
environment we live in.

2
1.6. Manufacture

 Hospitals

 Homes

 Hotels

 Schools

 Commercial buildings

1.7. Company address

KEF INFRA ONE INDUSTRIAL PARK


Kurubarapalli post, Vinayakapuram
Village, Krishnagiri, Tamil Nadu, India. Pin: 635001
Tel: +91 4343 3222127
Email: info@kefinfra.com

1.8. Global Presence

1. U.A.E : Headquarter to drive global strategy through a multi-cultural think tank

2. India :

2.1. Bangalore: KEF INFRA headquarter for India Operation.


2.2. Krishnagiri: Home to KEF INFRA One, a unique facility dedicated to offsite
construction.
2.3. Calicut: Pilot project of the Faizal & Shabana Foundation, GVHSS Nadakkavu
School based here.

3. Singapore: Incorporated with 6 business verticals focused on projects that contribute


to the growth and development of communities.

3
1.9. Organization Structure

1.10. Awards

 Inspiring Icon award 2018, New Indian Express

 Outstanding Business and Social Excellence Awards 2018, Rotary Club

 Women Empowerment ward 2017, Chandrika

 Mark of Excellence - Employer of the Year Award 2017, HR Summit & Expo 2017

 GCC Best Employer 2017, Brand Award 2017

4
Key projects

Infosys, Electronic City Phase II, Lulu Mall, Lucknow.


Bengaluru. 530,000 sq.ft. 2,000,000 sq.ft
Completion: 15 months Expected Completion: 21 months

MEITRA Hospital, Calicut Glass House


G+5/ 400,000 sq.ft. 866 sq.gt.
Completion: 18 months Completion: 1 month

Affordable House GEMS Modern Academy, Kochi


384 sq.ft. 1, 30,000 sq.ft
Assembled in: 2.5hrs Completion: 5.5 months

5
KEF INFRA ONE PARK

ALUMINIUM &
GLAZING

JOINERY

PREFABRICATED
PODS

PRECAST

PLAN LAYOUT

6
2 PRECAST

The concept of precast construction includes those buildings, where the majority of
structural components are standardized and produced in plants in a location away from the
building, and transported to the site for assembly. These components are manufactured by
industrial methods based on mass production in order to build a large number of buildings
in a short time at low cost.
The main features of this construction process are as follows:-
 The divisions and specialization of the human workforce.
 The use of tools, machinery and other equipment are usually automated in the
production of standard, interchangeable parts and products.
 Plant casting allows increased efficiency, high quality control and greater control on
finishes.

2.1. Types of precast system


Depending upon the load-bearing structure, precast system can be divided into the
following categories:
● Large panel system
● Frame system
● Slab-column system with walls
● Mixed system

2.1.1 Large panel system


The designation “large-panel system” refers to multistory structures composed of large wall
and floor concrete panels connected in the vertical and horizontal directions so that the wall
panels enclose appropriate spaces for the rooms within a building. These panels form a box-
like structure. Both vertical and horizontal panels resist gravity load. And when properly
joined together, these horizontal elements act as diaphragms that transfer the lateral loads to
wall.

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2.1.2 Frame systems
Precast frames can be constructed using either linear elements or spatial beam column sub-
assemblages. Precast beam column sub-assemblages have the advantages that the
connecting faces between the sub-assemblages can be placed away from the critical frame
regions. However linear elements are generally preferred because of the difficulties
associated with forming, handling and erecting spatial elements. The components of a
precast reinforced concrete frame are shown in figure.

2.1.3 Slab-column systems with shear wall


These systems rely on shear walls to sustain lateral load effects, whereas the slab column
structure resists mainly gravity loads. There are two main system in this category lift-slab
system with walls & prestressed slab-column system.

2.2. Difference with cast in-situ

Cast in-situ Precast


 Traditional  Modern technology
 High labour  Limited labour
 Long construction delays  Fast construction
 Much waste  Limited waste
 Large finishing works  Finished surfaces
 Weather conditions  No adverse weather conditions

2.3. Typical connections of precast concrete elements


● Column to column connection
● Beam to column connection
● Slab to beam connection
● Wall panel connected to in-situ concrete
● Connection between slab
● Corner connection of wall panels
● Connection of wall panels to column

8
2.4. Precast Connections
Precast connections ensure safety and durability of a precast building. They carry the
predefined loads in different building structures and resist fire and water.
There are several pretested connection types for precast structure and they are:

2.4.1 Erection and Unilateral Erection Anchor


They are specifically designed for pitching and turning concrete units. They have
specially designed nibs on the head of the anchor which prevent concrete from spalling
when turning units.

2.4.2 Loop box


It is simple and high efficient which is used to join precast elements together or precast
to in-situ. It is mainly used in the connection of slabs, walls and columns.
When the units are ready to be connected, the sealing tape is removed and the wire loop
is locked into position using the locking device.
Advantages:-
 Simple installation due to flexible loops and pre punched nail holes.
 Anchorage in thin walls
 Weatherproof cover, easy to remove.
 Different colors to indicate the box sizes.
 Top arrow sign to allow correct installation.
 High load capacity.
 Small box volume reduces grout consumption.
 Slim box means ease of placement within standard concrete cover

2.4.3 Coupler
It is used for rebar mechanical splicing in the concrete structure. It can connect re-bars
of same or different diameters laterally, vertically and slanting. It is mostly adopted
under base slab and middle section of R.C. Column.
Advantages:-
 Good performance of self-lock and sealing.
 Good performance of centering, simple to operate, high work efficiency.

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2.4.4 Lifting socket
It provides simple lifting and transporting for most kinds of precast concrete units,
particularly when casting into thin concrete panels. The sockets are available in both
high grade zinc plated carbon steel and 304/316 grade stainless steel.

2.4.5 Concrete cover


Used for good stability, easy concrete flow and minimizes contact with the formwork.

2.4.6 Lattice girder


Produced with two longitudinal wires is the bottom flange & one on the top welded
together in regular distance.
Advantage:-
Avoiding scaffolding & formwork needed in traditional construction.

2.4.7 Locking shims


It is used as a support during the alignment of precast units. Pins and small matching
holes give a good interlocking while stacking the plates to achieve the necessary level.
Filling the holes with cement avoids the slipping away of the pads and increases the
strength.

2.4.8 Double Wall Plastic Coated Rocket


It is a plastic spacer with steel inlay which is fitted with a very strong hard cap, fir exact
wall thickness. The rocket has a specially designed foot which provides 7 different
cover‟s from 15mm up to 50mm and is also very sturdy.

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2.4.9 Cast in channel
The channels are of a rectangle profile are bonded to the concrete by means of anchors
fitted to the channel which transfer the carrying tension and shear loads directly into the
concrete.

2.4.10 Double-Wall Transport Anchor


It provides safe erecting, relocating and transporting element walls in prefabrication
plants and on construction sites.

11
3. DEPARTMENTS COVERED DURING
INTERNSHIP

My hosting company is undertking many projects all over India as I have mentioned in the
company profile above. As KEF INFRA is a technology-driven company & integrated
offsite factory, I had the opportunity to work on rotation in various departments which are:

1. Design Department (Week 1)


In design, my work was to study shop drawings of each element that is cast in factory. Also
check elongation of strand and BBS.

2. Planning Department (Week 2)


In planning, I used to check which element is casted, which is in process and which will be
casted according to the requirements of various elements in the project.

3. Production Department (Week 3 & 4)


In production, I saw all the casting process of various elements in the shop floor from bay 1
to bay 6.

4. Erection Works (Week 4)


In erection, I visited project site of Infosys at Electronic City in Bangalore and saw the
installation of columns & beams and their connections.

The details of the works done in various departments are described in following pages.

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4. DESIGN

In civil engineering, designing means finding out the dimensions of a structural member and
amount of other materials (reinforcement, prestress etc.) which will be sufficient to
withstand different types of loads and forces applied on that member, at the same time it
will be economic and providing serviceability.

Methodology:-

1. Client & Techno-commercial


1.1. Techno-Commercial department contacts the client
1.2. Receives the Tender Drawings from client
1.3. Convince the client to go with pre-cast solution.

2. Techno-Commercial & Principal Designer


2.1. Principal Designer (Pepromeno) studies the drawings
2.2. Does the pre-cast feasibility study
2.3. Submits the preliminary structural design to Techno-Commercial Department

3. Techno-Commercial & Client


3.1. Quantity Surveyor calculates the number of different types of elements
3.2. Volume of concrete in each type of element
3.3. Estimators put in the prices
3.4. Submit the price to Client
3.5. After discussions/negotiation, job is awarded to KEF/rejected by KEF/client stick
to original design
4. Client & Pepromeno
4.1. Pepromeno does the detailed structural design
4.2. Coordinates with clients Architect/MEP to cater the changes
4.3. Prepare the Erection drawings
4.4. Submit to client for review/approval
5. Principal Designer & Pre-cast design team
5.1. Preparation shop drawings
5.2. Coordinate with MEP department
5.3. Checking
5.4. Issuing drawings for production.
5.5. Preparation of PXML files (for machines) and upload in ERP.
5.6. To Maintain Records.

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Unit Values
1. Strands

Diameter of strand (mm) Area (mm2) Weight (Kg/m)

5 19.6 0.15

9.5 54.8 0.432

12.7 98.7 0.775

15.3 140 1.102

2. Steel

Diameter of steel (mm) Weight ( Kg/m)


8 0.4
10 0.62
12 0.89
16 1.58
20 2.47
25 3.86
32 6.32
40 9.88

3. Effective thickness of hollow core slab

Thickness ( m) Effective thickness (m3/m2 )

160 0.099

200 0.1095

250 0.1365

320 0.1568

400 0.1973

500 0.2503

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Calculation

1. Hollow core slab


1.1. To calculate the elongation of strand after giving stress

Elongation = strain * mould length

We know that
Stress = Force
Area

From IS 456:200 Young‟s modulus is 200kN or 200 * 103 N/ mm 2

E = Strain
Stress

Strain = Stress
E
Example 1

Given
Mold length = 120 m
Force or pull = 61.2 KN
Area of Ø 9.5 Strand= 54.8 mm2
Stress = Force
Area

Stress = 61.2 = 1.12 kN/mm2


54.8

Stress = 1120 N/mm2

Strain = Stress
E

Strain = 1120 = 5.6 * 10-3


200 * 103

Strain = 5.6 * 10-3

Elongation = strain * mould length

Elongation = (5.6 * 10-3)* 120 = 0.672 m

Elongation = 672 mm

15
2. To find the number of bars

 Horizontal number of bars = Vertical length – cover


Spacing

 Vertical number of bars = Horizontal length – cover


Spacing

Example 2

Vertical length = 1180mm


Horizontal length = 850mm
Minimum cover = 30mm
Spacing = 150mm c/c

1180 mm

850 mm

For vertical number of bars = 850 – 60


150

= 6 no. of bars

For Horizontal number of bars = 1180 – 60


150

= 8 no. of bars

16
3. Bar bending schedule (BBS)

Formula = Bar length (in m) * Quantity * Unit Weight (in Kg/m)

Example 3

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5. PLANNING

Planning is done to determine and develop the most suitable and economically viable
construction and engineering methods for project.

5.1. Work activities


 Deciding on the most appropriate engineering techniques and sequence of activities
for each project stage.

 Drawing plans; using specialized design software packages.

 Ensuring plans meet the client‟s specification.

 Making estimations for timescales and costs.

 Supervising the project at all the stages and providing solutions to problem.

 Collaborating with site managers, surveyors, engineers, site worker and other
professionals.

 Organizing the transportation of materials.

 Ensuring procedure is carried out safely.

5.2. Work schedule


1. Installation department informs production department to which element to be cast
first as per priorities.
2. The production department cast as per installation department.
3. The production department will then inform stock and transportation department
for dispatching.
4. Manpower is allotted according to the elements transferred and this information is
given by production department to installation department.
5. After casting the planning department has to inform the store department to
purchase material for next production.
6. After transporting the elements, the remaining elements are casted when
installation department tells them to do.

All the above things are recorded by planning department and it is noted down in tracking
schedule.
A tracking schedule is a mechanism to communicate what tasks need to get done and which
organizational resources will be allocated to complete the whole project.

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6. PRODUCTION

Production is the action of making or manufacturing from components or raw


materials, or the process of being so manufactured. For producing, engineers have to
go through design, development, implementation, operation, maintenance, and control
of all processes in the manufacture of a product. Within this context a „product‟ is
defined as an item that has value added by means of processes such as forming,
machine, joining, and assembly.
Kick off meeting is the first process for production in which it is the first meeting with
the project team and the client of the project, this meeting would follow definition of
the base elements for the project and other project planning activities. After that a
resource planning is done with estimation design and project management to ensure
that all of the resources are there to complete the project. Then it goes to production
planning where it makes sure that there is sufficient raw material, staff and other
necessary items are procured and ready to create finished products according to the
schedule specified. Then it follows by casting, stocking and elements dispatch.

Production work sequence:-

A bay is a section or area where all the elements to be casted are categorized. There
were total 7 bays in site which were:

a) Bay 1: Hollow core slab


b) Bay 2: Column & beam
c) Bay 3: Wall panel
d) Bay 4: Mesh
e) Bay 5: Stirrup binder
f) Bay 6: Column, beam & staircase
g) Bay 7: Stockyard

The above mentioned bays are described in the following pages.

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6.1. BAY 1 - HOLLOW CORE SLABS

Elements produced: Hollow core Slabs

About the element: A hollow core slab is a precast slab of pre-stressed concrete
typically used in the constructions of floors in multistory apartment buildings. It has
tubular voids extending the full length of the slab. This makes the slab much lighter
than a massive solid concrete floor slab of equal thickness or strength.

Advantages
 Tubular void can be used to run mechanical and electrical equipment.

 High-strength hollow core slab can provide floors that support heavy loads.

 Hollow core slab act as a ceiling and flooring unit and reduces the building
height while saving the cost.

 Cost of transportation as well as materials can be saved due to reduce in


weight.

 It provides long and clear span i.e. without support.

 Speed of construction & erection.

 Easy to demolish.

Specification of bay 1
 Number of casting pallets : 8
 Length : 120m
 Breadth : 1.2m
 Thickness : 160mm, 200mm, 250mm,
320mm & 400mm
 Strands: Ø5mm, Ø9.5mm, Ø12.7mm &
Ø15.3mm.
 Curing : Hot bed curing
 Lifting capacity : one crane - 10 ton
 Transport : Maximum 18m HCS can be
transport & trailer capacity is 35 ton

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Machine and equipment
 Extruder

 Concrete saw

 Erection clamp

 Lifting clamp

 Casting pallets

 Stressing machine

Abutment

1. Description
1.1. Abutment is designed for holding stressing strands of the hollow core slab
during stressing.
1.2. Abutment is to be mounted in concrete foundation.
1.3. The maximum pre- stressing force that the abutment can take is 300 ton.

2. Technical details of active and passive end


2.1. Length 200mm
2.2. Width 1200mm
2.3. Height 650mm
2.4. Weight, pair 1300kg

21
Precast Production Bay 1

1. Casting pallets or bed are cleaned with water and then dried.
2. According to the shop drawing the strands are selected and layered.
3. One end is fixed with barrel at abutment and other end with wedge.
4. Oil is applied throughout the bed to easily de-mold it.
5. Strands are then pulled slowly and marking is done after every inch till the
required elongation is achieved.
6. Extruder is then placed by crane, according to the thickness required given in
drawing. And concrete is poured.
7. Concrete slab is marked when it is wet for cutting it easily.
8. Hacking and cutouts are done at the extreme width side of every slab and filled
with concrete. This is done to prevent from seepage.
9. Then the bed is covered with tarpaulin sheets.
10. Hot water is passed through the slab for curing. For checking the temperature of
the water there is sensor after every 40mm. It generally takes 8-10hrs for curing
but can vary depending on the thickness.
11. Tarpaulin cover is removed but before that De-stressing is done.
12. Cutting of slab is done by concrete blade wherever marking is there.
13. Name is written in every slab using paint.
14. All the slabs are De-molded, lifted and stacked in stock or else transported to
site for erection.

Flowchart of Hollow Core Slab

22
Step 1. Bed Cleaning

Step 2 & 3. Strands are


layered and fixed.

Step 4. Oiling

23
Step 5. Strands are stressed

Step 6. Supply of concrete by


shuttle.

24
From Shuttle to distributor.

From distributor to extruder

25
Extrusion

Step 7 - 11.Marked, hacking,


cut out, core filling, covered,
curing & de-stressing

26
Step 12 & 13.Cutting using
concrete blade and writing
name.

Step 14. Lifting

27
Stored in stockyard

28
6.2. BAY 2 - COLUMNS & BEAMS

Elements produced
1. Beam
1.1. L-shaped
1.2. Single tee
1.3. Double tee
1.4. Inverted tee
1.5. Rectangular
2. Column
2.1. 1/2/3/4 corbels

About the elements


1. Beam: A beam is a structural element that primarily resists load applied laterally to the
beam‟s axis. It can be cast as precast as well as pre-stress.

2. Column: A column is a structural element that transmits, through compression, the


weight of the structural elements below. It is designed to resist lateral forces.

Advantages of pre-stressed
 They are free from cracks as concrete is under compression.

 It is more durable than reinforced concrete.


 They can also be used for longer spans, by reducing the section of member.
 It is more effective for water retaining structures.
 Deflections are less & hence stiffer.
 Pre-stressed member are lighter in weight & easily transportable.
 It requires smaller amount of construction materials.

Advantages of precast
 Since precast is manufactured in a controlled casting environment it is easier to
control the mix, placement and curing.
 Quality can be controlled and monitored much more easily.
 Weather is eliminated.

29
Specification of bay 2
 Number of casting pallet : 3
 Length : 110m
 Width : 1.5m
 Height : 0.6m, if more is required than it is fabricated
 Strands : Ø5mm, Ø9.5mm, Ø12.7mm & Ø15.3mm
 Bars : Ø8mm, Ø10mm, Ø12mm, Ø16mm, Ø20mm & Ø25mm
 Curing : steam
 Lifting capacity : one crane - 10 ton

Machine & equipment


 Casting pallet

 Stressing machine
 Welding machine
 Needle vibrator

Abutment

1. Description
1.1. Abutment is designed for holding stressing strands of the prestresseded beam
during stressing.
1.2. Abutment is to be mounted in concrete foundation.
1.3. The maximum pre- stressing force that the abutment can take is 300 ton.

30
Precast production Bay 2

1. Casting pallets or bed are cleaned with water and then dried.
2. Oil is applied throughout the bed manually to easily de-mold it.
3. Along the breath sides the shuttering is done with the help of welding, according to
the shop drawing. .
4. Dowel pipe are placed in rebar cage according to the shop drawing and then Rebar
cage is placed by crane. After that end shuttering is done that is along the length
side
5. At the top, bars are welded on the edges along the length sides to avoid the shutter
to fall.
6. For prestressed beam strands are pulled slowly and marking is done after every
inch till the required elongation is achieved.
7. Pouring of concrete and vibration is done manually. Elements are marked for easy
installment.
8. Then the bed is covered with tarpaulin sheets.
9. Pipes are placed on top of the elements under the tarpaulin sheets for steam curing
process. It generally takes 8-10hrs for curing but can vary depending on the
thickness.
10. Tarpaulin cover is removed and de-stressing is done by help of circular saw blade.
11. Name is written in every element using paint.
12. Casted element is lifted and stacked in stock or else transported to site for erection.

Flowchart of Beam and Column

31
Step 1 & 2. Bed cleaning and oiling is done manually

Step 3. Shuttering is placed and welding is done

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Rebar cage is placed with the help of crane.

Step 4. Dowel pipes were placed


&
Step 5. Bars are welded at top of the mold.

33
Step 10. De-shuttering is done

De-stressing is done by circular saw blade

34
Step 12. Element is lifted to stack in store or else transported to site

35
6.3. BAY 3 - WALL PANELS

Elements produce
1. Precast wall panel
1.1. Facade
1.2. Solid panel
1.3. Double wall
1.4. Cladding panel
About the element: A panel is a single piece of material, usually flat and cut into a
rectangular shape, that serves as the visible and exposed covering for a wall.

Advantages
 Cost effectiveness: Installing of panels is inexpensive.

 Durability & performance: offers unbeatable protection against weather and erosion.
 Swiftness of construction: these systems can be installed in a quick process.
 Environmental soundness: it reduces the space needed on a job site as it is
manufactured in a production facility.
 Easy to demolish.
Specification of bay 3
 Number of casting pallets : 39

 Length of pallet : 12m


 Breadth of pallet : 4m
 Shuttering thickness for single wall : 100mm, 120mm & 160mm
 Shuttering fixed edge : 100mm high
 Screw mountable
 Different sized adapters of shuttering : 60mm & 20mm high
 Thickness for double wall : 70mm
 Curing : Hot curing
 Lifting capacity : Crane 1 - 5 ton
Crane 2 at tilting: 16 ton
Crane 3 for de-shuttering: 1 ton
Crane 4 mesh transfer: 3.5 ton
 Runoff carriage : 25 ton

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Machine and equipment
Magnet based shuttering (RATEC)

Precast Production Bay 3


1. Casting pallets or bed are cleaned with water and then dried.
2. Oil is applied throughout the bed to easily de-mold it.
3. Robotic shuttering is done as well as manual.
4. Rebar cage is placed by crane.
5. Dowel pipe and MEP are placed in rebar cage according to the shop drawing.
6. Concrete is poured and vibration is done in vibrating pallet.
7. Elements are then moved to curing chamber for hot curing.
8. For double wall operation procedure is repeated as mentioned above.
9. De-shuttering and tilting is done.
10. Elements are marked for easy installment.
11. Then it is stacked in stock or else transported to site for erection.

Flowchart of Wall Panel

37
6.4. BAY 4 - MESH

Elements produce: Mesh

About the element: In reinforced concrete, an arrangement of steel bars or wire normally
in two directions at right angles, tied or welded at the intersections of interwoven.

Advantages
 High tensile strength

 Durability
 Controls cracks
 Less deflection

About bay 4
 Steel Quality: up to 550N/mm2

 Wire types: hot rolled and cold drawn


 Wire diameter range: 6-12mm
 Total connected load: 35kW approx
 Rebar length: from 500mm upwards
 Wire feed speed: from 0 - 140 m/min
 Straightening units: 4 rotors factory pre-adjusted for wire diameter 6-8-10-12 mm
 Automatic wire diameter change-over in 4-6 sec

38
Samples of customized meshes

39
MESH MANUFACTURING PROCESS IN FULLY AUTOMATED MACHINE

Step 1: Bars are cut to size Step 2: Bars are moving to get placed

Step 3: Top mesh sliding Step 4: Bottom mesh gets turned

40
Step 5: Welding of bars Step 6: Mesh are welded and transported

41
6.5. BAY 5 – STIRRUP BINDER

Elements produce: Stirrup Binder

About the element: Stirrup is a closed loop of reinforcement bar that is used to hold the
main reinforcement bars together in an RCC structure.

Advantages
 In column it prevents buckling

 Resist lateral shear and diagonal tension stresses


 stability

About bay 5
 Steel Quality: up to 550N/mm2

 Wire types: hot rolled and cold drawn


 Wire diameter range: 6-12mm ( single strand) & 6-10mm (double strand)
 Total connected load: 20kW approx.
 Angle of bend: ±180°
 Bending precision: ±1°
 Longitudinal shank tolerance: ±5mm
 Wire feed speed: from 0 - 140 m/min

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6.6 BAY 6 – COLUMNS, BEAMS & STAIRS

Elements produced

1. Column
2. Beam ( precast & prestressed)
3. Staircase
4. Drains

About the element


1. Stair: A stair is a series of steps with or without landings or platforms, which is installed
between two or more floors of a building to bridge a large vertical distance.

About bay 6
1. Stair
1.1. Thick: 10-18 cm
1.2. Height: 90-160 cm
1.3. Length: 60-800 cm
1.4. Riser: 14-18 cm
1.5. Tread: 27-33 cm
1.6. No. of steps: 4-14
Mold can fabricate locally according the requirement.

Machine & equipment


 Casting pallet

 Stressing machine
 Welding machine
 Needle vibrator

43
Precast production Bay 6
1. Casting pallets or bed are cleaned with water and then dried.
2. Oil is applied throughout the bed to easily de-mold it.
3. Along the breath sides the shuttering is done with the help of welding, according to
the shop drawing.
4. Dowel pipe are placed in rebar cage according to the shop drawing and then Rebar
cage is placed by crane.
5. MEP & inserts are placed. And the end shuttering is done that is along the length
side.
6. At the top, bars are welded on the edges along the length sides to avoid the shutter
to fall.
7. For beam where the elements are to be stressed then, strands are pulled slowly and
marking is done after every inch till the required elongation is achieved.
8. Pouring of concrete and vibration is done manually. After that final finishing is
given. Elements are marked for easy installment.
9. Then the bed is covered with gunny bag. Curing is done by wet covering.
10. Gunny bag is removed but before that De-stressing is done if it is a prestressed
beam and cut by circular saw blade.
11. De-shuttering is done & name is written in every element using paint.
12. Casted element is lifted and stacked in stock or else transported to site for erection.

Flowchart of Beam, column & stair

44
7. ERECTION

The hoisting and installation of the structural components of a building, using crane, hoist,
or any other power system. In other words assembling of precast elements.

Work Sequence:
1. Receipt of erection layout is received from Principal Design to Precast design,
planning and production.
2. Procurement process is done for the request of inserts, grout material, tools, props
etc. and is delivered for inspection by senior construction manager.
3. For transporting the elements 72 hour notice in advance erection is done by
stockyard supervisor to transport coordinator as well as erection team.
4. Delivery inspection is done once the element has reached the site.
5. Erection of elements takes place.

Flowchart of Precast Erection

Erection of column

Column installation by using crane

45
8. REFERENCES

[1]https://www.aleono.com/product/standard-taper-threaded-coupler/
[2]http://www.euroacc.co.uk/products/double-walling-accessories/plastic-coated-rocket-with-
1-way-steps/
[3] https://www.jp-uk.com/products/united-kingdom-balcon-test/85/h-bau-double-wall-
transport-anchor-type-ke
[4]https://www.quora.com/What-is-the-meaning-of-Design-in-Civil-Engineers
[5]https://gradireland.com/careers-advice/job-descriptions/planning-engineer
[6]https://www.projectmanager.com/blog/what-is-project-scheduling
[7]http://www.ultraspan.ca/hollowcoresolutions/?gclid=Cj0KCQjwjtLZBRDLARIsAKT6fX
yHjzA_BRLAVrpcz cbNizqOLWAKs7cQl61Rkavir0gNoJyqhvhBpIsaAmFyEALw_wcB
[8]http://preca.in/blog/9-uses-of-hollow-core-slab/
[9]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hollow-core_slab
[10]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Column
[11]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beam_(structure)
[12]https://www.quora.com/What-are-the-advantages-of-prestresseded-concrete
[13]https://www.concretenetwork.com/precast-concrete/advantages.html
[14]https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wall_panel
[15]https://www.wellsconcrete.com/blog/benefits-precast-wall-panel-system/
[16]http://www.rfa-tech.co.uk/uploads/images/categories/category_394_seclanding1.JPG
[17]https://encryptedtbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRQVqrikIPca7d7EzT5oiPOvhg
Ab1OK5CwOAER243WmeLXHL2im
[18]https://www.google.co.in/search?q=4.+Lifting+socket&num=20&source=lnms&tbm=isc
h&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi8gJHw9NXeAhUeinAKHUIRDBQQ_AUIDigB&biw=1366&bih
=587#imgrc=tMK2Y22-hV_rQM:
[19]http://www.uniferspa.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/5/2017/04/tralicci-foto-300x197.jpg
[20]https://www.google.co.in/search?tbm=isch&sa=1&ei=XSbtW4jyCIPqvgTunIWQBQ&q
=Locking+shims+in+precast+site&oq=Locking+shims+in+precast+site&gs_l=img.3...18420
8.184930.0.185099.5.5.0.0.0.0.157.747.0j5.5.0....0...1c.1.64.img..0.0.0....0.UIsGiYi_WvI#im
grc=uxDRaYk_y5kp3M:
[21]https://www.google.co.in/search?q=Cast+in+channel&num=20&source=lnms&tbm=isch
&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjKgKOC99XeAhVFto8KHbOnAb0Q_AUIDigB#imgrc=ghGpNtKe
VNisYM:
[22]https://www.google.co.in/search?q=Cast+in+channel&num=20&source=lnms&tbm=isch
&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjKgKOC99XeAhVFto8KHbOnAb0Q_AUIDigB#imgrc=Cj4X4YEj
G6OGXM:
[23]http://www.euroacc.co.uk/s/cc_images/cache_28291942.png?t=1395607083

46
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I am very thankful to KEF INFRA INDIA PVT LTD for having given me the opportunity
to undertake my summer intership at their prestigious company. It was a very good learning
experience for me to have worked at this factory as this project involved many unique
construction practices and challenges. It is with immense pleasure that I express my sincere
gratitude and humble appreciation to Mrs. Amritha Arvind, Head HR, who provided me
the opportunity for undertaking the summer internship.

I would also like to give my heartfelt thanks to Mr. Musharaf Mukadam, Design Head, Mr.
Syed Irfan, Planning Head, Mr. Zarar Ahmed Quazi, Production Head, Mr. K.
Balasubrimanium, Techno Commercial Manager & Miss. Anushree Ramesh, Project
Coordination who guided and encouraged me all through the summer training and imparted
indepth knowledge of the operation & project. I would like to thank all the engineer, staff,
site supervisor & workers, for giving their precious time and valuable guidance during my
internship programme.

Last but not the least, my institute, KIIT Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar for
giving me the opportunity to have a precious and rewarding experience of internship in this
prestigious company.

I take this opportunity to thank all my scholar friends & family for their valuable support and
encouragement throughout the preparation of this work & especially to Cdr. Shahaji Pawar
for encouragement and support without him this internship would have remained a dream. I
also thank all those who have directly or indirectly helped in completion of this work.

Vaijayanti Jena 22nd November 2018


(Roll no. 1517028)
KIIT, Bhubaneswar

47