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Diseases

Air borne diseases

Airborne diseases are spread when droplets of pathogens are expelled into the air due to
coughing, sneezing or talking. These droplets can stay in the air for quite some time and
can also travel distances. The risk of getting an airborne disease is higher then the other
forms.

Common cold and cough, throat infections, Chickenpox, influenza, tuberculosis and
smallpox are some examples of airborne diseases.

Prevention of airborne diseases:

1] Person suffering from airborne diseases should avoid direct contact with a non-
infected person.

2] Should regularly wash hands with a good soap.

3] Eat a health diet to build immunity.

4] One should cover nose and mouth while sneezing and coughing

5] Take vaccinations on consulting with Doctor.

6] Keep house and surroundings clean so that dust does not develop around.

Water borne diseases

Water borne diseases are spread by drinking of water contaminated by human or


animal feces which contains pathogenic microorganisms. Floodwaters can carry
with it Raw sewage, Silt, Oil or Chemical wastes and cause diarrhea, dysentery,
Cholera and Typhoid. Waterborne disease can be caused by protozoa, viruses, or
bacteria, many of which are intestinal parasites.

These diseases are extremely harmful not only to a person’s health but to their productivity, and to the
welfare of the community as a whole. They:

• Lead to severe illness and may be fatal, in the case of a severe attack
• Lower the body’s resistance to infection and disease
• Lower the body’s intake of nourishment, and may lead to malnutrition (especially in children)
• Decrease individual and social productivity
• Hamper children’s’ education
• Increase health expenditure
Prevention of Water bore diseases:

1] Chlorination of water.

2] Drinking boiled water

3] Wash hands regularly and keep surroundings clean.

4] Proper use of toilets by adults and children.

5] Pipes and taps should always be kept clean.

6] Storage vessels for water should be cleaned regularly.

Insect and animal borne diseases

Insect and animal borne diseases are diseases carried by insects such as ticks, mosquitoes, fleas and
animal such as rats, chicken, home bred animals. Some of the diseases are Malaria, Yellow Fever,
Dengue Fever, Plague, Bird flu, rabies. Of the many diseases spread by insects, very few are actually
caused by the insects themselves but rather, by other organisms passed on when they feed or bite. Biting
insects are active at all times of the day and night.

Prevention of Insect borne diseases:

1] Avoid bites after sunset by wearing long-sleeved clothing and long trousers.

2] Keep surroundings clean and do not let water accumulate in open area because it will
become a breeding ground for mosquitoes.

3] Spraying insecticides in the room, burning coils and using screens for the doors and windows
will help prevent the mosquitoes from entering the house.

Prevention of Animal borne diseases:

1] Keep surroundings clean.

2] Do not leave food open to attract any rats.

3] Give required rabies shot to the pets.

4] Make sure to avoid meat during out breaks of bird flu, mad cow diseases, etc

5] Keep all pets clean and give good food to them.