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www.cafetinnova.org ISSN 0974-5904, Volume 06, No. 02 (01) April 2013, P.P.01-06

Rainfall Runoff Modeling for Tank Casecade Management Using GIS


D. JAYASREE
Velammal College of Engineering and Technology, Viraganoor, Madurai-9
Email Id: jayasreegeomatics@gmail.com

Abstract: Rainfall runoff modelling is very important in the planning and management of available water resources
in a watershed. In this paper remote sensing and GIS techniques have been used to estimate the spatial variation of
the hydrological parameters, which are used as input to the model. A method is proposed for routing spatially
distributed excess precipitation over a watershed to produce runoff at its outlet. The land surface is represented by a
(raster) digital elevation model from which the stream network is derived. A routing response function is defined for
each digital elevation model cell so that water movement from cell to cell can be converted to give a response
function along a flow path and responses from all cells can be summed to give the outlet hydrograph. So in this
project I have attempted to create a spatially distributed model which will give the runoff from every individual
point and finally routed to the available tanks.
Keywords: Geographical Information System, Digital Elevation Model, Watershed, Hydrograph, Hydrological
parameters.

I. Introduction: Objective: To obtain the SCS-CN distributed Curve


Number for the catchment using overlay analysis in GIS
In India, tanks/ponds & lakes have traditionally played
to apply a spatially distributed hydrological model to
an important role in irrigation, drinking water supply,
simulate runoff from sub watershed to route the runoff
hydropower, ecology, tourism/culture and domestic use.
from the watershed to the outlet through a channel
The relative importance of some of these Water Bodies
network derived from the watershed Digital Elevation
has wanted due to a number of reasons such as shifting
Model (DEM).
away from the community based tank system to an
individual beneficiary oriented ground water dependent A. Methods and Materials:
system, encroachments, silting, population pressure,
(a) Study Area: Vaippar, Thoothukudi District
multiplicity of agencies responsible for their upkeep,
etc. Geographic Position North Latitude 8 04’ 00”
and 930’00” West Latitude 77 45’ 00” and 78
Runoff means the draining or flowing off of 20’ 00” The Vaippar is 130 kilometers (81m)
precipitation from a catchment area though a surface long, with a drainage basin 5,288 kilometer
channel after satisfying all surface and subsurface square 2042 meter square in area. The Vaippar
losses. Knowledge of the surface hydrology of the tank basin in Thoothukudi district is part of the
helps to understand the rainfall-runoff transformation composite east flowing river basin, “Between
better. Gundar and Nambiyar” as per the Irrigation atlas
A number of mathematical models have been developed of India.
for the investigation of these physical processes. The (b) Literature review:
Soil Conservative Services Curve Number (SCS CN)
method is widely used for runoff estimation. This (1) Hydrological modelling of ungauged wadis in
method considers the soil texture; land use and the arid environments using GIS: a case study
Antecedent Moisture Condition eliminate the losses and of Wadi Madoneh in Jordan. This study was to
estimate the runoff. model the rainfall-runoff process in a selected
ungaged basin for the purpose of groundwater
Geographic Information System is a useful platform artificial recharge. Difficulties: Lack of real
developing for Digital Elevation Model (DEM), surface runoff volume. Not equipped with
division of watershed into grid cells in order to surface water gauges to measure the surface
characterize the terrains. Furthermore, it is used for the runoff volume during rainy seasons.
preparation of appropriate input files for the models. (2) Estimation of Rainfall-Runoff using Remote
II. Experimental: Sensing and GIS in and around Singtam, East

#02061001 Copyright ©2013 CAFET-INNOVA TECHNICAL SOCIETY. All rights reserved.


Rainfall Runoff Modeling for Tank Casecade Management Using GIS 2

Sikkim. In this paper, they have modified The model takes the soil and land use maps as
existing SCSCN hydrological model that inputs
considers parameters – slope, catchment size, The overlay analysis is done. To raster tool is used
vegetation and drainage length. The runoff for to find each cell CN.
three locations are graphically represented Lots of cells are formed as a result of the overlay.
using trend analysis Each cell has its own HSG and land use pattern.
Three fields are added and named CN1, CN2 and
(c) Data Used: The maps collected for vaippar
CN3 respectively.
watershed includes Administrative boundary
Using the standard table, the CN2 value in
map, Land use map, Soil map The toposheet,
identified for each cell with respect to its HSG and
SRTM image, Daily Rainfall data and rain gauge
land use using VB script.CN1 and CN3 are
station location for a few rain gauge stations The
calculated from CN2 using the mathematical
Hydrologic Soil group to which each soil class in
formulae with the help of calculate field tool.
the study area belongs to is identified.
CN1= (4.2*CN2)/ (10-0.058*CN2)
(d) Distributed Curve Number Method: In this study CN3= (23*CN2)/ (10+0.13*CN2).
the Distributed Curve Number (DCN) model uses
(f) Model Building
a CN for each cell, generating spatially
distributed excess rainfall over the watershed. A model builder module in ARC GIS software is
The UCN model which lacks that ability of used to develop model. To obtain the curve
including the spatial variability but in case of number from the land use and soil map of the
(DCN) the spatial variability of excess rainfall study area.
which improve the accuracy.
In the Distributed Curve Number (DCN) model,
each cell is assigned a CN that corresponds to its
land use-land cover and soil hydrologic group.
The degree of lumping is limited to the cell size.
The basic approach is based on the assumption
that variation in actual runoff from the CNII
(base CN) value is due to the antecedent moisture
condition (AMC) of the soil. Thus, the
relationships between CNIII (AMC = III) and
CNI (AMC = I) to CNII (AMC = II) are used to
scale the storm CN.
(e) Methodology For Runoff:

Fig1: Arc Map Toolbox with the Created Models.

III. Results and Discussion:


B. Curve Number Model:

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 01-06
3 D. JAYASREE

Fig4: The Spatially Distributed Curve Number Map


(g) Runoff Estimation:
(i) Specific Retention Estimation:
From the AMC type the CN to be used in the
estimation of specific retention can be found.
Specific retention is found using the formula.
S= (25400/CN)-254
Where S is the specific retention in mm, CN is
the modified curve number.
(ii) Runoff Depth Estimation:
From the specific retention and Rainfall the
runoff depth for every day can be calculated
using the formula
If P > 0 then Q= (P-0.3S)2/(P+0.7S)
Where P is the rainfall depth in mm, S is the
specific retention in mm and Q is the runoff
depth in mm.The above operations are also
Fig2: Arc Map Model to Calculate SCS CN carried out using a Microsoft excel sheet. The
rainfall runoff relationship curve can be
obtained.
Table1: The Attribute Table Shown the Final Runoff
Amount in Each Landuse

Fig3: Attribute Table of the Output Map from SCS CN


Model

(iii) The rainfall runoff relationship curve:

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 01-06
Rainfall Runoff Modeling for Tank Casecade Management Using GIS 4

Fig5: Rainfall Runoff Relationship Curve for the Year


1996

Fig8: Rainfall-Runoff Output Map


(h) Tank Cascade:
Tank cascade is defined as the connected series
of tanks in a catchment for storing, conveying
and utilization of water. Diagrammatic
representation of the tank cascade is shown
below

Fig6: Rainfall Runoff Relationship Curve for the Year


1984
Fig9: The Tank Cascade System
Tank storage is a major component which will
affect runoff both in magnitude and time.
Routing though the streams without considering
the intervening tank storages will not give the
accurate estimation of water potential available in
various times. Incorporating the hydrological
effects of tanks in rainfall runoff modelling will
make it into a more complex one. The
introduction of tank cascade in the routing will
result the changes in the time distribution and
magnitude of runoff, peak flow and storage in
each tank. The possible routing direction of
various stream orders to the final outlet of the
vaippar watershed is shown in Fig 10.
Fig7: Rainfall Runoff Relationship Curve for the Year
1984.

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 01-06
5 D. JAYASREE

the estimated runoff will be used for various


purposes like Agricultural, Crop growth, and for
drinking purpose. The tank catchment had the
capability to generate runoff that is necessary for
the filling up of the tank to its full capacity during
high rainfall and half level during moderate rainfall
till the year 2005. The Distributed Curve Number
(DCN) model, each cell is assigned a CN that
corresponds to its land use-land cover and soil
hydrologic group to be done.
Spatially variation of excess rainfall in the outlet
hydrograph to be done.
D. Recommendations:
The problems in the tank can be overcome
(i) By stopping the soil mining activities in the
tank area
(ii) By clearing the plants in the water spread area
of the tank.
E. Reference:
Fig10: The Possible Routing Direction Map. [1] Athanassios Bourlesikas, Evangels Boltas and
C. Conclusion: Maria Mimikou; Vol.6, No.1 Spring (2006);
“Rainfall-Runoff Modelling for an Experimental
The excess rainfall was generated using DCN Watershed of Western Greece Using Extended
method: Time-Area Method and GIS” Journal of spatial
The Distributed Curve Number (DCN) model uses Hydrology.
a CN for each cell, generating spatially distributed [2] Dervos.N & Baltas E. A (2006); “Rainfall-Runoff
excess rainfall using the SCS CN method. A 90-m Simulation in an Experimental basin using gis
resolution USGS DEM was used to derive the flow methods” Journal of Environmental Hydrology.
direction flow accumulation, and to delineate the [3] Jennifer Leigh Kilgore, (1997); “Development and
stream channel network. The stream channel Evaluation of a gis-based Spatially Distributed Unit
network delineation process involves setting a Hydrograph model” Environmental Hydrology.
threshold on the upstream area of each cell after [4] Mohammad Al-Smadi , (1998); “Incorporating
which the flow in that cell is considered to have the Spatial and Temporal Variation of Watershed
characteristics of channel flow. Response in a gis-based hydrologic model” Journal
of Hydrology
[5] Mahboudeh Ebrahiamian, Mohd Hasmadi Ismail
and Ismail Abdul Malek (2009); “Application of
Natural Resources Conservation Service-Curve
Number Method for Runoff Estimation with GIS in
Kardeh Watershed, IRAN” Faculty of Forestry,
University Putra Malaysia, 4300(UPM), Serdang,
Selangor, Malaysia.
[6] Jain M.K., Mishra S.K. and Singh V.P.(2005) ;
“Evaluation of AMC-Dependent SCS-CN-Based
Models Using Watershed Characteristics”
[7] Chandranath Chatterjee,Ramakar Jha, Anil Kumar
Fig11: The Comparative Graph of Observed and Lohani and Rahul Kumar Jaiswal (1996-1997) ;
Estimated Rainfall-Runoff for Three Years “Determination of SCS runoff curve number and
landuse changes for Hamindnagar sub-basin of
We observed that every year, half of the rainfall Pun Pun basin” Ganga Plains North Regional
amount is going waste after satisfying all surface Centre, National Institute of Hydrology.
and subsurface losses.GIS technique is very useful [8] A.A. Kulkarni, S.P. Aggarwal and K.K.Das
for estimating the runoff (excess rainfall). So that ((2004); “Estimation of Surface Runoff using

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 01-06
Rainfall Runoff Modeling for Tank Casecade Management Using GIS 6

Rainfall-Runoff Modeling of Warasgaon Dam [14] Das, S.N. Tripathi, M.P. Shrivastava, P.K. (2004):
Catchment” Indian Institute of Remote Sensing, 4, Hydrological Modelling of a Small Watershed
Kalidas Road, Dehradun. Using Satellite Data and GIS Technique, Journal of
[9] Ratika.T, Pradhan, Mohan P. Pradhan, M. K. Ghose the Indian Society of Remote Sensing,
, Vivek S. Agarwal, Shakshi Agarwal (2010); “Esti [15] Aggarwal, S.P. (2001): Hydrological Modelling
mation of Rainfall-Runoff using Remote Sensing a using Remote Sensing and GIS, Paper presented at
nd GIS in and around Singtam”International Journa the 22nd Asian Conference on Remote sensing, 5-9
l of Geomatics and Geosciences. November.
[10] Ratna Kanth.M.J, Babu,K.Sundara Kumar: volume [16] Jain M.K., Mishra S.K. and Singh V.P.(2005) ;
25,(2010); “Simulation of runoff in watersheds “Evaluation of AMC-Dependent SCS-CN-Based
using SCS-CN method using Remote Sensing and Models Using Watershed Characteristics”.
Geographic information system”. International [17] McCuen, Richard H., A Guide to Hydrologic
Journal of Advanced Science and Technology. Analysis Using SCS Methods Prentice Hall, Inc.
[11] Ajward,M.H (1996), ‘A Spatially Distributed Unit Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1982.
Hydrograph Model using a Geographical [18] Soil Conservation Service, Urban Hydrology for
Information’, Ph.d. Civil Engineering Dept., Small Watersheds, Technical Release 55 (TR-55),
University of Calgary, Calgary. 198.
[12] Maidment.D.R. Dover.k H.P. Nachnebel (1993), [19] Olivera, F., and D. R. Maidment, Runoff
‘Developing a spatially distributed unit hydrograph computation using spatially distributed terrain
by using GIS’, In Hydro GIS 93: Application of parameters, paper presented at North American
Geographic Information Systems in Hydrology and Water and Environment Congress, Am. Soc. Civ.
Water Resources Proceedings of the Vienna Eng., Anaheim,Calif., June 22–28, 1996.
conference. [20] Estimation of Rainfall Runoff using Remote
[13] Estimation of Rainfall Runoff using Remote Sensing and GIS in and around Singtam, East
Sensing and GIS in and around Singtam, East Sikkim Ratika Pradhan, Mohan P. Pradhan, M. K.
Sikkim Ratika Pradhan, Mohan P. Pradhan, M. K. Ghose, Vivek S. Agarwal, Shakshi Agarwal
Ghose, Vivek S. Agarwal, Shakshi Agarwal Department of Computer Science and Engineering,
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Sikkim Maniple Institute of Technology, Majitar,
Sikkim Maniple Institute of Technology, Majitar, Rangpo, Sikkim, India.
Rangpo, Sikkim, India

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 01-06
Indexed in
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Abstract Services-USA, Geo-Ref Information Services-
USA, List B of Scientific Journals in Poland

www.cafetinnova.org ISSN 0974-5904, Volume 06, No. 02 (01) April 2013, P.P.07-14

Structural Performance of Beam Column Joints Retrofitted With


Cementitious Laminates
B.VENKATESAN1, R. ILANGOVAN2
1
Department of Civil Engineering, University College of Engineering-Ramanathapuram- 623501
2
Department of Civil Engineering, University College of Engineering (BIT Campus)-Tiruchirappalli - 620024

Abstract: Moderate and severe earthquakes have struck different places in the world, causing severe damage to
reinforced concrete (RC) structures. Retrofitting of existing structures is one of the major challenges that modern
civil engineer have to face. Recent evaluation of civil engineering structures has demonstrated that most of them will
need major repairs in the near future. One of the techniques of strengthening the RC structural members is through
confinement with a composite enclosure. This external confinement of concrete by Slurry Infiltrated Mat Concrete
(SIMCON) composites can significantly enhance the strength and ductility and will result in large energy absorption
capacity of structural members are being used to strengthen a variety of RC elements to enhance the flexural, shear,
and axial load carrying capacity of elements.
Beam-column joints, being the lateral and vertical load resisting members in RC structures are particularly
vulnerable to failures during earthquakes and hence strengthening of the joints is often the key to successful seismic
retrofit strategy. In this paper, an attempt has been made to study the behavior of the reinforced concrete beam-
column joints retrofitted with SIMCON wrap.
Eight exterior RC beam-column joint specimens were cast and tested to failure during the present investigation. In
four specimens, the reinforcements in both column and beam were provided as per code IS 456:2000 In remaining
four specimens, the reinforcements in both column and beam were provided as per code IS 13920:1993. Various
percentage of load carrying capacity of column was given as axial load in the column. Static load was applied as
cantilever point load on beam till failure. The performance of the retrofitted beam-column joints was compared with
the control beam-column joint specimens and the results were presented.
Key Words: Beam-column joints; SIMCON concrete; retrofitting; ductility behavior; shear failure; Static load.

1. Introduction repeated reversed loading will occur. The beam-column


connection for structural integrity, the beam-column must
In framed structures failure often occurs at the beam
be provided with stiffness and strength sufficient to resist
column junction due to the combined effect of bending
and sustain the loads transmitted strength that based on
moment and shear force. This makes the joint as one of
full flexural strength of beams may result.
the most critical sections of the structure. Performance
of the joint is evaluated on the basis of their strength, as 2. Literature Survey
well as ductility. Generally the cyclic loads such as1.
2. Robert Ravi et al (2009) conducted an experimental
earthquakes experience large internal forces
investigation on influence of development length in
consequently. The ductile behavior of RC structures
retrofitted reinforced concrete beam-column joints. Nine
dominating depends on the reinforcement detailing of
controlled reinforced concrete beam-column joints
the beam-column joints. Beam – column is an important
specimens were casted, in which six specimens had
part for an earthquake resistant design of reinforced
design and details as per the code IS 456:2000.
accrete moment resisting frames, beams-to-column joints
Remaining three specimens had design and details as
should have sufficient stiffness and strength to resist and
per the code IS 13920:1993. Retrofitting was done on
sustain the load induced from adjacent beams and
failed specimens which had details as per code IS
columns. The structured demand on joint is greatly
456:2000. Three specimens were wrapped with GFRP
affected by the types of loading i.e. it me be appropriate
and remaining three with CFRP. Static load test was
to use design procedure in which the severity of each type
conducted on control and retrofitted specimens. They
of loading is recognized. A large amount of joint
conclude that there was an increase in load carrying
reinforcement can be expected for the second case
capacity by 14.5% and an increase in energy absorption
because strength degradation of the concert under

#02061002 Copyright ©2013 CAFET-INNOVA TECHNICAL SOCIETY. All rights reserved.


Structural Performance of Beam Column Joints Retrofitted With Cementitious 8
Laminates

capacity by 10% as the development length was results obtained were compared to the results of the
increased based on code IS 13920:1993. analytical and numerical solutions. The agreement
between the analytical and experimental results was
K.R.Bindu et al (2008) conducted a detailed
found to be very good and the assumptions made in the
investigation on the performance of exterior beam-
definition of the models and the analytical computations
column joints with inclined bars at joints under cyclic
were verified. The software developed appears to be a
loading. They investigated the effect of inclined bars at
viable tool for the prediction of the flexural behavior
the joint region. Four exterior beam column joints were
SIMCON concrete composite.
cast and tested under cyclic loading. The performance
of specimens which had joint reinforcement with 3. Experimental Investigations
inclined bars was compared with the specimen without
3.1 Slurry Infiltrated Mat Concrete (SIMCON)
inclined bars. They concluded that specimens with
inclined bars show more ductility and energy absorption The structural use of new High-performance fiber
capacity than the specimen without inclined bars. reinforced concrete (HPFRC) called slurry infiltrated
mat concrete (SIMCON) and present the effect of using
G.A. Lakshmi et al (2008) conducted a detailed
this material on flexural strength and energy absorption.
investigation by numerical and experimental study on
It is made by first pre-placing continuous stainless steel
strengthening of beam-column joints under cyclic
fiber-mats into form followed by cement based slurry.
excitation using FRP composites. In that study three
3.2 Experimental study of SIMCON laminates
typical modes of failure namely flexural failure of
A cement mortar of 2:1, mix was prepared for casting
beam, shear failure of beam and shear failure of column
the 45, flexural slab of various Volumetric fraction and
were discussed. Comparison was made in the terms of
load carrying capacity. Three exterior beam-column each of three on V f is 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, 6.0 of l/d is
joint sub assemblages were caste and tested under cyclic 300, 300 & 400, 400, the performance of the flexural
loading. All the three specimens were retrofitted using laminate specimens incorporated with the steel fibers
FRP materials and results were compared with control was obtained using flexural slab specimen of size 500 x
specimens. Finite element analysis has been carried out 125 x 25 mm. fibers in different combinations were laid
using ANSYS to numerically simulate each of these on the specimen while casting as shown in fig.
cases. They concluded that the shear failure was very
brittle and hence retrofitting should be done in such a
manner that the eventual failure occurs in the beam in
flexure.
Alexander G. Tsonos et al (2008) conducted a detailed
investigation on effectiveness of CFRP jacket and RC
jacket in post earthquake and pre earthquake beam-
column sub assemblages. The feasibility and technical
effectiveness of high strength fibre jacket system and
reinforced jacket system were discussed. Four exterior
beam-column joint sub assemblages were tested under Fig1. SIMCON Laminate slab
cyclic loading. They concluded that in case of post
earthquake, specimens retrofitted with RC jacket shows 3.2.1 Test setup of Simcon slab
more effective but in case of pre earthquake both Simcon slab was test under the loading frame of 5T
retrofitting technique shows equal effectiveness. capacity frame.Simcon slab to put on one by third of
Abdol R. Haghyeghi, (1998) an experimentally slab length is marked then load is applied on middle of
investigated with an emphasis placed on the the slab then dial gauge is also fixed under the bottom
determination of the effects of SIMCON addition on the of the slab. The load is given from the load frame to
flexural response of SIMCON retrofitted and SIMCON apply incrementally to the slab specimen then to
repaired concrete beams. The complete flexural deflection is noted from the using of dial gauge. This
behavior of SIMCON retrofitted and repaired beams is type of procedure of setup for taken the entire specimen.
investigated and documented. All beams were subjected The test setup as shown in fig.below
to third point flexural loading tests. A theoretical
nonlinear analytical model and a simplified analytical
approach were developed and proposed in this study.
The full moment-curvature response was developed and
proposed in this study. The full moment-curvature
response was modeled and quantified. The experimental

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 07-14
9 B.VENKATESAN, R. ILANGOVAN

For the remaining four specimens, 4nos.12mm diameter


bars were provided as longitudinal reinforcement. The
lateral ties in the column were provided as 8mm
diameter bar at 100 mm c/c for the overall length of
2000mm .Beam had 4nos. each 12mm diameter bar.
Beam had vertical stirrups of 8mm diameter bar at
100mm c/c. up to end of the beam. The development
length of the beam rods were also provided as per code
IS 13920:1993,cl 6.2.5. The concrete mix was designed
for a target strength of 30 MPa at the age of 28 days. &
1.0:1.54:2.77:0.45 as per I.S. recommendations and the
mix proportion of cement, sand, coarse aggregate and
water are respectively.
The load carrying capacity of the column was found to
be 500 kN. The details of the typical test specimens are
given in Fig.4(a) & Fig.4(b)

Fig2. Test Setup SIMCON Laminate Slab


Table1.represent of specimens

Sl. IS: 13920- IS: 456- Designation


No 1993 2000
Control
1 Type-A1 Type-B1
specimen

LOAD Vs DEFLECTION

100
Fig4.a Reinforcement Details for Type – A1
80
LOAD (dIv)

60

40
l\d - 300
20 l\d - 300& 400
l\d - 400
0
0 2 4 6 8
DEFLECTION (mm)

Fig3. Load-Deflection for Various Aspect ratios


(SIMCON Slab)
3.3 Casting Of RC Beam Column Joint
The experimental program consisted the testing of eight
reinforced concrete beam-column joint specimens. The
column had a cross section of 230mm x 230mm with an Fig4.b Reinforcement Details for Type – B1
overall length of 2000mm and the beam had a cross
section of 230mm x 230mm with a cantilevered portion 3.4 Test Arrangements
of length 1000 mm. four specimens had 4nos. of 12mm The experimental setup for a beam column joint is
diameter bars as longitudinal reinforcement in column shown in Fig. 4.7. Deflections on beam are measured by
as per IS 456:2000, cl 26.5.3.1. The lateral ties in the using dial gauges at the midspan of the beam and at the
column were provided at a spacing of 150 mm c/c as per free end. A hydraulic jack (capacity 50 tonnes) was used
IS 456:2000, cl 26.5.3.2(c). Beam had 4 nos.12mm for applying a vertically upward force on bottom face of
diameter &beam had vertical stirrups of 8 mm diameter the beam at a distance 850 mm from column face Static
at 150mm c/c as per code IS 456:2000, cl.26.5.1.6. The loading is applied at the bottom face of the beam
development length of the tension and compression rods Boundary condition of column held in position but not
in beam was also provided as per clause 26.2.1of restrained in direction (partially fixed end conditions)
IS456:2000. was obtained through the application of load in the axial
direction on the column.

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 07-14
Structural Performance of Beam Column Joints Retrofitted With Cementitious 10
Laminates

Table2. Load deflection reading for Type A1specimen

Sl. Load Deflection in Deflection in


No (kN) middle (mm) End (mm)

1 0.75 0.03 0.17

2 1.50 0.21 0.41

3 2.25 0.27 0.51

4 3.00 3.66 0.72

5 3.75 0.45 0.91

6 4.50 0.52 1.02

7 5.25 0.60 1.23

Fig5. Experimental Setup 8 6.00 0.69 1.41

9 6.75 7.66 1.60

10 7.50 8.66 1.89

11 8.25 0.95 2.17


Column 230  230 mm
12 9.00 1.03 2.41

Beam 230  230 mm 13 9.75 1.23 2.62


le 14 10.50 1.27 2.73

15 11.25 16.63 3.17

16 12.00 1.70 3.56

17 12.75 2.09 3.77

18 13.50 2.28 3.90

19 14.25 2.50 4.15

20 15.00 2.72 4.32

21 15.75 28.66 4.75


Fig5.1 Line Diagram of the Experimental Setup 22 16.50 3.25 4.82
3.5 Beam Column Joint Control Specimen
23 17.25 3.53 4.97
A static load behaviour of TypeA1 and B1 specimen
are show n in figure 4.a.for TypeA1,the maximum load 24 18.00 3.77 5.12
observed is 20.25kN and the specimen failed in 5.48mm
displcement.Based on the load deflection curve are 25 18.75 4.00 5.23
work out.The total cumulative load observed is
20.25kN(Table2).For TypeB1 the maximum load 26 19.50 4.80 5.34
observed is 12kN and the specimen failed in 17.66mm 27 20.25 4.90 5.48
displcement. The total cumulative load is 12kN
(Table3).The increase in deflection of specimen Type
B1 when compared to as Type A1 is more.

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 07-14
11 B.VENKATESAN, R. ILANGOVAN

LOAD Vs DEFLECTION (END) LOAD Vs DEFLECTION (END)

30
25 14
LOAD (KN)

20 12

LOAD (KN)
10
15
8
10 6
TYPE-A1
5 4 TYPE - B1
2
0
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0 5 10 15 20
DEFLECTION (mm)
DEFLECTION (mm)

Fig6. Load Vs Deflection curve at Middle & End of


LOAD Vs DEFLECTION (MID)
Specimen Type A1
14
Table2.1.Load deflection reading for Type B1specimen 12
10

LOAD(KN)
Sl. Load Deflection in Deflection in 8
6
No (kN) Middle (mm) End (mm) 4 TYPE - B1
2
1 0.75 0.05 0.58 0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
2 1.50 0.09 0.60 DEFLECTION (mm)

3 2.25 0.50 1.30


Fig6.1 Load Vs Deflection curve at Middle & End of
4 3.00 0.95 2.30 Specimen Type B1
5 3.75 1.25 2.62 3.6 Crack pattern of control specimen
The crack patterns of all the tested specimen are shown
6 4.50 1.64 3.38
in figure 7. All the specimen failed in the beam portion,
7 5.25 2.04 4.18 yielding of steel has been observed at the point of
failure. Strain gauges are bonded in the beam portion,
8 6.00 2.93 5.95 but these strain gauges are deboned at the reach of
Ultimate load and the allowable deflection.
9 6.75 3.33 6.66

10 7.5 3.72 7.38

11 8.25 4.53 8.94

12 9.00 5.18 9.86

13 9.75 6.27 11.2

14 10.5 7.62 12.7

15 11.25 8.66 15.65

16 12.00 9.70 17.60

Fig7. Crack pattern of tested control specimen Type A1


& Type B1

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 07-14
Structural Performance of Beam Column Joints Retrofitted With Cementitious 12
Laminates

4. Numerical Analysis (Ansys)


A full 3D finite element analysis has been carried out
using ANSYS general purpose finite element software.
The analysis presented in this paper assumes that the
beam column joint is subjected to static loading. Further
experimental results are presented for beam column
joint for comparison. The concrete has been modeled
using eight noded solid element (SOLID 65) specially
designed for concrete, capable of handling plasticity,
creep, cracking in tension and crushing in compression
The characteristics of the adopted element being non
linear, requires aniterative solution. In this analysis, the b) Deflected shape
compressive strength of concrete (fck) is taken as Fig8 ANSYS model and deflected shape of Beam column
30.30MPa and tensile strength of concrete (ft) is Joint
considered as 3.5 MPa. The elastic modulus (Es) is
25735 MPa. The reinforcing steel has been modeled Table3 Load deflection reading for Type A1specimen
using a series of two noded link elements (LINK 8). The
Sl. No Load(KN) Deflection(mm)
material properties associated with link elements
include an initial yield stress 448 MPa. 1 0.00 0
4.1 Modeling of Beam-Column Joint
2 1.50 0.39
The boundary conditions were exactly simulated as in
the test set up shown in figure8a.Horizontal and vertical 3 3.00 0.77
restraints, representing a pin connection were applied at
the top and bottom of the column. At the end of beams, 4 5.25 1.452
only vertical displacement was provided to simulate the
5 9.00 2.56
sttic load conditions used in the test. A constant axial
load of 100 kN was applied to top end of the column. 6 10.50 3.082
The vertical displacement at the beam end was applied
in a slowly increasing monotonic manner, with results 7 12.75 3.916
recorded for every 5 mm vertical displacement up to
failure. The deflected shape of the model is shown in 8 15.00 4.732
figure8b, 8.2b
9 21.00 7.831
Ansys model for Type-A1 specimen
10 25.00 15.443

LOAD Vs DEFLECTION(MID)

30
25
LOAD(kN)

20
15
10
Type-A1
5
0
0 5 10 15 20
DEFLECTION(mm)

a) ANSYS model
Fig.8.1 Load Vs Deflection curve at Middle of Specimen
Type A1
Ansys model for Type-B1 specimen

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 07-14
13 B.VENKATESAN, R. ILANGOVAN

LOAD Vs DEFLECTION (MID)


10
8

LOAD(KN)
6
4
Type-B1
2
0
0 5 10 15
DEFLECTION(m m )

Fig8.3 Load Vs Deflection curve at Middle of Specimen


Type B1
LOAD Vs DEFLECTION (MID)

a) ANSYS model 25

20

LOAD (KN)
15

10
Type-A1
5 Type-B1
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

DEFLECTION (mm)

Fig8.4 Load Vs Deflection curve on Experimental result


of Type A1 & Type B1
LOAD Vs DEFLECTION (MID)
30
25
LOAD (KN)

20
15
10
Type-A1
5 Type-B1
0
0 5 10 15 20
b) Deflected shape DEFLECTION (mm)

Fig.8.2 ANSYS model and deflected shape of Beam Fig8.5 Load Vs Deflection curve on ANSYS model of
column joint Type A1 & Type B1
Table4 Load deflection reading for Type B1specimen 5. Conclusions
Sl. No Load(KN) Deflection(mm) The conclusions are presented based on the extensive
experimental work and the numerical analysis,the
1 0.00 0.00 following conclusions are drawn:

2 1.20 0.972 (i) The maximum crack width of the TypeB1 specimen
is 40% higher than that of TypeA1 specimen at the
3 3.00 2.25 ultimate loading condition
(ii) The maximum load carried by the TypeA1
4 4.50 3.082 specimen is 20.25 kN and maximum load carried
by the TypeB1 specimen is 11.25 kN. and also
5 6.00 5.23 Type-B1 specimen the moment carrying capacity
6 6.75 6.165 also will be more for the Type-A1 specimens.
(iii) The maximum deflection of Type-A1 specimen at
7 9.00 11.43 the free end is 5.48mm and for the s Type-B1
specimen is 15.65mm. Maximum deflection at the
8 9.35 12.23 midspan of the beam for the Type-A1 specimen is
4.9mm and for the Type-B1 specimen is 8.66mm.
(iv) ANSYS modelling closely predicts the
experimental behavior of beam column joint

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 07-14
Structural Performance of Beam Column Joints Retrofitted With Cementitious 14
Laminates

6. References
Composites,” Journal of structural engineering
[1] Robert Ravi.S, Prince Arulraj.G., “Experimental 2008,Vol 35, Pg 59-65.
Investigation on Influence of Development Length [5] M.Jamal Shannag, and Nabeela Abu-Dyya,
in Retrofitting Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column “Lateral Load Response of High Performance Fibre
Joints”NBMCW 2009, Vol 4, Pg 148-158. Reinforced Concrete Beam Column Joints” Journal
[2] K.R.Bindu and K.P.Jaya, “Performance of Exterior of construction and building materials 2005 Vol 19,
Beam Column Joints with Cross Inclined Bars Pg 500-508.
under Seismic Type Loading,” Journal of [6] Park R. and paulay T. “Reinforced concrete
engineering and applied science, 2008, Vol 7, Pg structures.” Wiley and son, inc., New York, 1975,
591-597. 769pp.
[3] Alexander G. Tsonos, “Effectiveness of CFRP [7] ACI-ASCE Committee 352, “Recommendations for
Jackets and RC Jackets In Post–earthquake and Design of beam-Column Joints in Monolithic
Pre– earthquake Retrofitting of Beam Column Sub reinforced Concrete Structures”, ACI J. Vol. 82,
Assemblages,” Journal of engineering structures May-June 1985, pp. 266-283.
2008, Vol 30, Pg 777-793. [8] IS: 456-1978: “Code of Practice for Plain and
[4] G.A. Lakshmi, Anjan Dutta,and S.K.Deb, Reinforced Concrete”. Bureau of Indian Standards,
“Numerical Study of Strengthening of Beam New Delhi, 1978.
Column Joints Under Cyclic Excitation Using FRP

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 07-14
Indexed in
Scopus Compendex and Geobase Elsevier, Chemical
Abstract Services-USA, Geo-Ref Information Services-
USA, List B of Scientific Journals in Poland

www.cafetinnova.org ISSN 0974-5904, Volume 06, No. 02 (01) April 2013, P.P.15-20

Experimental Investigation on Strengthening of CFST Columns


Using CFRP Composites
M. C. SUNDARRAJA1 AND G. GANESH PRABHU2
1
Department of Civil Engineering Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai, India
2
Department of Civil Engineering, Sethu Institute of Technology, Virudhunagar, India
Email Id: mcsciv@tce.edu, gganeshprabhu@gmail.com

Abstract: In recent years, many concrete filled steel tubular (CFST) structures are found to be suffering from a
variety of deteriorations like cracking, yielding and large deformation. Hence the structures are needed armor to
support the designed load or even renovated to resist the possible higher loading. Results of previous researches
showed that the external bonding of CFRP composites increase the strength and stiffness of such members. This
research is also aimed to experimentally investigate the suitability of CFRP strips in upgrading the CFST column
members under axial compression. Eighteen CFST columns externally bonded with CFRP strips having two
different spacings such as 30mm and 40mm were tested under axial compression. It was found that external bonding
of CFRP strips effectively provides restraint against the lateral deformation and they delayed the local buckling of
steel tube. The experimental results also indicated that enhancement in axial capacity of CFST sections can be
possible by reinforcing with CFRP strips and the strength capacity increases with the increase in number layers.
Keywords: CFST members, CFRP fabrics, strengthening, compression, externally bonded.

I. Introduction: damaged concrete-filled steel tubes repaired using


unidirectional CFRP composites. The test results
Over the past few decades, the infrastructure concerned
showed that the load-carrying capacity and the
with metallic and concrete filled tubular structures
longitudinal stiffness of CFRP-repaired CFST stub
(CFST) become structural unsatisfactory and ageing of
columns increased while their ductility decreased with
those structures and its deteriorations are often reported
the increasing number of CFRP layers. In another study,
[3]. Therefore, actions like implementation of new
Zhong Tao and Lin-Hai Han [1] repaired the fire-
materials and strengthening techniques become essential
exposed CFST beam columns by unidirectional CFRP
to combat this problem. Even though the traditional
composites. Experimental results of Bambach and
strengthening techniques like section enlargement and
Elchalakani [5] revealed that application of CFRP to
external bonding of steel plates are successful in
slender sections delays the local buckling and
practice, these techniques revealed serious difficulties.
subsequently results in significant increases in elastic
In contrast, rehabilitation methods using fibre reinforced
buckling stress, axial capacity and strength-to-weight
polymer (FRP) composites do not exhibit any of those
ratio of the compression members. Test results of
drawbacks. One of the main driving forces for the
Haedir et al (2010) proved that ultimate load can be
development of external strengthening using FRP
increased satisfactorily by adding high-strength fibre
composite is upgrading deteriorated members without
sheets to the steel sections and externally reinforcing
significantly altering the appearance of the member. In
them. Jimmy Haedir and Xiao-Ling Zhao [6] attempted
addition to that, FRP composites are lightweight having
to evaluate the suitability of externally bonded CFRP
high strength and stiffness and are durable, resistance to
sheets for strengthening of circular steel tubular short
corrosion and fatigue. In recent years, there have been
columns and the test results concluded that
many investigations were emerged in strengthening of
enhancement in axial section capacity can be possible
steel structures with FRP, especially in the area of thin-
by fibre reinforcing. Jimmy Haedir et.al [7] observed
walled steel structures. N.K. Photiou et al [3]
that strength capacity of the CFRP-strengthened steel
investigated the effectiveness of an ultra-high modulus
CHS subjected to bending, increases with increase in
and high modulus carbon fibre reinforced polymer
the amount of CFRP.
(CFRP) prepreg in strengthening the artificially
degraded steel beam of rectangular cross-section under Research carried out so far are boundless on the
four-point loading. Zhong Tao et al. [2] presented the behaviour of steel tubes and “I” sections externally
results of axial compression and bending tests of fire- bonded by FRP composites, however, only few

#02061003 Copyright ©2013 CAFET-INNOVA TECHNICAL SOCIETY. All rights reserved.


Experimental Investigation on Strengthening of CFST Columns Using
16
CFRP Composites

researches have been focused on the behaviour of grinding machine. Inside portion of the hollow steel
externally bonded CFST columns using FRP composites tubes were thoroughly wire brushed to remove the rust
and only few applications are in practice. In addition, and loose debris presented. Then the hollow steel tube
more researches are required to derive an optimal FRP specimens were filled with concrete and effectively
wrapping scheme for strengthening of CFST members. compacted by a steel rod to ensure adequate compaction
In this study, main attention is paid to gain better and to eliminate the air gaps in the concrete. To
knowledge about the structural behaviour of CFST eliminate the leakage of slurry during compaction, a
columns externally strengthened by CFRP composites steel plate was placed at the bottom prior to filling
and also compare the effectiveness of FRP wrapping concrete. The specimens were allowed to cure for 28
schemes. The experimental parameters were number of days. Surface preparation of the metal substrate is very
FRP layers and spacing between the FRP strips. To important to achieve good bonding between steel tube
eliminate the galvanic corrosion between steel tube and and CFRP fabrics. So the exposed surface of the tubular
CFRP, a thin layer of glass fibre mat was introduced specimen was blasted by the coarse sand to remove the
between steel and CFRP fabrics. Finally, suitable rust and also to make the surface rough one. The entire
wrapping scheme that can be used to repair the CFST sand blasted surface was cleaned by using acetone to
members was recommended. remove all contaminant materials before externally
bonded with the fibres. Prior to the columns bonded by
II. Materials:
carbon fibre, a very thin GFRP fabric was introduced
A. Concrete: between the steel surface and CFRP composites in order
to eliminate the galvanic corrosion. Finally, the CFRP
The concrete mix proportion designed by IS method to
were bonded to the exterior surface of the CFST
achieve the strength of 30 N/mm2 was 1:1.39:2.77 by
members with the different wrapping schemes and
weight. The designed water cement ratio was 0.35.
thicknesses. During wrapping, the resin and hardener
Concrete cube specimens were cast for each batching
were correctly proportioned and thoroughly mixed
and tested at the age of 28 days to determine the
together and the excess epoxy and air were removed
compressive strength of concrete. The average
using a ribbed roller moving in the direction of the fibre.
compressive strength of the concrete was 38.5 N/mm2.
B. Description of Specimens:
B. Carbon Fibre:
Among twenty one specimens, eighteen were externally
The unidirectional carbon fibre called MBrace 240,
bonded by CFRP strips and the remaining three
fabricated by BASF India Inc was used in this study. It
specimens were unbonded. The size and length of the
is a low modulus CFRP fibre having modulus of
columns used were 91.5x91.5x3.6mm and 600mm
elasticity of 240 kN/mm2 and the tensile strength of
respectively. To identify the specimen easily, the
3800 N/mm2. The thickness and width of the fibre was
columns were designated with the names such as HS-
0.234mm and 600mm respectively.
50-30-T1, HS-50-30-T2 HS-50-30-T3, HS-50-40-T1,
C. Adhesive: HS-50-40-T2 and HS-50-40-T3. For example, the
specimen HS-50-30-T3 specifies that it was
The MBrace saturant supplied by BASF India Inc was
strengthened by three (3) layers of 50mm width of
used in this study to get sufficient bonding between
CFRP horizontal strip (HS) fabrics in transverse
steel tube and carbon fibre. It is a two part systems, a
direction (T) with the spacing of 30mm. The control
resin and a hardener and the mixing ratio was 100:40
columns are specified as CC1, CC2 and CC3.
(B: H).
C. Experimental Setup:
D. Steel Tube:
The CFST columns were tested in compression testing
The square hollow steel tube confirming to IS 4923 -
machine of capacity 2000 kN. The specimens were
1997 and having a dimension of 91.5mm x 91.5 mm
instrumented to measure longitudinal axial compression.
was used in this study. The thickness and height of the
Axial deformation of the column was measured by
square hollow steel tube were 3.6mm and 600mm
using linear voltage displacement transducer (LVDT)
respectively. The yield strength of the tube was 258
which was kept at top of the jack. The load cell and
MPa and chosen from the experimental values.
LVDT were connected with the 16-Channel Data
III. Experimental Study: Acquisition System to store the respective data. At the
beginning, a small load of 20 kN was applied slowly, so
A. Specimen Fabrication:
that the columns settle properly on its supports. Then
The 600mm height square hollow tubes were cut from the load was removed after checking the proper
6m length hollow tubes. To get the flat surface, both functioning of the instrumentation. The columns were
ends of the steel tube were surfaced by the surface tested upto failure by applying the compressive load in

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 15-20
17 M. C. SUNDARRAJA and G. GANESH PRABHU

small increments and the observations such as axial


deformation and ultimate load were carefully recorded.
IV. Result and Discussion:
A. Failure Modes:
All the columns were loaded up to failure to understand
the influence of carbon fibre fabrics on the axial
behavior of CFST members and the failure modes of the
columns were summarized in Table 1. The failure
modes of all tested CFST columns are shown in Fig. 1
to 5. The outward buckling was observed on all four
sides of unreinforced columns (CC1, CC2 and CC3) at
the respective failure load of 934kN, 928kN and 923kN
Fig2: Failure mode of control HS-50-30-T2 (2)
and is shown in Fig. 1. The crushing of concrete was not
occurred in order that the applied load decreased slowly
after the failure load but favourable enhancement in
ductility performance was noticed. The failure mode of
the columns strengthened by one and two layers of
CFRP with the spacing of 30mm [(HS-50-30-T1(1),
HS-50-30-T1(2), HS-50-30-T1(3), HS-50-30-T2(1),
HS-50-30-T2(2) and HS-50-30-T2(3)] were outward
buckling of steel tube followed by rupture of CFRP due
to hoop tension was observed at the ends of the column
and is shown in Fig. 2. In addition to that there was no
rupture of CFRP was observed in other location. In the
case of specimens HS-50-30-T3(1), HS-50-30-T3(2)
and HS-50-30-T3(3), the rupture of fibre was noticed at
the bottom at the load of 1122kN, 1200kN and 1202kN Fig3: Failure mode of control HS-50-30-T3 (1)
respectively and finally delamination of fibre was
This is a result of the fact that, when a uniform pressure
observed which is shown in Fig. 3.
applied in the top surface of the specimens, the concrete
core will begin to expand laterally as a result steel tube
also started to expand laterally, in the meanwhile CFRP
lies in the outer limits provide restraint against the
lateral deformation and they are subjected to tension in
the hoop direction. When the CFRP reached its ultimate
strain, rupture of CFRP was occurred followed by the
buckling of steel tube.

Fig1: Failure mode of control column

Fig4: Failure mode of control HS-50-40-T2 (1)

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Experimental Investigation on Strengthening of CFST Columns Using
18
CFRP Composites

unbonded area will become more and it was subjected


to maximum strain during loading, consequently,
buckling of steel tube was occurred in the unwrapped
zone due to the absence of confinement pressure
provided by the CFRP composites.
B. Axial Stress-Strain Behavior:
Table 1 shows the maximum axial deformation, average
experimental buckling stress and percentage of
enhancement in axial deformation control of the
strengthened columns compared to CC1. From the Fig.
Fig5: Failure mode of control HS-50-40-T3 (1) 6 and 7, it was observed that external bonding of CFRP
fabrics effectively delayed the local buckling of the
When increasing the spacing of CFRP strips from
CFST column and also declines the axial shortening by
30mm to 40mm, all the specimens were failed by local
providing confinement/restraining effect against the
buckling of steel tube alone in unbonded region and
elastic deformation.
without any rupture of fibre which is shown in Fig 4 and
5. From the above observations, it can be noted that
when increasing the spacing of CFRP strips, the
Table1: Experimental results of all specimens
% of reduction in % of increase in
Designation of Failure load Maximum axial
axial deformation axial load
columns (kN) deformation(mm)
compared to CC1 carrying capacity
CC1 934 11.98 -- --
CC2 928 12.28 -- --
CC3 923 11.99 -- --
HS-50-30-T1(1) 965 9.94 22.11 3.32
HS-50-30-T1(2) 991 8.79 19.58 6.10
HS-50-30-T1(3) 1001 10.01 25.12 7.17
HS-50-30-T2(1) 1070 11.60 34.11 14.56
HS-50-30-T2(2) 1022 11.89 42.12 9.42
HS-50-30-T2(3) 1066 12.14 41.15 14.13
HS-50-30-T3(1) 1122 11.23 50.01 20.12
HS-50-30-T3(2) 1200 11.79 66.24 28.48
HS-50-30-T3(3) 1105 12.12 50.12 18.31
HS-50-40-T1(1) 956 9.73 5.88 2.43
HS-50-40-T1(2) 972 9.76 7.21 4.12
HS-50-40-T1(3) 989 9.98 13.08 5.88
HS-50-40-T2(1) 1033 10.87 50.16 10.52
HS-50-40-T2(2) 1032 11.12 31.22 10.49
HS-50-40-T2(3) 1022 10.76 39.63 9.42
HS-50-40-T3(1) 1084 11.18 50.15 16.05
HS-50-40-T3(2) 1112 11.07 35.90 19.05
HS-50-40-T3(3) 1099 11.23 49.23 17.66

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Experimental Investigation on Strengthening of CFST Columns Using
20
CFRP Composites

fibre strips, the unbonded area will become more and as


140 a result, reduction in restraint provided by the CFRP
strips against the axial deformation was observed. The
120
enhancement in restraining effect against axial
Axial stress (N/mm )

deformation provided by the specimens HS-50-40-


2

100
T1(3), HS-50-40-T2(1) and HS-50-40-T3(2) were
80 13.08%, 50.16% and 35.90% respectively when
compared to the column CC1 which is shown in Fig. 6
60
and 7 and their axial deformation at the respective
40 CC1 HS-50-30-T1(2) failure load of CC1 was 7.66mm, 5.99mm and 6.74mm
HS-50-30-T2(1) HS-50-30-T3(2) respectively. As expected, the columns confined by
20 HS-50-40-T1(3) HS-50-40-T2(1) CFRP in both spacings, the restraint in axial
HS-50-40-T3(2) deformation of the confined columns increases as the
0
0.000 0.005 0.010 0.015 0.020 0.025 0.030 number of layers increases, however, the enhancement
Axial strain in buckling stress due to addition of layers was also not
proportional and is shown in Fig. 6 and 7. The above
Fig6: Axial stress-strain behaviour of columns HS-50-
nonlinearity in the buckling stress when increasing the
30 – Comparison
number of fibre layers may be attributed to crushing of
Compared to control columns, columns HS-50-30- resin lying in between the fibres. When the resin started
T1(2), HS-50-30-T2(1) and HS-50-30-T3(2) enhanced to crush, a sudden drop in substantial load transfer was
their restraining effect by 19.58%, 34.11% and 66.24% occurred and as a result, non-linearity in axial
respectively and their axial deformation at the deformation control was observed.
respective failure load of CC1 was 7.66mm, 6.83mm
C. Load Carrying Capacity:
and 5.51mm respectively. In addition to that, in all
cases, a significant fall in curve was observed at the The experimental ultimate strength and the percentage
peak stage due to sudden rupture of CFRP. The addition of enhancement in its resulting from the bonding of
of number of layers provides further enhancement in CFRP strips with various spacing are presented in Table
buckling stress which is shown in Fig. 6 and 7. From the 1. The graphical representation of enhancement in
above observations, it can be seen that bonding of CFRP ultimate strength against number of layers is given in
fabrics increases the thickness of the steel tube and Fig. 8. From that, it is confirmed that significant
decreases the slenderness value of the composite plate enhancement in ultimate strength can be achieved with
and as a result, the elastic buckling stress of the CFST the application of CFRP strips; especially up to 28.47%
column increased. At the respective failure load of more than that of control column. Compared to control
specimens HS-50-30-T1(2) and HS-50-30-T2(1), the column, the specimens HS-50-30-T1(2), HS-50-30-(1)
axial deformation of specimen HS-50-30-T3(2) and HS-50-30-T3(2) enhanced their axial load carrying
observed was 5.85mm and 7.23mm respectively, capacity by 6.10%, 14.56%, 28.47% as shown in Fig. 8.
furthermore this deflection was 40% to 50% lesser than
that of specimens HS-50-30-T1(2) and HS-50-30-T2(1). 1200
Ultimate Load (kN)

1000

10 800
Axial deformation (mm)

600
8
400
6
200

4 0
One layer Two layer Three layer
2 Number of FRP layers
30mm Spacing 40mm Spacing
0
One Layer Two Layer Three Layer
Number of FRP layers
30mm Spacing 40mm Spacing
Fig8: Ultimate strength of all columns – Comparison
In similar manner, the columns having 40mm spacing of
Fig7: Axial deformation with respect to number of
CFRP strips such as HS-50-40-T1(3), HS-50-40-T2(1)
layers-comparison
and HS-50-40-T3(2) having 5.88%, 10.59% and 19.05%
When increasing the spacing of FRP strips from 30mm respectively more load carrying capacity than that of
to 40mm, the above similar behaviour was observed in control column as shown in Fig. 8. This informs that
those columns strengthened by 40mm spacing besides external bonding of CFRP strips provides sufficient
the buckling stress of the columns was reduced. This is restraining effect against deformation and delayed the
a result of the fact that, when increasing the spacing of local buckling of steel tube and as a result the ultimate

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ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 15-20
21 M. C. SUNDARRAJA and G. GANESH PRABHU

strength capacity was increased. From Fig. 8, it is observed that enhancement in buckling stress due to
cleared that, increases in number of CFRP layers addition of layers was not proportional.
enhanced the ultimate strength capacity of the CFST 3. Significant enhancement in ultimate strength can be
member. However, the development in ultimate strength achieved with the application of CFRP strips;
due to addition of layers was not proportional. As said especially up to 28.47% more than that of un-
earlier, this is a result of the fact that the increase in strengthened column and also development in
CFRP layers which increases the composite plate ultimate strength mainly depends upon proper
thickness and as a result, the elastic buckling designed spacing of CFRP strips.
stress/ultimate strength of the steel tube was increased.
VI. Acknowledgment:
The column HS-50-30-T3(2) enhanced its ultimate
strength by 21.12% and 12.64% more than that of This research work has been carried out through the
columns HS-50-30-T1(2) and HS-50-30-T2(1) research funding (File No. SR/FT/ET-019/2009)
respectively. Similarly, the column HS-50-40-T3(2) received from SERC-DST under Fast Track Scheme for
enhanced its ultimate strength by 12.44% and 7.64% Young Scientists, New Delhi, India.
when compared to columns HS-50-40-T1(3) and HS-
VII. References:
50-40-T2(1) respectively. From the Fig. 8, it is
confirmed that the specimens strengthened by CFRP [1] Zhong Tao and Lin-Hai Han, “Behaviour of fire-
strips with smaller spacing have more ultimate strength exposed concrete-filled steel tubular beam columns
and the enhancement in ultimate strength mainly repaired with CFRP wraps”, Thin-walled
depends upon proper designed spacing of CFRP strips. structures, vol. 45, pp. 63-76, 2007.
When compared to column HS-50-40-T1(3), the column [2] Zhong Tao, Lin-Hai Han and Ling-Ling Wang,
HS-50-30-T1(2) has more load carrying capacity and “Compressive and flexural behaviour of CFRP-
the column HS-50-30-T2(1) increased its load carrying repaired concrete-filled steel tubes after exposure to
capacity by 3.50% than that of HS-50-40-T2(1). Fig. 8 fire”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research,
also illustrates that the column HS-50-30-T3(2) has Vol. 63, pp. 1116-26, 2007.
more axial load carrying capacity (1200kN) than that of [3] N.K. Photiou, L.C. Hollaway, M.K.
column HS-50-40-T3(2) (1112kN) and furthermore Chryssanthopoulos, “Strengthening of an
which is 7.9% higher than that of HS-50-40-T3(2). Artificially Degraded Steel Beam Utilising a
From the above observations, it can be understood that Carbon/Glass Composite System”, Construction
the reduction in spacing between the strips will get more and Building Materials, Vol. 20, pp. 11–2, 2006.
benefit in enhancing the structural behaviour of CFST [4] J. Haedir, X-L. Zhao, M.R. Bambach and R.H.
columns under axial compression. Grebieta, “Analysis of CFRP externally-reinforced
steel CHS tubular beams”, composite structures,
V. Conclusion:
Vol. 92, pp. 2992-3001, 2010.
Experimental investigations on the behaviour of axially [5] M.R. Bambach, and M.Elchalakani, “Plastic
loaded CFST columns strengthened by CFRP strips mechanism analysis of steel SHS strengthened with
with two types of spacing were presented in this paper. CFRP under large axial deformation”, Thin-Walled
Based on the confinement models proposed by the Structures, Vol. 45, pp. 159–170, 2007.
previous researchers, new simple analytical equations [6] Jimmy Haedir and Xiao-Ling Zhao. “Design of
were proposed herein for predicting the ultimate short CFRP-reinforced steel tubular columns”,
strength of CFRP confined CFST column. Based on the Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 67,
experimental results the following conclusions and pp. 497-209, 2011.
recommendations are drawn: [7] Jimmy Haedir, X.-L. Zhao, M.R. Bambach, R.H.
Grzebieta, “Analysis of CFRP externally-reinforced
1. Columns strengthened by smaller spacing (30mm)
steel CHS tubular beams”, Composite Structures,
were failed by local buckling of steel tube followed
Vol. 92, pp. 2992–3001, 2010.
by rupture of fibre and when increasing the spacing
of CFRP strips from 30mm to 40mm, all the
specimens were failed by local buckling of steel
tube alone in unbonded region without any rupture
of fibre.
2. External bonding of CFRP strips effectively
delayed the local buckling of the steel tube and
compared to control column and more than 65% of
restraint in axial deformation can be achieved by
external bonding of CFRP strips. It was also

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


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www.cafetinnova.org ISSN 0974-5904, Volume 06, No. 02 (01) April 2013, P.P.21-27

Study on the Flexural behavior of Concrete beam with two point


loading and Fibre Reinforced Polymer wrapping
RAJKUMAR. K1 AND VASUMATHI A. M2
1
Department of Civil Engineering,Bharath Niketan Engineering College, Tamil Nadu, India.
2
Department of Civil Engineering, K.L.N. College of Information Technology, Tamil Nadu, India.
Email: rajstruct.engg@gmail.com.

Abstract: Concrete is acknowledged to be a relatively brittle material when subjected to normal stresses and impact
loads, where tensile strength is only approximately one tenth of its compressive strength. As a result for these
characteristics, concrete member could not support such loads and stresses that usually take place, mainly on
concrete beams and slabs. And also Concrete is poor in ductile property. Thus concrete structures subjected to
dynamic forces such as earthquakes and blast forces, fail without giving sufficient warning as they are not able to
absorb energy. Concrete member reinforced with continuous reinforcing bars to withstand tensile stresses and
compensate for the lack of ductility and strength. The introduction of fibers, a new form of binder that could
combine with cement matrices was brought in as a solution to develop concrete in view of enhancing its flexural and
tensile strength. Fibers are generally used in one of the two forms— short staple randomly dispersed in the
cementitious matrix of a bulk structure, or continuous mesh used in thin sheets. In recent years, some attempts to
weave synthetic fibers into three-dimensional reinforcements have been made. In addition, fiber-reinforced plastic
rods are currently entering the market as replacement of steel bar reinforcements. Beyond cementitious matrix, fiber-
reinforced plastics are finding increasing use in the Construction industry. In this paper, an attempt has been made to
overcome the problem of brittleness of concrete, by adding polypropylene fibers to the concrete. The performance of
the polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete will be investigated experimentally under two point middle third of
monotonic load for various types of polypropylene fibers and FRP Wrapping.
Keywords: Fiber reinforcement; two point middle third load; polypropylene fiber; FRP wrapping..

I. Introduction important characteristic when fibres are used for


producing composites. This research has also shown
The addition of non-metallic fibres such as glass,
that ductility of the beams can be improved through the
polyester, polypropylene etc. results in good fresh
addition of fibers.
concrete properties and reduced early age cracking. The
beneficial effects of non-metallic fibres could be II. Literature Review
attributed to their high aspect ratios and increased fibre
Mohamed S. Issa and S. M. Elzeiny et al (1) carried
availability (because of lower density as compared to
out a detailed investigation on the flexural behavior of
steel) at a given volume fraction. Because of their lower
cantilever concrete beams with main reinforcement of
stiffness, these fibres are particularly effective in
GFRP. Tara Sen, Shubhalakshmi B.S. and
controlling the propagation of micro cracks in the
H.N.Jagannatha Reddy et al (2). paper focuses on
plastic stage of concrete. However, their contribution to
flexural behaviour of RCC beams and the Vinyl-Ester
post-cracking behaviour, unlike steel fibres, is not
bonded GFRP and Epoxy bonded GFRP wrapped
known to be significant.
retrofitted RCC beams. Beams were retrofitted with 1.2
Most important applications of fibers are generally to mm Epoxy bonded GFRP sheets and 0.9 mm Vinyl-
prevent or control the tensile cracking occurring in Ester bonded GFRP sheets using epoxy resins. The
concrete structures. Structural synthetic fibers are the beams were full-wrapped and strip-wrapped and tested
fibers exhibiting structurally-effective properties such as for flexure behavior analysis. Saifullah, M. Nasir-uz-
increase of toughness and/or load-carrying capacity zaman, S.M.K. Uddin, M.A. Hossain and M.H. Rashid
after cracking. These synthetic fibers have advantages et al (3) discusses about the destructive test on simply
compared to steel or other fibers in that they are supported beam, performed in the laboratory & load-
corrosion-resistant and exhibit high energy absorption deflection data of that under-reinforced concrete beams
capacity. The properties of synthetic fibres vary widely, was recorded. After that finite element analysis was
in particular with respect to the modulus of elasticity, an carried out by ANSYS, SAS 2005 by using the same

#02061004 Copyright ©2013 CAFET-INNOVA TECHNICAL SOCIETY. All rights reserved.


Study on the Flexural behavior of Concrete beam with two point loading and
22
Fibre Reinforced Polymer wrapping

material properties. Finally results from both the from the corrosion of steel, led to the development of
computer modeling and experimental data were new concrete reinforcing materials stressed by Houssam
compared. Ki Nam Hong, Jae Won Han, Dong Woo A. Toutanji and Mohamed Saafi et al (11).With their
Seoand Sang Hoon Han et al (4). Focuses on flexural high strength and corrosion resistance, fiber-reinforced
strengthening capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) polymer (FRP) bars represent an alternative to steel
members strengthened by the near surface mounted reinforcement. Low modulus of elasticity, low ductility,
(NSM) technique, which is drawing attention as an and high cost are the main reasons why FRP bars in
alternative to the carbon fiber reinforced polymer concrete structures have received limited attention. R.
(CFRP) bonding strengthening technique. Robert Ravi.S Balamuralikrishnan and C.Antony eyasehar et al(12).
and Prince Arulraj.G et al (5) in their study on the new Explores the flexural behavior of carbon fiber
technique, has emerged recently which uses fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) strengthened reinforced
reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets to strengthen beam concrete (RC) beams. For flexural strengthening of RC
column joints which have a number of favorable beams, total ten beams were cast and tested over an
characteristics such as ease to install, immunity to effective span of 3000 mm up to failure under
corrosion. Yasmeen Taleb Obaidat., (6). Focuses on monotonic and cyclic loads. The beams were designed
reinforced concrete beams retrofitted with carbon fibre as under-reinforced concrete beams. Eight beams were
reinforced polymer (CFRP). The objectives of this study strengthened with bonded CFRP fabric in single layer
were to investigate the behaviour of retrofitted beams and two layers. Saeed Ahmed,.Imran A Bukhari,.Javed
experimentally, develop a finite element model Iqbal Siddiqui,.Shahzad Ali Qureshi et al (13). The
describing the beams, verifying the finite element model paper deals with the effects of addition of various
against the experimental results and finally investigating proportions of polypropylene fiber on the properties of
the influence of different parameters on the behaviour of concrete. An experimental program was carried out to
the retrofitted beams. R. Balamuralikrishnan and C. explore its effects on compressive, tensile, flexural,
Antony Jeyasehar. et al (7) explores the flexural shear strength and plastic shrinkage cracking. A notable
behavior of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) increase in flexural, tensile and shear strength was
strengthened reinforced concrete (RC) beams. For found. However, no change in compressive strength was
flexural strengthening of RC beams, effective span of noted. Furthermore, shrinkage cracking is reduced by 83
3000 mm up to failure under monotonic and cyclic to 85% by addition of fibers in the range of 0.35 to
loads. The beams were designed as under-reinforced 0.50%. P Sravana, P Srinivasa Rao, T Seshadri Sekhar
concrete beams strengthened with bonded CFRP fabric et al (14). studied the effect of glass fibres on glass fibre
in single layer and two layers. Meisam Safari Gorji et al reinforced self compacting concrete using Alkali-
(8). deals with reinforced concrete elements such as Resistant glass fibres on the strength and behaviour of
beams and columns may be strengthened in flexure fibre reinforced SCC structural elements subjected to
through the use of Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) flexure for various grades of concrete mixes of M 30, M
composites epoxy -bonded to their tension zones, with 40. Nabil Grace, Tsuyoshi Enomoto, Ahmed Abdel-
the direction of fibers parallel to that of high tensile Mohti, Yahia Tokal, andSreejith Puravankara et al (15).
stresses. Delsye C. L. Teo, Md. Abdul Mannan and presents the flexural behavior of precast concrete box-
John V. Kurian et al (9). presents an investigation on beam bridge systems that are prestressed and reinforced
the flexural behaviour of reinforced concrete beams with carbon-fiber-composite cables (CFCC). Three box-
produced from oil palm shell (OPS) aggregates. beam bridge models were designed, constructed,
Utilising OPS in concrete production not only solves the instrumented, and tested to failure. N. Ganesan, P.V.
problem of disposing this solid waste but also helps Indira and Ruby Abraham et al (16). describes the
conserve natural resources. A total of 6 under-reinforced experimental results of ten steel fibre reinforced high
beams with varying reinforcement ratios (0.52% to performance concrete (SFRHPC) exterior beam-column
3.90%) were fabricated and tested. The flexural joints under cyclic loading. The M60 grade concrete
behavior of reinforced concrete beams strengthened by used was designed by using a modified ACI method
epoxy bonded glass fiber reinforced plastic plates is suggested by Aïtcin. Volume fraction of the fibres used
investigated through the finite element method by in this study varied from 0 to 1% with an increment of
Ming-Hung Hsu et al (10). The finite element models 0.25%. Raafat El-Hacha and Mohamed Gaafar,.(17),
based on the widely used package ABAQUS are dealt with the use of near-surface-mounted (NSM)
employed in simulating the behavior of reinforced carbon-fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) which is
concrete beams strengthened by externally bonded glass emerging as a promising strengthening technique and a
fiber reinforced polymer. valid alternative to CFRP reinforcement externally
bonded to the tensile face of a concrete member. Chuan
The inherent incompatibility that exists between
Mein Wong(18). has investigated the use of short fibers
concrete and steel reinforcement, which mainly arises
in structural concrete to enhance the mechanical

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 21-27
23 RAJKUMAR. K and VASUMATHI A. M

properties of concrete. This research is to determine and Table1 Material Property


compare the differences in properties of concrete
containing no fibers and concrete with fibers, as well as Characteristic Material Property
the comparison on the effects of different type and Base Resin polypropylene fibers
geometry of fibers to the concrete. A total of ten mix
batches of concrete containing 0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and Length 42mm
1.5% fiber volume dosage rate on ‘wave cut’ steel Tensile Strength 550 MPa
fibers, high performance polypropylene fibers. Byung
Continuously
Hwan Oh et al (19) have studied realistic method of Surface Texture
embossed
analysis for the postcracking behavior of newly
developed structural synthetic fiber reinforced concrete No. fibres per kg >50,000
beams is proposed. In order to predict the postcracking Specific Gravity 0,90-0,92
behavior, pullout behavior of single fiber is identified
by tests and employed in the model in addition to the Youngs Modulus 8.2 GPa
realistic stress–strain behavior of concrete in Melting Point 150-165°C
compression and tension. M.N.S. Hadi.,(20). explores
Ignition Point Over 450
the effects of adding synthetic reinforcing fibres to high-
strength reinforced concrete columns and in particular
only to the cover of the columns. An experimental
program was conducted where seven circular reinforced
concrete columns were tested with varying fibre content
– one contained no fibres, two contained fibres
throughout the cross-section and four contained fibres
only in the outer concrete.
III. Material Used
A). Concrete Fig1 Barchip Macro Structural polypropylene fibers
Ordinary Portland Cement 53 grade conforming to IV. Experimental Investigation
Indian Standard IS 12269 was used in this investigation.
Specific gravity and 28-day strength of the cement was All the eight beams are tested under simply supported
3.15 and 55 MPa, respectively. Crushed stones of end conditions. Two-point loading is adopted for testing
maximum nominal size of 20 and 12.5 mm were used as .The testing of beams is done with the help of hydraulic
coarse aggregates. The specific gravity of the stone was operated jack connected to load cell. The load is applied
2.6 and its water absorption was 1.1%. The fineness the beam with the help of hydraulic jack and the data is
modulus, specific gravity, and water absorption of fine recorded from the data acquisition system, which is
aggregate was 2.58, 2.66, and 0.4%, respectively. attached with the load cell. The value of deflection is
Naphthalene based Superplasticizer (conplast SP430) also obtained from the data acquisition system. Out of
was used to achieve the workability of the concrete. these twelve beams 4 are control beam, which are tested
M30 grade concrete was used in this investigation. after 28 days of curing to find out the safe load which is
taken as load corresponding to Fig. 2. and deflection of
B). Polypropylene Fiber L/250 i.e. 15 mm.
Synthetic fibers are composed of crystalline and non-
crystalline regions each crystal is surrounded by non-
crystalline. Synthetic fibers are produced in a variety of
types with different tenacities designed to suit varying
market requirement. Synthetic fibers are characterized
by lightweight, good resilience, good thermal stability,
high strength, and favorable elongation properties.
Barchip ‘Macro’ is a Structural Synthetic fibre
reinforcement added to concrete shown in fig.1,
Synthetic fiber of length 42mm, average diameter of Fig2 Test Setup
0.24mm and aspect ratio (l/d) as 175. Material
V. Experimental Work
Properties are tabulated in Table.I.
The experimental programme was designed to study the
behaviour of polypropylene fibre reinforced concrete

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 21-27
Study on the Flexural behavior of Concrete beam with two point loading and
24
Fibre Reinforced Polymer wrapping

beams under monotonic two point by testing beams of The beams were casted for testing under monotonic
size 150 mm X 230 mm x 2000 mm. The variables in loading and were casted in four batches. The beams in a
the study are volume fraction of the polypropylene batch were divided into two sets. In each set two
fibre, which controls the behaviour of the FRC and identical specimens were cast and tested and the average
spacing of lateral steel reinforcement, which indicates behaviour was taken to represent the behaviour for that
the degree of confinement provided by laterals. The set of two specimens. Hence in each batch the total
beam dimensions of 150mmx230mmx2000mm. The 2 number of beams amounted eight. Out of five sets of a
numbers of 6mm diameter bar are used as hanger bar batch, the first set consisted of single layer, second sets
and 3 numbers of 10 mm diameter are used as tension consisted of double layer .Each group, out of four
reinforcement at bottom. The strips are 6 mm diameter batches, the first batch with 0% fibre, second batch with
@80 mm c/c spacing provided. The beam is wrapped 0.30% fibre, third batch with 0.5% fibre and fourth
with FRP at middle one third and simply supported at batch with 0.7% fibre were cast. Proper designation was
bottom Static analysis has been carried out.The given for each specimen.
programme consisted of casting and testing 8 beams.
Table2 Details of beams and Designation
Glass FRP With Polyster
Specimen Lateral reinforcement Polypropylene
Sl. no resin (Chopped mat) FRP
Designation Spacing(mm) fibers Vf (%)
Wrapping
1 FCA1 80 0 -

2 FCA2 80 0 -

3 FCB1 80 0.3 Single

4 FCB2 80 0.3 Double

5 FCC1 80 0.5 Single

6 FCC2 80 0.5 Double

7 FCD1 80 0.7 Single

8 FCD2 80 0.7 Double

A). Testing Arrangement measuring the strains in standard concrete cylinders.


And hence, compressometers suitable to prism was
For smooth loading surface and for uniform distribution
designed and fabricated. Two square frames viz, top
of loading, plaster of Paris is applied on the top portion
frame and bottom frame constitutes each
of the cured specimens before loading. The smooth
compressometer and they are made of 12 mm square
surface will also avoid any stress concentration while
mild steel bars placed over a mild steel plate projecting
loading. From literature review on concrete confined
horizontally from the bottom frame. The detail of the
with ties, it was observed that the spalling off cover
concrete started at about 90% of the ultimate load. Also
the resistance strain gauges and demec points fixed to
the concrete surface usually came off along with the
concrete.

Fig3. Testing Arrangement


The strains in square prisms cannot be measured by
using the compressometers that are designed for Fig4. GFRP sheet

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 21-27
25 RAJKUMAR. K and VASUMATHI A. M

compress meter was shown in Fig.5. The capped VI. Discussion of Results
specimens attached with the compressometer were
A) Load Deflection Relationship
tested under strain rate control. The deformations were
noted and strains were calculated. Testing was done The load deflection relationships for all types of
until the load drops to about 75–80% of the ultimate specimen are shown in Fig. Experimentally it is
load in the post ultimate region for both confined and observed that beam consists of 0.7% fibre gives good
unconfined concrete specimens. behaviour when compared to beams consist of other
percentages of fibre.
Table3 Typical Properties of GFRP sheet
Load Vs Deflection
MBrace G Sheet EU
Name
750 70

60
Colour White 50

Load(KN)
Series1
40
Technical data EGlass 750 gsm 30
Series2
Series3
20
Modulus of elasticity 73 kN/mm² 10

0
Tensile strength 3400 N/mm² 0 10 20 30 40 50

Deflection(mm)
Total weight of sheet 750 g/m²
Fig5. Conventional Concrete Beams
Density 2.6 g/cm³
Load Vs Deflection
Ultimate % 4.5
90
80
Thickness 0.285 mm
70
Safety factor for static
Load (kN)

60
1.5 (recommended) 50
Series1
design Series2
40
Series3
30
20
10
0
0 2 4 6 8 10

Deflection (mm)

Fig6. Fibre (0.3%) Concrete Beams

Fig5. Flexural Failure Specimens Load Vs Deflection

A). Compressive Strength 120

The compressive strength was determined by carrying 100


out cube compressive test on 150 mm size cubes, using
Load (kN)

80
UTM. Compressive strength results of polypropylene Series1
60 Series2
fibers compared to that of normal concrete (Volume of
Series3
fibre =Vf= %) are shown in Table.IV. 40

20
Table4 Compressive strength of polypropylene
0
% increase in 0 5 10 15
Compressive
Fiber compressive Deflection (mm)
Strength (Mpa)
Content Strength
(Vf)% 7
28 Days 7 Days 28 Days Fig7. Fibre(0.5% ) Concrete Beams
Days
0.0 32.22 37.56 -- --
0.3 34.00 38.67 5.24 2.86
0.5 35.55 39.56 9.37 5.06
0.7 36.22 40.00 11.04 6.10

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ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 21-27
Study on the Flexural behavior of Concrete beam with two point loading and
26
Fibre Reinforced Polymer wrapping

Load Vs Deflection
discussed. The beams were tested under monotonic
loading conditions and the behaviour of beams while
140 testing was discussed. The Load Deflection curves are
120 plotted experimental. The results were hashed out for
100
these loading conditions.
Load (kN)

Series1
80
Series2 The following conclusions were drawn from the
60
Series3 investigation on GFRC:
40

20  These properties can be improved or made better


0 by adding polypropylene fibre to tie the Confined
0 5 10 15 20
specimens. The polypropylene fibre has advantage
Deflection (mm)
over lateral tie confinement.
 The enhancement in strength and ultimate strain
Fig8. Fibre (0.7%) Concrete Beams due to confinement of beams is substantial.
Load Vs Deflection
Depending on the level of confinement, strength is
140
increased anywhere from 1.2 to 1.8 times the
120
unconfined strength. While the ultimate strain is
100
increased by 10 to 15 times the unconfined strain.

0.5%(E)
Load (kN)

80 0.7%(E)
The fibers improved the cracking behavior of
60 0.3%(E) concrete both in the pre-peak and post-peak region
40 CONVENTIONAL of the load-strain diagram.
20  The compressive strength for 0.5% fiber has
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
increased 5.06% while compared with plain
Deflection (mm)
concrete whereas for 0.7% fiber has increased only
6.10%.
Fig.9 Load Vs Deflection Experimental
An attempt can be made to study the application of this
Load Vs Strain
composite at critical zones in improving the flexural
12000
behaviour for seismic resistant design. Testing of simply
supported beam .Lastly, the study could be extended to
10000
include high strength concrete such as, for example,
8000
reactive powder concrete with significantly higher fiber
Load in Kg

6000 0.7%(FIBRE)
CONVENT IONAL
volume ratios.
0.5%(FIBRE)
4000
0.3%(FIBRE) VIII. References
2000

0
[1] Mohamed S.Issa and S.M.Elzeiny., (2011).
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 “Flexural behavior of cantilever concrete beams
Strain
reinforced with glass fiber reinforced polymers
(GFRP) bars”. Journal of Civil Engineering and
Fig10 Load Vs Concrete Surface Strain Construction Technology Vol. 2(2), pp. 33-44.
VII. Conclusion [2] Tara Sen, Shubhalakshmi B.S. and H.N.Jagannatha
Reddy.,(2011) “Flexural Charecteristic Study of
The literature review on the confined concrete and fiber RCC Beams Retrofitted using Vinyl Ester Bonded
reinforced concrete are studied briefly. the behaviour of GFRP and Epoxy Bonded GFRP”. (IJAEST)
unconfined concrete and that of confined concrete were international journal of advanced engineering
discussed. The mechanism of concrete confinement and sciences and technologies vol no. 10, issue no. 1,
also describes the benefits of confinement. The 070 – 075.
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per IS Specifications. The properties of materials were Hossain and M.H. Rashid,.(2011). “Experimental
summarized and mix design for M30 concrete was and Analytical Investigation of
calculated. This cube strength of various fiber content FlexuralBehaviorofReinforced Concrete Beam”.
were found and compared. Schematic plan of the International Journal of Engineering & Technology
experimental had been discussed. The details and IJET-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 01.
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cubes for various fiber content were tabulated. The Reinforced Concrete Members Strengthened With
procedure for analysis of non linear material is Near-Surfaced-Mounted Cfrp Strips. International

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27 RAJKUMAR. K and VASUMATHI A. M

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[11] Delsye C. L. Teo, Md. Abdul Mannan and John V. 243–257.
Kurian.,(2006). “Flexural Behaviour of Reinforced [22] Byung Hwan Oh, Dae Gyun Park, Ji Cheol
Lightweight Concrete Beams Madewith Oil Palm Kim,and Young Cheol Choi,.(2005).
Shell (OPS)”. Journal of Advanced Concrete “Experimental and theoretical investigation on the
Technology Vol. 4, No. 3, 1-10. postcracking inelastic behavior of synthetic fiber
[12] Ming-Hung Hsu., (2006). “Concrete Beams reinforced concrete beams”. Cement and Concrete
Strengthened with Externally Bonded Glass Fiber Research 35 (2005) 384– 392.
Reinforced Plastic Plate”. Tamkang Journal of [23] Sivakumar, and Manu Santhanam,.(2007).
Science and Engineering, Vol. 9, No 3, pp. “Mechanical properties of high strength concrete
223_232. reinforced with metallic and non-metallic fibres”.
[13] Houssam A. Toutanji and Mohamed Saafi.,(2000). Cement & Concrete Composites (2007).
“Flexural Behavior of Concrete Beams Reinforced [24] Atef Badr, Ashraf F, Ashour, Andrew K.and
with Glass Fiber-einforced Polymer (GFRP) Bars”. Platten.(2006). “Statistical Variations In Impact
ACI Structural Journal Title no. 97-S72ACI. Resistance Of Polypropylene Fibre-Reinforced
[14] R. Balamuralikrishnan., and C. Antony Concrete”. International Journal of Impact
Jeyasehar.,(2009). “Flexural Behavior of RC Engineering 32 (2006) 1907–1920.
Beams Strengthened with Carbon Fiber Reinforced [25] IS 383:1970 Specification for Coarse and Fine
Polymer (CFRP) Fabrics”. The Open Civil Aggregates from Natural Sources for concrete.
Engineering Journals. [26] IS: 2386 (Part III) – 1963 Methods of Test for
[15] Saeed Ahmed,.Imran A Bukhari,.Javed Iqbal Aggregates for Concrete.
Siddiqui,.Shahzad Ali Qureshi,(2006) “A Study On [27] IS 383:1970 Specification for Coarse and Fine
Properties Of Polypropylene Fiber Reinforced Aggregates from Natural Sources for concrete.
Concrete”. 31st Conference on OUR WORLD IN [28] IS: 2386 (Part III) – 1963 Methods of Test for
Aggregates for Concrete.

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www.cafetinnova.org ISSN 0974-5904, Volume 06, No. 02 (01) April 2013, P.P.28-31

Influence of Silica Fume on Strength Characteristics of High


Strength Concrete
R. GOPALAKRISHNAN1 AND K. CHINNARAJU2
1
Department of Civil Engineering, Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering, Sriperumbudur- 602 105, India.
2
Division of Structural Engineering, College of Engineering, Anna University, Chennai-600 025, India.
E-mail Id: rajagopalan.gopalakrishnan0@gmail.com; vr_sridhar2000@yahoo.com
Abstract: High Strength Concrete generally cement based composite and is produced using the mineral and
chemical admixtures. High Strength Concrete with water cement ratio of 0.35 to 0.45 and compressive strength in
the range of 40 MPa to 60 Mpa are usually made using super plasticizer with or without mineral admixtures. This
type of concrete finds its applications in heavily reinforced, sophisticated structural elements in high-rise buildings,
offshore platforms, super span bridges and heavy pavements. The suitable addition of mineral admixtures such as fly
ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag and silica fume in concrete improves the durability of concrete. Addition
of silica fume reduces the permeability of concrete to chloride ions, which protects the reinforcing steel of concrete
from corrosion. This paper presents the results of an Experimental investigation on strength properties of different
grades of conventional concrete M40 and M50 with a partial replacement to cement by Silica fume with various
percentages and it is compared. It is concluded that High strength Concrete with partial replacement of silica fume to
the cement performs well when compared to conventional cement concrete.
Key words: High strength concrete, cement, silica fume

I. Introduction: is necessary to study carefully the cement composition


and finenesses and its compatibility with the chemical
Concrete is defined as “High-Strength Concrete” solely
admixtures. Experience as shown that low-C3A cements
on the basis of its compressive strength measured at a
generally produce concrete with improved rheology. In
given age. In the 1970’s, any concrete mixtures that
high-strength concrete, the aggregate plays an important
showed 40 MPa or more compressive strength at 28-
role on the strength of concrete. The low-water to
days were designed as high-strength concrete.[1] Later,
cement ratio used in high strength Concrete causes
60-100 MPa concrete mixtures were commercially
densification in both the matrix and interfacial transition
developed and used in the construction of high-rise
zone, and the aggregate may become the weak link in
buildings and long-span bridges in many parts of the
the development of the mechanical strength. Extreme
world. Mehta [2] used the term, High performance
care is necessary, therefore, in the selection of aggregate
concrete (HPC) for concrete mixtures possessing high
to be used in very high strength concrete. The higher the
workability, high durability and high ultimate strength.
targeted compressive strength, the smaller the maximum
From the general principles behind the design of high-
size of coarse aggregate. Up to 70 MPa compressive
strength concrete mixtures, it is apparent that high
strength can be produced with a good coarse aggregate
strengths are made possible by reducing porosity, in
of a maximum size ranging from 20 to 28 mm. To
homogeneity, and micro cracks in the hydrated cement
produce 100 MPa compressive strength aggregate with
paste and the transition zone. The utilization of fine
a maximum size of 10 to 20 mm should be used. To
pozzolanic materials in high strength concrete leads to a
date, concretes with compressive strengths of over 125
reduction of the size of the crystalline compounds,
MPa have been produced, with 10 to 14 mm maximum
particularly, calcium hydroxide. Consequently, there is
size coarse aggregate. Using supplementary
a reduction of the thickness of the interfacial transition
cementitious materials, such as blast furnace slag, fly
zone in high-strength concrete. The densification of the
ash and natural pozzolana, not only reduces the
interfacial transition zone allows for efficient load
production cost of concrete, but also addresses the
transfer between the cement mortar and the coarse
slump loss problem. [3].
aggregate, contributing to the strength of the concrete.
For very high-strength concrete where the matrix is Fresh concrete made with silica fume is more cohesive
extremely dense, a weak aggregate may become the and therefore less prone to segregation than concrete
weak link in concrete strength. In order to obtain higher without silica fume. The main benefit from increased
strength mixtures while maintaining good workability, it cohesion can be seen in shotcrete whether it is for new

#02061005 Copyright ©2013 CAFET-INNOVA TECHNICAL SOCIETY. All rights reserved.


29 R. GOPALAKRISHNAN AND K. CHINNARAJU
construction, repair of existing structures or ground The properties of aggregates used were
support in tunnelling operations. Because of the very determined as per IS Specifications [8, 9] and
high surface area of the silica fume and the usually very reported in Table 1.
low water content of silica fume concrete, there will be
3. Superplasticizer:
very little bleeding. Silica fume gained initial attention
in the concrete market place because of its ability to To improve the workability of the concrete, a
produce concrete with very high compressive strength super plasticizer Ceraplast 300 a product of
this paper presents the results of an experimental Ceraplast Chemicals Ltd. was used.
investigation on strength characteristics of controlled
4. Silica fume:
cement concrete with cement and a partial replacement
to cement by silica fume with various percentages. A Grade 920 D Micro silica from ELKEM
comparative study has also been done.[4,5] conforming to ASTM C 1240 has been used
throughout the investigation.
II. Experimental Programme:
B. Concrete mix design:
High Performance Concrete was greatly facilitated by
the incorporation of a water reducing agent as an The Entroy and Shacklock’s method was used in the
admixture. This enables easy handling of concrete with mix design. After conducting tests on trial mixes, the
a low water cement ratio without loss of adequate final proportion arrived at as was 1:1.3:3.9(Cement:Fine
workability. The aim of the experimental investigation aggregate:Coarse aggregate)for M40 Grade and
is to make a comparative study on the strength 1:0.81:2.4 for M50 Grade Concrete respectively.
properties of High strength concrete using silica fume
with various percentage replacements. A total of eight C. Test Variables:
mixes has been prepared for the investigation.
The concrete mix was prepared for two different grades
A. Materials Used:
of concrete M40 and M50 in a term called as Controlled
1. Tests on cement: Concrete. In Controlled Concrete a partial replacement
of cement was made by silica fume to the cement by
The OPC Grade 53 with a specific gravity of
10%, 20% and 30%. Hence the properties of total eight
2.67 was used throughout the test. [6,7]
concrete mixes have been studied and compared with
2. Tests on aggregates: Controlled concrete. The concrete mix designations are
shown in Table 2.
Table1: Properties of Aggregates
Coarse
Sl. No. Particulars Fine Aggregate
Aggregate
1 Specific gravity 2.61 2.70

2 Fineness modulus 2.43 7.00

3 Grading Zone Zone III Max Size 20mm

Table2: Designation of Concrete Mix


SL.NO. Mix ID Description
1 M 40 Controlled concrete grade M 40
2 M 40 S1 Controlled concrete grade M40-10% replacement of silica fume
3 M 40 S2 Controlled concrete grade M40-20% replacement of silica fume
4 M 40 S3 Controlled concrete grade M40 -30% replacement of silica fume
5 M 50 Controlled concrete grade M50
6 M50 S1 Controlled concrete grade M50-10% replacement of silica fume
7 M 50 S2 Controlled concrete grade M50-20% replacement of silica fume
8 M 50 S3 Controlled concrete grade M50-30% replacement of silica fume

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ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 28-31
Influence of Silica Fume on Strength Characteristics of High Strength Concrete 30

D. Tests On Hardened Concrete: The specimens used for the tests included cubes of size
150 x 150 x150 mm and
150 mm x 300mm cylinders. In total 48 Nos. Of cubes 10% replacement, 37.5% for 20% replacement, and
and 48 Nos. Cylinders were cast to determine the 42.3% for 30% replacement when compared to the
compressive strength, split tensile strength. The tests conventional concrete at 7days. The increase in rates
were conducted at 7, 28 days for High Strength was marginal in 28 days. Similarly, M 50 Grade results
Concrete with silica fume and control cement concrete also indicate the same. The results are shown in Fig.1 &
specimens as per IS specifications [10, 11]. 2.
III. Results and Discussions: B. Split Tensile Strength of Concrete:
A. Compressive Strength of Concrete: There is a continuous increase in strength from 7 days to
28 days both in the conventional and M40, M50 Grade
There is a continuous increase in strength from 7 days to
concrete. When compared to 28 days the rate of increase
28 days for control concrete and high strength concrete
is good in 7 days. The increase in percentage was 20%
with silica fume. Compared to lower percentage of
at 10% replacement, 23% at 20% replacement, 43%at
replacement higher percentage of replacement performs
30% replacement of micro silica. But there is only a
well, when compared to conventional concrete .The rate
slight variation in the results in 28 days. The results are
of increase was higher at the 7 days when compared to
shown in Fig.3 & 4.
the 28 days increase. There is an increase of 8.6% for

50
7 DAYS 28 DAYS
STRENGTH (MPa)

40
M40
30
M40 S1
20 42.4 43.6 43.8 44.1
34.7 35.9
25.5 27.4 M40 S2
10
M40 S3
0
M40 M40 S1 M40 S2 M40 S3 M40 M40 S1 M40 S2 M40 S3
NUMBER OF DAYS

Fig1: Comparison of Compressive Strength- M40

60
7 DAYS 28 DAYS
50
STRENGTH (MPa)

40 M50
30 M50 S1
50.63 51.5 52 53.13
20 36.3 38.5 39.2 40.6 M50 S2
10 M50 S3
0
M50 M50 S1 M50 S2 M50 S3 M50 M50 S1 M50 S2 M50 S3
NUMBER OF DAYS

Fig.2: Comparison of Compressive Strength –M50

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 28-31
31 R. GOPALAKRISHNAN AND K. CHINNARAJU

28 DAYS

SPLIT TENSILE STRENGTH


8

6
7 DAYS M40
(MPa) 4
6.3 M40 S1
5.4 5.7 6.1
4.2 4.3 5
2 3.5 M40 S2
0 M40S3
M40M40 S1
M40 S2
M40S3 M40M40 S1
M40 S2
M40S3
REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT BY MICROSILICA

Fig3: Comparison of Split Tensile Strength- M40

7 DAYS 28 DAYS
SPLIT TENSILE STRENGTH

8
6
M50
4 7.98
(MPa)

5.59 5.92 6.1 6.34 5.87 6.05 6.75 M50 S1


2
M50 S2
0
M50 M50 M50 M50 M50 M50 M50 M50 M50 S3
S1 S2 S3 S1 S2 S3
REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT BY MICROSILICA

Fig4: Comparison of Split Tensile Strength -M50

IV. Conclusion:
Based on the investigations carried out, the following
conclusions are arrived.
[5] Duxon, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol37,
The increase in strength in early ages is for better when
P1591
compared to later ages in micro silica concrete.
[6] IS methods of physical tests for hydraulic cement, IS
There is a continuous increase in strength with respect to 4031: 1968, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
ageing of concrete both with and without micro silica. [7] IS specification for ordinary and low heat Portland
cement,IS 8112 : 1989, Bureau of Indian Standards,
Usage of micro silica a partial replacement material for
New Delhi.
cement not only provides a durable concrete but
[8] IS methods of tests for aggregates for concrete IS
It can be used where early strength is needed.
2386: (Part III), 1963 Bureau of Indian Standards,
New Delhi.
V. References
[9] IS for specification for coarse and fine aggregates
[1] Neville A.M., “High Performance Concrete”, from natural sources for concrete, IS 383: 1963,
Journal of Materials and structures, 88, 111-117. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
[2] Mehta. P.K., “Sulphate Resistance of blended [10] IS methods of tests for strength of concrete, IS
Portland cement”, Proceedings 5th international 516: 1959, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
symposium on concrete technology, 1981, P 35-50. [11] IS methods of test for splitting tensile strength of
[3] Www. high strength.org concrete cylinders (Reaffirmed 1987), IS 5816:
[4] Erez Allouche, “Green Research” Journal of new 1970,, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
Polymer technology, 2009.

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ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 28-31
Indexed in
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www.cafetinnova.org ISSN 0974-5904, Volume 06, No. 02 (01) April 2013, P.P.32-38

Corrosion Behaviour of Steel Bars


B. JEYAPRABH1 , G. ELANGOVAN2, P. MUTHUKRISHNAN3 AND P. PRAKASH 4
1
Department of Civil Engineering, Velammal College of Engg. & Tech., Madurai- 625009, Tamil Nadu, India
2
Department of Civil Engineering, Anna University constituent college, Dindigul Campus, Tamil Nadu, India
3
Department of Chemistry, Thiagarajar College, Madurai-625009,Tamil Nadu, India
4
Department of Civil Engineering, Anna University constituent college Dindukkal, Tamil Nadu, India
Email: jeyaprabha@gmail.com

Abstract: In this work, Hyptis suaveolens plant extracts (HSPE) as corrosion inhibitor in 1 M H 2SO4 was evaluated
using mass loss and electrochemical techniques. Inhibition efficiency increased with increasing extract
concentration. Maximum inhibition efficiency of HSPE in 1 M H2SO4 was found to be 83%. The potentiodynamic
polarization results revealed that HSPE acted as mixed type inhibitor.
Keywords: Mild steel; Corrosion inhibition; Mass loss; Polarization;

I. Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the corrosion of


mild steel in 1 M H2SO4 in the presence of Hyptis
Mild steel is a familiar material employed widely in a
suaveolens plant extract by mass loss, potentiodynamic
variety of industries. But the main problem of using
polarization, electrochemical impedance Hyptis
mild steel is its dissolution in acidic solutions. In
suaveolens plant is largely available in India. It is a
various industrial processes, acid solutions are
medium sized forest tree which has 20 meters height
commonly used for removal of rust and scale. Use of
and belongs to Lamiaceae family. It is commonly
inhibitors in these processes to prevent metal dissolution
known as Wilayati tulasi. It is also used for parasitical
is very common [1-3]. Most of the well known acid
cutaneous diseases, infection of uterus and as sudorific
inhibitors are organic compounds containing nitrogen,
in catarrhal condition, skin disease, headache, stomach,
sulphur, oxygen, heterocyclic compounds with a polar
snuff to stop bleeding of the nose. The extract of this
functional group and conjugated double bond [4-7].
plant contains numerous naturally environmental
These compounds are adsorbed on the metallic surface
organic compounds. The genus of Hyptis suaveolens is
and block the active corrosion sites [8]. Most of the
known to contain significant amount of voltail oils,
synthetic chemicals are costly, toxic to both human
starch, protein, tannins, saponins, alkaloids and
being and the environment. To solve the above defects,
glycosides [25, 26]. The leaf of the plant is
it is necessary to develop cheap, non toxic and
biodegradable and a renewable material.
environmentally friendly natural products as corrosion
inhibitors. These natural organic compounds are either II. Experimental:
synthesized or extracted from aromatic herbs, spices and
A. Materials:
medicinal plants. Plant extracts are an incredibly rich
source of naturally synthesized chemical compounds 1) Preparation of Test specimens: Corrosion tests
that can be extracted by simple procedures with low were performed on mild steel specimens with
cost and are biodegradable in nature. The use of these weight percentage composition of C-0.05, Mn-
natural compounds extracted from leaves or seeds as 0.6, P- 0.36, Si-0.03 and the balance iron and
corrosion inhibitors have been reported by several size 2.5 cm×2.5 cm × 0.4 cm were used for
authors [9-16]. Subramania et al [17] studied the mass loss studies. The specimens were first
corrosion inhibition of leaf extracts of curry leaves, polished to a mirror finish using 400 and 800
henna leaves as well as extracts from seeds of Jack fruit, grid emery paper, immersed in ethanol and
tamarind on mild steel corrosion in acidic solutions. dried before being weighed and immersed into
Other than the plant extracts, pure organic compounds the test solution.
extracted from natural products such as piperine [18],
2) Preparation of Plant extract: About 5g of
ellagic acid, tannic acid [19], tryptamine [20], caffeine
dried and powdered leaves of Hyptis
[21], pennyroyal oil [22], amino acids [23] and caffeic
suaveolens plant was soaked in water and
acid [24] have also been used for inhibition of
ethanol for one day. After one day, the plant
corrosion.
extract was boiled, cooled and then triple

#02061006 Copyright ©2013 CAFET-INNOVA TECHNICAL SOCIETY. All rights reserved.


33 B. JEYAPRABH , G. ELANGOVAN, P. MUTHUKRISHNAN and P. PRAKASH

filtered. Excess of ethanol was removed from experiment was repeated at least three times to
vacuum distillation. The amount of plant check the reproducibility.
material extracted into solution was quantified
The corrosion parameters such as linear
by comparing the weight of dried residue with
polarization (LPR), Corrosion potential (Ecorr),
initial weight of the dried plant material before
corrosion current (Icorr) and Tafel slopes (bc and
extraction. The plant extract had a dark brown
ba) were measured. During the polarization
color. From the respective stock solutions,
study, the scan rate (v/s) was 0.005; Hold time
inhibitor test solutions were prepared in the
at Ef (s) was zero and quiet time (s) was 2.
concentration range 50 – 250ppm.
3) Electrochemical impedance measurement: AC
B. Methods:
impedance spectra were recorded in the same
1) Mass loss method: The polished and pre- instrument for polarization study using three-
weighed mild steel square specimens were electrode cell assembly. The real part and
immersed in 50 ml test solution with 0 to imaginary part of the cell impedance were
250ppm inhibitor, maintained at different measured in ohms for various frequencies. The
temperatures in the range of 308-328K for 12 charge transfer resistance (Rt) and double layer
h. After 12 h immersion, the specimens were capacitance (Cdl) values were calculated.
taken from solution, washed in double distilled
Rt = (Rs + Rct) – Rs (3)
water, dried and then weighed. The mass loss
was used to calculate the corrosion rate (CR) Cdl = ½.πRctfmax (4)
and the inhibition efficiency (IE),
Where Rs = solution resistance, fmax =
CR = 534×∆M / D×S× T (1) maximum frequency
IE = (ML0 - MLi) / WLw×100 (2) AC impedance were recorded with initial E (v)
= 0 values; High frequency (Hz) = 1×10 5, Low
Here ∆M= (ML0-MLi), where ML0 and MLi
frequency (Hz) = 0.1; Amplitude (v) = 0.005
are the weight loss of mild steel in the absence
and Quiet time (s) = 2.
and presence of inhibitor respectively, D is the
density of the mild steel (g/cc), S is the area of III. Results and discussion:
the specimen in cm², T is the period of
A. Mass loss measurements:
immersion in hours.
Figure 1 shows the effect of concentration of HSPE on
2) Electrochemical measurements:
the corrosion rate and inhibition efficiency of mild steel
Potentiodynamic polarization studies were
exposed in uninhibited and inhibited acid solutions.
carried out using H & CH electrochemical
From the graph, it was clear that the corrosion rate of
workstation impedance Analyzer Model CHI
mild steel decreased and the inhibition efficiency
604 D. Mild steel was used as a working
increased in the presence of inhibitor when compared to
electrode, Platinum electrode and Saturated
acid solution. The corrosion rate decreased on
Calomel Electrode were used as counter
increasing HSPE concentration, which seems to point
electrode and reference electrode respectively.
out simple adsorption behavior [27]. The maximum
The working electrode was prepared from a
inhibition efficiency was found to be 83% at 250 ppm
commercial grade of mild steel sheet insulated
(308K), which indicated that HSPE was a good inhibitor
with araldite. The area exposed to the acid
in 1M H2SO4.
solution was 0.5cm2. Before measurement, the
electrode was immersed in test solution at open Fig2 shows that the inhibition efficiency decreased with
circuit potential (OCP) for 10 min to be increase of temperature, which was due to the gradual
sufficient to attain a stable state. All desorption of inhibitors from the surface of mild steel. It
electrochemical measurements were carried out explains the lower inhibition efficiency at high
at 308 K using 50 ml of electrolyte (1M temperature (table.1) [28, 29].
H2SO4) in stationary condition. Each
Table1: Values of corrosion rate and inhibition efficiencies for different concentrations of hspe in 1 m h2so4.

Temperature Concentration of SPE Corrosion rate Surface coverage Inhibition efficiency


(K) (ppm) ( mpy) (ϴ) %
308 0 5.5132 - -

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Corrosion Behaviour of Steel Bars
34

50 2.325 0.5781 57.81


100 1.8535 0.6637 66.37
150 1.3907 0.7477 74.77
200 1.036 0.7998 79.98
250 0.9469 0.8282 82.82
0 5.9285 - -
50 3.5694 0.3979 39.79
100 3.0378 0.4875 48.75
313
150 2.492 0.5796 57.96
200 2.041 0.6557 65.57
250 1.844 0.6889 68.89
0 6.5717 - -
50 4.1414 0.3698 36.98
100 3.3701 0.4871 48.71
318
150 2.988 0.5453 54.53
200 2.3852 0.637 63.7
250 1.1763 0.6688 66.88
0 7.1152 - -
50 5.0314 0.2928 29.28
100 3.9777 0.4409 44.09
323
150 3.2704 0.3742 37.42
200 2.7293 0.4669 46.69
250 2.1478 0.5497 54.97
0 7.9744 - -
50 5.8384 0.2678 26.78
100 5.1264 0.3571 35.71
328
150 4.4262 0.4449 44.49
200 3.9895 0.4997 49.97
250 3.4199 0.5711 57.11

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35 B. JEYAPRABH , G. ELANGOVAN, P. MUTHUKRISHNAN and P. PRAKASH

and corrosion current density (icorr) and percentage of


inhibition efficiency were obtained from Tafel curves
and are given in Table 2. The inhibition efficiency is
defined as
IE% = (i0corr - icorr / i0corr) ×100 (5)
Where i0corr
and icorr are the corrosion current density
values in absence and presence of inhibitor respectively.

Fig1: Corrosion rate and Inhibition efficiency of mild


steel specimens immersed in 1 M H2SO4 with and
without HSPE at 308, 313, 318, 323 and 328K (—)
corrosion rate (-- -) Inhibition efficiency.
85
50ppm
80 100ppm
150ppm
75
200ppm
70 250ppm
Inhibition efficiency ( % )

65

60 Fig.3: Tafel plots of mild steel immersed in 1 M H2SO4


55 with or without HSPE
50

45 C. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy:


40
Nyquist and Bode plots of mild steel obtained in 1M
35
H2SO4 solution in the absence and presence of various
30

25
concentrations of HSPE are given in Fig.4, Fig. 5a, Fig.
305 310 315 320 325 330
5b. These figures show a depressed semi circular shape
Temperature (K) and only one time constant was observed in Bode
diagrams. This observation indicated that the corrosion
Fig2: Variation of inhibition efficiency with of mild steel in 1M H2SO4 solution was mainly
temperature at different concentrations of inhibitor controlled by a charge transfer process. Although the
appearance of Nyquist plots remained the same, their
B. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements: diameter increased after the addition of HSPE to the
The polarization behavior of mild steel in 1M H2SO4 corrosive solution. This increase was more and more
solution in presence and absence of HSP extract is pronounced with increasing inhibitor concentration
shown in fig. 3. which indicated the adsorption of inhibitor molecules on
the metal surface [34]. In the evaluation of Nyquist
From the Fig. 3, it was clear that the anodic reactions of plots, the difference in real impedance at lower and
steel electrode corrosion were inhibited with the higher frequencies is commonly considered as a charge
increasing HSPE concentrations. Also, the addition of transfer resistance. The difference in real impedance at
HSPE has suppressed the cathodic reactions to lesser lower and higher frequencies is considered as the charge
extent than the anodic one. It means that the addition of transfer resistance (Rct). Charge transfer resistance (Rct)
HSPE reduced the anodic dissolution and retarded the values and double layer capacitance values (Cdl) were
hydrogen evolution reaction, which suggested that the obtained and are shown in Table.3. From the values, it
inhibitor act as mixed type inhibitor [30-32]. The values could be seen that the charge transfer resistance
of ba were shifted to higher values with reference to increased with increase in concentration of inhibitor in
blank in the presence of HSPE. This shows that HSPE acid solution, which indicated the insulated adsorption
inhibited the corrosion mechanism by controlling anodic layers formation. In the impedance studies, IE% was
reactions predominantly and cathodic sites of the metal calculated as [35]:
surface [33].
Electrochemical kinetic parameters such as corrosion
potential (Ecorr), cathodic and anodic slope (bc and ba)

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Corrosion Behaviour of Steel Bars
36

Fig5a: Bode plots logZ versus frequency

Fig4: Nyquist plots for mild steel immersed in 1 M


H2SO4 (■) (inset) and with different concentration of
HSPE at 308K.
Fig5b: phase angle versus Frequency for mild steel in 1
M H2SO4 with or without HSPE at 308K

Table3: Electrochemical impedance parameters for mild steel in 1m h 2so4 in the absence and presence of hspe.

Cinh Ecorr icorr bc ba Rp IE

(ppm) (mV) (mAcm-2) (V/decade) (V/decade) (ῼcm2) %

0 -531 0.2301 5.951 6.305 7.7 -

50 -528 0.1175 4.091 7.744 15.6 48.9

100 -529 0.0753 4.388 8.34 22.8 67.3

150 -532 0.0592 4.512 9.179 26.7 74.3

200 -532 0.0518 4.381 9.482 30.1 77.4

250 -534 0.0419 5.275 11.986 109.9

IE% = (Rc – R0ct /Rct) ×100 (6) layer. The increase in Rct value was ascribed to the
0 formation of protective film on the metal/solution
Where R ct and Rct are uninhibited and inhibited charge
interface. These observations suggested that HSPE
transfer resistance respectively. It is clear from table 3
functioned by adsorption at metal surface thereby
that the Cdl values decreased and charge transfer
causing the decrease in Cdl values and increase in Rct
resistance increased after addition of inhibitor
values [36]. Inhibition efficiency of the studied inhibitor
concentration. The decrease in Cdl was due to the
increased by increasing inhibitor concentrations, which
gradual replacement of water molecules by the
was due to increase in surface coverage. This layer
adsorption of inhibitor molecules at metal/solution
made a barrier for mass and charge transfer for metal
interface, which led to the formation of protective film
dissolution.
on the mild steel surface and then it retarded the extent
of the dissolution reaction. The decrease in Cdl was IV. Conclusion:
attributed to increase in thickness of electronic double

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 32-38
37 B. JEYAPRABH , G. ELANGOVAN, P. MUTHUKRISHNAN and P. PRAKASH

Hyptis suaveolens plant extract (HSPE) acted as a good mild steel in acidic media, Corros, Sci.50 (2008)
inhibitor for the corrosion of mild steel in 1M H 2SO4. 2310-2317.
Inhibition efficiency values increased with increasing [11] K.M.Ismail, Evaluation of cysteine as
the concentration of HSPE extract but decreased with environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitor
temperature. for copper in neutral and acid chloride solutions,
Electrochim. Acta 52(2007) 7811- 7819.
Polarization studies showed that HSPE acted as a mixed
[12] M.Lebrini, F.Robert, C.Roos, Inhibition effect of
type inhibitor by preventing anodic metal dissolution
alkaloids extract from Annona Squamosa
and cathodic hydrogen evolution reaction.
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2143. steel in two acid solutions by the extract of Punica
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Phyllanthus amarus extracts on the corrosion of Corrosion of copper in aerated hydrochloric acid,
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[23] F.S.de Souza, A.Spinelli, Caffeic acid as a green Hydrochloric Acid Solution., Int.J.Electrochem.Sci,
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www.cafetinnova.org ISSN 0974-5904, Volume 06, No. 02 (01) April 2013, P.P.39-44

State-Of-The Art Report on Hybrid Fibre Reinforced Self


Compacting Concrete
T. MEENA1 AND G. ELANGOVAN2
1
Civil Engineering, Kamaraj College of Engineering and Technology, Virudhunagar, India.
2
Civil Engineering & Dean, Anna University College of Engineering, Dindigul, India
Email: thiruvadimeena@gmail.com, elangoki@yahoomail.com

Abstract: This report aims to give a synthesized description of the state-of-the art of the technology of Hybrid Fibre
reinforced Self Compacting Concrete. The use of fibres in Self Compacting Concrete is to improve the ductility and
toughness. Fibers, used as reinforcement, can be effective in arresting cracks at both micro and macro-levels. At the
micro-level, fibers inhibit the initiation and growth of cracks, and after the micro-cracks coalesce into macro-cracks,
fibers provide mechanisms that abate their unstable propagation, provide effective bridging, and impart sources of
strength gain, toughness and ductility. The combining of such fibers is often called hybridization. In hybrid fiber
technology, two or more different types of fibers are rationally combined to produce a composite that derives
benefits from each of individual fibers and exhibits a synergistic response and proves to be effective in resisting
thermal shocks. The fibers in a suitable combination may not only improve the overall properties of self-compacting
concrete, but may also result in performance synergy.
Keywords: self compacting concrete, hybrid fibre, flow ability, strength, toughness, ductility.

I. Introduction: engineering properties and durability as traditional


vibrated concrete.
Self Compacting Concrete (SCC), which originated
from Japan in 1980s, is a boon to the concrete industry. III. General Description of SCC:
As the name suggests, it is capable of consolidating on
SCC offers a rapid rate of concrete placement, with
its own weight without any need of vibration for
faster construction time and ease of flow around
compacting it. SCC is a flowing concrete with a greater
congested reinforcements. The fluidity and segregation
slump and it does not segregate when it is being poured.
resistance of SCC ensures a high level of homogeneity,
This is because of the cohesion in it. The use of more of
minimal concrete voids and uniform concrete strength,
powder content in concrete, addition of viscosity
providing the potential for a superior level of finish and
modifying admixture (VMA) and limiting the maximum
durability to the structure. SCC is often produced with
size of coarse aggregate are some of the factors that
low water-cement ratio, thereby resulting in higher early
offer resistance to segregation [1].
strength, earlier demoulding and faster use of elements
The use of high range water reducing admixture and structures. The elimination of vibrating equipment
(HRWRA) is to make the concrete flowable with improves the environment on and near the construction
reduced water/cement ratio. For SCC, it is generally and precast sites, where concrete is being placed,
necessary to use superplasticizers in order to obtain high thereby reducing the exposure of workers to noise and
mobility. vibration.
II. Materials Used: The improved construction practice and performance,
combined with the health and safety benefits, make
Supplementary cementitious materials such as Silica
SCC a very attractive solution for both precast concrete
fume (SF), Fly ash (FA), Limestone powder (LP),
industries and civil engineering constructions. The
Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS),
inclusion of fibres in SCC, namely, the Fibre Reinforced
Metakaolin, Ground glass powder, quartzite etc. are
Self compacting concrete (FRSCC), is mainly to
additional fillers added to SCC, which increase the
improve some of the properties of SCC which are
powder content of concrete, so as to make it flowable.
discussed later. It is important to note that the fibre
These fillers are mainly pozzolanic substances obtained
addition tends to affect the flowability of SCC. The
as by-products from various industries. The hardened
aspect ratios, the material, quantity of the fibre used are
concrete is dense, homogeneous and has the same
some of the factors of consideration.

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State-Of-The Art Report on Hybrid Fibre Reinforced Self Compacting Concrete
40

It enhances segregation resistance to concrete, and when


IV. Constituent Materials of SCC:
marble powder is used in dry form, it absorbs moisture
The constituent materials for SCC are the same as in the also.
case of conventional concrete, except specific addition
H. Other Additions:
and chemical admixtures to achieve flowability and
performance [2]. Metakaolin, natural pozzolana, ground glass, air-cooled
slag and other fine fillers have also been used or
A. Cement:
considered as additions for SCC.
All cements which conform to any specified standard
I. Fine Aggregates:
can be used for the production of SCC. However, the
correct choice of cement type depends on the specific In order to ensure sufficient workability while limiting
requirements of application rather than the specific the risk of segregation or bleeding, SCC contains a large
requirement of SCC. amount of fine particles (around 500 kg/m3).
Nevertheless, high volume of paste in SCC mixes helps
B. Addition materials:
to reduce the internal friction between the fine aggregate
Due to fresh property requirements of SCC, inert and particles but well graded sand is still very important. In
pozzolanic or hydraulic additions are commonly used to order to avoid excessive heat generation the Portland
improve and maintain the cohesion and segregation cement is generally replaced by mineral admixtures like
resistance. Additions are also limiting the cement lime stone fillers and fly ash. Nature and amount of
content in order to reduce the heat of hydration and fillers added are cohesive in order to comply with the
thermal shrinkage. strength and durability requirements.
C. Mineral fillers: J. Coarse Aggregates:
The particle size, distribution and shape as well as water It is possible to use natural rounded semi-crushed or
absorption of mineral fillers may affect the water crushed aggregate to produce SCC, with maximum
demand or sensitivity. Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) aggregate size varying from 10 mm to 20 mm. Their
based mineral fillers such as Limestone (LP) content is kept sufficiently low so that individual
(<0.125mm size) are widely used and can give excellent aggregate to be lubricated by a layer of mortar paste,
rheological properties and performance thereby increasing the fluidity and reducing segregation
potential. The reinforcement spacing is the deciding
D. Fly ash:
factor in determining the maximum aggregate size in
It enhances cohesion and reduces sensitivity to changes SCC.
in water content. However, high levels of fly ash may
K. Admixtures:
produce a paste fraction which is so cohesive that it can
become resistant to flow. High range water reducing admixtures are essential
components of SCC. Viscosity Modifying Agent
E. Silica Fume:
(VMA) may also be used to reduce the segregation and
Silica fume or micro-silica (very fine amorphous silica sensitivity of the mix due to variation in other
particles <1 micron) is complementary material to constituents, especially to moisture content.
manufacture concrete with great cohesion in fresh state.
L. Superplasticizers:
Due to high fineness, spherical shape and amorphous
nature of silica fume, it imparts good cohesion, The Super plasticizers should bring about the required
improved resistance to segregation and high reactivity water reduction and fluidity but should also maintain its
to SCC. Silica fume is also very effective in reducing or dispersing effect during the time required for transport
eliminating bleeding. and application. Precast concrete is likely to require
shorter retention period as compared to cast-in-situ.
F. Ground blast furnace slag:
M. Viscosity Modifying Agents (VMA):
It provides reactive fines with a low heat of hydration.
GGBS already exists in certain types of cement. A high Viscosity Modifying Agent (VMA) significantly
proportion of GGBS may affect stability of SCC, increases cohesive property of SCC without altering its
resulting in reduced robustness with problems of fluidity. These admixtures reduce the effect of
consistence control, while slower setting can also variations of moisture content.
increase the risk of segregation.
N. Air Entraining Admixtures:
G. Marble Powder:
They increase freeze-thaw durability of SCC. They are
also used to improve the finishing of flat slabs.

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 39-44
41 T. MEENA and G. ELANGOVAN

coarse aggregate content in concrete is generally fixed


O. Fibres:
at 50 percent of the total solid volume, the fine
Both metallic and synthetic fibres have been used in the aggregate content is fixed at 40 percent of the mortar
production of FRSCC. Due to the use of fibres, volume and the water/powder ratio is assumed to be 0.9-
flowability and passing ability of SCC can be reduced. 1.0 by volume depending on the properties of the
Trials are therefore needed to establish the optimum powder and the super plasticizer dosage. The required
type, length and volume fraction to give all the required water/powder ratio is determined by conducting a
properties in the fresh and hardened state. number of trials. One of the limitations of SCC is that
there is no established mix design procedure yet.
P. Mixing Water:
A large number of have proposed methods of mix
Same water, as used for simple concrete, may be used.
design based on their experimental study on trial
Where recycled water recovered from processes in the
proportions. This would throw some light in arriving at
concrete industry is used, the type/content, in general,
the mix proportion for FRSCC too.
and any variation in content of suspended particles in
particular, should be taken into account as this may VII. Test for Fresh Properties of SCC:
affect the batch uniformity of mix.
Properties of SCC have been considered to be
V. Fibre Reinfored Self Compacting Concretre significant ones. There are good numbers of tests
(FRSCC): recommended to ascertain the i) Passing ability ii)
Filling ability and iii) Segregation resistance
Self-compacting concrete is a brittle material with a low
strain capacity. Reinforcement of self-compacting The test methods are as listed below: Four tests are
concrete with short randomly distributed fibres can recommended for European standardization as reference
address some of the concerns related to self-compacting methods to assess filling ability: a) Slump flow test
concrete brittleness and poor resistance to crack growth. (total spread and T50 time) b) L-box test c) J-ring test d)
Fibres, used as reinforcement, can be effective in Sieve stability test.
arresting cracks at both micro- and macro-levels. At the
Three other tests are recommended for standardization
micro-level, fibres inhibit the initiation and growth of
as alternative methods:
cracks, and after the micro-cracks coalesce into macro-
cracks, fibres provide mechanisms that abate their a) V-funnel test: For partially indicating filling
unstable propagation, provide effective bridging, and ability and blocking.
impart sources of strength gain, toughness and ductility. b) Orimet test: For partially indicating filling
ability and blocking.
Different types of fibres provide different mechanical
c) Penetration test: To assess segregation,
behaviors, and a controlled mix of them, the so-called
possibly used in combination with the sieve
hybrid, are now developed to customize the mechanical
stability test.
response of the material. It is possible to mix fibres of
different sizes, from micro to macro, or of different The final selection of recommended test methods is
mechanical properties, or both together. It has been based mainly on their relation to one or more of the key
shown recently [8] that by using the concept of properties of self-compacting concrete, viz, filling
hybridization with two different fibers incorporated in a ability, passing ability, and resistance to segregation as
common cement matrix; the hybrid composite can offer well as on reproducibility and repeatability.
more attractive engineering properties because the Combinations of filling ability and passing ability tests
presence of one fiber enables the more efficient are also proposed to estimate the filling capacity of
utilization of the potential properties of the other fiber. SCC. [3] The selection process involves consideration
However, the hybrid composites studied by previous of general advantages and disadvantages of each
researchers were focused on cement paste or mortar. method in terms of cost, portability, simplicity of
operation and other practical aspects.
VI. Mix Design:
The key rheological parameters like ‘plastic viscosity’
Since self-compactibility is largely affected by the
and ‘yield value’ mainly determine the filling ability of
characteristics of materials and the mix proportions, it
self-compacting concrete; the slump flow and T50 tests
becomes necessary to evolve a procedure for mix design
demonstrate the best correlation with these, as well as
of SCC. Okamura and Ozawa [1] have proposed a mix
having acceptable to good repeatability and
proportioning system for SCC. In this system, the coarse
reproducibility. Furthermore, the slump flow equipment
aggregate and fine aggregate contents are fixed and self-
is currently widely used in concrete practice, and the
compactibility is to be achieved by adjusting the
method is very simple and straightforward. The V-
water/powder ratio and super plasticizer dosage. The
funnel or Orimet tests are alternatives to the T 50

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 39-44
State-Of-The Art Report on Hybrid Fibre Reinforced Self Compacting Concrete
42

measurement. The passing ability of fresh SCC can be The type of fibre influences the strength of the bond
tested by L-box or J-ring. between the fibre and the cement paste matrix. The
aspect ratio of the fibre is the ratio of the length of the
VIII. Merits and Demerits of SCC:
fibre to its diameter.
Compared to normal concrete NC, SCC possesses
Fibres in concrete primarily act to bridge the growing
enhanced qualities, and its use improves productivity
cracks, thus restricting their further growth and
and working conditions. Because compaction is
propagation. For maximum effectiveness, the pull out
eliminated, the internal segregation between solid
strength of the fibre in the concrete matrix should be
particles and the surrounding liquid is avoided which
higher than the tensile fracture strength of the fibre. In
results in less porous transition zones between paste and
simple terms, the fibre should break before pulling out
aggregate and a more even color of the concrete
of the cement matrix. In addition, for maximum
(RILEM TC 174 SCC, 2000). Improved strength,
effectiveness, the optimum orientation of the fibre
durability and finish of SCC can therefore be
should be at 90o to the crack. At higher volume
anticipated. For many concrete constructions, the
concentrations, it is possible to find a higher percentage
structural performance is improved by increasing
of fibres in the right orientation. The effect of slowing
reinforcement volumes, limiting cracking by using
down of the crack propagation leads to an enhanced
smaller bar diameters and using complex formwork, all
ductility of the concrete. In other words, fibre-
of which increase the difficulty of compaction [1]. SCC
reinforced concrete can undergo much larger
meets the above developments by casting homogeneous
deformations before failure as compared to plain
concrete in congested structures possible; it also
concrete. The toughness (defined as the total area under
improves efficiency and effectiveness on site by
the stress-strain diagram) of concrete is enhanced by the
reducing the construction time and labor cost.SCC also
use of fibres. Conventional fibres, which are typically as
improves the workplace environment by reducing noise
long as the size of coarse aggregate particles in
pollution, thus eliminating the health problems related
concrete, do not affect the compressive strength of
to the use of vibration equipment such as ‘white fingers’
concrete significantly. On the other hand, ultimate
and deafness [2]. SCC is therefore called ‘the quiet
tensile strength of concrete can be greatly enhanced by
revolution in concrete construction’. In very large
the use of fibres. Recent research has shown that
structures, increased material cost by using SCC was
compressive strength and modulus of rupture of
outweighed by savings in labor costs and construction
concrete can also be enhanced by the use of a high
time.
volume of fine micro-fibres. These have the ability to
The increased content of powder and admixture also provide reinforcing mechanisms at the micro level such
leads to higher sensitivity (i.e. reduced robustness) of that cracks in cement matrix are arrested and stabilized
SCC to material variation than that of NC; thus greater before they become unstable. Such micro-fibres are
care with quality control is required. more commonly available in materials such as polymers
and carbon.
IX. Hardened Concrete:
X. Various types of fibres:
In the hardened concrete, fibres are generally distributed
throughout a given cross section of the concrete, Fibres, added in dosages of 0.1 – 0.5 % by volume of
whereas reinforcing bars are provided at specific concrete, enhance primarily the ductility of concrete,
locations only. Fibres are also relatively short and enabling it to undergo large deformations at failure. The
closely spaced compared to reinforcing bars. The compressive strength and first cracking tensile strength
overall amount of fibres in concrete is small (0.1 – 0.5% of concrete are not affected by the presence of fibres.
by volume) compared to reinforcing steel. However, the load carrying capacity in flexure is
increased. The performance of fibre-reinforced concrete
In any case, substantial enhancement of concrete
depends on the properties of the fibre. Polymeric
properties can be achieved by the use of fibres, provided
fibres, despite their low strengths and moduli, are useful
these are randomly and uniformly distributed over the
owing to their high ductility.
entire volume of concrete. The parameters controlling
the overall performance of fibres are:
 Type of fibre, i.e., the material, and the texture
 Volume concentration of the fibre
 Aspect ratio of the fibre
 Orientation of the fibre in the matrix

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 39-44
43 T. MEENA and G. ELANGOVAN

as the use of steel fibres is concerned. Steel fibres can


be used in various forms, varying from smooth wires to
bundled fibres. Crimping (deforming) causes a better
interlock to develop between the fibre and the matrix,
and improves the performance of the composite.
For the self-compacting concretes containing hybrid
fibres, the dosage of superplasticizer was increased
properly to maintain a good workability. It was found
that the main advantage of polypropylene fibre addition
is the resulting high compressive and split tensile
strengths, while the main advantage of steel fibre
addition is the resulting high Modulus of Rupture and
Figure1: Types of fibres
flexural toughness [5].
XI. Fresh Concrete: The first crack load, pre-cracking and post-cracking
The inclusion of fibres in concrete generally causes a behavior, deflection pattern, crack development pattern
decrease in the workability of concrete. Regardless of and ultimate load carrying capacity of SCC beams
the fibre type, the loss of workability is proportional to improved with fibre addition and this improvement is
the volume concentration of the fibres in concrete. Since more pronounced in hybrid fibre reinforced SCC beams.
fibres impart considerable stability to a fresh concrete
XIII. Conclusion:
mass, the slump test is not a good measure of the
workability. Some highly place-able concretes might Factors considered are the shrinkage development,
show low slumps. The Vebe test is considered more maturity, stress relaxation and the degree of restraint
appropriate for FRC. ASTM has also developed a provided by the substrate while the residual strength of
specialized test method – ASTM C995 - using an SFRSCC is employed to predict the influence of fibres
inverted slump cone that gives a good indication of the on crack widths [4]. The study on three different types
workability of FRC. of fibres made of steel, poly-vinyl-alcohol (PVA) and
high toughness poly-propylene (PPHT) and two
XII. Fibre properties: different types of mineral addition (limestone powder
The fibre should be embedded in the matrix for a and powder from recycled concrete showed that
minimum length for effective strengthening and excellent performances were generally obtained,
stiffening of the composite material. The fibres for particularly for the self-compacting concretes prepared
which length is greater than lc are called continuous (l > with steel fibres and powder from recycled concrete[5].
15 lc). Discontinuous fibres have shorter lengths than 15
Self-compacting fibre reinforced concrete (SCFRC)
lc. If the length of the fibre is less than lc, the matrix
combines the benefits of SCC in the fresh state and
deforms around the fibre such that there is no stress
shows an improved performance in the hardened state
transference and little reinforcement by the fibre. For
compared with conventional concrete due to the
good effectiveness, the fibre should have sufficient
addition of the fibres, the effect of their orientation and
length to ensure that failure occurs by complete pull-out
the distribution of the fibres [6]. Two different types of
of the fibre from the matrix before the rupture of the
steel fibres were used, in combination, and the effects of
fibre due to tensile forces. A number of types of fibres
fibre inclusion on the workability of hybrid fibre
have been used to reinforce cement concrete. Carbon
reinforced self-compacting concrete (HFR-SCC) is
fibres possess the highest strength and stiffness amongst
studied. The effects of fibres are quantified based on the
all fibres. However, the strain at failure for carbon fibres
fiber volume, length, and aspect ratios of the fibers [10].
is very small. In other words, carbon fibres are
extremely brittle. On the other hand, polymeric fibres The hybrid steel fibres used in combination, with high-
(especially polyester and polyethylene), which possess volume coarse fly ash indicated that it can be used with
low stiffness and moderate strength, can deform as some reduction in the concrete strength [11]. The fibre
much as 50 – 80 % at failure, and exhibit a ductile content of the concretes slightly reduced the workability
behavior. The other important factor related to the type of HSFRSCC, which depends on geometry of fibres.
of fibre is the strength of the bond between the fibre and The results showed that the flexural strengths increased
the cementitious matrix. As stated in the previous slightly with increasing strength of long fibres, whereas
section, the embedment length of the fibres required the splitting tensile strength remained unchanged [12].
would depend on the fibre properties as well as the bond
The fibre combinations that demonstrate maximum
strength. Figure: 1 shows a snapshot of the different
synergy in terms of flexural toughness was identified as
fibre materials. The texture of fibre is important as far

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 39-44
State-Of-The Art Report on Hybrid Fibre Reinforced Self Compacting Concrete
44

the hybrid self-compacting concrete containing steel [12] Burcu Akcay, Mehmet Ali Tasdemir, “Mechanical
fibres (l=20mm) and poly propylene fibres [8]. While behaviour and fibre dispersion of hybrid steel fibre
hybrid fibre reinforced self compacting concrete are reinforced self-compacting”, Construction and
promising, and have been used in several areas, there is Building Materials, vol. 28 issue 1 March 2012, pp.
much further research needed to develop the science and 287-293.
rationale necessary for their optimization. The review
has suggested taking up further research work, to do
experimental study on the behavior of hybrid fibre
reinforced self compacting using alternate fibres varying
their quantities and combinations.
XIV. References:
[1] H. Okamura, “Self-compacting High-Performance
Concrete”, Concrete International 19 (7) (1997) 50–
54, 1997.
[2] H. Okamura, M. Ouchi, “Self-Compacting
Concrete - development, present, and future”,
RILEM, Proc. 1st International RILEM Symposium
on Self-Compacting Concrete, pp. 3– 14, 1999.
[3] Kamal Henri Khayat, Denis Mitchel, “Self-
Consolidating Concrete for Precast, Prestressed
Concrete Bridge Elements” - NCHRP PROGRAM
REPORT 628, 2009.
[4] Jonas Carlswärd, “Shrinkage cracking of steel fibre
reinforced self compacting concrete overlays-Test
Methods and theoretical modelling”, 2006.
[5] Valeria Corinaldesi, Giacomo Moriconi,
“Characterization of self-compacting concretes
prepared with different fibres and mineral
additions”, Cement & Concrete Composites 33
(2011) 596–601, 2011.
[6] Steffen Grünewald, “Performance-based design of
self-compacting fibre reinforced Concrete”, Delft
University Press, 2004.
[7] Granju.J.L, Sabatier.V, Alcantara.M, (2004)
“Hybrid fibre reinforcement of ordinary or self
compacting concrete” BEFIB 2004, pp 20-22,
2004.
[8] H.Oucief, M.F.Habita, B.Redjel, “Hybrid fibre
reinforced self-compacting concrete: hardened
properties”, International Journal of Civil
Engineering. Vol. 4, No. 2, June 2006.
[9] G. Jeenu, U. R. Reji, V. Syam Prakash, “Flexural
behaviour of hybrid fibre reinforced self
compacting concrete”, Proeedings of the 32nd
Conference on ‘Our World In Concrete &
Structures’: Singapore, 2007.
[10] Mustafa Sahmaran, Alperen Yurtseven, I. Ozgur
Yaman, “Workability of hybrid fiber reinforced
self-compacting concrete”, Building and
Environment, Volume 40, issue 12 (December,
2005), pp. 1672-1677.
[11] Mustafa Sahmaran, I. Ozgur Yaman, “Hybrid fibre
reinforced self-compacting concrete with a high-
volume coarse fly ash”, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 150-156,
2007.

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ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 39-44
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Mechanical Properties of Concretes Containing Granite Industry


Waste
M. VIJAYALAKSHMI1, A. S. S. SEKAR2 AND G. GANESH PRABHU3
1
Department of Civil Engineering, Fathima Micheal college of Enginering, Sivagangai
2
Department of Civil Engineering, Alagappa Chettiar college of Engineering, Karaikudi
3
Department of Civil Engineering, Sethu Institute of Technology, Pulloor, Kariapatti
Email: gganeshprabhu@gmail.com
Abstract: Granite polishing and cutting industries in Tamilnadu, and its surrounding areas are dumping their
powder waste on vacant lands causing pollution and affecting the health of the people. Although the reutilization of
granite wastes has been practiced, the amount of wastes reused in that way is still negligible. Therefore, the need for
its application in other industries is becoming absolutely vital. The main objective of this study is to experimentally
investigate the suitability of granite powder (GP) waste as a substitute material for fine/natural aggregate in concrete
production. The physical and chemical characterization of the granite powder was tested at National Testing House
at Chennai, Tamilnadu. The GP waste showed a very high specific surface value of about 340kg/m2 and the results
of chemical analysis showed that the GP by-product contains about 72.14% of soluble silica. Several tests such as
slump cone, split tensile strength, flexural strength; and compressive strength tests were performed on cubes and
cylinders were prepared by 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%and 25% of fine/natural aggregate substituted by GP waste.
Experimental results revealed that, rough texture and high specific area of the GP waste significantly decreased the
workability of the concrete and the substitution of GP waste up to 15% does not affect the mechanical and fresh
concrete properties.
Index Terms: Granite powder, waste, concrete, compressive strength, workability.

I. Introduction:
Among the 32 states in India, Tamilnadu state has the
45% of total granite reserve. Using different type of
cutting methods, granite stones are machined from the
quarries and that blocks are transported to the nearby
processing plants. Then the stones are industrially
processed such as sawing and polishing, finally
processed stones are used for decorative purposes.
During this industrial process, the fine granite particle
and the water mixed together and become a granite
colloidal waste. When stone slurry is disposed in
landfills, its water content is drastically reduced and the
waste becomes a dry mud consisting of very fine
powder that can be easily inhaled by human being and
animals. In addition to that, it is a non-biodegradable
waste that causes pollution and environmental damage. Fig1: Granite waste dumped near SIPCOT II industrial
Fig. 1 shows the dumping of granite waste on vacant estate, Hosoor
land by granite polishing and cutting industries in
Hosur, Shoolagiri. The data available from the With increasing restrictions on landfills in nearby area,
literature, the amount of wastes in the different the cost of deposition also will increase and the
production stages of the granite industry reaches some industries will have to find ways for reusing their
20 to 25% of its global production, meaning millions of wastes. Although the reutilization of granite wastes has
tons of colloidal waste per year and disposal of those been practiced, the amount of wastes reused in that way
fine wastes is one of the environmental problems is still negligible. Therefore, the need for its application
worldwide today. in other industries is becoming absolutely vital. Past few
decades, the construction industry especially the

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Mechanical Properties of Concretes Containing Granite Industry Waste 46

concrete industry has utilized almost all stone industrial marble wastes were found to be conforming to the
waste to solve the environmental problem. One of the concrete production standards and the substitution of
first known study in this topic involved that utilization natural aggregates by waste marble aggregates up to
of granite dust for making aerated concrete and ceramic 75% of any formulation is beneficial for the concrete
production conducted by Beretka et al., (1991). Test resistance. Mucteba uysal et al. (2012) investigated the
results of Moreira et al. (2005) illustrated that the effect of mineral admixtures on propertied of self-
ceramic bodies containing granite powder waste are compacting concrete; mixtures were modified to 10%,
adequate for manufacture of structural ceramic and the 20% and 30% limestone, basalt and marble powder
employed methodology is environmentally correct. instead of Portland cement and their fresh and hardened
Saboya et al. (2007) investigate the utilization of properties were compared.
powder marble by-product to enhance the brick ceramic
From the past research, it was observed that research
properties. The samples were prepared by mixing clayey
carried out so far boundless in marble powder by-
soil with different waste contents of marble powder of
product as a substitute material in concrete besides
0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% in weight. Test results
investigations on granite powder (GP) by-product as a
shown that the use of 15% of waste content fired at
filler material in concrete is not widespread. Research
8500C considered as a best proportion and might be
results were suggested that marble powder waste up to
used in industrial scale for commercial use of the
15% of any formulation is favorable for concrete
ceramic body.
production and it can be can be used as alternative
Ilker Bekir Topcu et al. (2009) experimentally aggregates for normal concrete and for many other
investigated the utilization of the waste marble dust as a purposes such as bricks manufacturing and road
filler material in self-compacting concrete (SCC) and construction. The main objective of this study is to
the marble dust (MD) directly used without attempting experimentally investigate the suitability of GP waste as
any additional process. MD used as a binder material a substitute material for fine/natural aggregate in
instead of cement with the substitution rate of 0, 50, concrete production. And aimed to study the Physical
100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 kg/m3. Test results showed and chemical properties of the granite powder by-
workability of fresh SCC has not been affected up to product as well. The experimental parameter was
200 kg/m3 However mechanical properties of the percentage of granite powder substitution. The concrete
concrete were decreased with the increases in the MD cubes and cylinder specimens were prepared with 0%,
substitution rate. Binici et al. (2008) studied the 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%and 25% of natural sand is
suitability of the marble and granite rock waste as a substituted by GP by-product. Several tests such as
coarse aggregate in concrete production through density, slump cone test were performed to evaluate the
durability and fresh concrete properties. Test results fresh concrete properties and tests such as split tensile
showed that the durability of the specimen containing strength test (28 days), flexural strength test and
marble and granite found to be superior to the control compressive strength (7 days, 28 days and 90 days)
mixture. The increased durability can be attributed to were performed to assess the hardened concrete
the improved bonding among the additives, cement and properties.
aggregate, which contributed in a more condensed
I. Materials:
matrix. Finally it was suggested that the marble and
granite waste aggregates can be used to improve the A. Portland Cement:
mechanical properties, workability and chemical
The commercial Portland cement supplied by India
resistance of the conventional concrete mixtures.
cements was used in this study. The specific gravity of
Valeria Corinaldesi et al. (2010) characterized the waste
the cement was tested according to IS 455:1980 and the
marble powder from a chemical and physical point of
obtained value was about 3.14.
view in order to use it as mineral addition for mortars
and concretes, especially for self-compacting concrete B. Aggregates:
and also proved that these materials can be potentially
Natural sand passing through 4.75mm sieve and having
used as a substitution for fine aggregates in concrete
a specific gravity of 2.48 was used in this study. The
production. The test results of Thomas and Partheeban
maximum size and the specific gravity of the coarse
(2010) showed that the partial replacement of sand by
aggregate were 20mm and 2.67 respectively. According
granite powder has beneficial effect on the mechanical
to IS 2386(1), grain size distribution analysis was
properties of concrete and considerable advantages in
carried out on both fine and coarse aggregate and the
plastic and drying shrinkage.
results are listed in Table 1.
Hebhoub et al. (2011) showed that the mechanical
properties of concrete specimens produced using the

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Mechanical Properties of Concretes Containing Granite Industry Waste 48

Table1: Grading of gp by-product, fine and coarse aggregate

Granite Powder (GP) Fine Aggregate Coarse Aggregate

Sieve Size % of Passing Sieve Size % of Passing Sieve Size % of Passing

4.75mm 100 4.75mm 100 19mm 100

2.36mm 100 2.36mm 90 12.7mm 78

1.18mm 100 1.18mm 50 9.5mm 31

600 micron 93.6 600 micron 25 4.75mm 0

300 micron 72.3 300 micron 7

150 micron 55.2 150 micron 2

75 micron 41.3 Pan 0

45 micron 31.2

Specific Gravity 2.386 Specific Gravity 2.650 Specific Gravity 2.610

C. Granite Powder: out according to the IS 2386(1) and the results are listed
in Table 1. From that it was observed that, 55% of
The granite powder (GP), which is a by-product
granite powder is less than 150micron and the 31% of
obtained from granite processing industry was used in
particles are less than 45micron.
this study. To verify the physical and chemical
characterization of the granite powder, the following G. Chemical Analysis:
tests were carried out at National Testing House at
In order to characterize the granite powder from a
Chennai, Tamilnadu.
chemical point of view, chemical analysis was carried
D. Specific Gravity: out according to IS 4032 and the results are given in
Table 2. it can be seen from Table 2, the GP by-product
The granite powder was put in an oven to dry at a
contains about 72.14% of soluble silica (Sio2) and
temperature of 1100C (saboya) and the specific gravity
17.13% of alumina (Al2O3), indicating it is very suitable
of the granite powder was determined by according to
for concrete production. The X-ray diffraction analysis,
IS 2386(3). The obtained specific gravity value of the
Fig. 2 shows that the presence of Quartz about 3% and
granite powder was about 2.386, which is little bit less
Microcline about 1%. The remaining GP by-product
than the specific gravity value of the sand.
consists of amorphous silica, whose low crystallinity
E. Specific surface area and water absorption: making them mostly undetectable by X-ray diffraction
(Valeria Corinaldesi et al., 2010).
Fineness of the material is the very important
characteristic in concrete making. According to IS Table2: chemical Composition of Gp By-Product
4031(2), the test was carried out in order to bear out the
fineness of the GP by-product. The specific surface area Component
value of the GP by-product was about 351m2/kg which Chemical composition (%) % by mass
is equivalent to the finess of the cement. From this it Lime (as Cao) 1.28
was observed that, the GP by-product has a very high Soluble silica (as Sio2) 72.14
specific surface and its addition to concrete which leads Alumina (as Al2O3) 17.73
more cohesiveness to concrete. The water absorption of Iron Oxide (as Fe2O3) 1.58
the GP by-product is determined according to IS 1124 Magnesia (as MgO) 0.41
and the value is about 0.37%.
Sulphur calculated as Sulphuric
0.31
F. Gradation: anhydride (as SO3)
To verify the physical characterization of the GP by- Loss on ignition 1.15
product, its grain size distribution analysis was carried Total chloride conctent (as Cl) 0.24

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ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 45-51
49 M. VIJAYALAKSHMI, A. S. S. SEKAR and G. GANESH PRABHU

The designed water cement ratio was 0.40 and the


formulations of various mixtures were listed in Table 3.

II. Experimental Study:

A. Preparation and Casting of Specimens:

The concrete mixtures were prepared by Portland


cement, natural sand, coarse aggregate (Blue metal) and
GP by-product. Among the six series of mixtures, one
was the control mixture and the remaining five mixtures
were containing GP by-product substitution in various
proportions such as 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%. For
Fig2: X-Ray diffraction of the GP by-product all the mixtures, aggregates were weighed in dry
condition and the mixtures were mixed together for 4 to
H. Chemical Analysis: 5min in a laboratory counter current mixer. Workability
of the fresh concrete was verified by slump test
The concrete mix proportion was designed by IS apparatus. Compressive and splitting tensile strength of
method to achieve the strength of 30N/mm2 and the the concrete measured using 150mmx150mmx150mm
designed mix proportion was 1:1.39:2.77 by weight. cubes and 150mmx300mm cylinders.
Table3: Concrete Mixture Proportion

Mixture CGP 5% CGP 10% CGP 15% CGP 20% CGP 25%

W/C ratio 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

Water (kg/m3) 186 186 186 186 186

Cement (kg/m3) 465 465 465 465 465

Sand (kg/m3) 572 542 512 482 451

Coarse Aggregate (kg/m3) 1086 1086 1086 1086 1086

Granite Powder (GP) (kg/m3) 31.94 63.88 95.83 127.77 159.71

In addition prisms/beams were prepared to determine remaining one was control mixtures (CM). To identify
the flexural strength of the concrete. All the cubes, the mixtures easily, the each mixtures was designated
cylinders and prisms were cast in three layers and each with the names such as CM, CGP 5%, CGP 10%, CGP
layer was fully compacted by using a needle vibrator for 15%, CGP 20% and CGP 25%. For example CGP 10%
prisms and a vibrating table for other specimens. After specifies that the concrete mixture made with 10% of
casting, specimens were kept in a room temperature for natural sand is substituted by GP by-product.
24hrs, thereafter demoulded and transferred to the
curing tank until their testing dates. Compressive IV. RESULT AND DISCUSSION:
strength of the cube was measured by compression
A. Slump Loss:
testing machine (CTM) having a capacity of 2000kN at
the age of 7, 28 and 90 days. The flexural and splitting The workability of the fresh concrete was measured by
tensile strength of the concrete was measured by flexure slump cone test, time ranged from immediate after
testing machine and by CTM respectively at the age of mixing, 30min and 60min, it is the convenient method
28days. For each mixture three specimens were tested and useful to control the quality of the concrete. Table 4
and tests were carried out according to the relevant IS shows the slump loss of the GP substituted fresh
standards. concrete time ranged from immediate after mixing,
30min and 60min and the Fig. 3 explain the effect of GP
B. Description of Mixtures: by-product on the workability of the fresh concrete.
Among the 6 mixtures, five mixtures were prepared
with natural sand substituted by GP by-product and the

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Mechanical Properties of Concretes Containing Granite Industry Waste 50

For all the mixtures there was a significant losses in Fig3: Slump loss value of concrete versus duration at
slump was observed with time in addition to that the different substitution rate of GP by-product
workability of the concrete decreases with the increases
The rough and angular texture of the granite powder
in the substitution rate. This is a result of the fact that,
increase the friction between the coarse aggregate and
the workability and the water demand of the concrete
paste and the increased specific surface area of the
depends upon the particle shape, particle size
powder increasing the water demand by increased water
distribution and surface texture. Compared to the natural
absorption. As a result the workability of the concrete
sand, the GP has a very rough and angular geometry and
reduced further when increasing the substitution of the
more than 90% particle size are less than 50 microns
GP. Hence the water required for the mixtures need
i.e.) very fine powder.
correction based on the amount of GP by-product
140
substituted. The another possible factor that replacement
of fine aggregate by GP by-product which is contributed
Slump loss value (mm)

120

100
to the lower volume of paste due to its lower density
80
and this decrease in the paste volume decreases the
60
cohesiveness and thus leads to decreased workability.
40

20
B. Split Tensile and Flexural Strength:
0
Imm. After mixing After 30 min After 60 min
The split tensile strength and flexural strength of the
Duration concrete measured at the age of 28days and the strength
CM CGP 5% CGP 10% CGP 15% CGP 20% CGP 25% values is shown in Fig. 4 and 5. Fig. 4 and 5clearly
shows that substitution of GP by-product much not
affect the flexural and tensile strength.
Table4: Fresh concrete properties

Slump Loss
Mixture No Unit Weight Immediate after After 30 minutes After 60 minutes
mixing (mm) (mm) (mm)
Control Mixture 2536 121 81 63

CGP 5% 2531 92 53 33

CGP 10% 2520 61 32 10

CGP 15% 2490 21 5 0

CGP 20% 2468 0 0 0

CGP 25% 2437 0 0 0

The strength values of the mixtures CGP 5%, CGP


3.80 10%, CGP 15% were somewhat equal or little lower
Split tensile strength (N/mm )
2

3.40
than the control mixture. However a close observation
of Fig. 4 and 5 exhibits that the increases in substitution
3.00
rate of GP by-product affect the tensile and flexure
2.60 strength and the decreases is significant beyond 15%
2.20
(mixtures CGP 20% and CGP 25%). The decreases in
strength can be attributed to the demand in cement paste
1.80
volume which is contributed to the poor interlocking
1.40 between the aggregate and cement paste.
CM CGP 5% CGP 10% CGP 15% CGP 20% CGP 25%

Designation of mixtures

Fig4: Split tensile strength of concrete mixtures at


different substitution rates

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51 M. VIJAYALAKSHMI, A. S. S. SEKAR and G. GANESH PRABHU

properties. As expected the addition of GP by-product


Flexural strength (N/mm )
2 6.20 does not affect the compressive strength of the concrete
up to 15% of substitution rate and the compressive
5.40 strength of the concrete increased upon aging. Fig. 4
clearly shows that in all ages the compressive strength
4.60 values of the mixtures CGP 5%, CGP 10%, CGP 15%
are neither close nor little higher than the control
3.80 mixture (CM). However the lowest compressive
strength obtained for CGP 20% and CGP 25% mixtures
3.00 that have a poor workability. This is a result of the fact
CM CGP 5% CGP 10% CGP 15% CGP 20% CGP 25%
that, the increased specific surface area and specific
Designation of mixtures
density of the GP by-product create the increases in
demand of paste volume and reduce the workability of
Fig5: Flexural tensile strength of concrete mixtures at
the concrete resulting poor compactness. The
different substitution rates
compactness of the concrete is inversely proportional to
C. Relation Between Compressive and Split Tensile the porosity of the concrete. Thus increases in porosity
Strength: can led to the reduction in compressive strength.
The compressive strength of the concrete alone usually The early age (i.e. 7 days) compressive strength of the
measured for the purpose of quality control. The tensile mixtures CGP 5%, CGP 10%, CGP 15% showed better
strength of the concrete generally determined from the gain in strength when compared to the CM which is
compressive strength using empirical correlation. Based shown in Fig. 6. The reason may be attributed to the
on the test results, the following the correlation was denser matrix of the GP by-product and the better
formulated between the compressive and flexural dispersion of the cement grains. Furthermore the
strength as expressed in Eq. 1. increased specific surface area and the siliceous
property of the GP by-product will act as nucleation
f spt  0.241( f ck ) 0.712 MPa (1) sites for the early reaction products (Mucteba Uysal et
al., 2011). This nucleation, accelerating the hydration
Where f spt and f ck are 28 days split tensile strength process and significantly increase the C3S content as a
and compressive strength respectively. result increasing the compressive strength of the
concrete in the early stage. From the above results it
D. Comprssive Strength: was concluded that the GP substitution rate up to 15%
Compressive strength is the most important property of which led to the acceptable fresh concrete properties in
the hardened concrete. The concrete cubes were cast, terms of workability and also acceptable difference in
cured and tested accordance with the IS standard and mechanical properties.
the 90 days compressive strength results of the concrete References:
are listed in Table 5.
[1] Hanifi Binici, Tahir Shah, Orhan Aksogan, Hasan
50 Kaplan, Durability of concrete made with granite
Compressive Strength (N/mm )
2

and marble as recycle aggregates, Journal of


40
materials processing technology. 208, pp.299-308,
30 2008.
[2] Saboya, G.C Xavier, J. Alexandre, The use of the
20
powder marble waste to enhance the properties of
10
brick ceramic, Construction and Building Materials.
Vol.21, pp.1950–1960, 2007.
0 [3] J.M.S. Moreira, M.N. Freire, J.N.F. Holanda,
7 Days 28 Days 90 Days
Curing of concrete
Utilization of Granite Powder Waste in Ceramic
CM CGP 5% CGP 10% CGP 15% CGP 20% CGP 25%
Bodies for Civil Construction, Materials Science
Forum. Vol. 498-499, pp.517-522, 2005.
[4] Beretka, A. Taylor, Use of granite dust for making
Fig6: Compressive strength of concrete mixtures at aerated concrete and ceramics, Key Engineering
different ages-Comparison Materials. Vol. 53, pp. 512-517, 1991.
The main objective of this research is to utilize the GP [5] Ilker Bekir Topcu, Turhan Bilir, Tayfun Uygunog,
waste in concrete making with conform to the concrete Effect of waste marble dust content as filler on
production standards and not to enhance the concrete properties of self-compacting concrete,

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ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 45-51
Mechanical Properties of Concretes Containing Granite Industry Waste 52

Construction and Building Materials. Vol.23,


pp.1947–1953, 2009.
[6] Valeria Corinaldesi, Giacomo Moriconi, Tarun R.
Naik, Characterization of marble powder for its use
in mortar and concrete, Construction and Building
Materials. Vol. 24, pp. 113–117, 2010.
[7] T. Flexikala and P. Partheepan, Granite powder
concrete, Indian Journal Science and
Technology.Vol. 3, pp 311-317, 2010.
[8] H. Hebhoub, M. Aoun, Belachia, H. Houari, E.
Ghorbel, Use of waste marble aggregates in
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25, pp. 1167–1171, 2011.
[9] Mucteba Uysal, Kemalettin Yilmaz, Metin Ipek,
The effect of mineral admixtures on mechanical
properties, chloride ion permeability and
impermeability of self-compacting concrete,
Construction and Building Materials. Vol. 27,
pp.263–270, 2012.
[10] IS 455:1989. Specification for Portland slag
cement.
[11] IS 2386(Part 1):1963. Methods of test for
aggregates for concrete: Part 1 Particle size and
shape.
[12] IS 2386(Part 3):1963. Methods of test for
aggregates for concrete: Part 3 Specific gravity,
density, voids, absorption and bulking.
[13] IS 4031(Part 2):1999. Methods of physical tests for
hydraulic cement: Part 2 Determination of fineness
by specific surface by Blaine air permeability
method.
[14] IS 1124:1974. Methods of test for determination of
water absorption, apparent specific gravity and
porosity of natural building stones.
[15] IS 4032:1985. Method of chemical analysis of
hydraulic cement.
[16] IS 10262:2009. Guidelines for concrete mix
proportioning.
[17] IS 13311 (Part 1):1992. Methods of non-destructive
testing of concrete: Part 1 Ultrasonic pulse velocity.

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 45-51
Indexed in
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www.cafetinnova.org ISSN 0974-5904, Volume 06, No. 02 (01) April 2013, P.P.52-61

Preparation of physical characteristics maps using Remote Sensing


and GIS: A model study from Bhutan
SS. ASADI, SONAM NAMGAY, TANDIN NAMGYEL AND RATU
Dept. of Civil Engineering, KL University, Green fields, Vaddeshwaram -522502, Guntur (D.t), A.P., India

Abstract: The present study deals with the “creation of physical characteristics information” in upper part of
Mongar District, Bhutan. The studies involve the creation of geophysical characteristics like contour, aspect, hill
shade, slope, stream network, transportation network and drainage network and to monitor the land use/land cover
characteristics of the study area using Remote sensing technologies and GIS tools. The study area Mongar lies
between the latitude of 27° 15’- 27°30’N and Longitude of 91°0’-91°15’E covering the survey of Bhutan Toposheet
number 78M-3 with a scale of 1:50,000. Satellite image like SRTM, ASTER, TM and ETM where downloaded from
GLCF website for analysis of physical characteristics. Supervised classification are done to monitor or evaluate land
use/land cover with that various interpretation techniques are also used to identify land use/land cover information
by applying visual interpretation of the satellite image layer like land use/land cover such as agriculture, waste land,
water bodies and forest are prepared. Overlay analysis are carried out and certain recommendation where given.
Key words: LU/LC, GIS (geographical information system), Remote sensing, SRTM (shuttle radar topographic
mission), TM (thematic map)

1. Introduction: 3. Description of Study Area:


The physical characteristics of a landform or of terrain Our study area Torma Shong is located in Tsakaling
on the Earth (excluding man-made things) would Gewog under Mongar Dzongkhag covering an area of
include mountains, valleys, Rock, sand, dirt, dust or 145.046 sq Km. Which lies between 270 15’ to 27030’N
combinations of these surface cover features might be ( latitude ) and 91°0’ to 91°15’E ( longitude ). Mongar
included. Since Bhutan is one of the land lock state in is the fastest-developing dzongkhag in eastern Bhutan
South Asia, so therefore the physical characteristics of and is located on hill at an average of 1600m altitude.
its landform normally includes mountains, valleys and
rock. The Himalaya Mountains of Bhutan dominate the
north of the country, where the peaks can easily reach
7,000 meters (22,966 ft) the highest point in Bhutan is
Gangkhar Puensum, which has the distinction of being
the highest unclimbed mountain in the world, at 7,570
meters (24,840 ft). In Bhutan agriculture and livestock
are the major sources of livelihoods, constituting 45%
of the $2.7 billion GDP (estimated) of the country (CIA,
2004). The predominant agricultural land uses are the
irrigated paddy fields, dry land, slash and burn
agriculture and orchard cultivation.
2. Objective:
 Creation of physical characteristics (Aspect,
Contour, Slope, Stream network, drainage
pattern, Geomorphologic parameters) Fig1: Location of Study
 To monitor and compare the distribution of
land use areas

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53 SS. ASADI, SONAM NAMGAY, TANDIN NAMGYEL AND RATU

Fig2: Projection of Study Area. Fig3: Shape file of the study Area.
4. Data and Data Source: 90 m resolution was downloaded from Global land
cover Facility (GLCF). For land use/land cover map
The data required were procured from:
LANDSAT -7 (ETM+) and Resourcesat was
Table1: Details of Data Used downloaded from Global Land Cover Facility (GLCF)
website. The images were provided from the USGS and
Data Data Source GLCF and the image was also required to have less than
20 % cloud cover.
District Map
Ministry of Agriculture, 5.1. Topographic data:
and Block
Thimphu, Bhutan
Boundary Map Topographic maps at a scale 1/50000 were procured
Contours, from Survey of Bhutan for Geo referencing to define the
Drainage Ministry of Agriculture, geographic data to known coordinate system so it can be
network, (scale Thimphu, Bhutan viewed, analyzed and queried with other geographic
1:50,000) data; (2) District Map and Block Boundary Map
5.2. Land use:
Elevation http://
Data(2006) www.glcf.umd.edu/data/landsat The required satellite images of LANDSAT -7 (ETM+)
for land use and land cover classification were
Landsat http:// downloaded from Global Land Cover Facility (GLCF)
images(2000) www.glcf.umd.edu/data/landsat website. The ground resolution of each pixel on the map
is 30*30m for Land sat ETM. The dates of Land sat
5. Physical Characteristics of the Catchment: ETM+ satellite image were 27/01/2006.
To get boundary and topography map of catchments,
Shuttle RADAR Topography Mission (SRTM) data of

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Preparation of physical characteristics maps using Remote Sensing and GIS:
54
A model study from Bhutan

Fig4: Flow Chart Showing Methodology


6. Methodology: started by creating new layers in Arc Catalog i.e.
creation of study area shape file.
6.1. Georeferencing::
6.3. Automatic Delineation of Watershed from
The topographic map which was procured from SOB
DEM:
were georeferenced so as to define the geographical
data to known coordinate system so it can be viewed, Watershed boundaries were derived from the DEM
analyzed and queried with other geographic data. The using automated procedures with the Watershed
process of georeferencing an image involves matching Delineator. Here we used SWAT (Soil Water
locations on the unregistered image with real-world Assessment Tool) as watershed delineator.
locations in your GIS by adding links, also called
6.4. Surface analysis using DEM:
control points.
Surface analysis involves identifying a specific pattern
6.2. Digitization of Boundary:
within a dataset. Patterns that were not readily apparent
Digitizing is the process of making features we can see in the original raster dataset surface can be derived, such
on the Manhattan image editable and making them as contours, angle of slope, steepest down slope
features to which additional spatial and non-spatial direction (aspect), shaded relief (hill shade), and view
attributes can be assigned. This means we are going to shed (line of sight). Surface analysis can be done using
make digital versions of objects that will have attribute tools in Spatial Analyst and 3D Analyst.
table associated with them. The digitizing process is
The following of the uses for surface analysis:

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55 SS. ASADI, SONAM NAMGAY, TANDIN NAMGYEL AND RATU

Aspect: It is orientation of slope towards different k. Relative relief, Rp: the ratio of basin relief, H
direction. It gives information for locating an area with to the length of the perimeter Lp
different orientation for the implication of different l. Drainage density, Dd: the ratio of the total
management practices. length of all the streams (i.e. cumulative length
of stream segments of all order) with in a
Contours: Contours can be useful for finding areas of
watershed to the watershed area, projected on
the same value for obtaining elevation values for
horizontal surface, and denoted by Dd .
specific locations and examining the overall gradation
Where, Dd = Drainage density,
of the land.
m. Ruggedness number, Rn: It is the product of
Slope: slope map helps us to know the variations in the maximum watershed relief (H) and drainage
slope of the study area which gives information for density (Dd).
identification of the area most at risk of landslide based
It is denoted by Rn=H*Dd
on the angle of steepness in an area (steeper slopes
Where, Rn= Ruggedness number
being those most at risk).
H = Maximum watershed relief, (calculated
6.5. Hydro-morphological parameters: from DEM)
Dd = Drainage density,
Using SWAT different some of Hydro-morphological
Maximum watershed relief, H= (Inlet point
parameters i.e. Watershed parameters will calculate.
elevation - Outlet point elevation).
Watershed parameters were estimated by using the
following relationship. n. Constant of channel maintenance, C: The
ratio of the drainage basin area to the total
a. Drainage area, Aw: The total area projected
length of all streams in the network
upon a horizontal plane contributing overland
o. Fineness ratio, Rf: the ratio of channel
flow to the stream segment of the given order
lengths to the length of basin perimeter.
and all segments of lower order.
p. Stream frequency, Cf : The total number of
b. Basin perimeter, Lp: The length measured
streams of per unit area.
along the divide of the drainage basin as
q. Basin slope (%), Sa: formulae….
projected on to the horizontal plane of the map.
r. Main channel slope, Sc: Slope of a line drawn
c. Basin length, Lb: The longest dimension of a
along the measured profile that has the same
basin parallel to the principal drainage line.
area as is under the observed profile.
d. Form factor Rf : A dimension less parameter
defined as the ratio of basin area, Aw to the Above parameter are considered as model
square of the basin length, Lb2. parameters for runoff model for studying
e. Circulator ratio Rc: A dimensionless rainfall runoff transformation processes. There
parameter defined as the ratio of the basin area exists a direct relationship between rainfall and
of a given order, w to the area Ap of a circle runoff.
having a circumference equal to the basin
The runoff model in multiplicative form can be
perimeter, Lp.
given by:
f. Elongation ratio Re: The ratio of diameter of a
circle, Dc with the same area as that of the Where,
basin to the maximum length. R = Monthly runoff, mm
g. Basin shape factor Rs: The ratio of main CN = Weighted curve number value
stream length, Lc to the diameter, Dc of a circle for the watershed
having the same area as the watershed. Rn - Ruggedness number
h. Unity shape factor Ru: The ratio of the basin Sn - Average slope of watershed,
length, Lb to the square root of the basin area, percent
Aw. Sb - Watershed slope factor
i. Basin relief, H: the maximum vertical distance Sc - Mainstream channel slope,
between the lowest (outlet) and the highest percent
(divide) points in the watershed. Sr = Reciprocal, of sinuosity of the
j. Relief ratio Rh: a dimension less quantity stream
defined as the ratio of maximum basin relief, H Rf - Rainfall, mm
to horizontal distance along the longest m - An exponent
dimension of the basin parallel to the principal
Above Equation reduces to:
drainage line, Lb.
R=CN*Cc*Sk*Rf m

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Preparation of physical characteristics maps using Remote Sensing and GIS:
56
A model study from Bhutan

Where, Cc=Rn*Sa*Sb =Watershed system to identify pixels with similar characteristics.


characteristic constant By setting priorities to these classes, you supervise the
classification of pixels as they are assigned to a class
Sk =Sc*Sr = Stream characteristic constant
value.
6.6. Stacking images in ERDAS Imagine 8.5:
If the classification is accurate, then each resulting class
In order to analyze remotely sensed images, the corresponds to a pattern that you originally identified.
different images representing different bands must be
6.8. Unsupervised classification in ERDAS Imagine
stacked. This will allow for different combinations of
8.5:
RGB to be shown in the view.
Unsupervised classification is more computer-
6.7. Supervised classification in ERDAS Imagine 8.5:
automated. It allows you to specify parameters that the
Classification is the process of sorting pixels into a computer uses as guidelines to uncover statistical
finite number of individual classes, or categories, of patterns in the data. In unsupervised classification, the
data based on their data file values. Supervised signatures are automatically generated by an algorithm
classification is more closely controlled by you than named ISODATA. The resulting classification has less
unsupervised classification. In this process, you select discerning ability than a supervised classification due to
pixels that represent patterns you recognize or can lack of training data supplied to the clustering
identify with help from other sources. By identifying algorithm.
patterns in the imagery you can "train" the computer

Fig5: Projection of Study Area Fig6: Clipped Study Area


From the given toposheet (78M-4) we have selected our
7. Results and discussion:
study area and manually digitized as shown in the figure
5. 7.1. Surface analysis:
Since we are done with the digitization of our study Slope, aspect and contour were generated using surface
Area, as to magnify or isolate from the toposheet we analyst as shown in fig which represents the physical
have clipped the study Area as shown in the figure 6. characteristics of the study area.

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 52-61
57 SS. ASADI, SONAM NAMGAY, TANDIN NAMGYEL AND RATU

Fig7: Aspect Fig8: Slope


Usually aspect is the compass direction that a (compass) starting from north to south. Even though
topographic slope faces, normally measured in degrees aspect doesn’t give the geographic nature of the slope
from north. In the above fig.7 we have represented but it gives brief idea of slope facing particular
aspect with different colors which shows that the directions. The fig.8 shows the slope in meters ranging
different slopes are faced to different direction from 0-89.12m.

Fig9: Contour Fig10: Stream Network


The fig.9 shows the contour of the study area and it ranges from 2-33332meters. The stream network is generated
showing the drainage pattern as shown in fig 10.by using visual interpretation technique, it is a dendrite drainage
pattern in the main stream and annular drainage pattern in end stream.

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Preparation of physical characteristics maps using Remote Sensing and GIS:
58
A model study from Bhutan

Fig11: Transport Network


Transport network is generated as shown in the fig 11. As our study area is in a remote place the only means of
transport is footpath.

Fig12: Sub Basin Area Fig13: Reach


Histogram graph is made between area vs sub basin of a From Table it is clear shown all the elevation, latitude &
watershed in fig 12. From there it is analyzed that sub longitude, areas of micro watersheds for automatic
basin 9 has the maximum area with 2422.312499 msq delineated watershed.
and basin 2 with minimum area of 339.909569m sq.
similarly histogram graph is also made between shape
length vs reach shown in the fig.13 and it was analyzed
that reach no.5 has the longest length with 6500m
approximately and reach no.1 has the shortest length 7
with 1000m. 8 5 2
6
3
7.2. Hydro morphological analysis: 1
4 9
Watershed delineation and calculation of mini-
watershed parameters were done using SWAT tool in
Arc GIS as show in the fig 14. Summary details of all
mini waters2heds lying in the study area are given in
Table ii.
Fig14: Mini Watershed Generation

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Preparation of physical characteristics maps using Remote Sensing and GIS:
60
A model study from Bhutan

Table2: Summary details of Mini –watershed for delineated watershed from SRTM image

Sub basin Area in m2 Latitude Longitude Elevation Min. elevation Max. elevation

1 1143.99669 27.470544 91.102836 2501 -32767 3365

2 339.909569 27.445517 91.100052 1464 -32767 2129

3 493.417102 27.443132 91.120922 1206 -32767 2341

4 2104.332563 27.457564 91.028769 -32767 -32767 3643

5 2353.782348 27.453346 91.074886 2071 -32767 3658

6 1445.529367 27.451011 91.147532 1824 -32767 2854

7 1125.721983 27.424633 91.134073 1617 -32767 3065

8 2075.093043 27.418727 91.027618 2564 -32767 3954

9 2422.312499 27.412683 91.081219 2302 -32767 3975

7.2.2. Hydro morphological Parameters: Perimeter (Lp), 65383.2228 m


The different drainage basin and channel parameters
considered were area (Aw), perimeter (Lp), basin length Total stream length, SL 27949.5993 m
(Lb), distance from basin centurion to outlet (Lca),
Basin length (Lb), 43248.24125 m
form factor (Rf), circulatory ratio (Rc), elongation ratio
(Re), basin shape factor (Sb), unit shape factor (Ru), Length of main stream (Lc), 18352.70252 m
basin relief (H), relief ratio (Rh), relative ratio (Rp),
ruggedness number (Rn), drainage density (Dd), Form factor (Rf), 3.721651528
constant of channel maintenance (C), fineness ratio
(Rf), stream frequency (Cf), basin slope (Ls), length of circulatory ratio (Rc), 0.396755067
main stream (Lc), number of streams (Ns), total stream
length (Sl), and main channel slope (Cs). Elongation ratio (Re), 2.112034307

Table3: Summary details of Mini – watershed for Basin shape factor (Sb), 0.339137559
delineated watershed
Unit shape factor (Ru), 3.721651528
Drainage basin/channel
2000 Basin relief or Maximum
parameters 216
watershed relief (H),
2
Area (Aw), 135040951.6 m

7.3. Land use/ Land cover classification:

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Preparation of physical characteristics maps using Remote Sensing and GIS:
60
A model study from Bhutan

Fig15: LULC Fig16: Pie Chart Showing Area


As show in the fig.15 we have generated the LU/LC of the study area where by classification(unsupervised) were
done for five classes scuh as water,dense forest,degraded forest,build up area/land and agriculture. To the right side
we have pie chart representing the area percentage of the unsupervised classification as shown in fig.16 and table iv.
Table4: Area percentage calculation of LU/LC

Class area
ID Value Red Green Blue Count LU/LC Area Area km2
name percentage
Degraded
1 1 Class 1 0.2 0.2 0.2 26871 24183900 24.183901 17.782301
forest
2 2 Class 2 0.4 0.4 0.4 40669 Dense forest 36602100 36.6021 26.9133

3 3 Class 3 0.6 0.6 0.6 41817 Water 37635300 37.6353 27.673

4 4 Class 4 0.8 0.8 0.8 32487 Agriculture 29238300 29.2383 21.4988

5 5 Class 5 1 1 1 9920 Built-up land 8928000 8.928001 6.56471

8. Conclusion: government bodies and NGOs and use the information


given in the paper for crucial sustainable land
Satellite Remote Sensing has proved to be a vital tool
management policies and practices to avoid the
for tenuous observation and quantification of
endangering of the environment and sustainable
environmental phenomena across varied spatial and
development and resource management.
temporal scales which are otherwise not possible to
attempt through conventional mapping techniques. The 9. Reference:
multi-temporal DEM data have provided useful for
[1]. Ajay Singh Tomar and U.C.Singh,
geomorphological studies. Unsupervised classification
“Geomorphological Mapping Using Remote
technique of the images provides an information
sensing and GIS a Tool for Land Use Planning
regarding the change detection of land use and land
around Shivpuri city, M.P. India”, ISOR journal of
cover in the region, this method provides a suitable
computer science engineering, ISSN NO-2278-
technique to identify development of urban zones. Also
0661 vol (5) PP 28-30, Sept-oct 2012
we had the generated contour map, slope map, aspect
[2]. Amit Dhorde, Sayantan Das and Anargha Dhorde ,
map, transport network and stream network from the
“Evaluation of Land Use/Land Cover Change in
SRTM image. Using ETM data(2006) we have done
Mula-Mutha Watershed, Pune Urban
unsupervised classification, from which we have
Agglomeration, Maharashtra, India, Based on
generated LU/LC. Thus, the changes quantified using
remote sensing technologies provides guidance for the

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 52-61
61 SS. ASADI, SONAM NAMGAY, TANDIN NAMGYEL AND RATU

Remote Sensing Data”, Earth science India, ISSN


No-0974 – 8350 vol(5) PP 108-121, july 2012
[3]. Cercis Ikiel, Ayse Atalay Dutucu, Derya Evrim
Kilic and Beyza Ustaoglu , “Land Use and Land
Cover (lulc) Classification Using Spot-5 image in
the Adapazari Plain and its Surroundings,Turkey”,
TOJSAT : The Online Journal of Science and
Technology, vol (2) PP 37-42, April 2012
[4]. Erdenee.B, Gegen Tana and Ryutaro Tateish,
“Cropland information system in Mongolia using
Remote Sensing and Geographical Information
System: Case study in Tsagaannuur, Selenge aimag
” , International Journal of Geomatics and
Geosciences, ISSN No-0976 – 4380 vol (1) No 3
PP-577-586, 2010
[5]. Goswami, Dr. Aruna saxena and Dr.G.D. Bairagi,
“Re mote Sensing and GIS based wheat crop
acreage estimation of Indore district, M.P”,
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advanced engineering, ISSN No-2250-2459 vol (2)
PP 200-203, march 2012
[6]. Poonthip Sirikulchayanon, Wanxiao sun and Tonny
J Oyana,” Assesing the impact of the 2004 tsunami
on mangroves using Remote sensing and GIS
techniques”, International journal of Remote
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2007
[7]. S.S.Asadi, Nedrup Tshewang, Kinga Yeshi,
Dendup Dorji, Damcho, “Land Use/Land cover
change detection study of woochu watershed using
Remote sensing and GIS:A case study from
Bhutan”, International journal of engineering trends
in engineering and development, ISSN No-2249-
6149 vol (4) PP 39-48 , May 2012
[8]. S.S.Asadi, padmaja vuppala, and M. Anji Reddy,
“Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques for
Evaluation of Ground water Quality in Municipal
corporation of Hyderbad, India”, International
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jan 2007
[9]. Selçuk Reis, “Analyzing Land Use/Land Cover
Changes Using Remote Sensing and GIS in Rize,
North-East Turkey”, sensors, ISSN No-1424-8220
vol (8) PP 6188-6202, 1 October 2008

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 52-61
Indexed in
Scopus Compendex and Geobase Elsevier, Chemical
Abstract Services-USA, Geo-Ref Information Services-
USA, List B of Scientific Journals in Poland

www.cafetinnova.org ISSN 0974-5904, Volume 06, No. 02 (01) April 2013, P.P.62-67

Performance Enhancement of CFST Members under Flexure Using


CFRP Composites
M. C. SUNDARRAJA1 AND G. GANESH PRABHU2
1
Department of Civil Engineering, Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai, India
2
Department of Civil Engineering Sethu Institute of Technology Virudhunagar, India
Email: mcsciv@tce.edu, gganeshprabhu@gmail.com

Abstract: The concrete filled steel tubular (CFST) members become very popular in the construction industry and
at the same time, aging of those structures and its deterioration are often reported. Therefore, actions like
implementation of new materials and strengthening techniques become essential to combat this problem. This
research work is aimed to experimentally investigate the suitability of unidirectional carbon fibre reinforced polymer
(CFRP) fabrics in external strengthening of square CFST sections under flexure. The size and length of the
specimens are 91.5x91.5x3.6mm and 1500mm respectively and totally twenty one beams were considered.
Experiments were undertaken until failure of sections to fully understand the influence of FRP characteristics on the
flexural behaviour of CFST sections. It was observed that the moment carrying capacity as well as the stiffness of
the strengthened beams increased with the increase in number of CFRP layers except those beams strengthened by
partial wrapping. The beams strengthened by partial wrapping were failed by delamination of fibre even before
attaining the ultimate load of control beam. From the test results it is suggested that if any appropriate anchorages
like bolting or riveting are provided to avoid debonding of fibre in the case of beams with partial wrapping, then it
will turn into a fine and economical method than fully wrapping of CFST members.
Keywords: CFST members, CFRP fabrics, strengthening, flexure, externally bonded.

I. Introduction: strengthened by using high modulus carbon fibre


reinforced polymer (CFRP) exhibited ductile response
In the current international practice, concrete-filled steel
leading to very high deflections even after higher
tubes (CFST) are widely accepted, and are used in high
ultimate load was reached and also neither fibre
rise buildings, warehouses and in arch bridges [1]. At
breakage nor adhesive failure was observed. Teng et al
the same time, the ageing of above structures and its
[3] concluded in his investigations that FRP jacketing is
deterioration are often reported. Several strengthening
a very promising technique for the retrofit and
or rehabilitation techniques such as section enlargement,
strengthening of circular hollow steel tubes. Michael V.
external bonding of steel plates and fibers etc. has been
Seica [4] investigated the FRP materials for the
proposed to overcome these problems. Before the
rehabilitation of tubular steel structures for underwater
introduction of fibre reinforced polymer (FRP)
applications. Experimental results revealed that the
composites, steel plates have been used as external
ultimate strength of the tubes wrapped under in-air and
material for the upgradation. However, this method
seawater curing conditions having 16-27% and 8-21%
possessed some drawbacks such as addition of self
more than that of bare steel beam respectively.
weight, costly shoring system and corrosion problems.
Experimental results of Zhong Tao et al. [1] discussed
In contrast, rehabilitation using FRP composites do not
that the load-carrying capacity and the longitudinal
exhibit any of these drawbacks. One of the main driving
stiffness of CFRP-repaired CFST stub columns
forces for the development of external strengthening
increased while their ductility decreased with the
using FRP composite is upgrading deteriorated
increase in number of CFRP layers. In another study,
members without significantly altering the appearance
Zhong Tao et al [5] repaired the fire-exposed CFST
of the member. In addition to that FRP composites are
beam columns by unidirectional CFRP composites.
lightweight, durable and resistance to corrosion and
Kang-Kyu Choi and Yan Xiao [6] presented a
having high strength, stiffness and fatigue strength. In
simplified analytical model of the CFST member
recent years, there have been many investigations
confined by CFRP jackets with different parameters in
carried in strengthening of steel structures with FRP,
order to strengthen the traditional CFST column system.
especially in the area of thin-walled steel structures.
Test results of Haedir et al [7] proved that ultimate load
Test results of N.K. Photiou et al [2] showed that beams
can be increased satisfactorily by adding high-strength

#02061010Copyright ©2013 CAFET-INNOVA TECHNICAL SOCIETY. All rights reserved.


63 M. C. SUNDARRAJA and G. GANESH PRABHU

fibre sheets to the steel sections and externally A. Specimen Fabrication:


reinforcing them. Jimmy Haedir and Xiao-Ling Zhao
The 1500mm length square hollow tubes were
[8] observed that strength capacity of the CFRP-
accurately machined from 6m hollow tubes. To get the
strengthened steel CHS subjected to bending increases
flat surface, both ends of the steel tube were surfaced by
with increase in the amount of CFRP. From the past
the surface grinding machine. Then the hollow steel
research, it was observed that more investigations on
tube specimens were filled with concrete and effectively
strengthening of CFST members using CFRP under
compacted by a steel rod to ensure adequate compaction
flexure are to be required. This research work is aimed
and to eliminate the air gaps in the concrete. To
to investigate the use of an innovative FRP technology
eliminate the leakage of slurry during compaction, a
for CFST beams under flexure and to develop optimum
steel plate was placed at the bottom prior to filling
wrapping schemes that can be used to repair these
concrete. The specimens were allowed to cure for 28
structures. The main parameter in this study used is
days. Surface preparation of the metal substrate is very
wrapping schemes. Two types of wrapping schemes
important to achieve good bonding between steel tube
such as full wrapping (FWB- fibres were bonded at the
and CFRP fabrics. So the exposed surface of the tubular
bottom throughout full length of the steel tube) and
specimen was blasted by the coarse sand to remove the
partial wrapping (PWB- fibres were bonded in between
rust and also to make the surface rough one. The entire
loading points only at the bottom). Furthermore, to
sand blasted surface was cleaned by using acetone to
eliminate the galvanic corrosion between steel tube and
remove all contaminant materials before externally
CFRP, a thin layer of glass fibre mat was int roduced bonded with the fibres. Prior to the specimens bonded
between steel and CFRP. by carbon fibre, a very thin glass fibre reinforced
II. Materials: polymer (GFRP) fabric was introduced between the
steel surface and CFRP composites in order to eliminate
A. Concrete: the galvanic corrosion. Finally, the carbon fibres were
The concrete mix proportion designed by IS method to bonded to the exterior surface of the CFST members
achieve the strength of 30 N/mm2 and was 1:1.39:2.77 with the different wrapping schemes and thicknesses.
by weight. The designed water cement ratio was 0.35. During wrapping of fibre fabrics, the resin and hardener
Concrete cube specimens were cast and tested at the age are correctly proportioned and thoroughly mixed
of 28 days to determine its strength. The average together and the excess epoxy and air were removed
compressive strength of the concrete was 38.5 N/mm2. using a ribbed roller moving in the direction of the fibre.

B. Carbon Fibre: B. Description of Specimens:

The unidirectional carbon fibre called MBrace 240, Eighteen beams, excluding three control beams were
fabricated by BASF India Inc was used in this study. It strengthened by FRP fabrics. The size and length of the
is a low modulus CFRP fibre having modulus of beams were 91.5x91.5x3.6mm and 1500mm
elasticity of 240 kN/mm2 and the tensile strength of respectively. To identify the specimen easily, the beams
3800 N/mm2. The thickness and width of the fibre was were designated with the names such as FWB-L1,
0.234mm and 600mm respectively. FWB-L2, FWB-L3, PWB-L1, PWB-L2 and PWB-L3.
For example, the beams FWB-L2(3 and PWB-L2(3)
C. Adhesive: indicate that they were strengthened by using two layers
The MBrace saturant supplied by BASF India Inc was of CFRP fabrics at the bottom by FWB and PWB
used in this study to get sufficient bonding between wrapping scheme respectively and the numeral within
steel tube and carbon fibre. It is a two part systems, a the brackets indicates the number of specimen. The
resin and a hardener and the mixing ratio was 100:40 control (unbonded) beams were designated as CB1,
(B: H). CB2 and CB3. The wrapping schemes are shown in
Fig1.
D. Steel Tube:
The square hollow steel tube confirming to IS 4923 -
1997 and having a dimension of 91.5mm x 91.5 mm
was used in this study. The thickness and length of the
square hollow steel tube were 3.6mm and 1500mm
respectively. The yield strength of the tube was 258
MPa.
III. Experimental Study:

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Performance Enhancement of CFST Members under Flexure
64
Using CFRP Composites

and were kept at mid-span as well under the loading


points. The load at which the CFRP starts rupturing, the
failure load of the specimen and also the nature of
failure were noted for each beam.
IV. Result and Discussion:
A. Failure Modes and Moment Deflectiin Response:
The specimens were kept at the supports and centered to
ensure symmetric loading. The summary of test results
such failure load, maximum deflection at the maximum
flexural strength and percentage of control in deflection
with respect to control beam (CB3) is given in Table 1.
Fig1: Wrapping scheme A) Full wrapping (FWB) B) 0 467 Length (mm) 933 1400
Partial wrapping (PWB) 0

Deflection (mm)
10
C. Experimental Setup:
20
The two-point loading system was adopted for the tests. 30
A 16-Channel Data Acquisition System was used to
40
store the data such as load and corresponding vertical
83kN 103kN 118kN 132kN 138kN 144kN 148kN
deflection at three places. The beams were mounted
over two pedestals kept at two ends of the beams and Fig2: Deflection along the beam FWB-L3 (2) at
concentrated loads were applied by means of 50T different loading
hydraulic jack. Deflection measurements were taken by
using linear voltage displacement transducers (LVDTs)
Table1: Experimental results of all specimens
Maximum mid % of reduction in % of increase in moment
Designation Failure load
span deflection deflection compared carrying capacity
of beams (kN)
(mm) to CB3 compared to CB3
CB-1 108.00 63.21 -- --
CB-2 109.00 66.03 -- --
CB-3 107.00 60.33 -- --
FWB-L1(1) 113.00 37.39 90.26 3.67
FWB-L1(2) 115.00 35.32 115.07 5.50
FWB-L1(3) 120.00 37.62 146.61 10.09
FWB-L2(1) 119.00 33.94 148.68 9.17
FWB-L2(2) 122.00 37.19 159.78 11.93
FWB-L2(3) 123.00 34.62 170.31 12.84
FWB-L3(1) 126.00 32.30 211.76 15.60
FWB-L3(2) 148.00 43.62 261.07 35.78
FWB-L3(3) 140.00 42.31 199.65 28.44
PWB-L1(1) 103.00 26.42 59.57 -5.80
PWB-L1(2) 116.00 36.68 130.35 6.42
PWB-L1(3) 105.00 36.4 39.09 -3.80
PWB-L2(1) 114.00 27.14 153.68 4.58

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ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 62-67
65 M. C. SUNDARRAJA and G. GANESH PRABHU

PWB-L2(2) 111.00 26.96 127.78 1.83


PWB-L2(3) 104.00 31.46 41.90 -4.80
PWB-L3(1) 106.00 18.78 200.90 -2.83
PWB-L3(2) 98.00 18.16 57.87 -11.22
PWB-L3(3) 101.00 19.12 75.63 -7.92

All the reference beams (CB1, CB2 and CB3) exhibited


a smooth moment-deflection curve with large deflection
and ductility. All the strengthened beams exhibited the
linear elastic behavior at the early stage followed by
inelastic response when increasing the load further and
in addition significant fall in curve was observed at the
peak stage due to the sudden rupture of CFRP. The
deflected shape of the all strengthened beams followed
the half sine wave curve throughout the entire test Fig3: Failure pattern of beam FWB-L1 (2)
which is shown in Fig. 2. In all of the strengthened
specimens, the effect of CFRP fabrics in deflection
control is undoubtedly recognized especially in the case
of specimens strengthened with two and three layers of
CFRP fabrics as shown in Fig. 7 and 8.
In the case of beam strengthened by one and two layers
of CFRP in FWB scheme [FWB-L1(1), FWB-L1(2),
FWB-L1(3), FWB-L2(1), FWB-L2(2) and FWB-L2(3)],
small blasting sound was observed at an early stage and Fig4: Failure pattern of beam FWB-L3 (1)
loading further, rupture of fibre occurred at the centre of In the early stage, a slight peeling was observed at the
beams which is shown in Fig. 3. Rupture cum tearing of ends of the CFRP fabrics in all of the specimens
the CFRP fabrics were observed at the load of 148kN strengthened by partial wrapping which is due to
and 140kN in the case of beams FWB-L3(2) and FWB- enormous amount of peeling stress induced between
L3(3) respectively. But the beam FWB-L3(1) exhibited fibre and steel at the edge. When loading further, the
delamination of fibre throughout the entire length of the entire length of fibre got detached from the beam with
beam as shown in Fig. 4. The delamination of fibre may huge sound and thrown off some distance away from
be attributed to splitting of resin at the interface of steel the loading setup and it is shown in Fig. 5 and 6 and in
tube and CFRP layer. At the respective failure load of addition, creation on peeling stress is directly
reference beam, the mid-span deflection of beams proportional to the increase in number of layers. After
FWB-L1(3), FWB-L2(3) and FWB-L3(2) were 24mm, delamination of fibre, the strengthened beams started to
22.5mm and 16.7mm respectively which is 150%, 166% behave similar to that of control beam when loading
and 260% respectively lesser than that of reference further. Though the beams PWB-L1(2), PWB-L2(1) and
beam (CB2). Compared to FWB-L1(3) and FWB-L2(3), PWB-L3(1) were failed by delamination, the
the specimen FWB-L3(2) showed considerable enhancement in deflection control is the same as that of
enhancement in deflection control and at the respective beams strengthened by full wrapping. Beams PWB-
failure load of FWB-L1(3) and FWB-L2(3), the mid L1(2), PWB-L2(1) and PWB-L3(1) showed 130.35%,
span deflection of FWB-L3(2) was about 37.62mm and 153.38% and 200.90% of enhancement in deflection
34.62mm and also the corresponding percentage of control respectively than that of CB2 which is shown in
enhancement in deflection control was 78% and 51% Fig. 7 and 8. In this case, the reduction in deflection was
respectively and is shown in Fig. 8. This above observed when increasing the number of layers, and at
tendency indicates that an increase in thickness of CFRP the same time, it hastened the delamination of fibre due
fabrics provides considerable tensile strength and the to excessive development of peeling stress at the edge
restraining effect controlled the deflection of the beam. of the fibre.

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Performance Enhancement of CFST Members under Flexure
66
Using CFRP Composites

25

Vertical deflection (mm)


20

15

10

0
1 Layer 2 Layers 3 Layers
Number of FRP layers
Full Wrapping Partial Wrapping

Fig5: Failure pattern of beam PWB-L2 (2)


Fig8: Vertical deflection of all beams-Comparison
B. Moment Carrying Capacity:
The moment carrying capacity and the percentage of
increase in moment carrying capacity of strengthened
beams with respect to the control beam are presented in
Table 1. As expected, in all of the sections, the presence
of CFRP has significantly contributed to the moment
carrying capacity and stiffness of the CFST sections,
except to the beams strengthened by PWB scheme,
especially for three layers. The flexural strength of the
Fig.6: Failure Pattern of beam PWB-L3 (3) specimens FWB-L1(3), FWB-L2(3) and FWB-L3(2)
Compared to the beams with PWB scheme, the beams was increased by 10.1%, 12.84%, 35.77% respectively
bonded by FWB have the advantage of restraining in with respect to the reference specimen. It was also noted
deflection of beams. The behavior of all specimens that flexural strength of the strengthened beams
bonded by FWB and PWB are identical with in elastic increased as the thickness of the CFRP increased as
range, but the deflection control of PWB-L1(3), PWB- shown in Fig. 9.
L2(1) and PWB-L3(1) were decreased by only about
35
14.94%, 5.52% and 20.84% than that of FWB-L1(3),
Ultimate Moment (kN m)

30
FWB-L2(3) and FWB-L3(2) respectively due to the 25
absence of fibre in the longitudinal direction which is 20
shown in Fig. 7. From the above observations, it is 15

suggested that those beams subjected to large bending, 10

the partial wrapping is not suitable for strengthening 5


0
because of sudden delamination of fibre rather than One Layer Two Layer Three Layer
Number of Layers
rupture and at the same time, if any appropriate
Full Wrapping Scheme Partial Wrapping Scheme
anchorages like bolting or riveting are provided to avoid
debonding of fibre, then it will turn into a fine and Fig9: Ultimate moment of all beams – Comparison
economical method than FWB wrapping for
Comparing the flexural strength of the beams FWB-L2
strengthening of CFST members.
with FWB-L1, the beam FWB-L2 behaved much better
35 than beam FWB-L1, since its strengthened fibre area is
30
higher. Due to the presence of more thickness of FRP,
25
the strength of beam FWB-L3(2) increased by 23.3%
and 20.1% when compared to the beams FWB-L1(3)
Moment (kN-m)

20

15
and FWB-L2(3) respectively. The Fig. 9 indicates that
CB2 FWB-L1(3)
FWB-L2(3) FWB-L3(2)
the flexural strength of beam is almost directly
10
PWB-L1(2) PWB-L2(1) proportional to the increase in number of FRP layers.
5 PWB-L3(1)
Considering the beams strengthened by PWB, each
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 specimen shows an increase in flexural strength, except
Mid span Deflection (mm)
for those beam strengthened by two and three layers and
Fig7: Load-deflection of all beams-Comparison furthermore these beams failed even before attaining the
ultimate load of CB2. As said earlier, this reduction in
flexural strength may be attributed to excessive peeling
stress induced at edge of the fibre along the length of
beam and providing less amount of tensile capacity by
CFRP to the CFST member due to the discontinuity of

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 62-67
67 M. C. SUNDARRAJA and G. GANESH PRABHU

fibre and also it is noted from the Fig. 9 that, the wrapping was found to be 35.77%, when
creation of peeling stress is directly proportional to the compared to the control beam.
number of fibre layers. The beams PWB-L1(2) and  From the above observations, it is suggested
PWB-L2(1) increased its flexural strength by 6.4% and that if any appropriate anchorages are provided
4.58% respectively when compared to the reference in partial wrapping scheme to avoid
beam. And also, the beam PWB-L1(2)) achieved higher delamination of fibre, then it will be turned into
strength than beam PWB-L2(1), even though its a fine and economical method for
thickness of fibre is lower. Out of two wrapping strengthening of CFST members.
schemes, the beams strengthened by using FWB scheme
showed better improvement in moment carrying VI. Acknowledgment:
capacity compared to the beams strengthened by PWB This research work has been carried out through the
scheme which is shown in Fig. 9. The moment carrying research fund [File No.35-112/2008 (SR)] received
capacity of beam PWB-L1(2) is nearly equal to that of from University Grants Commission, New Delhi, India
beam FWB-L1(3). But the moment carrying capacity of under Major Research Project scheme.
beams PWB-L2(1) and PWB-L3(1) were decreased by
7.89% and 39.64 % compared to the beams FWB-L2(3) VII. References:
and FWB-L3(2) respectively. Hence it can be [1] Zhong Tao and Lin-Hai Han. “Behaviour of fire-
recommended that, full wrapping scheme with more exposed concrete-filled steel tubular beam columns
number of layers of fibre is suitable for strengthening of repaired with CFRP wraps”, Thin-walled
beam subjected to large amount of bending and in the structures, vol. 45, pp. 63-76, 2007.
meanwhile suitable anchorage measures like bolting or [2] N.K. Photiou, L.C. Hollaway,. M.K.
riveting should be taken to eliminate the delamination of Chryssanthopoulos, “Strengthening of an
fibre in the case of beams strengthened by PWB Artificially Degraded Steel Beam Utilising a
wrapping. Carbon/Glass Composite System”, Construction
and Building Materials, Vol. 20, pp. 11–2, 2006.
V. Conclusion:
[3] J.G. Teng and Y.M. Hu, “Behaviour of FRP-
There were two wrapping schemes such as full jacketed circular steel tubes and cylindrical shells
wrapping and partial wrapping introduced. From the under axial compression”, Construction and
experimental data obtained, the failure modes, moment- Building Materials, Vol. 21, pp. 827–838, 2006.
deflection behaviour and ultimate moment carrying [4] Michael V. Seica and Jeffrey A. Packer. “FRP
capacity were discussed. Based on the flexural tests on materials for the rehabilitation of tubular steel
eighteen specimens wrapped with CFRP fabrics, the structures for underwater applications”.
following conclusions can be made: Composites Structures, Vol. 80, pp. 440-450, 2007.
[5] Zhong Tao, Lin-Hai Han and Ling-Ling Wang.
 All the strengthened beams exhibited the
“Compressive and flexural behaviour of CFRP-
smooth load–deflection curve and followed the
repaired concrete-filled steel tubes after exposure
half sine wave curve throughout the entire test.
to fire”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research,
 The beams strengthened by partial wrapping
Vol. 63, pp. 1116-26, 2007.
were failed by delamination of fibre, even
[6] Kang-Kyu Choi and Yan Xiao. “Analytical model
before attaining the ultimate load of control
of circular CFRP confined concrete-filled steel
beam.
tubular columns under axial compression”, Journal
 At the respective failure load of control beam, of Composites for Construction, Vol. 14, No. 125,
all the strengthened beams in both the pp. 1325-1333, 2010.
wrapping schemes exhibited linear elastic [7] J. Haedir, X-L. Zhao, M.R. Bambach and R.H.
behavior followed by inelastic behavior. As Grebieta. “Analysis of CFRP externally-reinforced
expected, external bonding of CFRP steel CHS tubular beams”, Composite Structures,
significantly reduced the deflection and also Vol.92, pp. 2992-3001, 2010.
enhanced the stiffness of the beam compared to [8] Jimmy Haedir and Xiao-Ling Zhao. “Design of
the control beam. short CFRP-reinforced steel tubular columns”,
 It was found that the maximum enhancement in Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 67,
deflection control of beams strengthened by pp. 497-209, 2011.
full wrapping was 260% when compared with
the control beam.
 The maximum enhancement in moment
carrying capacity of beams strengthened by full

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ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 62-67
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www.cafetinnova.org ISSN 0974-5904, Volume 06, No. 02 (01) April 2013, P.P.68-74

Bending Behavior of Geopolymer Ferocement Plates


MOHANA. R AND NAGAN. S
Department of Civil Engineering, Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India
Email: rmohanaselvan@gmail.com

Abstract: To explore the potential uses of Geopolymer Ferro cement as a construction material, the flexural
performance of Geopolymer Ferro cement plates is investigated using class F fly ash, alkaline activators and wire
mesh as reinforcements. To study the flexural strength of Geopolymer Ferro cement element, 30 prisms of size 300
mm long, 50 mm width and 25 mm thickness were cast by varying the concentration of alkaline solution. All the
plates tested showed typical flexural response with a varying number of fine hairline cracks occurring on the tension
side of the plates.
Keywords: Flexural, strength, Geopolymer, Ferro cement, alkaline

I. Introduction: Ferro cement has proved to be a versatile material of


modern construction in view of a number of advantages
It is known that 0.7-1.1 ton of CO2 is emitted for every
associated with its uses which include high tensile
ton of cement produced. Approximately 50% of carbon
strength to weight ratio , better resistance to crack
dioxide emission by cement industry is from the
propagation, light weight,easy fabrication to any shape
calcination of limestone and the other 40% from
and reduced cost of formwork.[7]
combustion of fuel in the kiln, and 10% from
transportation and manufacturing operations [1].In order Ferro cement structures can be made more durable by
to reduce the amount of CO2 emission from cement controlling factors such as corrosion of reinforcement,
industry, the manufacturing process has been improved mortar composition, attack of chemicals permeability,
and the growth in the Portland cement usage has to be constrction practices etc[8-11].
reduced. For Cement consumption, there are several
The objective of this work is to develop a novel low
efforts to reduce the use of cement in concrete. These
cost composite material by Geopolymer and
include the utilization of supplementary cementitious
Ferrocement technology together and determine the
materials such as fly ash, blast-furnace slag, Silica
strength of the prefabricated Geopolymer Ferrocement
fume, metakaolin, natural pozzolans and biomass ash
plates by varying the concentration of alkaline solution.
[2-4].
In the current scenario, new construction material and
Geopolymer involves the silicates and aluminates of by- technology have to be developed to enhance easy
products to undergo process of Geopolymerization. fabrication, reducing the self-weight of material and
Geopolymerization is a developing field of research for eliminating the greenhouse gas production by cement
utilising solid waste and by-products. It provides a industry. Taking this into consideration, works are done
mature and cost-effective solution to many problems on Geopolymer Ferrocement elements for its strength,
where hazardous residue has to be treated and stored stability and applicability.
under critical environmental conditions. It is utilized to
II. Experimental Programme:
manufacture precast structures and non-structural
elements, concrete pavements, concrete products and A. Ordinary Portland Cement:
immobilization of toxic metal bearing waste that are
Cement of grade 53 according to IS 4031-1988 is used
resistant to heat and aggressive environment [5]
to prepare control specimens. Some of the properties of
Inorganic polymer or Geopolymers have emerged as the cement are given here, (Ultratech cement) of grade
novel engineering materials with the potential to form a 53 according to IS 4031-1988 is used to prepare control
substantial element of an environmentally sustainable specimens. Some of the properties of the cement are
construction and building products industry. given here,
Geopolymer materials have attracted a lot of attention
 Specific Gravity =3.15
for various applications due to their excellent fire
 Standard Consistency =30 %
resistance, low curing/hardening temperatures,low air
 Initial Setting time =35mins.(IS 1489-2001)
and water permeability and environmental durability[6].
 Final Setting Time =250 mins. (IS 1489-2001)

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69 MOHANA. R and NAGAN. S

 Compressive strength =56.75 N/mm2 (28 The silicates and hydroxides of water soluble high
days) alkaline Sodium is utilized in this investigation. The
alkali silicate (Na2SiO3), commonly known as water
B. Fine Aggregate:
glass is purchased from a local supplier in bulk with a
Locally available river sand having specific gravity of modulus ratio of 2.15. The alkali hydroxide (NaOH)
2.74 was used as fine aggregate for geopolymer mortar which is also called lye or caustic soda, in flake form
and cement mortar mixes. with 97%-98% purity is also purchased from a local
supplier in bulk. The hydroxide solution is prepared to a
C. Geopolymer:
concentration of 8M,10M,12M,14M using NaOH in
Geopolymer is a combination of the following flakes and Potable water.In order to improve the
compounds, workability of stiff and fresh mortar,a high-range water-
reducing Ligno-sulphonated normal Super Plasticizer
 Pozzaloans (Flyash)
are added.
 Activator solution (Silicates of sodium )
 Alkali powder (Hydroxides Of sodium) D. Chicken Mesh:
 A high –range water reducing Ligno-
The wire woven chicken mesh (Fig.2) with a hexagonal
sulphonated normal Super Plasticizer
opening of size 12 mm a wire thickness of 0.72 mm (20
 Distilled waterInitial Setting time
gauges) is used. For attaining 2 % volume fraction four
layers of chicken mesh can be used.

Fig1: Composition of Geopolymer


Fly ash is one of the most extensively used by-product
materials in the construction field resembling Portland
cement. It is an inorganic, non-combustible, finely Fig2: Chicken Mesh
divided residue collected or precipitated from the
exhaust gases of any industrial furnace. Class-F Fly ash E. Weld Mesh:
is produced from anthracite coal used for the The machine welded weld mesh(Fig.3) having a
replacement of cement in this work was obtained from rectangular grid opening of size 76.2 mm x 38.1 mm,
sterlite industry, Tuticorin. An X-Ray Fluorescence with a thickness of 2.45 mm in transverse direction and
(XRF) analysis is used to determine the chemical 3.45 mm in longitudinal direction are used.
composition of the flyash and is shown in Table.1
Table1: Chemical Composition of Flyash

Composition Mass (%)


Sio2 65.43
Al2O3 20.67
Al2O3 6.18
CaO 1.26
MgO 0.82
K 2O -
Ti2O -
SO3 Trace
Na2O -
Fig.3: Weld Mesh

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ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 68-74
Bending Behavior of Geopolymer Ferocement Plates
70

Ultimate strength of weld mesh and chicken


(hexagonal) mesh are 440 N/mm and 270 N/mm2.
III. Details of Specimens and Casting
A. Specimen Dimension:
The Present investigation focuses on preparing
ferrocement and Geopolymer ferrocement thin plates
using local materials and testing them under center point
bending to check the flexural behaviour. A total of 30
specimens of size 300x50x25 mm with one layer of
weld mesh and four layers of chicken mesh were
prepared. Totally five type of specimens are studied
including cement for control specimen, 8, 10, 12 and14 Fig4: Specimen Mould
molaritiy for geopolymer specimen. Three replicate
specimens were tested for each parameter set. For each
specimen type 3 mortar cubes of size 70.7 x70.7 x 70.7
mm (Fig.5) are cast to test the characteristic strength of
the mortar mix. The mortar mix details are shown in
Table.3. For 2% volume fractions, four layers of
chicken mesh and one layer of weld mesh are used and
the specific surface area for 2% volume fraction
arrangement is 7.74%. For preparing 8 molarity sodium
hydroxide solutions, 8 times the molar mass of sodium
hydroxide powder is taken and mixed with 1 litre water
in a beaker and similarly other molarities can be
prepared. Normally the ratio of Sodium silicate to
sodium hydroxide varies between 0.4 to 2.5.In this work
Fig5: Mortar Mould
the ratio 1 is adopted for geopolymer preparation.

Table2: Mortar Mix Details (*M=Molarity)

Specimen Cement 8M 10 M 12 M 14 M

No. of Specimens 6 6 6 6 6

Cement (Kg.) 2.84 - - - -

Sand(Kg.) 2.84 2.84 2.84 2.84 2.84

Fly ash (Kg.) - 2.12 2.12 2.12 2.12

Sodium hydroxide (Kg) - 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35

Sodium silicate (Kg.) - 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35

Water (Kg) 0.85 - 0.04 0.08

Super Plasticizer (Kg) 0.05 0.01 0.02 0.04 0.06

B. Specimen Dimension:  The required amount of sodium hydroxide and


sodium silicate solutions are prepared and mixed a
Six steel moulds of the specified dimensions with the
day prior to the casting.
top open and detachable side angles bolted to the
 The weighed amount of ingredients including sand,
bottom steel base are made for casting the specimens
flyash, alkaline solution, water and super plasticizer
.The casting of the Geopolymer Ferrocement slabs
(if necessary) are mixed in the mixer for 5 minutes.
include the following sequence of steps,

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ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 68-74
71 MOHANA. R and NAGAN. S

 While casting the specimen a single layer of mortar cube molds and left in the laboratory for 1 hour and then
approximately of 3 mm thickness is provided to temperture cured at 75c for 48 hours.The specimen were
adopt the cover at base. demolded and kept in the room temperature until the
 Then the tied layers of chicken mesh and weld testing age.All the samples were tested for compressive
mesh (Fig.6) are placed by maintaining a side cover strength at 28 days in accordance with ASTM C
of approximately 5 mm. 109.The reported compressive strengths were the
 The mortar mix is then forced into the average of three samples.
reinforcement without allowing void formation and
properly finished(fig.7)
 The finished specimens are heat cured for a period
of 48 hours at a temperature of 75 0C (fig.8)
(Cement specimens are normally cured for 28
days). After curing, the specimens are demoulded
and white washed before testing.

Fig9: Compression Testing in UTM.


Table3: Compressive Strength (*M=Molartity,
Fig6: Mesh Arrangement GM=Geopolymer Mortar)
Average
Designation of No. of
compressive
material specimens
strength(N/mm2)
Cement mortar 3 35.72
8M GM 3 38.67
10M GM 3 46.53
12 M GM 3 54.01
Fig7: Casting of Geopolymer Ferrocement Specimen 14 M GM 3 62.02

Fig8: Curing
IV. TESTING:
A. Compressive Strength Test: Fig10: Compressive Strength Relationship

The cement mortar were cast in 70.7x70.7x70.7 mm B. Flexural Test:


cube molds.The specimens were demoulded at one day To study the flexural behaviour, geopolymer Ferro
and stored in water until the testing age.For geopolymer cement elements of size 300mm x 50mm x 25mm were
mortars,they were placed into the 70.7x70.7x70.7 mm cast. The elements were simply supported and subjected

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 68-74
Bending Behavior of Geopolymer Ferocement Plates
72

to central point loading as shown in Fig.11. All 75 1.2 1.2 1.0 1.2 1.0
specimens were tested in 50 Ton capacity loading frame
shown in Fig.12. The dial gauges were fixed at the 100 1.8 1.8 1.4 1.8 1.4
centre of the element to record the deflection of the
element during test. The deflection of the element at 125 2.2 2.4 1.8 2.2 1.8
mid span was measured at every 25 kg intervals of
loading. At every loading stage, cracks appearing on the 150 2.6 2.8 2.4 2.6 2.2
surfaces were marked. The element was loaded up to
failure. 175 3.0 3.2 2.8 3.2 2.8

200 - - 3.2 3.8 3.6

225 - - - 4.2 4.2

250 - - - - 4.8

Fig11: Flexural Testing


Table4: Load vs Deflection (*M=Molarity
GM=Geopolymer Mortar)

Deflection (mm)
Load
(Kg) 8M 10M 12M 14M
Control
GF GF GF GF
0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Fig12: Load Deflection Behaviour
25 0.4 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.2

50 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.8 0.6

Table5: Flexural Strength (* GM=Geopolymer Mortar)

Ultimate Section Modulus Flexural strength


Specimen Ultimate Load (kg)
Moment (Nmm) (I/y)(mm3) (N/mm2)

Cement mortar 150 735575 5208.33 14.13

8M GM 175 85837 5208.33 16.48

10M GM 175 85837 5208.33 16.48

12 M GM 200 98100 5208.33 18.85

14 M GM 250 12262 5208.33 23.54

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 68-74
73 MOHANA. R and NAGAN. S

elaborate formwork and centering. Hence rate of


construction is faster by this method.
 Cent percentage replacement of cement by fly ash
used in this investigation is seen to enhance the
Compressive and Flexural Strength.
 While comparing with the control specimen, the
compressive strength of the geopolymer specimens
increases with increase in the concentration of the
alkaline solution.
 The Combination of Weldmesh and chicken mesh
is helpful in dispersing the cracks and bringing
about failure over a zone in the flexure span rather
than at a particular section.
 All elements showed good ductility represented by
large deflections in the load-deflection plot. Ample
Fig13: Flexural Strength Relationship warning was given prior to failure.
V. Experimental Results And Discussions:  It is evident that there is increase in load carrying
capacity of Geopolymer Ferrocement element
The results obtained from the experimental when compare to the control one as molar
investigations are tabulated in tables and the concentration of alkaline solution increased
comparisons are presented in form of graphs. All the
values are the average of the three specimens tested in VII. Acknowledgment:
each case during the testing program of this study. The The author of this paper expresses their gratitude to the
results are discussed as follows Managment of Thiagarajar College of Engineering. The
A. Compressive Strength Test: authors wish to express their thanks to the Department
for facilitating this work. They exclusively thank
The testing of 70.7 mm mortar cubes of respective Dr.R.Selvaraj Scientist & Head Civil Materials Testing
mortar mix are tested to record the characteristic Laboratory and Civil Engg Division CECRI (Central
compressive strength of the specimen are shown in Electrochemical Research Institute) Karaikudi , for his
Table.3 and Fig.10. The variation in the compressive valuable guidance.
strength for the concentration of 8M, 10M, 12M, 14M
Geopolymer mortar with respect to cement mortar is VIII. References:
shown in table 3. The results (Fig.13) clearly shows that [1] Vanchai Sata,Apha Sathonsaowaphak,Prinya
the compressive strength of Geopolymer mortar Chindaprasirt ,Resistance of lignite bottom ash
increased with increase in concentration of sodium geopolymer mortar to sulphate and Sulfuric acid
hydroxide compared to cement mortar. The percentage attack,Cement & concrete
increase in compressive strength compared to control Composites34(21012)700-708.
specimen for 8M, 10M, 12M, 14M Geopolymer mortars [2] Kiattikomol K,Jaturapitakkul C,Songpiriyakij
are 8%, 30%, 33%, 73% respectively. S,Chutubtim S,A study of ground Coarse fly ashes
B. Flexural Test: with different fineness from various Sources as
pozzolanic materials,Cem Concr Compos
The variation in flexural strength for ferrocement and 2001;23(4-5):335-43.
Geopolymer ferrocement elements is shown in table.5 [3] Sata V,Jaturapitukkul C,Rattanahotinunt
and fig.13.. From the results it can be observed that the C,Compressive Strength and heat evolution of
load carrying capacity of Geopolymer ferrocement concretes containing palm oil fuel ash.J Mater Civil
elements increases with increase in molar concentration Eng 2010;22(10):1033-8.
compared to ferrocement elements. The percentage [4] Chinaprasirt P,Rattanasak U,Jaturapitakkul
increase in flexural strength compared to control C.Utilization of fly ash blends from pulverized coal
specimen for 8M, 10M, 12M, 14M Geopolymer mortars and fluidized bed combustions in geopolymeric
are 16.6%, 16.6%, 33.40%, 66.50% respectively. materials.Cem Concr Compos 2011;33(1):55-60.
VI. Conclusions: [5] Davidovits J.Geopolymer:inorganic polymericnew
materials.J Therm Anal 1991;37:1633-56.
Based on the Experimental data, the following [6] P.Duxson,A.Fernandez,J.L.Provis,G.c.Lukey,A.Pa
conclusions are made lomo,J.S.J.Van Deventer,Geopolymer
 The fabrication of element using Geopolymer- technology:the current state of the
Ferrocement is fairly simple and doesnot require art,J.mater.Sci.42(9)(2007)2917-2933.

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 68-74
Bending Behavior of Geopolymer Ferocement Plates
74

[7] State-Of-The Art Report on Ferrocement,- [10] Abdullah, KatsukiTakiguchi and Koshiro
Reported by ACI Committee 549. Nishimura, Shingo Hori, Behavior of Ferrocement
[8] A. Masood, M. Arif *, S. Akhtar, M. Subjected to missile Impact, SMIRT 17, Czech
HaquiePerformance of ferrocement panels in Republic, 17-22.
different environmentsCivil Engineering [11] Chandrasekhar Rao, T., GunneswaraRao, T.D. and
Department, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh RamanaRao, N.V. (2008), An Experimental Study
202 002, India. On Ferrocement Channel Units Under Flexural
[9] M. Jamal Shannag, Bending behavior of Loading, International Journal of Mechanics and
ferrocement plates in sodium and magnesium Solids Volume 3, Number 2, pp.195-203.
sulfates solutions, King Saud University, P.O. Box
800, Riyadh 11421, Saudi Arabia.

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Indexed in
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Abstract Services-USA, Geo-Ref Information Services-
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www.cafetinnova.org ISSN 0974-5904, Volume 06, No. 02 (01) April 2013, P.P.75-78

Impact of Landuse on Ground Water Quality: A Case Study -


Tirumangalam Taluk, Madurai
A. S. KANAGALAKSHMI1, S. NAGAN2 AND B. PRAMODH3
1
Department of Civil Engineering, Panimalar Engineering College, Chennai, India
2
Department of Civil Engineering, Thiagarajar Engineering College, Madurai, India
3
Department of Civil Engineering), CEG, Anna University, Chennai, India,
Email: askv26@gmail.com
Abstract: Urban expansion is a major driving force altering local and regional hydrology. During the past several
decades, ground water quality has emerged as one of the most important and confronting environmental issues and it
plays a significant role in the national economy through satisfying various water needs. It has special significance
and needs greater attention of all concerned since it is a major alternate source of domestic, industrial and drinking
water supply. In this present research, ground water quality of water samples of seven locations situated in
Tirumangalam Taluk have been compared with respect to land use land change between 2002 and 2011. Ground
water samples were tested for nine physico-chemical parameters following the standard methods and procedures.
BIS drinking water quality standards were adopted for calculation of Water Quality Index (WQI) to find suitability
of water for drinking purpose. The overall view of the water quality index of the samples from the present study area
reveals that the ground water quality is getting deteriorated over a period of nine years and it creates negative impact
on environmental quality.
Keywords: Water Quality Index, Physico-chemical parameters, Ground water quality, LULC, Urbanization.

Introduction: to adjoining areas putting unwanted stress on the natural


resources [5]. WQI is regarded as one of the most
Rapid urbanization brings with it many problems as it
effective expressions which reflect the composite
places huge demands on land, water, housing, transport,
influence of contributing factors on the quality of water
health, education etc. Fresh water is one of the basic
for any water system [6]-[9]. Water quality is assessed
amenities for sustenance of life, the human race through
on the basis of calculated water quality indices [10]-
ages has striven to locate and develop it. Water is a vital
[12]. The quality of water is generally defined in terms
source of life in its natural state is free from pollution.
of its physical, chemical and biological parameters
But when man tampers the water body it loses its
(Ketata Mouna etal, 2011) [13] and measured as water
natural conditions. Ground water has become an
quality index to assess whether water is potable or not.
essential resource over the past few decades due to
WQI provides a single number that expresses over all
increase in its usage for drinking, irrigation and
water quality at certain locations based on several water
industrial uses. The quality of ground water is equally
quality parameters (Yogendra and Puttaiah, 2008) [14].
important as that of the quantity [1]. One of the major
Deeper ground water tapped by bore well can still be
direct environmental impacts of development is the
used for drinking purposes with caution.
degradation of water resources and water quality
(USEPA, 2001). Conversion of agriculture, forest, A. Study Area
grass and wet lands to urban areas usually comes with a
The latitude and longitude extension of the
vast increase in impervious surface which can alter the
Tirumangalam Taluk (Fig. 1) is 9°37’32.89”N to
natural hydrologic condition [2]. The problem of
9°57’55.95” N and 77°48’ 55.17”E to 78°57’ 18.52” E
drinking water contamination, water conservation and
respectively and its altitude range from 52 to 353m
water quality management has assumed very complex
above mean sea level. The climate is dry and hot, with
shape. Attention of water contamination and its
rains during October - December. Temperatures during
management have become imperative because of far-
summer reach a maximum of 40 and a minimum of 26.3
reaching impact on human health [3]. Ground water
degrees Celsius. Winter temperatures range between
pollution not only affects the water quality, but also
29.6 and 18 degrees Celsius. The average annual rainfall
threats human health, economic development and social
is about 85 cm. As of the 2001 India census, the city of
prosperity (Milovanovic 2007) [4]. The urban areas are
Thirumangalam had a population of 196,642. Males
fast getting densely populated and are expanding rapidly
constitute 98,877 of the population and females 97,765.

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Impact of Landuse on Ground Water Quality: A Case Study –
76
Tirumangalam Taluk, Madurai

Seven different locations under Tirumangalam taluk are chemical characteristics of ground water samples. The
taken up for the water quality research purpose. The samples are collected following standard methods
details of the locations under Tirumangalam taluk are described for sampling. The standard methods and
given in Table 1. procedures are used for quantitative estimation of water
quality parameters. The indices have been calculated for
nine water quality physico-chemical parameters. The
data on water quality parameters provided by Institute
of water studies, Government of Tamilnadu, Taramani,
and Chennai are utilized for the study.
Water quality index is calculated by weighted index
method to determine the suitability of groundwater for
drinking purposes. The index developed by Tiwari and
Mishra (1985) [15] is used.

In the present study nine water quality parameters,


namely, pH, Electrical Conductivity, TDS, Total
hardness, Calcium, Magnesium, Chloride, Sulphate and
Nitrate are considered for computing WQI. The
standards prescribed by Bureau of Indian Standards
(BIS) Specifications for drinking water IS:10500 [16]
are used for the calculation of water quality indices
except for electrical conductivity for which the standard
Fig1: Study Area prescribed by Indian Council for Medical Research
Materials and Methods: (ICMR) is used.
Water samples are collected from the seven locations
under Tirumangalam taluk to study the physico-
Table1: location of ground water quality study
Well No Block Village Latitude Longitude
W-1 Kallikudi Kallikudi 09°41'38" 77°58'16"
W-2 Kallikudi Kurayur 09°41'40" 78°01'30"
W-3 Kallikudi Peikulam 09°38'44" 77°59'25"
W-4 Thirumangalam Thanga, -lacheri 09°50'10" 77°52'08"
W-5 Thirumangalam Chinna, Ulagani 09°46'25" 78°03'08"
W-6 Thirumangalam Chokkana, -thapuram 09°56'17" 77°57'55"
W-7 Thirumangalam Kappalur 09°50'35" 78°01'07"
For computing WQI, three steps are followed. In the Where, Wi is the relative weight, wi is the weight of
first step, each of the 9 parameters has been assigned a each parameter and n is the number of parameters.
weight (wi) from 1 to 5 according to its relative Calculated relative weight (Wi) values of each parameter
importance in the overall quality of water for drinking are given in Table-2.
purposes. The maximum weightage of 5 has been
In the third step, a quality rating scale (Qi) for each
assigned to the parameter Nitrate due to its major
parameter is assigned (2) by dividing its concentration in
importance in water quality assessment. Magnesium
each water sample by its respective standard according
which is given the minimum weight of 1 as Magnesium
to the guidelines laid down in the BIS standard and the
by itself may not be harmful.
result multiplied by 100.
In the second step, the relative weight (Wi) is computed
(1) from the following equation: Qi = [ (Ci – Cid) / (Cs – Csd ) ] x 100 (2)
th
n Qi = Quality rating for i parameter
Wi = wi / ∑ wi (1) Ci = Measured value for ith parameter which is estimated
i=1 value
Cid= Ideal value for ith parameter

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 05, No. 06, December 2012, pp. 75-78
77 A. S. KANAGALAKSHMI, S. NAGAN AND B. PRAMODH

Cs= Standard value for ith parameter recommended by Results and Discussion:
standards
Water Quality Index range observed during the year
Csd=Ideal vaule of ith parameter in pure water (7 for pH
2002 was from 48.83 to 115.71 whereas during the year
and 0 for all other parameters)
2011 it was from 102.61 to 468.25. All the study
For computing the WQI, the SI is first determined (3) locations show increase in WQI resulting in degradation
for each physic-chemical parameter, which is then used of water quality over the period of nine years. This
to determine the WQI (4) as per the following equation. significant increase in water quality index is mainly due
to the land use change from 2002 to 2011.
SI = Wi . Qi (3)
Environmental quality has deteriorated due to the
n conversion of agriculture land and water bodies to
WQI = ∑ SIi (4) residential and industrial area. Kappalur area where
i=1 rapid industrialization has taken place resulted in
increase in WQI from 55.03 in 2002 to 205.84 in 2011.
SIi is the Sub Index of ith parameter; Qi is the rating
TDS and Total Hardness, Nitrate has increased
based on concentration of ith parameter and n is the
significantly over this period which makes the water
number of parameters. The computed WQI values are
quality as very poor. At Kallikudi, where agricultural
classified into five types [17], “excellent water” to
land has been converted to residential areas due to its
“water, unsuitable for drinking” as given in Table-3.
proximity to highway roads, the WQI index have
Table3: Water Quality Classification based on WQI increased from 48.83 to 275.48 from 2002 to 2011
Value making the ground water from Excellent water to Very
poor water. Chinna Ulagani area showed change of
WQI Value Water Quality Status water quality from good to unsuitable from 2002 to
< 50 Excellent water 2011. Huge increase in TDS, Total Hardness, Sulphate,
50-100 Good water Calcium and Magnesium making the water unsuitable
100-200 Poor water for drinking. The water quality parameters, WQI values
200-300 Very Poor water and classification of water quality at the seven locations
> 300 Water, Unsuitable for drinking are given in Table-4.

Table4: Water Quality Classification Based on WQI Value


Well
Year pH EC TDS TH Ca Mg Cl SO4 NO3 WQI Status
No
2002 8.5 520 271 205 34 29.2 89 13 2 48.8 Excellent
W-1
2011 7.6 4360 2626 810 172 92.3 709 240 73 275.4 Very Poor
2002 8.3 1220 776 430 40 80.2 213 48 56 115.7 Poor
W-2
2011 8.5 1800 1095 260 56 29.2 199 96 28 116.8 Poor
2002 7.9 700 383 240 22 45.0 96 58 3 54.3 Good
W-3
2011 7.6 2070 1270 300 96 14.6 277 62 28 120.6 Poor
2002 8.1 2080 1139 760 28 167.7 432 134 35 162.0 Poor
W-4
2011 8.2 3780 2270 960 192 116.6 624 245 73 268.7 Very Poor
2002 8.5 830 438 250 32 41.3 174 19 4 65.6 Good
W-5 Un
2011 7.5 6750 3669 2500 460 328.1 1914 264 4 468.2
suitable
2002 8.1 1430 836 275 28 49.8 248 96 10 94.7 Good
W-6
2011 7.7 1510 854 480 112 48.6 248 36 13 102.6 Poor
2002 8.7 690 344 220 26 37.7 78 13 1 55.0 Good
W-7
2011 7.5 2850 1641 1000 152 150.7 454 24 71 205.8 Very Poor
comprises an entire ecosystem. In a developing country
like India, people especially living in semi urban area
Conclusions: depend mostly on ground water for their drinking and
other domestic uses. This present research was aimed at
Every one lives in one (or) more water sheds. Every one
investigating the change in quality of ground water
is a part of an eco system. Each water shed is a part (or)

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 75-78
Impact of Landuse on Ground Water Quality: A Case Study –
78
Tirumangalam Taluk, Madurai

taken from seven wells located in Thirumangalam taluk [5] K.N.Pradeep, J.A.Tambe, N.Biranchi, N.Arun
using Water quality index (WQI) method. It is found Tiwari, “Impact of urbanization on the groundwater
that all the water samples analysed at these locations regime in a fast growing city in central India,”
have significant increase in WQI values from 2002 to Environmental Monitoring Assessment, Vol. 146,
2011 (Figure 2) which suggests that almost all the water 339-373, 2008.
samples have become not suitable for domestic uses [6] K.Kannan, Fundamentals of Environmental
especially for drinking. Pollution, S.Chand and Co. Ltd., New Delhi, 1991.
[7] D.K.Sinha and A.K.Srivastava, “Water Quality
Index for River Sai at Raebareli for the Pre
monsoon period and after the onset of monsoon,”
Indian Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol.
14(5), pp. 340-345, 1994.
[8] S.K.Pradhan, D.Patnaik and S.P.Rout, “Ground
Water Quality Index for ground water around a
phosphatic fertilizer plant,” Indian Journal of
Environmental Protection, Vol. 21(4), pp. 355-358.
2001.
[9] H.Gunvant, Sonawane and V.S.Shrivastava,
“Ground Water Quality Assessment Nearer to the
Dye user Industry,” Archives of Applied Sci. Res.,
Vol. 2(6), pp. 126-130, 2010.
Fig.2: WQI Comparison between 2002 and 2011 [10] D.K.Sinha, Saxena Shilpi and Saxena Ritesh,
This deterioration in water quality is mainly due to land “Water quality Index for Ram Ganga river at
use and land change (LULC). These land use changes Mordabad,” Pollution Res., Vol. 23(3), pp. 527-
causes negative impact on environmental quality mainly 531, 2004.
on water quality, Sustainable land management is more [11] A.P.Singh, S.K.Ghosh, “Water Quality Index for
essential to prevent the deterioration of water quality. River Yamuna,” Pollution Res., pp. 435-439, 1999.
Therefore, some effective measures are urgently [12] D.K.Sinha and Ritesh Saxena, “Statistical
required to enhance the drinking water quality of Assessment of Under ground drinking water
Tirumangalam taluk through sustainable land contamination and effect of monsoon at Hasanpur,
management and effective water quality management J.P. Nagar (Uttar Pradesh, India),” Journal of Env
plan. Sci. & Engg., Vol. 48(3), pp. 157-163, 2006.
[13] K.Yogendra and E.T.Puttaiah, “Determination of
References: water Quality Index and Suitability of urban water
[1] S.S.Asadi, Padmaja Vuppala and M.Anji Reddy, body in Shimoga Town, Karnataka,” The 12th
“Remote sensing and GIS Technique for evaluation world lake conference, 2008, pp. 342-346.
of ground water quality in municipal corporation of [14] M.Milovanovic, “Water quality assessment and
Hyderabad (Zone-V),” International Journal of determination of pollution sources along the Axios/
Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol. Vardar River, South-eastern Europe,” Desalination,
4(1), pp. 45-42, 2007. Vol. 213, 159–173, 2007.
[2] Z.Tang, B.A.Engel, B.C.Pijanowski and K.L.Lim, [15] T.N.Tiwari, M.A.Mistra, “A Preliminary
“Forecasting land use and its environmental impact assignment of water quality index of major Indians
at a watershed scale,” Journal of Environmental rivers,” Indian Journal of Environmental
Management, Vol. 76, p. 35-45, 2005. Protection, Vol. 5(4), pp.276-279, 1985.
[3] D.K.Sinha and A.K.Srivastava, “Physicochemical [16] Indian Standard, Drinking water-Specifications, IS:
Characteristics of River Sai at Rae bareli,” Indian 10500, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, pp
Journal of Environmental Health, Vol. 37(3), pp. 1-8. 1991.
205-210. 1995. [17] C.R.Ramakrishnaiah, C.Sadashivaiah and
[4] Priti Singh and I.A.Khan, “Ground water quality G.Ranganna, “Assessment of Water Quality Index
assessment of Dhankawadi ward of Pune by using for the Groundwater in Tumkur Taluk, Karnataka
GIS,” International Journal of Geomatics and State, India,” E-Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 6(2), pp.
Geosciences, Vol 2, No 2, pp. 688-703, 2011. 523-530, 2009.

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 05, No. 06, December 2012, pp. 75-78
Indexed in
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Abstract Services-USA, Geo-Ref Information Services-
USA, List B of Scientific Journals in Poland

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Synthesis and characterization of TiO2/ Cu2O Nano composite


embedded in silicate sol-gel treated with organic dye.
DHANALAKSHMIRAMAMOORTHY1AND RAMASAMY RAMRAJ2
1
Department of Chemistry, K .L N. College of Engineering, Pottapalayam, Sivagangai – 636 611, India.
2
School of Chemistry, Centre for Photoelectrochemistry, Madurai Kamaraj university, Madurai – 625 021, India.
Email: dhanalakshmiramamoorthy@gmail.com

Abstract: The TiO2/Cu2O nanocomposite photocatalysts with molar ratio of Ti:Cu were prepared and embedded
with amine functionalized sol- gel(APS). The resulting material characterized by UV-vis diffuses reflection spectra,
scanning electron microscopy. The photocatalytic activities of the nano photocatalysts were evaluated through the
degradation of a Methylene blue dye (MB) as a model under light irradiation. Results show that the photocatalytic
activities of the nanophotocatalysts in the film state have been improved when compared to that of bare TiO2 (P25)
& bare Cu2O. The TiO2-Cu2O nanomaterials showed a better photocatalytic activity. The (TiO2-Cu2O) embedded
with amine functionalized silicate sol-gel is a possible for electrochemical and cleaning applications.
Keywords: Silicate sol–gel, TiO2–Cu2O nanomaterials, Photocatalyst, Methyelene blue oxidation (MB).

I. Introduction: The TiO2-coated Cu2O nanocomposite materials (Ti :


Cu) molar ratio were synthesized by simple chemical
Recent advance researchTiO2, ZnO has been widely
route. Typically, molar ratio of (TiO2- Cu2O) were
used in photocatalytic degradation of toxic organic
prepared by mixing a solution containing known
compounds and enhance the catalytic activities. Cu2O
amount of Degussa-TiO2 (P25) with equal volumes of
nanomaterials used as photoelectrode in electrochemical
aqueous solutions of CuSO4 to of an aqueous
cells and water splitting materials. Cuprous oxide
cetytrimethlammmonium (CTAB) solutions. Next,
(Cu2O) with a direct band gap of 2.0-2.2 eV [1]. In the
sodium ascorbate solution was added into the Cu (II)-
present work, photo degradation approach was
CTAB solution. The solutions were heated in water bath
considered using TiO2, Cu2O, and TiO2-Cu2O. The
objectives of the study were to investigate the
was added to the mixture and a bright yellow color
photodegradation activity of methylene blue solution
appeared immediately. The solution w
using TiO2, Cu2O, and TiO2-Cu2O [2]. The coupled
another 10 min and was removed from heated and
different semiconductor oxides can reduce its band gap
allowed to cool to room temperature. Within 30 min the
consequently, achieve a higher photocatalytic activity.
solutions turned to a purple red, a light yellow, or a dark
The silicate sol-gel matrix is one of the most frequently
yellow depending on the concentrating of CTAB. No
used embedded active materials hold with nanoparticles
precipitate was observed. The particles were separated
and also acts as solid support. [3]
from the solutions by centrifugation at 6000 ppm for 15
II. Experimental min. They were then resuspended in water and the
centrifugation was repeated twice so as to remove the
A. Materials:
surfactant. After removing the supernatant, the
TiO2 (Degussa P-25) (Evonik industries, Germany), precipitant containing nanocomposite was collected and
Copper Sulphate, (CuSO4), Cetytrimethlammmonium redispersed in a small amount of deionized water for
(CTAB), Sodiumascorbate, Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH), further characterization. At this point, all the
3-Aminopropyl-trimethoxysilan(APS), Methylene blue nanocomposite solids appeared pale brick red.
(MB) (Aldrich), were used as received and all the other
C. Characterization:
chemicals used in this work were of analytical grade.
All glassware were thoroughly cleaned with aqua regia Absorption and diffuse reflectance spectra of the TiO2
(3:1 HNO3/HCl) and rinsed extensively with double and TiO2-Cu2O nanoparticles were recorded using
distilled water and dried in hot air oven before use. Ocean optics Inc, Jaz. The surface morphology of TiO2,
Cu2O and mole ratio of TiO2-Cu2O nanocomposite
B. Preparation of (TiO2-Cu2O) Nano composite:
was analyzed using a HITACHI (Model S–3400)
scanning electron microscope (SEM).

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Synthesis and characterization of TiO2/ Cu2O Nano composite embedded
80
in silicate sol-gel treated with organic dye

D. Preparation of silicate sol–gel matrix embedded G. Scanning Electron Microscopy Observation


TiO2-Cu2O nanomaterial: (SEM):
The TiO2-Cu2O nanomaterial dispersed in The observed difference in the morphology of the
functionalized silicate sol–gel (APS) matrix was (TiO2-Cu2O) particles dispersed in the APS film Figure
prepared by the following procedure. A homogeneous 2d. The silicate sol-gel film reduces the particle size
APS silicate sol–gel solution was prepared according to with more porous structure which may be enhanced the
the reported [4] by using a mixture of EtOH/ APS /0.1 photocatalysis reaction.
M HCl in the ratio 7.5:3.75:1.0 (v/v). A known volume
of amine functionalized silicate sol–gel solution was
mixed with a known amount of colloidal TiO2-Cu2O
nanomaterial by stirring for 5 min.
E. Photocatalytic studies:
The photocatalytic studies were carry out in a glass cell
system at room temperature. The APS/TiO2, Cu2O and
TiO2-Cu2O film coated glass plate was immersed into a
photolysis cell containing methylene blue solution
irradiated with a light source. The reaction mixture was
stirred at a constant speed during illumination. A 450 W
Xenon lamp was used as the light source with a water Fig2: SEM images of (a) TiO2 (b) Cu2O (c) TiO2- Cu2O
filter cell (6 cm path length with Pyrex glass windows) (d) APS/TiO2-Cu2O
to cut off the far UV and IR radiations. This water filter H. Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX):
cell transmitted light from ~340 nm onwards. The
sample aliquots were taken from the reaction sample at The result by EDAX analysis is shown in Figure 6. It’s
regular time intervals and were tested for dye noticeably indicate that the (TiO2-Cu2O) nanocomposite
degradation using spectrophotometer. The details of the composed of,Ti, Cu, O and no other impurities were
photocatalytic reactor setup, experimental condition and detected. The sample exhibited large scattering of the Ti
photodegraded product analysis are discussed in our over the Cu.
previous report [5]. The photo degradation was
calculated using equation 1.
Ct
Decomposition = --- (1)
C0
Where C0 & Ct is the initial & final concentration of MB
at time‘t’ after irradiation.
III. Result and Discussion:
F. Spectral Characterization of (TiO2-Cu2O):
Diffuse reflectance spectra were recorded (Figure
1A&1B) for the absorption edge of the Cu2O is at about
Fig3: EDAX Spectrum of (TiO2-Cu2O) nanocomposite.
591 nm, corresponding to a band gap of 2.09 eV, while
the band-gap of the TiO2 film is about 3.2 eV. Cu2O can I. Photodegration of Methylene blue and
absorb visible light. The band–gap energy values are Mechanism:
calculated by using Taucs plot method [6].
The amine functionalized APS/ (TiO2- Cu2O)
nanocomposite system exhibits much higher
1.5
0.6
phototcatalytic degradation of MB than the other
Tio2 nanomaterials (Figure 4). The electron transfer from
Absorbance

Absorbance

Cu2O
0.4 Tio2-Cu2O
Cu2O to TiO2 causes charge separation in Cu2O. Figure
0.2
5 the transferred electrons on the surface of TiO2 can be
1.0
trapped by absorbed oxygen to produce superoxide ion
400 500 600 700
0.0
200 400
Wavelength
600 800
radical (O2 •-). This superoxide ion radical can attack
Wavelength
organics dye formation of oxidative H2O2 and hydroxyl
radicals (•OH) [7].
Fig1A&1B: Diffused Spectra of Cu2O, TiO2 TiO2-Cu2O

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 79-81
81 DHANALAKSHMIRAMAMOORTHY and RAMASAMY RAMRAJ

[3] A. Pandikumar, S. Murugesan, R. Ramaraj,


1.0
“Functionalized silicate sol-gel supported TiO2-Au
core-shell nanomaterials and their
0.8 photoelectrocatalytic activity”, ACS Appl. Mater.
Interfaces, 2, 1912-1917, 2010
C/CO

a
[4] A. Pandikumar, S. Manonmani, R. Ramaraj, “TiO2–
0.6
b Au nanocomposite materials embedded in polymer
matrices and their application in the photocatalytic
0.4 d
reduction of nitrite to ammonia”, Catal. Sci.
0 20 40 60
Technol., 2, 345-353, 2012.
Irradiation time (min) [5] A. Pandikumar, R. Ramaraj, “Titanium dioxide-
Fig4: Photocatalytic decomposition of MB by a) gold nanocomposite embedded in silicate sol-gel
TiO2film b) Cu2O film C)/TiO2 -Cu2O film film catalyst for simultaneous photodegradation of
hexavalent chromium and methyelene blue”, J.
Hazard. Mater. 203-204, 244-250, 2012.
[6] M. Gartner, V. Dremov, P. Müller, H. Kisch,
“Bandgap widening of titania through support
interactions”, Chem. Phys. Chem. 6, 714-718,
2005.
[7] O.Carp, C.Huisman, A. Reller, “Photoinduced
reactivity of titanium dioxide”. Prog. Solid State
Chem, 32, 33–177, 2004
Fig5: (a) Cu2O (b) TiO2
IV. Conclusions:
TiO2-Cu2O nanomaterials have been successfully
synthesized by hydrothermal method. The (TiO2-Cu2O)
nanocomposite materials were characterized by using
DRS, SEM and EDAX analysis. The results showed that
the APS/ (TiO2-Cu2O) film is a better photocatalyst
than compare to other photocatalysts. In an
environmental remediation the aminosilicate sol-gel
embedded (TiO2-Cu2O) photocatalyst film find more
applications.
V. Acknowledgement:
RR acknowledges the financial support from the
Department of Science and Technology (DST), New
Delhi. RD is a recipient of UGC-Dr.Kothari post-
doctoral fellowship. The authors are grateful to Evonik
Industries, Germany for generously providing the
Degussa-TiO2 sample for research purpose. The
technical support of Mr. P. Gomathi Shankar
(Annamalai University) is acknowledged.
VI. References:
[1] F. Zewge, R. van de Krol and P.W. Appel
“Photoelectrocatalytic removal of color from water
using TiO2 and TiO2/Cu2O thin film electrodes
under low light intensity”, Bull. Chem. Soc.
Ethiop., 22(1), 27-40. 2008.
[2] C. Xu, Lixin Cao, G. Su, W.Liu, H. Liu, Y. Yu, X
Qu “Preparation of ZnO/Cu2O compound
photocatalyst and application in treating organic
dyes”, J. Hazard. Mater. 176, 807–813 2010.

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www.cafetinnova.org ISSN 0974-5904, Volume 06, No. 02 (01) April 2013, P.P.82-86

Analysis of elliptical perforated tube muffler


SOHEI NISHIMURA1AND YUYA NISHIMURA2
Kumamoto National College of Technology, 2627 Hirayama-Shin-Machi, Yatsushiro Kumamoto 866-8501JAPAN.
Kumamoto National College of Technology 2659-2 Suya Koshi-shi, Kumamoto 861-1102 JAPAN.
E-mail: nisimura@kumamoto-nct.ac.jp, nishimura@kumamoto-nct.ac.jp.

Abstract: Evidently, a perforated pipe is an essential component in muffler systems. It has the ability to reduce the
power levels of noise sources generated by flow.
In this work, a method to derive the acoustic characteristic of elliptical perforated tube muffler with consideration of
higher order mode is presented. Some comparisons between the experimental measurements and the predicted
results were discussed. The mean flow velocity was not considered in this paper.
Keywords: muffler, perforated tubes, acoustic impedance, resonance frequency.

Introduction: el , respectively. Assume that the acoustic impedance of


Perforated tubes are a commonly used feature in muffler perforated tube can be regarded as uniform over its
designs, mainly of their ability to reduce the acoustic surface.
power of the noise generated by flow significantly
influenced by its velocity [1]-[5]. Contemporary y
automotive muffler chambers consist of more than one 0 perforated pipe
resonance room and expansion room jointed together in
series, in which one or several perforated pipe is x
 in z
installed. When the dimension of each element is small
comparable with the acoustic wavelength, the one- p  out
dimensional model four-pole parameter is frequently 
used. However, by the presence of a perforated pipe, the w z=0 z=l
one-dimension frequency range will become extremely
narrow due to the generation of higher order modes at Fig.1 Perforated tube muffler model
low frequency range. In order to estimate the The general solution of the wave equation in elliptical
performance of mufflers in wide frequency range, the co-ordinates is a combination of some function as
modelling or analysing of such an arrangement would follows [6]
require the acoustic characteristic including with the
higher order modes effect.  ( , , z )   A0 exp(  z )  B0 exp(  z ) 
In the present work, a method to derive the acoustic   C Ce ( , s ) ce ( , s )
characteristic of an elliptical perforated tube muffler  m m
 m0
m

with a consideration the higher order mode effect is




suggested. Some comparisons between the experimental
  Sm 1 Sem 1 ( , s ) sem 1 ( , s )  (1)
measurements and the predicted results are also
m0 
discussed. The mean flow velocity was not considered
in this paper. Where  ( , , z ) is the velocity potential, A0 , B0 ,
Analysis Methods: C m and S m 1 are arbitrary constants determinable from
Model of analysis and boundary conditions: the boundary conditions. Function cem ( , s ) and
Consider the elliptic cylindrical cavity of eccentricity
Cem ( , s ) are even and even modified Mathieu function
ew and length having a thin perforated tube in
of m-th order, sem ( , s ) and Sem ( , s ) are odd and
elliptical form as shown in Fig. 1. The eccentricity of
odd modified Mathieu function of m-th order,
the input, perforated tube and the output are e0 , e p and

#02061014 Copyright ©2013 CAFET-INNOVA TECHNICAL SOCIETY. All rights reserved.


83 SOHEI NISHIMURA AND YUYA NISHIMURA

respectively. The value of s is defined by the following at the input and the output piston, F  ,   1 at the
equation.
piston and F  ,   0 elsewhere,
q2
s  k 2  2  (2) Let the sound pressure and the volume velocity inside
4
the perforated pipe be Pin and U in , respectively. Let
Where, q is the distance between the foci and the
origin, k   / c with  and c are the angular
those outside the perforated pipe be Pout and U out
frequency and the sound velocity, respectively,  is respectively. Then at the surface of perforated pipe
arbitrary constant.    p , the following relations are obtained
Let the velocity potential inside the perforated tube be
Pin  Pout  Z pipeUout (9)
in and that outside the tube be out , respectively.
Since the distribution of in is symmetrical to the major Uin  Uout (10)

and the minor axis, in must be even and periodic in  , Where Z pipe is the impedance of perforated pipe.
hence the general solution of in becomes Since the sound pressure P and volume velocity U are
related to the velocity potential  by P  jk  c and
in   Ai exp   z   Bi exp    z   U   /  , Eqs. (6) and (7) are then represented as

 C Ce  , s  ce , s 
m m m (3)
[5] at    p , in  out 
Z pipe out
(11)
m 0
jk  c 
Since out has both symmetrical term and a
in out
out [6] at   p ,  (12)
unsymmetrical term, the general solution of
 
becomes
in out
out   A0 exp   z   B0 exp    z  
In order to find and from Eqs.(5) to ( 12), let
 a
in and a
out be the solution of Eq.(3) and Eq.(4)
 
  CmCem  , s  cem  , s 
obtained for the following boundary conditions:
 m 0
ina

 [1a] at z  0 , Vz    V0 F0  ,  (13)
  Sm1Sem1  , s  sem1  , s   (4) z
m 0 
ina
The boundary conditions are as follows [2a] at z  l , Vz   0 (14)
z
in
[1] at z  0 , Vz    V0 F0  ,  (5) out
a
z [3a] at    , V   0 (15)

in
[2] at z  l , Vz    Vl Fl  ,  (6)
out
a
z [4a] at z  l , Vz   0 (16)
z
out
[3] at    , V   0 (7)
 Z pipe out
a
[5a] at    p , ina  out
a
 (17)
jk  c 
out
[4] at z  l , Vz   0 (8)
z ina out
a
[6a] at   p ,  (18)
Where Vz and V are the velocity components in the  
z,  directions, V0 and Vl are the driving velocity

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 82-86
Analysis of elliptical perforated tube muffler
84

and let inb and out


b
be the solution of Eq.(3) and Eq.(4) to make Eq.(29) always zero, it is necessary that
obtained for the following boundary conditions: Cem  , s 
 b Cem'  , s   0 (30)
[1b] at z  0 , Vz   in  0 (19)   
z 

And
 b
[2b] at z  l , Vz   in  Vl Fl  ,  (20) Sem1  , s 
z Sem' 1  , s   0 (31)
  
out
b 

[3b] at    , V   0 (21)
 Letting the positive roots of Eq.(30) and Eq.(31) be sm ,i

out
b and sm1,i  i  0,1,2,... , respectively, and letting 
[4b] at z  0 , Vz   0 (22)
z corresponding to sm ,i and sm1,i be m ,i and
Z hole out
b
m1,iout
a
then out
a
and can be obtained as
[5b] at    p , inb  out
b
 (23)
jk  c   
ina   Am,i f  z, m,i 
inb out
b
[6b] at   p ,  (24) m 0 i 0
  Cem  , sm,i  cem , sm,i  (32)

then in and out can be obtained as in  ina  inb


 
and out  out  out , respectively.   Cm,i f  z, m,i  Cem  , sm,i  cem  , sm ,i 
a b
out
a

m 0 i 0
At first, in can be derive as following procedure.

 

From (14) we have   Sm1,i f z, m1,i


m 0 i 0
 
Bi  Ai exp  2l  (25)

Sem1  , sm1,i sem1  , s 
m1,i (33)
Substituting Eq. (25) into Eq. (3), we have
Next, derive Am ,i from Eq.(17) and considering (18) we

ina   Ai f  z,   Cem  , s  cem  , s  (26) have
m 0

Where,
Cm,i f '  z, m,i  Cem  , sm,i  cem , sm,i 
z 0

f  z,    exp   z   exp  2l  exp   z  (27)  V0 F0  ,  (34)


Similarly, B0 find from (16) and substituting into By multiplying both sides of Eq.(34) by
Eq.(4) we obtained
Cem  , sm,i  cem , sm,i   cosh 2  cos2  and

out   Cm0 f  z,   Cem  , s  cem  , s  integrating with respect to  from 0 to  and with
m 0 respect to from 0 to 2 we can determine the constant

  Sm0 1 f  z,   Sem1  , s  sem1  , s  (28) Cm ,i . Thus ina becomes
m 0
 
V0
and from (15) we have ina  
m 0 i 0 m,i sin hm,i l  sinh m1,i l
  Z m,i m1,i
  Sm0 1 f  z,   Sem' 1  , s  sem1  , s   0 cosh m,i (l  z ) cosh m1,i (l  z )
m0
H m0 ,i 1  Z m,i  m  ,, sm,i 
(29) (35)

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 82-86
85 SOHEI NISHIMURA AND YUYA NISHIMURA

Where, 

Z pn  c2  Z pn   
 H m0 ,iV0
Z m,i    
 c  Z  c  c  Z pn 
(36)
m0 i 0  sin hm,i l  sinh m 1,i l
1 pn 1 2
 m ,i  Z m,i m 1,i
 cosh m,i (l  z ) cosh m 1,i (l  z )
Z pipe 
Z pn  (37)
jk  c 

H ml ,iVl
Cem  p , sm,i   
C1  m,i sin hm,i l  sinh m 1,i l 
Cem'  p , sm,i 
(38)
 Z m,i m 1,i 
cosh m,i z cosh m 1,i z 

C2 
Sem1  p , sm1,i  1  Zm,i  m  ,, sm,i  (44)

 , s 
(39)
'
Se m 1 p m 1,i Therefore, the sound pressure at the input becomes

P0  jk  cin
m  , , sm,i   Cem  , sm,i  cem  , sm,i  (40) z 0
 
 jkZ w   GTm,i Qm0 ,iU 0 GSm,i Qml ,iU l 
g  ,   cosh 2  cos 2 (41) m0 i 0

1  Z    ,, s  (45)
m  , , sm,i  g  ,  d d
u 2 m ,i m m ,i
H u
m ,i  
0 0 Where,
  , , sm,i  g  ,  d d
w 2
/ 
2
m (42)
GSm,i
0 0

1
Similarly, by using Eqs.(19)-(24), inb can be obtained  (46)
m,i sin hm,i l  Z m,i m1,i sinh m1,i l
as
 
Vl GTm,i
inb  
m0 i 0 m,i sin hm,i l  sinh m1,i l 1
 Z m,i m1,i  (47)
cosh m,i z cosh m1,i z m,i tan hm,i l  Z m,i m1,i tanh m1,i l
H ml ,i 1  Zm,i  m  , , sm,i  (43)
1
 m ,i  m2 ,i   kaw 
2
where H ml ,i is defined by Eq.(41) in which  0 is aw
(48)

replaced by l . Thus, from Eq.(35) and Eq.(43), we


in 1
m2 1,i   kaw 
obtaind as
m1,i 
2
(49)
aw
in  ina  inb
m,i  2 sm,i / ew (50)

m1,i  2 sm1,i / ew (51)

m  , , sm,i   Cem  , sm,i  cem  , sm,i  (52)

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ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 82-86
Analysis of elliptical perforated tube muffler
86

The derivation of the input and output sound pressure


m  , , sm,i  g  ,  d d
Sw u 2
Qmu ,i 
S0  0 0
for the elliptical perforated tube muffler has been
presented by solving the wave equation considering the
2m  , , sm,i  g  ,  d d
w 2 higher order mode effects. The input and output
/  (53) pressure are given by Eq.(45) and Eq.(55), respectively.
0 0

References:
g  ,   cosh 2  cos 2 (54)
[1] J.W Sullivan, M.J Crocker, Analysis of concentric
tube resonators having un-partitioned cavities.
U 0  V0 S0 and U l  Vl Sl are volume velocity at Journal Acoustic Society of America, 64 (1978),
input an output, S 0 , Sl and S w are cross-sectional 207-215.
[2] J.W Sullivan, A method for modeling perforated
area of input, output and chamber, respectively,
tube muffler components. 1. Theory. Journal
Z w   c / Sw , aw is major semi-axis of elliptical Acoustic Society of America, 66 (1979), 772-788.
chamber, Z m ,i is given in Eq. (36), the term related to [3] K.S Peat, A numerical decoupling analysis of
perforated pipe silencer elements,. Journal of Sound
the acoustic impedance of perforated pipe. and Vibration 123 (1988), 199-212.
Similarly, the sound pressure on the output side ( z  l ) [4] H. Luo, C.C Tse, Y.N Chen, Modeling and
is given by the following equation applications of partially perforated intruding tube
mufflers. Applied Acoustics 44 (1995), 99-116.
Pl  jk  cin z l
[5] C.N Wang, A numerical scheme for the analysis of
perforated introding tube muffler components.
 
 jkZ w   GSm,i Qm0 ,iU 0 GTm,iQml ,iU l 
Applied Acoustic 44 (1995), 275-286, 1995.
[6] N. W. McLachlan, Theory and application of
m0 i 0
Mathieu functions. Oxford at the Clarendon Press,
1  Z    ,, s 
m ,i m m ,i (55) 1947.

Conclusion:

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ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 82-86
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USA, List B of Scientific Journals in Poland

www.cafetinnova.org ISSN 0974-5904, Volume 06, No. 02 (01) April 2013, P.P.87-95

Cost Optimization Design of Sewage Treatment Plant for


Small, Medium and Large Size Towns in India
G. USHA RANI1AND A.M. VASUMATHI2
Civil Engineering
1
SACS M.A.V.M.M. Engineering College
2
KLN College of Information Technology
Tamil Nadu, India
Email: ushaphd2011@gmail.com, amvasu2006@gmail.com

Abstract: Domestic wastewater generated from urban areas has been a major source of pollution of surface waters
in India. Construction of sewage treatment plants (STPs), though important for pollution abatement and public
health point of view, is often accorded low priority due to limited financial resources of civic bodies. Some of the
STPs constructed in small towns under financial support are not able to bare the cost of operation and maintenance
of the STP. Hence it is necessary to select appropriate treatment of sewage considering capital as well as Operation
and Maintenance (O&M) cost. The objective of the present study is to find the appropriate sewage treatment scheme
for small medium and large size towns (with varying flow rates) and three different treatment schemes considering
the capital and operating costs. In the present study the design of sewage treatment schemes for three flow rates (15
MLD, 54 MLD, and 90 MLD) covering small, medium, and large towns with three different technological schemes
for treating sewage are carried out. First scheme is anaerobic lagoon followed by waste stabilization pond (WSP).
Second scheme is conventional activated sludge process (ASP). Third scheme is Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket
(UASB) followed by WSP. The capital cost includes Civil, Mechanical and Electrical items excluding land cost and
O&M cost includes power, chemical and manpower of three treatment schemes for three different flow rates were
estimated and compared. From the comparative cost analysis, it is found that the appropriate and suitable option
with less O & M cost is UASB followed by WSP.
Keywords: Sewage Treatment Plant, Waste Stabilization Pond, Activated Sludge Process, Upflow Anaerobic Sludge
Blanket, Capital cost, Operation and Maintenance Cost

I. Introduction: treatment plant is the initial capital cost and O&M cost
for sustaining the treatment. For successful and
Urbanization is by far the most important social change
sustained operation of sewage treatment, the O&M cost
that has taken place in India in recent times. From a
shall be minimum and bearable by the municipality of
modest base of 25.8 million in 1901, the urban
the town. The main objective of sewage treatment is to
population has grown to 285 million in 2001, signaling
treat the sewage in such a fashion that the use or final
an astonishing eleven-fold increase in one century.
disposal of the treated sewage can takes place in
More than 60% of this urban growth, however, has
accordance with the rules set by legislative bodies
occurred within the last three decades. Unregulated
without causing on adverse impact on the ecosystem of
urbanization with inadequate infrastructure for water
the receiving body. For this reason the objectives of
supply and sanitation has led to an alarming
sewage treatment will always include the reduction of
deterioration of environmental quality and worsening
the concentration of at least one of the four most
quality of life in both rural and urban India. Presently
important constituents of sewage: suspended solids,
more than 85% of an estimated domestic wastewater
organic material, nutrients and pathogenic organisms.
generated in the country is being discharged into the
At the present time, the unit operations and processes
environment without any treatment. Consequently, a
are grouped together to provide various levels of
majority of the surface water sources has been
treatment known as preliminary, primary, secondary and
contaminated with organic and microbial pollutants.
advanced treatment.
Proper collection, treatment and disposal/utilization of
domestic wastewater origin are essential pre-requisites In designing sewage treatment systems, planning
for protection of public health and improvement in generally begins from the final disposal point going
quality of life. The main place constrains in backwards to give an integrated and optimum design to
establishment of sewerage collection and sewage suit the topography and the available hydraulic head

#02061015 Copyright ©2013 CAFET-INNOVA TECHNICAL SOCIETY. All rights reserved.


Cost Optimization Design of Sewage Treatment Plant for Small, Medium and
88
Large Size Towns in India

supplemented by pumping is essential. Disposal points the land cost is less than 30 per m2, then waste
are tentatively selected. Further design is guided by the stabilization ponds are cost effective.
following basic design considerations, Engineering,
Ho – Wen Chen et al [2002] reported the comparative
Environmental, Process and Cost. Conventional
analysis of methods to represent uncertainty in
methods of municipal sewage treatment depend mostly
estimating the cost of construction of wastewater
on non-renewable energy sources. Further capital
treatment plants. The inherent uncertainties when
investments to build a facility are required. Many
making choice of the centralized treatment plant require
government-funding schemes exist for construction of
more comprehensive evaluation. From the study, it was
sewage treatment plants (STPs), lot many STPs are not
observed that the moderate economy of scale exists for
under operation because of inappropriate selection of
both industrial and domestic wastewater. It was
treatment processes, lack of trained technical manpower
estimated that the moderate economy of scale for
and availability of finance for operation & maintenance
industrial and domestic wastewater was 6000 m3/day to
of STPs.
20000 m3/day and above 15000 m3/day respectively in
II. Literature Review: Taiwan. It was reported that the small communities do
not benefit the economy of scale that are possible with
STP based on tradition methods have been in operation
the construction of wastewater management facilities
since for a very long time. With the development of
for larger communities. In this present study, an attempt
technology and instrumentation sophistications, the cost
had been made to bring out optimized cost analysis by
of treatment and space requirement for STPs has
considering three different schemes of STPs. Jae-Young
reduced drastically. Some of the latest technology
ko, et al (2004) has evaluated and compared tertiary
includes membrane bioreactor (MBR) for treatment of
municipal wastewater treatment using forested wetlands
sewage and membrane based reverse osmosis system
for money-based and energy-based cost benefit analysis.
for recovery of water from treated sewage. But the
It was reported that wetland assimilation provides the
literature survey of the present study is limited to
same services as conventional methods in improving
capital, O& M cost of treatment plants. Some of the
wastewater quality, while having positive impacts of
important research works in this field of cost of
wetlands. Further, suspended solids and nutrients in
wastewater treatment including different technology.
wastewater increase net primary productivity, which
Nawghare, et al (2001) studied 60 Effluent Treatment
leads to increased organic soil information. Wetlands
Plant (ETP) data and reported that the relationship
treat more wastewater per unit of energy and with less
between estimated constructions cost to appropriate
financial cost than conventional methods, because the
capacity parameters for each of the various major units
wetland method utilize natural energies such as sunlight,
of ETP. From the established relationship or cost
wind and rain, while conventional treatment methods
functions in terms of volume of flow of wastewater, the
depend on imported non renewable energies and
initial capital investment and O&M costs of ETP, or
materials such as chemicals and electricity and require
additions to existing ETP could be arrived at on the
additional capital investment. From the evaluation, it
basis of these analyses. Tapas Nandy, et al (2001) [13]
was found that wetland method has higher benefit cost
studied the status and performance of STPs in India.
ratio than conventional treatment by 6 times based on
From the study, it has highlighted in detail the findings
dollar based cost benefit analysis and by 21.7 times
on the status of STPs in India based on the evaluation
from the energy analysis. Colmenarejo et al (2005) have
studies on selected STPs and associated management
studied and evaluated eight small-scale municipal
problems. It was reported that STPs are given low
wastewater treatment plants (three plants used compact
priorities, low budget allocation and hence very low
extended aeration, two used conventional activated
maintenance, lack of laboratory and technical
sludge, one used conventional extended aeration, one
manpower etc. which are the major reasons for poor
used a rotary biodisc reactor and other used as a peat
performance of STPs in India. Tsagarakis, et al (2002)
bed reactor) over a period of 19 months in the suburb of
reported that the economic analysis pertaining to
Las Rozas in Spain. It was reported that the best results
municipal wastewater treatment systems. It included
were obtained from the plants that used conventional
land usage, cost of construction and O&M. Equations
technologies and biodiscs. Conventional activated
for cost and land use for specific treatment systems and
sludge and extended aeration system had higher
life cycle analysis (LCA) of sewage treatment plants
removal efficiencies of TSS, ammonia, COD, and BOD
were discussed. The results of the study suggested most
and produced good quality final effluents for final
preferred system under given circumstances. Thus,
disposal in accordance with the discharge standards.
under high energy cost and low level of automation and
Also empirical equation correlating the concentration of
operation, at low F/M ratios, conventional activated
dissovlved oxygen in the effluents with the efficiencies
sludge systems are relatively not cost effective and if
of TSS, ammonia, COD, and BOD removals for all the

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 87-95
89 G. USHA RANI AND A.M. VASUMATHI

plants were reported. F. Hernandez-Sancho et al (2009) changing flow rates, wind velocities, and temperature
[4] studied the methodology for a better understanding could allow closer alignment of CFD simulations to
of the cost structure of wastewater treatment processes. field data. However, in the practical application of CFD
This methodology may be useful in the planning of new where a modification such as baffle installation results
facilities. The existing models in the literature are in a large change, then a simple pragmatic model, while
focused on the influence of the capacity of plant, not exact, can still provide valuable design insight. L.
expressed as inhabitants or flow rate, on the cost of Benedetti et al (2010) Wastewater treatment plant
treatment. We propose a new approach for the operating control and monitoring can help to achieve good
cost function that includes the most representative effluent quality, in a complex, highly non-linear
variables in the process. The idea is that the modelling process. The Benchmark Simulation Model no. 2
of treatment costs enables us to understand the key role (BSM2) is a useful tool to competitively evaluate plant-
of the economies of scale in this context; and also the wide control on a long-term basis.A method to conduct
influence of other variables such as contaminants scenario analysis of process designs by means of Monte
removed, or the age of the facility. The calculation of Carlo (MC) simulations and multi-criteria evaluation is
these extended cost functions also enables a detailed presented. It is applied to the open loop version of
comparison to be made of the various treatment BSM2 and to two closed loop versions, one with a
technologies from an economic point of view. In this simple oxygen controller and the other one with an
sense, an extensive knowledge of the structure of the ammonium controller regulating the set-point of the
costs associated with each of the available treatment oxygen controller (cascade controller). The results show
technologies is a basic issue in the planning of treatment a much greater benefit of the cascade controller
processes and water reuse projects. This research compared to the simple controller, both in
applies a cost modelling methodology using statistical environmental and economic terms. From an optimal
information from a sample of 341 wastewater treatment process design point of view, the results show that the
plants in Spain. Wendell Q. Lamas et al (2009) [14] volume of the primary clarifier and the anoxic fraction
developed the work describes a methodology developed of the reactor volume have an important impact on
for determination of costs associated to products process performance. The uncertainty analysis of the
generated in a small wastewater treatment station for optimal designs, also performed with MC simulations,
sanitary wastewater from a university campus. This highlights the improved and more stable effluent under
methodology begins with plant component units closed loop control.
identification, relating their fluid and thermodynamics
Kripa Shankar Singh et al (2006) [7] studied the two
features for each point marked in its process diagram.
upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors were
Following, its functional diagram is developed and its
operated for approximately 900 days to examine the
formulation is elaborated, in exergetic base, describing
feasibility of treating municipal wastewater under low
all equations for these points, which are the constraints
temperature conditions. In this paper, a modified solid
for exergetic production cost problem and are used in
distribution model has been formulated by incorporating
equations to determine the costs associated to products
the variation of biogas production rate with a change in
generated in SWTS. This methodology was applied to a
temperature. It was found that the model simulated the
hypothetical system based on SWTS former parts and
solid distribution well as confirmed by experimental
presented consistent results when compared to expected
observations of solid profile along the height of the
values based on previous exergetic expertise. Andy
reactor. Mathematical analysis of tracer curves indicated
Shilton et al (2008) [1] studied the use of computation
the presence of a mixed type of flow pattern in the
fluid dynamics (CFD) for waste stabilization pond
sludge-bed zone of the reactor. It was found that the
design is becoming increasingly common but there is a
dead-zone and bypass flow fraction were impacted by
large gap in the literature with regard to validating CFD
the change in operating temperatures. Lino J. Alvarez-
pond models against experimental flow data. This paper
Vázquez et al (2008) [9] explained the importance of
assesses a CFD model against tracer studies undertaken
coastal areas, is of the highest interest to implement
on a full-sized field pond and then on a 1:5 scale model
purification systems that with minimum cost are able to
of the same pond operated under controlled conditions
assure water quality standards in agreement with the
in the laboratory. While the CFD tracer simulation had
regional legislations. This work addresses the optimal
some discrepancies with the field data, comparison to
design (outfall locations) and optimal operation (level of
the laboratory model data was excellent. The issue is,
oxygen discharges) of a wastewater treatment system.
therefore, not in the way the model solves the problem,
This problem can be mathematically formulated as a
for example, the choice of turbulence model or
two-objective mixed design and optimal control
differencing scheme, but rather with how accurately the
problem with constraints on the states and the design
physical conditions in the field are defined. Extensive
and control variables. The two-objective problem is
survey of the sludge layer and transient input of

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 87-95
Cost Optimization Design of Sewage Treatment Plant for Small, Medium and
90
Large Size Towns in India

formulated as a single-objective problem through the The above three schemes were designed for three
use of the weighted sum method. The existence of the different flow rates of 15 MLD, 54 MLD and 90 MLD.
optimal solution is then demonstrated for an arbitrary The capital and O&M cost of the three treatment
set of weights and a first order optimality condition is schemes for three different flow rates were arrived. The
obtained to characterize that solution. The numerical results were compared and better treatment option for
solution for a realistic case study posed in the ría of STP based on total annualized cost was suggested.
Vigo is also accomplished by using the combination of
Description of treatment schemes
the control vector parametrization approach with a
global non-linear programming (NLP) solver. Remark Three different treatment schemes were selected for the
that, as the problem under consideration is two- design of sewage treatment plant.
objective, there is not an unique solution but a set of
A. Scheme I
equivalent solutions, the Pareto solutions, requiring the
involvement of a decision maker to select one solution The first scheme of sewage treatment consists of
from the set. primary treatment, anaerobic lagoon and waste
stabilization pond. Primary treatment includes screen
III. Materials and Methods:
chamber, grit channel, flash mixer, flocculator and
The characteristics of sewage vary from towns to towns primary settling tank (primary clarifier). The secondary
based on the quantity of water supply and uses to which treatment units are anaerobic lagoon and waste
the water has been put, the climate, the wealth and the stabilization pond. Other ancillary treatment units
habits of the people. For the design of three different includes sludge thickener, sludge digester and sludge
schemes, the sewage with following characteristics has dewatering systems like sludge drying beds or filter
been used: press. The process flow diagram of Scheme I is shown
in Figure.1.
Table I: Characteristics Adopted for Design
B. Scheme II
S.
Characteristics Units Values
No The second scheme of sewage treatment consists of
1 pH - 7.5 primary treatment and conventional activated sludge
process. Primary treatment and other ancillary units in
2 BOD mg/L 300 this scheme are same as Scheme-I. The process flow
diagram of Scheme II is shown in Figure. 2.
3 COD mg/L 800
C. Scheme III
4 TSS mg/L 600
The third scheme of sewage treatment consists of
5 Coli form MPN/100ml 1.8 x 107 primary treatment, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket and
waste stabilization pond. Primary treatment and other
Table II: Standards for Discharge of Treated Effluent ancillary units in this scheme are same as Scheme-I. The
S. process flow diagram of Scheme III is shown in
Parameters Value Figure.3.
No.
1 pH 5.5 – 9.0
2 BOD (5days, 20oC) < 20
3 COD < 250
Total Suspended
4 < 100
Solids
< 103
5 Coli form
MPN/100ml
All units are in mg/L except pH and coli form
The three different schemes considered for proposal of
STP are
Scheme I – Primary Treatment + AL + WSP
Scheme II – Primary Treatment + ASP
Scheme III – Primary Treatment + UASB + WSP
Fig1: Treatment Process Flow Diagram – Scheme – I

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91 G. USHA RANI AND A.M. VASUMATHI

A. Civil Cost: The size of individual units is finalized


from the design of the treatment units and the depth
of foundation is adopted from the hydraulic flow
diagram (HFD). The type of foundation adopted is
raft foundation for units resting on ground level and
for units above ground level the pile foundation is
used. The column size of 230mmx 230 mm is
adopted for raised structures and the thickness of
wall are adopted as 150 to 300 mm. All the
structures are designed as water retaining structures
with M25 grade concrete. The thickness of sand
fill, plain cement concrete and the raft in reinforce
cement concrete is taken as 300 mm. All the water-
retaining structures are given epoxy coating. The
anaerobic lagoon is lined with High Density Poly
Ethylene (HDPE) sheet to arrest ground water
Fig2: Treatment Process Flow Diagram – Scheme – II pollution. The Fibre Reinforced Plastic (FRP) is
used in the construction of deflector plates and gas
hood in Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket
(UASB).
B. Mechanical Cost: The mechanical cost includes
initial cost of the pumps and other mechanical
items such as agitators, mixers, blowers etc. The
type and number of pumps required is decided
based on the pressure heads and the quantity and
quality to be pumped. The mixers, agitators are
decided based on the geometry and purpose of the
tank. The blowers and diffusers are decided based
on the air requirement of the treatment unit. The
details required for the decision of the mechanical
items are arrived from the design and HFD and the
cost of the units is obtained from the reputed
manufacturers /suppliers / dealers.
C. Electrical Cost: The electrical cost includes the
cost of transformer, motor control panel, diesel
generator, lightings, fixtures etc. The major
Fig3: Treatment Process Flow Diagram – Scheme – III electrical devices are used to operate the
mechanical equipments hence the electrical cost of
Cost Estimates of Sewage Treatment Units the plant is taken as 20% of the mechanical cost of
Total costs are includes capital cost, mechanical the respective alternatives.
equipments cost and O&M cost. The capital cost D. Instrumentation Cost: The instrumentation cost
includes civil cost for construction of treatment units, includes the cost of pressure gauges, level indicator
mechanical cost for pumps, blowers, aerators and cum transmitters, pH sensors, electromagnetic flow
diffusers, electrical equipments, piping etc. the O&M meters, Dissolved Oxygen (DO) sensors, safety
cost includes the power, chemical used and manpower alarms etc. The instrumentations are mainly used to
charges. The detailed estimation of cost was derived for have a control over the functioning of treatment
designed sizes of treatment units. plant. They are very important for the proper
operation of all the mechanical items and the
performance of the plant. The cost of
instrumentation items is taken as 5% of the
mechanical cost of the respective alternatives.
E. Piping Cost: The piping cost includes the cost of
pipes, pipe fittings and valves for conveying
wastewater, chemicals solutions, air and sludge.

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Cost Optimization Design of Sewage Treatment Plant for Small, Medium and
92
Large Size Towns in India

The cost of piping is dependent mainly on the for operation of each alternative has been
mechanical equipments involved and hence the cost calculated. The power cost has been estimated
is taken as 10% of the mechanical cost. assuming unit rate as Rs.4 /KWh.
F. Operation Cost: The operation cost includes the I. Manpower Cost: The manpower includes the
cost of chemicals used, power consumption and the technical and non-technical staff, plant operators
manpower employed. working in 3 shifts, office assistants and the
labourers working for daily wages. The manpower
G. Chemical Cost: The chemical cost used is similar
cost has been obtained from working STPs with
in all the three alternatives since the unit operations
similar capacity.
remain the same till primary treatment. The
quantity of chemicals used and their unit rate and J. Maintenance Cost: The maintenance cost includes
total amount per day is calculated. the cost for repairs and maintenance of civil works
like painting, whitewashing, etc., and repair and
H. Energy Cost: The power rating of each mechanical
replacement of worn parts of mechanical
equipment is obtained from the suppliers. Based on
equipments, oil and grease cost for reducing the
the power consumption of the mechanical
wear and tear in the mechanical items, etc.,
equipments and hours of operation, power required
Table III: Sizes of Treatment Units in Scheme I, II and III for 15 MLD Flow Rate

Size of Units (15 MLD)


S. Treatment No. of
Design Criteria
No units Units Treatment Treatment Treatment
Scheme I Scheme II Scheme III

Inlet
1 1 Retention time = 30 sec 1.6x1. 6x5.0 m 1.6x1.6x5.0 m 1.6x1. 6x5.0 m
chamber

Velocity = 0.8 m/sec


Spacing = 10 mmRen.
Manual Bar
2 1 Time = 2 min 4.0x1.6x0.5 m 4. x1.6x0.5 m 4.0x1.6x0.5 m
Screen
Surface loading rate = 40
m3/m2/d

Size of particle removed =


3 Grit Channel 1 18.0x1. 6x0.6 m 18.0x1.6x0.6 m 18.0x1.6x0.6 m
0.15 mm

Dosing Tanks
2 Alum dosage = 400 mg/l 1.5x1.5x1.0 m 1.5x1.5x1.0 m 1.5x1.5x1.0 m
4 Alum
2 Lime dosage = 200 mg/l 1.9x1.9x1.5 m 1.9x1.9x1.5 m 1.9x1.9x1.5 m
Lime

Flash
6 1 Retention time = 2 min 3.5x3.5x2.5 m 3.5x3.5x2.5 m 3.5x3.5x2.5 m
Mixer

7 Flocculator 1 Retention time = 20 min 8.5x8.5x3.0 m 8.5x8.5x3.0 m 8.5x8.5x3.0 m

Retention time = 4hrs


Surface loading rate
Primary 33m dia & 3.0 m 33m dia &3.0 m
8 2 =40m3/m2/ 33m dia&3.0 m LD
Clarifier LD LD
day
40 m3/m2/day

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93 G. USHA RANI AND A.M. VASUMATHI

No. Size of Units (15 MLD)


S. Design
Treatment units of
No Criteria Treatment Treatment Treatment
Units
Scheme I Scheme II Scheme III

Design loading = 300 g


Anaerobic
BOD/m3/ day
9 Lagoon 1 150x100x5.0 m - -
Retention time = 5 days,
Depth = 5 m

Retention time = 4 days


217x181x1.5 m
10 WSP 2 in each pond - -
265x147x1.5 m
Depth = 1.5 m

F/M ratio = 0.3


11 Aeration tank 1 - 32.0x27.0x4.5 m -
MLSS = 3000 mg

Secondary
12 2 SLR = 25 m3/m2/day - 28m dia &3 m LD -
Clarifier

HRT = 8 hrs
13 UASB 4 Up flow velocity = 0.5 - - 40.0x7.0x5.5 m
m/hr

Retention time = 4 days


217x181x1.5 m
14 WSP 2 in each pond Depth = - -
265x147x1.5 m
1.5 m

SLR =30 kg/m2/day


15 Sludge thickener 1 % of solids in thickener 20m dia &3 m LD 16 m dia & 3 m LD 16m dia &3 m LD
=1%

16 Sludge digester 2 Retention time = 15 days 20m dia &8 m LD 16m dia &8 m LD 16m dia &8 m LD

Sludge Storage
17 1 Retention time = 30 min 3.0x3.0x2.0 m 3.0x 3.0x2.0 m 3.0x3.0x2.0 m
Sump
Treated Effluent
18 1 Retention time = 5 min 5.0x5.0x3.0 m 5.0x5.0x3.0 m 5.0x5.0x3.0 m
Sump

Filtrate Operation period = 16


19 1 8.0x 8.0x4.0 m 8.0x 8.0x4.0 m 8.0x8.0x4.0 m
Collection Sump hrs

Note: Sizes of Units for 54 MLD and 90 MLD flow rates for three schemes are calculated similar to the above table
III.
IV. Results and Discussion: cost includes preliminary treatment, dosing tank, flash
mixing tank, flocculator, PC, AL, WSP, ST, SD, sludge
Sewage treatment plants using Scheme I, II and III for
dewatering, filter press, treated effluent sump and
three alternatives for three flow rates of 15, 54 and 90
ancillary units for three flow rates, In scheme – II the
MLD were designed as per the guidelines given in
capital cost was arrived by considering the civil works
Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering
for preliminary treatment, dosing tank, flash mixing
Organization (CPHEEO) manual. The sizes of the
tank, flocculator, PC, ASP, SC, ST, SD, sludge
treatment unit for 15 MLD flow rate is given in Table
dewatering, filter press, treated effluent sump and
III. The capital cost for the three flow rates were arrived
ancillary units for three flow rates and for scheme – III
based on the type of scheme. In scheme – I, the capital

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ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 87-95
Cost Optimization Design of Sewage Treatment Plant for Small, Medium and
94
Large Size Towns in India

preliminary treatment, dosing tank, flash mixing tank,


flocculator, PC, UASB, WSP, ST, SD, sludge
dewatering, filter press, treated effluent sump and
ancillary units for three flow rates were considered for
calculating the capital cost.
The O&M cost was calculated based on the parameters
power requirement, chemicals, manpower and sludge
disposal for the three flow rates for the scheme – I,
scheme – II, scheme – III. The capital cost and the
O&M cost for the three flow rates and for the three
schemes s were calculated and same is given in table
IV. The cost comparisons for arriving the optimal cost
of the three schemes with three flow rates are depicted
in figure 4. From the figure it is evident that the capital
cost for the scheme – III showing optimum and scheme Fig4: Comparison of Capital cost for 15 MLD, 54 MLD
– II shows next optimum. For scheme – I (SC1) and and 90 MLD for Scheme – I, Scheme II and Scheme –
scheme – II (SC2) the capital cost for 15 MLD flow rate III
is on higher side compared with 54 MLD and 90 MLD
flow rate.
There is a drastic reduction in capital cost for flow rate
54 MLD of scheme – I and scheme – II. Irrespective of
the schemes deviation of capital cost for 54 MLD flow
rate is almost negligible. As for as the flow rate 90
MLD is concerned the scheme – II and scheme – III
almost gives the same results. The O& M cost is
considered per month per MLD. The O& M cost for the
three schemes with the three flow rates is shown in
figure 5. From the figure, for scheme – I, the O&M cost
for 90 MLD flow rate is considered optimal. The total
cost is arrived based on the capital cost and the O& M
cost.
Table IV: Capital and O & M cost for 15 MLD, 54
Fig4: Comparison of O&M cost for 15 MLD, 54 MLD
MLD and 90 MLD Flow Rates
and 90 MLD for Scheme – I, Scheme II and Scheme –
III
Amounts in Rupees
S. Type of
90 V. Conclusion:
No. Scheme 15 MLD 54 MLD
MLD Considering the capital and O & M cost, it is concluded
1 I 1,31,490 2,45,150 3,54,050 that treatment Scheme III i.e., UASB followed by Waste
Stabilization Pond is better alternative considering low
2 II 3,46,040 5,73,920 7,87,260 operating cost and insignificant difference in the capital
cost as it is one time investment. Further, it is concluded
3 III 1,82,836 3,23,400 4,58,620 that optimum size of STP is 54 MLD as the capital and
O & M cost of STP up to 54 MLD reduces drastically
and thereafter the reduction is insignificant.
VI. References:
[1] Andy Shilton, Stefan Kreegher, and Nigel Grigg
Comparision of computation fluid dynamics
simulation against tracer data from a scale model
and full – sized Waste Stabilization Pond J.
Environ. Eng. vol.134 (10), pp 845-850 2008.
[2] Arthur. J.P. notes on The design and operation of
Waste Stabilization Ponds in warm climates of

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 87-95
95 G. USHA RANI AND A.M. VASUMATHI

Developing countries, The World Bank, and Research Article Applied Thermal Engineering,
Technical paper no. 7, Washington Dc.1983 vol 29, Issue 10, pp 2061-2071, 2009.
[3] Duncan Mara. Design Manual for WSPs in India,
Ministry of Environment and Forests (Natural
River Conservation Directorate).
[4] F. Hernandez-Sancho, M. Molinos-Senante and R.
Sala-Garrido Cost modeling for wastewater
treatment processes Original Research Article
Desalination vol.268, pp 1-5, 2011.
[5] Ken Amano, Kohiji Kageyama, Shoji Watanable,
Takemoto. Calibration of model constants in a
biological reaction model for sewage treatment
plants 2002.
[6] K.P. Tsagarakis, D.D. M & A.N. Angelakis.
Application of cost criteria for selection of
municipal wastewater treatment system 2002.
[7] Kripa Shankar Singh, Thiruvenkatachari
Viraraghavan, and Debraj Bhattacharyya Sludge
Blanket Height and Flow Pattern in UASB
Reactors: Temperature Effects J. Environ. Engg.
vol 132(8), pp 895-900 2006.
[8] L. Benedetti, B. De Baets, I. Nopens, P.A.
Vanrolleghem Multi-criteria analysis of
wastewater treatment plant design and control
scenarios under uncertainty Environmental
Modelling & Software, vol 25, Issue 5, pp 616-
621 2010.
[9] Lino J. Alvarez-Vázquez, Eva Balsa-Canto, Aurea
Martínez Optimal design and operation of a
wastewater purification system Mathematics and
Computers in Simulation, vol 79, Issue 3, pp 668-
682 2008.
[10] Lino J. Alvarez-Vázquez, Eva Balsa-Canto, Aurea
Martínez Optimal design and operation of a
wastewater purification system Mathematics and
Computers in Simulation, vol 79, Issue 3, pp 668-
682 2008.
[11] Manual of Sewerage and Sewage treatment (2 nd
edition). Central Public Health & Environmental
Engineering Organization.
[12] Metcalf & Eddy (4 th edition). Wastewater
Engineering Treatment & Disposal.
[13] M.F. Colmenarejo, A. Rubio, E.Sanchez, J.
Vicenete, M.G. Garcia, R. Borja. Evaluation of
municipal wastewater treatment plants with
different technologies at Las Rozas, Madrid
(Spain). Journal of Environmental Management
2005.
[14] Tapas Nandy & S.N. Kaul., Status of sewage
treatment plants in India Journal IAME Vol. 28
2001.
[15] Wendell Q. Lamas, Jose L. Silveira, Giorgio E.O.
Giacaglia, Luiz O.M. Reis Development of a
methodology for cost determination of wastewater
treatment based on functional diagram Original

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 87-95
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www.cafetinnova.org ISSN 0974-5904, Volume 06, No. 02 (01) April 2013, P.P.96-103

Liquefaction Behavior of Pond ash Improved with Stone-Sand


Columns under Surcharge Loads
H. P. SINGH
Department of Civil Engineering, NERIST, Itanagar –791109
Email: singh..harendra121@gmail.com

Abstract: Huge quantities of coal ash produced from thermal power plants are very fine, non-plastic and of low unit
weight and are loosely disposed into lagoons or ponds covering an area of several square kilometres. These ashes in
ponds, called pond ash are having low load carrying capacity and poor settlement characteristics. This material in
their saturated condition may be susceptible to liquefaction during earthquakes. On the other hand the performance
of such materials can substantially be improved by applying soil reinforcement techniques and their liquefaction
potential can be reduced. Keeping this in view and in order to rehabilitate the abandoned ash ponds, it is therefore
necessary to evaluate the liquefaction resistance and settlement susceptibility of pond ashIn the present study, a
number of tests were performed on a small Vibration (Shake) Table imparting harmonic excitation of 0.3g amplitude
under the frequency of 5 Hz to pond ash samples prepared at relative densities of 20% without and with stone-sand
columns at 4d c/c spacing, where d is diameter of stone column. Tests were also conducted on improved pond with
various surcharge loads. The liquefaction parameters of pond ash such as maximum excess pore water pressure
(Umax), maximum excess pore water pressure built up time (t 1), Maximum pore water pressure stay time (t2),
complete excess pore pressure dissipation time (t3) were measured with the help of glass tube piezometer and stop
watch. The liquefaction resistance of pond ash was evaluated in terms of maximum pore water pressure ratio (r umax =
Umax/ϭv’) for all the tests. It was observed that the liquefaction resistance of pond ash increases with the inclusion
of stone-sand columns. It was also observed that the liquefaction resistance of pond ash further increases when
various surcharge loads are applied on the samples of pond ash improved with stone-sand columns Thus there is a
significant increase in liquefaction resistance of pond ash due to surcharge loads.
Key Words: Pond ash, Stone-Sand Column, Surcharge Loads, Harmonic Excitation, Liquefaction Parameters

1. Introduction: earthquakes. Zand et al. (2007) gave the procedure of


evaluating liquefaction potential of the impounded fly
A major source of electrical energy in India is thermal
ash using cyclic triaxial tests and found that fly ash is
power, which is being generated by burning of low-
susceptible to liquefaction during earthquakes. A
grade coal of high ash content. The current production
challenging task is to improve these areas for further
of ash in India is over 100 million tons per year
construction of civil engineering structures like
(Choudhary and Verma 2005) out of which a very small
buildings, roads etc. Therefore, it is essential to study
percentage (3 to 5%) is being used for various
the liquefaction behaviour of pond ash and an
applications such as brick making, cement manufacture,
appropriate ground improvement technique to improve
soil stabilization, etc. Disposal of the remaining quantity
its liquefaction strength. Gandhi and Dey (1999) studied
of ash has created a major problem of availability of
the improvement of fly ash by blasting techniques and
land. In many thermal power plants ash deposit is
found that fly ash is densified to great extent in deeper
spread over a large area usually for a height of 10 to 30
depths. Boominathan and Hari (2002) used the soil
m. Toth et al. (1978) studied the use of fly ash as a
reinforcement technique with randomly distributed
structural fill and found that the physical behavior of fly
fibres and mesh element and concluded that addition of
ash is similar to that of silt. Sridharan et al. (1997)
fibres/mesh elements increases significantly the
investigated the geotechnical characterization of various
liquefaction resistance of fly ash at low relative density.
ash ponds in India and reported that pond ashes in
Singh et al. (2010) used the stone-sand columns to
general possess low unit weight, good frictional
improve the liquefaction resistance of pond ash using
properties, low compressibility and low Permeability
one dimensional shake Table and found that there is
and they are well suited for their use as a structural fill.
significant increase in liquefaction resistance of pond
Singh et al. (2008b) also observed that these materials
ash when improved with stone-sand columns at 3d c/c
are very fine, loose and non-plastic similar to fine sand
spacing of the columns(where d is diameter of stone-
and may be vulnerable to liquefaction during

#02061016 Copyright ©2013 CAFET-INNOVA TECHNICAL SOCIETY. All rights reserved.


97 H. P. SINGH

sand column). However, the studies on liquefaction


behaviour of pond ash improved with stone-sand
column under various surcharge loads are rarely
available in the literature. This paper is an extension of
Singh et al. (2010) and it exclusively deals with effects
of surcharge loads on various liquefaction parameters of
pond ash.
A number of vibration table studies for liquefaction are
reported in the literature e.g. Florin and Ivanov (1961),
Finn (1972), DeAlba et al. (1976), and Gupta (1977).
However, these studies deal with sands. The present
study has significance, as the pond ash covers a large
extent of the area, near thermal power plants in India. In Fig1: Grain Size Distribution Curve of Pond Ash
this study, a number of tests have been conducted on a
small shake table imparting one–dimensional horizontal 3. Experimental Set Up:
harmonic excitations to the compacted/re-constituted The tests were performed on a simple but indigenously
pond ash samples. The tests have been conducted on fabricated vibration table (Gupta, 1977). The test bin is
pond ash without and with improvement using stone- a watertight tank 1.05 m long, 0.60 m wide and 0.60 m
sand columns. Singh et al. (2008b) described the high, in which sample of fly ash was prepared.
procedure of determining the liquefaction resistance of
pond ash based on shake-table tests. The effects of The tank is mounted on a horizontal shake table. The
surcharge loads on pond ash improved with stone-sand sides of the tank consist of a rigid mild steel frame with
columns at 4d c/c spacing of stone columns have been 5 mm thick steel panels. The shake table consists of a
investigated in the present study. rigid platform, which rests on four wheels supported on
four knife-edges. This is driven in horizontal direction
2. Properties of Pond Ash: by a 3 H.P. A.C. motor through crank mechanism for
The pond ash used in the tests was collected from the changing rotary motion into translatory motion. The
site of Anpara-D thermal power plant, Anpara, Uttar crank mechanism consists of a device for changing the
Pradesh, India. The index properties of the fly ash are amplitude of motion through two eccentric shafts. By
given in Table 1. Further, the grain size distribution changing the relative position of two shafts, the
curve of pond ash is shown in Fig. 1. amplitude can be fixed as desired. The equipment has
facility to change the frequency of dynamic load using
Table1: Properties of Anpara Pond ash the pulleys of different diameters on the driving shafts.
The pore pressure measurements were performed with
S.
Properties Value the help of glass tubes piezometer. These were attached
No
to the tank set up with rubber tubes. At the mouth of
1 Specific Gravity (G) 2.31 rubber tubes, G.I (galvanized iron) pipes were
% Optimum Moisture Content connected, which go up to the center of tank i.e. the
2 22 locations of points for measuring pore water pressure.
(OMC)
At the outlet of these G.I. pipes, porous stone wrapped
Grain Size Distribution with filter papers were placed. A Schematic diagram of
(a) % of Particles Coarser than test set up is shown in Figure 2.
2
4.75mm The shaking table can produce one-dimensional
3 (b) % of Particles (4.75mm ~
64 harmonic excitation of varying amplitude (0.05 to 1g)
0.075mm) and frequency up to 10 Hz. The measurement of the
(c) % of fines (finer than pore water pressure was conducted at three different
34
0.075mm) depths in the shake table tank. The locations of
Non- measuring points from base of the tank are:
4 Plasticity Index (PI)
Plastic
Bottom Point (B): 40 mm
5 Maximum Void Ratio (emax) 1.31 Middle Point (M): 125 mm
Top Point (T): 200 mm
6 Minimum Void Ratio (emin) 0.54
The total effective depth of the tank is 600 mm and the
ash samples are filled for a height of 500 mm from the
bottom of tank.

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Liquefaction Behavior of Pond ash Improved with Stone-Sand Columns
98
under Surcharge Loads

f) Total weight of the pond ash plus the net


amount of water divided by the volume of
sample obtained in step (e) gives the saturated
unit weight of pond ash. Using this saturated
unit weight (γsat) and with the known value of
specific gravity (G), the value of void ratio (e)
can be obtained using the following equation:
Ge
 sat  w (1)
1 e
Where γw is the unit weight of water.
g) Using the values of maximum voids ratio (emax)
and minimum voids ratio (emin), Table 1, the
Fig2: Liquefaction Table used in the Study relative density (R.D.) can be found from the
4. Experimental Procedure: following equation:
4.1. Preparation of Samples: emax  e
R.D.  (2)
All the tests were performed keeping the relative density emax  emin
of pond ash as 20 %. By trial the following sequential
procedure has been evolved for preparing the This procedure gave the relative density as
submerged sample of pond ash to achieve the relative 20%
density to 20 %: h) For the preparation of the pond ash sample
with stone-sand columns, the mild steel hollow
a) 175 liter of water was filled in the tank, which open-ended pipes (750mm long and 50 mm
is sufficient to submerge the points where dia) were inserted at the desired locations. The
piezometers are connected. It ensures the bottom ends of the pipes were plugged with
removal of air bubbles from G.I. pipes, rubber detachable wooden cones while inserting in the
tubes and piezometer tubes. tank. These pipes were filled with the mixture
b) About 350 kg of pond ash was dropped of stone chips (10 mm down size) and fine
through funnel keeping the tip of the funnel at sand, in proportion of 2:1 by weight and mixed
a height of 25 cm above water surface. thoroughly in a mixer, in five layers. Each
c) The water with pond ash was left for 12 hours layer was given 25 blows of the 2.5 kg rammer
so that all the fines and coarse particles settle dropped from a height of 450 mm. After each
properly in the tank. This procedure ensured layer was compacted, the pipe was withdrawn
the full saturation of the pond ash sample. by the same amount. Thus finally whole pipe
d) The surplus water on the top of the saturated was withdrawn. The center-to-center spacing
pond ash sample was then carefully removed between pipes was kept as 4d. Further, it was
and its weight was measured. observed that the inclusion of stone-sand
e) The height of the saturated pond ash sample in columns increases the submerged unit weight
the tank was measured and the volume of the of pond ash sample by 24 %.
space occupied by the sample in the tank was
evaluated using plan dimensions of the tank.

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99 H. P. SINGH

200 200 200 200

200

600

200

15 Stone–
1050

Fig3: Location of Stone-Sand Columns in the Shake Table Tank (Dimensions are in mm)
d)
4.2. Test Procedure: PondAsh withStone-Sand Columns @4d
c/cspacing with total 15 columns under the
As per IS: 1893 (2002), the site from where the pond
surcharge loads of 12kN/m2.
ash was procured falls under seismic zone III and the
expected peak ground acceleration at the site is 0.16g. Where d is the diameter of the stone columns. These
The predominant frequencies in many past earthquakes spacing of stone-sand columns were selected keeping in
in alluvial deposits have been observed to be of the view the spacing of actual stone columns used in the
order of 2 to 5 cycles per second. Therefore, to be on the field. In each test, variation in excess pore water
conservative side, the tests were performed at an pressure with time was recorded using three piezometer
acceleration of 0.3g and at a frequency of 5 Hz. tubes and stopwatch. Since the actual earthquake
duration normally does not exceed 60 seconds, the
Before imparting the shaking, the values of static pore
results in this paper have been presented for shaking of
water pressures in all the three piezometer were
60 seconds.
recorded. Then shaking was imparted for 60 seconds.
The pore water pressures were recorded at the interval 5. Test Results:
of 10 seconds till these get completely dissipated. This
The test results for above four cases are shown in Figs.
procedure was adopted in studying the liquefaction
4 (a-d), respectively. In these figures, variation in excess
behavior of pond ash, pond ash with stone-sand
pore water pressure with time is shown at the location of
columns and Pond ash improved with stone-sand
all the three points in the tank. The general trend of
columns under various surcharge loads.
results is similar in all the four cases. The pore water
The tests were conducted for following four cases:
pressure rises significantly even after the shaking was
a) Pond Ash with Stone-Sand Columns @4d c/c stopped. This is attributed to the fact that it takes some
spacing with total 15 columns. time in pond ash to develop pore water pressure after
b) Pond Ash with Stone-Sand Columns @4d c/c shaking starts and rise of pore water pressure continues
spacing with total 15 columns under the quite some time under free vibration even when shaking
surcharge loads of 2.77kN/m2. is stopped. In second stage, the pore water pressure
c) Pond Ash with Stone-Sand Columns @4d c/c remained constant for some brief duration before
spacing with total 15 columns under the dissipation starts, this time lag is attributed to free
surcharge loads of 7.62kN/m2. vibration phase of shaking, which ultimately converts in

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 96-103
Liquefaction Behavior of Pond ash Improved with Stone-Sand Columns
100
under Surcharge Loads

deceleration. Finally, dissipation led pore-water minimum at top point. This behavior was expected, as
pressure to zero, which occurred after more than an the effective overburden pressure is the maximum in
hour. Thus dissipation of pore water pressure took very bottom and decreased upward. However, the maximum
long time in pond ash as compared to time taken in value of pore water pressure ratio rumax (defined later)
sands. It was due to the fact that the pond ash contained was almost the same at all the three points. Also in all
significant amount of fine particles (34 %). four cases the maximum pore water pressure first
reached at bottom point and then proceeds upwards.
It can be observed that in all the four cases, the pore
water pressure is the maximum at bottom point and

Fig4 (a): Pond Ash with Stone-Sand Columns @4d c/c spacing with total 15 columns.

Fig4 (b): Pond Ash with Stone-Sand Columns under the surcharge loads of 2.77kN/m2.

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 96-103
101 H. P. SINGH

Fig4 (c): Pond Ash with Stone-Sand Columns under the surcharge loads of 7.62kN/m2.

Fig4 (c): Pond Ash with Stone-Sand Columns under the surcharge loads of 12kN/m2
Table2: Values of excess pore water pressures of improved pond ash
at different surcharge loads

Surcharge Loads U60 Umax Effective over burden


ru60 rumax
(kN/m2) (kN/m2) (kN/m2) Pressure,σ'0, (kN/m2)
0.70 (B) 0.19 (B) 2.01(B) 0.55 (B) σ'v (B) = 3.62
0 0.25 (M) 0.08 (M) 1.46(M) 0.48 (M) σ'v (M) = 3.04
0.70 (T) 0.089 (T) 1.31(T) 0.53 (T) σ'v (T ) = 2.47
0.41 (B) 0.064 (B) 2.20 (B) 0.34 (B) σ'v (B) = 6.39
2.77 0.24 (M) 0.041(M) 1.72 (M) 0.30 (M) σ'v (M) = 5.81
0.22 (T) 0.042 (T) 1.49 (T) 0.28 (T) σ'v (T) = 5.24

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Liquefaction Behavior of Pond ash Improved with Stone-Sand Columns
102
under Surcharge Loads

0.32 (B) 0.028 (B) 1.95 (B) 0.173 (B) σ'v (B )=11.24
7.62 0.22 (M) 0.021(M) 1.51(M) 0.142(M) σ'v (M) =10.66
0.21 (T) 0.021 (T) 1.33 (T) 0.132 (T) σ'v (T) = 10.09
0.25 (B) 0.016 (B) 1.79 (B) 0.115 (B) σ'v (B) = 15.62
12.00 0.20 (M) 0.013(M) 1.49 (M) 0.099(M) σ'v (M) =15.04
0.18 (T) 0.012 (T) 1.26 (T) 0.087 (T) σ’v (T) = 14.47

Table3: Values of time parameters (t1, t2 and t3) for improved pond ash
at different surcharge loads

Surcharge Loads t1 (s) t2 (s) t3 (s)


(kN/m2) B M T B M T B M T

0 340 550 620 90 120 180 4970 4730 4520

2.77 370 560 620 90 120 180 3900 3680 3560

7.62 420 580 630 110 130 190 2710 2530 2420

12.00 450 620 660 120 150 200 2490 2290 2200

6. Effects of Surcharge Loads: It can be observed from Table 2 that the value of r umax
decreases when the surcharge loads are applied on the
It was observed that decrease in rumax value was not
pond ash. At higher value of surcharge load, the
significant when the pond ash was strengthened with
magnitude of developed maximum pore water pressure
stone-sand columns at 4d c/c spacing. Therefore, the
decreases (Gupta 1977 also observed the same trend for
effect of surcharge loads on liquefaction parameters of
sand) and there is substantial reduction in rumax
pond ash improved with stone-sand columns at 4d c/c
corresponding to largest surcharge load. e.g. the value
spacing has been investigated. The values of rise in pore
of rumax at bottom point for zero surcharge loads is 0.55.
water at all the three points (Bottom – B, Middle –M,
When the surcharge load is increased from 0 to 2.77,
Top –T) for all the four cases have been presented in
7.62 and 12 kN/m2 the values of rumax decreases from
Table 2. Here U represents the pore water pressure at
0.55 to 0.34, 0.17 and 0.11 respectively. Similarly for
the end of shaking while Umax represents the maximum
middle and top points also the same decreasing trend of
pore water pressure before dissipation starts.
rumax is observed with respect to surcharge loads. Since
From Table 2, it can be observed that U max for bottom the decrease in maximum pore water pressure ratio
point is greater than that of middle point and so on. The indicates an increase in liquefaction resistance, thus the
last column of Table 2 represents the effective liquefaction resistance of pond ash improved with
overburden pressure at the three points in the tank, stone-sand columns (at 4d c/c spacing), is improved due
which has been used in computation of maximum pore to placement of surcharge loads. The similar
water pressure ratio rumax defined as follows: observation was made by Gupta (1977), though with
respect to sand. This may be because of the fact that the
rumax= Umax / σv’ (.3)
status of vibration of pond ash changes as it is no more
The variations of excess pore water pressure with free field motion and the effective overburden pressure
respect to time have been presented in Fig. 4(a-d) for within the pond ash sample increases due to application
improved pond ash without and with three surcharge of surcharge loads. This is why the value of rumax
loads i.e. 2.77 kN/m2, 7.62 kN/m2 and 12.00 kN/m2. decreases significantly due to surcharge loads.
Further the liquefaction parameters were computed from
6.2. Variation of Time Parameters with Surcharge:
the plots of Fig. 4(a-d) and are given in Tables 2 and
Table 3. The level of acceleration and exciting It is observed from Table 3 that there is a change in the
frequency considered were the same as in case of values of time parameters (t1, t2 and t3) due to
improved pond ash without surcharge loads (i.e. 0.3 g surcharge loads. The maximum pore water pressure
and 5 Hz). The interpretation of tests results are built up time (t1) and the maximum pore water pressure
discussed in the following sections. stay time (t2) increase whereas pore water pressure
dissipation time (t3) decreases. The similar trend was
6.1. Variation of rumax with Surcharge:
found by Gupta (1977) with sand. This is attributed to

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103 H. P. SINGH

the fact that surcharge load increases the effective decreases when surcharge loads are applied over the test
overburden pressure at all the three points within the sample. Although there is a marginal increase in
pond ash and test sample becomes more stiff which maximum pore pressure stay time (t2) but its effect will
inhibits the development of excess pore water pressure not be significant when the maximum pore water
during shaking and exhibits the dissipation of pore pressure ratio (rumax) is less than 0.5.
water pressure when shaking is stopped. That is why the
built up time (t1) increases and dissipation time (t3)
7. Conclusions:
Journal of Geotechnical Engineering Division,
There is a significant effect of surcharge loads on the
ASCE, 102:GT9, 909-927.
liquefaction behaviour of pond ash improved with
[4] Finn, W.D.L. (1972). Soil-dynamics-liquefaction of
stone-sand columns (4d c/c spacing).. The value of
sands. Proc. of First Int. Conf. On Microzanation,
maximum pore water pressure ratio decreases when the
Seattle (USA), 1, 87-111.
surcharge loads are applied on the pond ash. At higher
[5] Florin, V.A. and Ivanov, P.A. (1961). Liquefaction
value of surcharge load, the value of maximum pore
of saturated sandy soils, Proc. of Fifth Int. Conf. on
water pressure ratio decreases and there is substantial
Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Paris,
reduction in rumax corresponding to largest surcharge
1, 107-111.
load. e.g. the value of rumax at bottom point for zero
[6] Gandhi, S.R. and Dey, A.K. (1999). Liquefaction
surcharge loads is 0.55. When the surcharge load is
analysis of pond ash. Proc. Of the Fifteenth Int.
increased from 0 to 2.77, 7.62 and 12 kN/m2 the values
Conf. On solid waste Technology and
of rumax decreases from 0.55 to 0.34, 0.17 and 0.11
Management, Philadelphia, 1, 4D.
respectively.
[7] Gupta, M.K. (1977). Liquefaction of Sands during
There is a change in the values of time parameters (t 1, Earthquakes, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Roorkee,
t2 and t3) due to surcharge loads. The maximum pore Roorkee, India.
water pressure built up time (t1) and the maximum pore [8] IS: 1893– Part 1 (2002). Criteria for Earthquake
water pressure stay time (t2) increase whereas pore Resistant Design of Structures: General Provisions
water pressure dissipation time (t3) decreases. The effect and Buildings, Bureau of Indian Standards, New
of increase in maximum pore water pressure stay time Delhi.
(t2) will be negligible for the value of rumax less than 0.5 [9] Singh, H.P., Maheshwari, B.K., Saran, S. and Paul
and hence liquefaction resistance of improved pond ash D.K. (2008b). “Evaluation of liquefaction potential
increases due to application of surcharge loads. of pond ash” Proc. of 14th World Conference on
Earthquake Engineering, Beijing, China, October
8. Acknowledgement:
12-17, 2008, paper no. 04-02-0031.
Author is thankful to Prof. D.K. Pal, Prof. Swami Saran [10] Singh, H.P., Maheshwari, B.K., Saran, S and Paul,
and Dr. B.K. Maheshwari of Earthquake Engineering D.K, (2010). Improvement in liquefaction
Department, IIT Roorkee, for their valuable supports, resistance of pond (fly) ash using stone-sand
encouragement and guidance for conducting the tests in columns, International Journal of Geotechnical
the Soil Dynamics Laboratory during the author’s Ph.D. Engineering; 4(1), 23-30.
work. [11] Sridharan, A., Pandian, N.S. and Rajshekher, C.
(1997). Geotechnical characterization of pond ash.
9. References:
Proc. of the Symposium on fly ash Utilization,
[1] Boominathan, A. and Hari, S. (2002). Liquefaction I.I.Sc Bangalore, 43-58.
strength of fly ash reinforced with randomly [12] Toth, P.S., Chan, H.T.,and Cragg, C.B. (1978).
distributed fibers. Journal of Soil Dynamics and Coal ash as structural fill with special reference to
Earthquake Engineering, 22, 1027-1033. Ontario experience. Canadian Geotechnical
[2] Choudhary, A.K and Verma, B.P. (2005). Behavior Journal, 25,694-704.
of reinforced fly ash subgrade, Journal of [13] Zand, B., Wei, T., Amaya, P. J., Wolfe W.E. and
Institution of Engineers (I); 86, 19-21. Butalia, T. (2007). Evaluation of liquefaction
[3] DeAlba P., Seed H.B., Chan, C.K. (1976). Sand potential of impounded fly ash, World of Coal Ash
liquefaction in large-scale simple shear tests. (WOCA), Covington, Kentucky, May 7-10, 2007.

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 96-103
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Integrated Remote Sensing Study of Solipur Vagu Sub-basin of


Kongal River, Andhra Pradesh - Slope and LU/ LC mapping
M. SURESH, V. UMA SHANKAR AND J. VIJAYA KUMAR
Department of Geology, Osmania University, Hyderabad-500 007.
Email: suresh.miryala@gmail.com, umashankar.vembadi@gmail.com vijayakumar29@rediffmail.com

Abstract: Land use and land cover is an important component in understanding the interactions of the human
activities with the environment and thus it is necessary to be able to simulate changes. In this paper an attempt is
made to study the land use and land cover in Solipur vagu basin. The study has been done through remote sensing
approach using SOI Toposheets (56O/4, K16) and Satellite imageries of IRS-P6 LISS III of Feb, 2006 and April
2008.
The methodology is based on digital analysis of satellite imagery for identification of different land use/land cover
classes based on the image characteristics. Ground truth observations were also performed to check the accuracy of
the classification. The present study has brought to light that Agricultural land that occupied about 55 per cent of the
total area. Agricultural land, Built up area, Harvested land and Waste land categories identified. Northern part of the
study area is covered by natural vegetative cover while cultivable land is dominant in southern portion. Almost all of
the cultivable land comes under single cropping, i.e., rain fed kharif crops and some patches of land covered with
double crops. Wasteland is also present in the small part of the study area. Built up area occupies very less amount
of land.
Slope is very vital one for land irrigability and land capability assessment. The results demonstrate that the
integration of remote sensing, GIS, traditional fieldwork and models provide a powerful tool in the assessment and
management of Land use.
Keywords: Land use, Land cover, Slope, GIS, Remote sensing.

Introduction: km from Hyderabad, Ghattupal is 25 km from


Choutuppal which is part of the basin. The study area
Information on land use/land cover and pattern of their
falls in parts of Munugode, Chandur and Narayanapur
spatial distribution forms the basis for any
mandals of the Nalgonda district of Andhra Pradesh.
developmental planning. The existing land use pattern
The basin elevation ranging from 703m to 249m above
has to be assessed for its water usage (surface water and
M.S.L. The area is characterized by sub dendritic type
groundwater) as well as its water requirements. An
of drainage where the drainage is controlled by
assessment of this nature can help to decide the sites for
structures. The climate of the area is arid to semi-arid.
water retaining structures. The LU/LC maps have been
The average rainfall varies from 547mm to 875mm and
prepared adopting the classification system given in
temperature varies from 20° to 35°.
“Manual of Land Use/Land cover Mapping using
Satellite imageries (Part I & Part II), NRSA, 1989”. For Land Use/Land Cover:
the present study, the classification is modified based on
Land use is a primary indicator of the extent and degree
the field conditions.
to which man has made an impression on the earth’s
Study Area: landscape. In one sense, it is an account of impact that
man has made on the ecology vis-à-vis the growth and
The Solipur vagu is a tributary of Kongal River. The
relevance of the ancient civilization. Wherever
Solipur vagu sub-basin is bounded by North Latitudes
agricultural resource management is positive in
17°01'08'' to 17°08'43'' and East Longitudes 78°47'51''
consonance with the contemporary and future needs of
to 79°05'47'' which forms parts of the Survey of India
mankind, civilization has flourished. In the pastoral
toposheet Nos. 56 O/4 and 56 K/16. The location map
age, land use was developed and modified over
of the present study area is shown in “Figure 1.
centuries when man tried to create a particular
Location Map of the study area”. The total area covered
environment suited to his requirement. As long as a
by the basin is 235 Sq.Km. The study area is well
discernible complimentary between environment and
connected from Hyderabad on NH-9. Choutuppal is 45

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105 M. SURESH, V. UMA SHANKAR AND J. VIJAYA KUMAR

programmed human effort existed, the ecological are identified in the study area. The slope ranges vary
system as well as civilization on which the farmers from 1% to more than 35%. The whole study area is
rested and in turn contributed have flourished. When having more variations and slope is varying between
man tried to over exploit the one or the other, a nearly level to very steep “Figure 3. Slopes of the study
competitive situation arose resulting in a vicious circle area”
of ecological imbalance and degradation of agriculture’s
The slope percentage has been calculated based on drop
most eminent natural resource, which is, but land.
in height with horizontal distance, for example 5 meters
Agricultural land use study has acquired a special drop in height within a horizontal distance of 100
significance in the realm of the present day problem meters has got 5% slope.
oriented studies of the growth and resource utilization.
Results and Discussions:
As such, studies in this sphere have been made with a
view to analyze the different aspects of land use In the present study Land Use classes have been
patterns, so that the basis of the scientific land resource identified using two satellite images of IRS-1D LISS-
allocation to various agriculture crops and planning for III, path/row 100/61, 18th Feb 2003, IRS-1D LISS-III,
maximum productivity may be attained. path/row 100/61, 4th Feb 2006. The major categories
identified are Built-up land, Crop Land, Forest,
Rational utilization of land resources implies allocation
Wasteland and Water bodies.
of each piece of land to the use to which it is most
suited. Such allocation requires a thorough study of the Survey of India toposheet on 1:50,000 scale have also
suitability of land for different uses. The present study been used in preparation of base map of study area on
brings out the different classes of land use/land cover which interpreted thematic details have been
identified on the basis of satellite imagery and validated transferred.
by ground checks. While identifying the areas under
Northern part of the study area is covered by natural
different land use classes, the ecological principles of
vegetative cover while cultivable land is dominant in
land use have been considered as the guiding criteria.
southern portion. Almost all of the cultivable land
Nature of terrain, availability of moisture and vegetative
comes under single cropping, i.e., rain fed kharif crops
characteristics of the area has been chosen as prime
and some patches of land covered with double crops.
factor. The land use classes thus interpreted would help
Wasteland is also present in the small part of the
in identification of the lead sectors and formulation of
watershed. Built up area occupies very less amount of
development strategy.
land.
The land use pattern of any terrain is a reflection of the
It is observed that the area under LU/LC that agriculture
complex physical processes acting upon the surface of
(Kharif, Kharif + Rabi) covers 46.5 Sq Km (19.8%),
the earth. These processes include impact of climate,
Forests covers 9.45 Sq Km (4%), land with scrub or
geologic and topographic conditions on the distribution
land without scrub 39.5 Sq Km (16.8%) and water
of soils, vegetation and occurrence of water. For better
bodies 6.62 Sq Km (2.8%) river 2.2 Sq Km (0.93%),
development and management of the catchement areas
Builtup area 1.28 Sq Km (0.54%), of the total area (235
of reservoirs, it is necessary to have timely and reliable
Sq Km) of the study area. LU/LC statistics has been
information on environmental status.
given in the following Table.
The methodology is based on digital analysis of satellite
Table 1: Area of the different categories of land use and
imagery for identification of different land use/land
land cover in the study area
cover classes based on the image characteristics. Multi
date imagery has been used to identify and map the Area Perce
cropland in Kharif and Rabi seasons, area under double Sl. Sub -
Category (Sq. ntage
crop, fallow land and also for better delineation of No Category
Km) (%)
boundaries of other land use categories. The interpreted
Built-up Village/
details have been verified on the ground. The 1 1.28 0.54
Land Town
geographical area under various land use/land cover
categories has been calculated “Figure 2. Spatial Kharif (Rain 130.1
55.24
distribution of Landuse pattern”. fed) 8
2 Crop Land
Slope: Kharif +
46.48 19.73
Rabi
Slope, aspect and altitude are important terrain
parameters from land utilization point of view. Among Reserved
the three, slope is very vital one for land irrigability and 3 Forest Forest/ open 9.45 4.01
land capability assessment. Seven categories of slopes forest

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 104-108
Integrated Remote Sensing Study of Solipur Vagu Sub-basin of Kongal River,
106
Andhra Pradesh – Slope and LU/ LC mapping

Land With or [5] Integrated Mission for Sustainable Development,


4 Wasteland Without 39.44 16.74 NRSA- Technical Guidelines, (1995).
Scrub [6] Ravindran K.V and Jeyaram, A (1997).
Groundwater prospects of Shahbad Tehsil, Baran
River/ District, Eastern Rajasthan: A Remote Sensing
Water
5 Reservoir/ 8.81 3.74 Approach. J. Indian Soc. Remote Sensing
bodies
Tank 25(4):239-246.
Total Area of the Watershed 235 100 [7] Sabins, F.F. Jr.(1987). Remote sensing: Principles
and interpretation. W.H. Freeman & Co. New
References: York, pp.429.
[8] Sinha, B.K, Kumar Ashok, Srivastava,D and
[1] Lillesand T.M. and Kiefer, R.W. (1987). Remote Sreenevastava, S.K (1990). Integrated approach for
Sensing and Image Interpretation. John Wiley & demarcating the fracture zone for well site location
Sons. – A Case study near Gumla and Lohardaga, Bihar,
[2] P. J. Curran: 1988, Principles of Remote Sensing. J. Indian Soc. Remote Sensing, 18(3):1-8.
[3] Remote Sensing Applications in Water Resource [9] Subba Rao, N (2001). Identification of
Development- Hand Book. Groundwater potential zones using remote sensing
[4] Das S, Behera,S.C.and Kar (1997), techniques in and around Guntur town, Andhra
Hydrogeomorphological Mapping in Groundwater Pradesh, India 29(1&2):69-78.
Exploration using Remotely Sensed Data – A case [10] Suresh, M (2008) Integrated Remote Sensing and
study in Keunjhar District, Orissa, J. Indian Soc. Hydrogeological studies in solipur vagu sub-basin
Remote Sensing 25(4):247-260. of Kongal river, Un published Thesis.

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 104-108
107 M. SURESH, V. UMA SHANKAR AND J. VIJAYA KUMAR

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 104-108
Integrated Remote Sensing Study of Solipur Vagu Sub-basin of Kongal River,
108
Andhra Pradesh – Slope and LU/ LC mapping

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


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www.cafetinnova.org ISSN 0974-5904, Volume 06, No. 02 (01) April 2013, P.P.109-111

Use of Fly Ash and Steel Mill Scale in Cement Concrete as Alternate
Building Materials
K. MAHENDRAN
Rural Technology Centre, Gandhigram Rural Institute – Deemed University, Gandhigram – 624 302
Dindigul District, Tamil Nadu
Email: mahendran_gri@rediffmail.com

Abstract: The industrial revolution across the globe has heavily attributed to the environmental hazards such as
pollution and ecological degradation due to the waste materials/byproducts produced by this sector. The construction
sector is playing a key role in the solid waste management of the industrial wastes. The Fly ash (FA) and Steel Mill
Scale (SMS) are the major waste materials produced by the thermal power plants. This study explores the feasibility
of using these waste materials as the alternate building materials by partially replacing cement and fine aggregate
respectively in the cement concrete at various proportions. In this study, cement and sand in the proposed concrete
mix are partially replaced by FA and SMS at an increment of 5%, from 20% to 30%. The parameters namely
fineness, setting time, consistency and specific gravity of FA and SMS were carried out and compared with those of
Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and river sand. The compressive and split tensile strength of the partially replaced
cement concrete is recorded o the 7th, 14th and 28th days of curing. The obtained results reveal that the percentage of
replacement of FA and SMS increase the strength of this concrete was found to increase gradually.
Keywords: Cement concrete, fly ash, steel mill scale, compressive strength, split tensile strength.

Introduction: The class F FA with a particle size of 100 microns from


the thermal power plant was collected and its chemical
The environmental pollution due to construction
proportions are tabulated in table 1.
materials and methods play a major role. The usage of
waste materials in developing alternate building Table1 Chemical properties of Fly Ash
materials will minimize the depletion of natural
resources and reduction of green house gas emission for Chemical Composition %
which the increased efficiency and decreased fuel
SiO2 58
construction for developing the building
materials[1].The FA gives durability, ecological CaO 3.6
benefits and indirectly helps to reduce the air
pollution[2]. The replacement of Portland cement with SO3 1.8
FA especially in high volume have been found in Na2O 2
reduction of strength of concrete due to slow pozzolanic
reactions[3]. The micro structure at the area of chosen in MgO 1.91
concrete was found to be fairly dense due to pozzolanic
Loss Of Ignition 2
reaction between CH and FA that formed C-S-H phase
which filled FA and Cement[4]. The use of high volume The above table shows that the pozzolanic action due to
class F FA together with low Portland cement have SiO2, and was found to be 90%.The SMS chemical
produced favorable results as for as strength and proportions also tabulated in table 2 and its chemical
durability[5]. The recycling of steel mill scale as fine composition shows the pozzolanic potential for the use
aggregate in cement mortar was discussed [6]. The in cement concrete.
replacement of FA in cement concrete showed
exceptionally low permeability to water and chloride Table2 Chemical properties of Steel Mill Scale
ions [7]. In order to find the misx proportions for
cement concrete with FA and SMS the proposed study Oxides SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3
was undertaken.
% 25.88 0.06 74.06
Materials and Methods

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Use of fly ash and steel mill scale in cement Concrete as alternate building materials
110

The OPC of 53 Grade cement, 20 mm coarse aggregate Result and Discussions


in angular shape, river sand of size of 4.75 mm were
Compressive Strength
used for preparing the cement concrete for the proposed
study. The class F FA and SMS were the substitute The compressive strength of concrete for the above
materials to replace cement and sand at various samples M1, M2, M3 and M4 at different curing days
percentages at an increment of 5% for the study. The was decreased when the percentage of replacement of
basic test such as initial and final setting time, fineness cement with FA and SMS were increased. This is due to
modulus and specific gravity for FA and SMS mixed the amount of pozzolanic materials in different
concrete was tested and results were tabulated in table 3. proportions. The compressive strength was found to be
maximum for control concrete which is varied from
Table3 Properties of Cement& Replaced Materials
30N/mm2 to 43.6N/mm2 on 7th and 28th days of curing.
In all the 4 mixes the age of the concrete is an important
Materials Test Result
factor to decide the strength of the concrete. If the
Initial Setting time 35 min curing days increase the strength of the concrete also be
increased. The quantity of replaced ashes increases the
Final Setting time 10 hr proportion cement paste becomes insufficient to make
effective bond with coarse aggregate because of its
Standard consistency 31% higher effective surface area. It is observed that the
Cement replacement of FA and SMS with equal quantity upto
Fineness Modulus 1.3% 25 % will give safe compressive strength.
Specific Gravity 3.1 Table5 Compressive Strength
Specific Gravity 2.3 Mix 7th day 14th day 28th day
FA proportion (N/mm2) (N/mm2) (N/mm2)
Bulk Density 16
0% 30.18 38.5 43.6
Fineness 5.01%
20% 26.814 34.66 39.96
Sand Specific Gravity 2.66
25% 24.56 30.71 36.40
Steel Mill Fineness 4.91%
30% 24.56 25.14 22.81
scale Specific Gravity 4.49
Fig1 Compressive Strength of Replaced Concrete
Coarse
Fineness 4.39% Split tensile strength
Aggregate
The split tensile for concrete for different percentage of
The mixed proportions for the concrete with water cement and sand replaced with FA and SMS at 28th day
cement ratio of 0.45 was adopted to produce M30 grade was found to be 2.9, 2.7 and 2.5 N/mm2 for 20, 25 and
concrete the mix percentage is given in Table 4. The 30% of replacement respectively. However for the
cured concrete samples at different age of curing was control concrete the split tensile strength was found to
tested for compressive and split tensile strength be 3 N/mm2 on 28th days of curing. The above results
parameters all the results are tabulated in Table 5 and 6. show that upto 30% of replacement the values are
Table4 Mix Proportion greater than 2 N/mm2.

Steel Table6 Split Tensile Strength of Cylinders


Fly Fine
Cement mill
Mix ash aggregate FA & SMS % of
(%) scale Split tensile
(%) (%) No of replacement in
(%) strength in
days Control
M1 100 0 100 0 N/mm2
Concrete
M2 80 20 80 20 28 0 3.0

M3 75 25 75 25 28 20 2.90
28 25 3.16
M4 70 30 70 30
28 30 2.5

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 109-111
111 K. MAHENDRAN

Fig2 Split Tensile Strength of Cylinder


Conclusions
The physical and chemical properties of FA, SMS were
studied. The pozzolanic properties of both materials
were studied. It can be used for concrete at different
proportions to gain the strength of its concrete. The
compressive strength and split tensile strength of the
concrete were compared with control concrete. The
results obtained in the study revealed that up to 25 % of
cement can be optimally replaced with FA and SMS.
Reference
[1] Vanita Aggarwal, S.M Gupta, S. N. Sachdeva
(2010). “Concrete durability through high
volume Fly ash concrete” (HVFC) A Literature
review. Vol. 2(9), pp-4473-4477Helmuth R.
Fly ash in cement and concrete. Illinois:
Portland Cement Association; 1987. p. 12.
[2] Helmuth R. Fly ash in cement and concrete.
Illinois: Portland Cement Association; 1987. p.
12.
[3] Joseph G, Ramamurthy K. Influence of fly ash
on strength and sorption characteristics of cold-
bonded fly ash aggregate concrete. Constr
Build Mater. 2009; 23:1862–70.
[4] Chindaprasirt P, Jaturapitakkul C, Sinsiri T.
Effect of fly ash fineness on microstructure of
blended cement paste. Constr Build Mater.
2007; 21:1534–41.
[5] Langley, W.S., Carette, G.G. and Malhotra,
V.M., 'Structural concrete incorporating high
volumes of ASTM Class F fly ash', A CI
Materials Journal 86 (5) (1989) 507-514.
[6] Saud Al-Otaibi, (2008) “Recycling Steel Mill
Scale as Fine Aggregate in Cement Mortars”,
European Journal of Scientific Research ISSN
1450-216X Vol.24 No.3 (2008) Euro Journals
Publishing, pp-1, 2 &7
[7] Mehta, P.K., 'Advancements in concrete
technology', Concrete International 21 (6)
(1999) 69-76.

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Thermal Performance of Multi-Heat-Pipe Cooling Device with the


use of Nanofluid
SHUICHI TORII AND DAO DANH TUNG
Department of Mechanical System Engineering, Kumamoto University, Kurokami,
2-39-1, Kumamoto 860-8555, Japan. e-mail:torii@mech.kumamoto-u.co.jp

Abstract: The aim of the present study is to develop a multi-heat-pipe cooling device. Emphasis is placed on the
effect of nanofluid on heat transfer performance of multi-heat-pipe cooling device using water-cooling testing
equipment. The particles used here are alumina less than 40 nm diameter. The base working fluid is pure-water. At
a particular volume fraction, the effective thermal conductivity of the multi-heat-pipe cooling device is amplified
with an increase in heating rate. For the heating rate fixed, the thermal resistance is affected by the full-charge of
the nanofluid. Heat transfer enhancement is caused by suspended nanoparticles.
Keywords: Nanofluid, Heat transfer enhancement, Alumina, Multi-heat pipe

Introduction: 2008), oscillating heat pipes (Ma et al. 2006). In


contrast, only a few investigations on thermal
Thermal management for a personal computer is
performance of heat pipe filed with nanofluid are
achieved by a cooling unit consisting of heat pipe (HP),
available. Teng et al. (2010) studied thermal efficiency
heat sink and fans, while flat heat pipes (FHP) are
of heat pipe with alumina nanofluid and reported that
usually used as notebook cooler due to its favorable
under different experimental conditions, the optimal
thermal characteristics and flexible. This trend is
thermal efficiency yields when the charge amount is
responsible for very high heat dissipations and heat flux
60%. Noie et al. (2009) studied heat transfer
densities in high performance equipment. Two-phase
enhancement using Al2O3 nanofluid in a two-phase
heat transfer devices such as heat pipes and heat loops
closed thermosyphon (TPCT) and disclosed better
(Capillary Pumped Loops, i.e., CPL and Loop Heat
thermal performance than pure water. They improved
Pipes, i.e., LHP) find wide applications in novel space
efficiency of the TPCT up to 14.7%. Temperature
and terrestrial thermal control systems.
distributions on the TPCT were lower level using
In general, the working fluids such as water, oil and nanofluid compared to pure water. Temperature
ethylene glycol are used in various industrial differences between the evaporator and condenser
applications, namely power generation and air sections with nanofluid were less than that of pure
conditioner. However, those fluids with low thermal water.
conductivity suppress development of compact and
The purpose of the present study is to develop a multi-
higher performance heat exchangers. Fluid dispersing
heat-pipe cooling device and to study the effect of
nanoparticles is referred to as nanofluid, a term
particle dispersion on its heat transfer performance.
proposed by Choi (1995). The term ‘nanofluid’ refers
Here aqueous based nanofluid containing alumina, i.e.,
to a two-phase mixture with its continuous phase being
alumina/water nanofluid is used as the working fluid
generally a liquid and the dispersed phase constituted of
and the cooling device is tested under the constant heat
‘nanoparticles’ i.e., extremely fine metallic particles of
flux condition.
size below 100 nm. In other words, the large surface-
area-to-volume ratio also increases the stability of the Experimental Apparatus and Method:
suspensions. Thus, the nanofluid is a promising heat
Figure 1 shows TEM image of alumina nanoparticles
transfer fluid in variety of applications.
and the corresponding thermal property is summarized
Numbers of experimental investigations have in Table 1. De-ionized water is used as the base liquid.
demonstrated the use as nano-fluid with higher effective Figure 2 depicts a picture at 0.1 vol. % nanofluids after
thermal conductivity and critical heat flux (for example, 60 days. Here, 0.1 vol. % implies a nanofluid of 1%
Xuan and Li, 2003; Das et al, 2003). These advantages volume fraction of particles. The corresponding pH for
are applications such as heat transfer devices. In the alumina-nanofluid is 6.62. Since no concentration
recent research, nano-fluids were filled in heat pipes gradient appears, the nanofluid employed here
(Kang et al 2009), thermosyphon (Khandekar et al. maintains stability for several weeks. Figure 3 depicts

#02061019 Copyright ©2013 CAFET-INNOVA TECHNICAL SOCIETY. All rights reserved.


113 SHUICHI TORII AND DAO DANH TUNG

the relationship between the average particle size and


the zeta potential which are measured with the use of
ELSZ-2 zeta potential and particle size analyzer (Otsuka
Electronics Co., Ltd. JAPAN). One observes that
alumina nanofluid forms large aggregation and includes The effective thermal conductivity of alumina nanofluid
over 100 nm particles in diameter. is measured with the aid of a KD2 thermal property
meter (Labcell Ltd, UK), which is based on the transient
hot wire method. Here the thermal conductivities of the
nanofluids and base liquid (water) are measured at 293
K. The KD2 meter is calibrated using distilled water
before any set of measurements.
The viscosity of alumina nanofluid is measured with the
use of a rotary viscometer (BROOKFIELD Co. DV-
II+ProCP). The measurement is carried out at 293 K for
the nanofluids of different concentrations. At least the
viscosity is measured three times and the mean value is
applied as an effective viscosity of the nanofluid.
Fig1: TEM images of alumina nanoparticles
Figure 4 illustrates the experimental apparatus which
consists of a test section, a heating unit, a cooling part, a
vacuum pump unit and a measuring and control unit.
Figure 5 depicts the test section which consists of the
evaporator and condenser sections and both are
connected by circular pipes in which nanofluid and
vapor cause the oscillating flow between both sections.
Here, the condenser is set in the water tank, as shown in
Fig. 4. A heater bar is used as a heat source in the
heating section. The heater bar by the direct electric
current heating is connected at the bottom wall of the
test section. The DC power supply (TOKYO SEIDEN
CVS1-5K) is employed and its voltage is adjustable
with the aid of the voltmeter (YOKOGAWA 2011).
Note that the test section is covered by a thick thermal
insulation material to suppress heat loss from the test
section, as seen in Fig. 5. The thermocouples (100
in diameter), which are welded on the outer surface of
Fig2: Nanofluid at 0.1 vol. % of particle volume the test section, are used to measure the surface wall
fraction after 60 days temperature of the test section.
Volumetric fraction is fixed at 0.1% for alumina/water
nanofluid in the present study. Here, the volumetric
fraction is defined as:
Vnnp
 0.1% (1)
Vnnf
Here, Vnnp is a volume of nanoparticles in solution and
Vnnf is a volume of nanofluid solution. In the present
study, effective thermal conductivity of the heat pipe is
calculated as:
Fig3: Zeta potential and average particle diameter in TH  TC
nanofluids for various volume fractions Q  NAq'  NAk eff (2)
L
Table1: Physical property of nanoparticles
QL
k eff  (3)
NA(TH  TC )

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Thermal Performance of Multi-Heat-Pipe Cooling Device with the use of Nanofluid
114

Where, Q is total heat load, q’ is heat flux from the


TH1  TH2  TH3  TH4  TH5 (4)
evaporator section to the condenser section, L is length TH 
from center of the evaporator section to center of the 5
condenser section, that is, the approximate distance TC1  TC2  TC3
between TH measuring point and TC measuring point. TC  (5)
N is number of tubes of the adiabatic section (N = 4) 5
and A is flux area of the inner part of a tube in the An uncertainty analysis (Kline and McClintock, 1953)
adiabatic section. In order to get mean temperature TH yields the following results: the uncertainty in the
of the evaporator section and TC of the condenser physical properties is less than 1%, and the uncertainty
section (Fig. 5), temperatures are measured and in the temperature measurement is estimated to be
averaged. As for the measurement by K-type ±1.5%. The uncertainty of the measurements is within
thermocouples, points H1, H2, H3, H4 and H5 are for 3% under the conditions of this work.
the evaporator section and C1, C2 and C3 are for the
condenser section. Both temperatures are obtained as:

12
17
11 13
10 16

14 20
15

18
9
19

7 6

4
3
5

2 1

Fig4: Experimental apparatus

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115 SHUICHI TORII AND DAO DANH TUNG

Fig5: Test section


Results and Discussion:
Figure 6, for 0.1 Vol. % of nanofluid, shows the bottom wall temperature of the evaporator of the test section. The
corresponding temperature of the condenser is illustrated in Fig. 7 in the same form as Fig. 6. Notice that for each
figure, the wall temperatures are summarized for the case of pure-water and nanofluid as the working fluids for
reference. Figure 6 observes that at the same heat flux and fill charge ratio, the mean temperature of the evaporator
section of the heat pipe with Al2O3 nanofluid is lower than that with water as the working fluid. The wall
temperature is

Fig6: Relationship between mean temperature of the evaporator section versus fill charge ratio for difference heat
fluxes at 0.1% vol. of Al2O3 nanofluid

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ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 112-117
Thermal Performance of Multi-Heat-Pipe Cooling Device with the use of Nanofluid
116

Fig7: Relationship between mean temperature of the condenser section versus fill charge ratio for difference heat
fluxes at 0.1% vol. of Al2O3 nanofluid

Fig8: Relationship between effective thermal conductivity of the heat pipe versus fill-charge ratio with the use of
pure water and nanofluid
decreased with an increase in fill charge ratio and at fill- superimposed in Fig. 8. One observes that with the
charge ratio fixed, is amplified as the heat flux in same heat flux and fill charge ratio, the effective
increased. The similar trend is observed at the thermal conductivity of the heat pipe with the use of
condenser section, as seen in Fig. 7. nanofluid is higher than that with the use of pure water.
In other words, heat transfer performance of the multi-
From Figs. 6 and 7, the effective thermal conductivity
heat pipe is enhanced due to the nanopartilces dispersed
of the heat pipe with the use of nanofluid is estimated
in working fluid. It is found that the effect of adding
with the aid of Eqs. (2) and (3). The obtained result is
alumina nanopartilces on heat transfer performance of
depicted in Fig. 8 in the form of effective thermal
the evaporator and condenser is evident and the
conductivity versus fill-charge ratio with volumetric
maximum heat transfer enhancement takes place at 40%
fractions of nanofluid, as the parameter. For reference,
of full-charge ratio.
data for pure-water as the working fluid are

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117 SHUICHI TORII AND DAO DANH TUNG

Summary:
Experimental study has been performed on heat transfer
performance using alumina nanofluid as the working
fluid. Heat transfer performance is amplified by
suspension of nanoparticles in comparison with that of
pure water. In other words, effective thermal
conductivity is enhanced with an increase in a heating
rate and at heating rate fixed, the corresponding rate is
amplified due to particles suspended in the pure
working fluid.
References:
[1] Choi. S. U. S., “Enhancing thermal conductivity of
fluids with nanoparticles,” in Developments
Applications of Non-Newtonian Flows, FED-vol.
231/MD-vol. 66, ASME: 99-105, edited by D. A.
Siginer and H. P. Wang. New York, 1995.
[2] Das, S. K., Putra, N., Thiesen, P., and Roetzel, W.,
“Temperature dependence of thermal conductivity
enhancement for nano-fluids,” Journal of Heat
Transfer, Vol. 125, pp. 567-574, 2003.
[3] Kang, S. W., Wei, W. C., Tsai, S. H., and Huang,
C. C., “Experimental investigation of nanofluids on
sintered heat pipe thermal performance,” Applied
Thermal Engineering, Vol. 29, pp. 973-979, 2009.
[4] Khandekar, S., Joshi, Y. M., and Mehta, B.,
“Thermal performance of closed two-phase
thermosyphon using nanofluids,” International
Journal of Thermal Sciences, Vol. 47, pp. 659-667,
2008.
[5] Kline, S. J. and McClintock, F.A. Mechanical
Engineering, vol. 3, 1953.
[6] Ma, H. B., Wilson, C., Borgmeyer, B., Park, K.,
Yu, Q., Choi, S. U. S., and Tirumala, M., “An
experimental investigation of heat transport
capability in a nanofluid oscillating heat pipe,”
Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 128, pp. 1213-1216 ,
2006.
[7] Noie, S.H., Zeinali Heris, S., Kahani, M. and
Nowee, S.M. "Heat Transfer Enhancement Using
Al2O3/Water Nanofluid in a Two-Phase Closed
Thermosyphon", International Journal of Heat and
Fluid Flow, Vol. 30, pp. 700-705. 2009.
[8] Teng, T.-P., Hung, Y.-H., Teng, T.-C., Mo, , H.-E.
And Hsu, H.-G., "The Effect of Alumina/Water
Nanofluid Particle Size on Thermal Conductivity",
Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 30, pp. 2213-
2218, 2010.
[9] Xuan, Y. and Li, Q., “Investigation on convective
heat transfer and flow features of nano-fluids,”
Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 125, pp. 151-155,
2003.

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www.cafetinnova.org ISSN 0974-5904, Volume 06, No. 02 (01) April 2013, P.P.118-122

An Experimental investigation on Mechanical Properties of


Concrete Using Industry Waste
S. MEENAKSHI SUDARVIZHI1, M. ROHINI SHANMUGAPRIYA1 AND R.
ILANGOVAN2
1
K.L.N.College of Information Technology, Sivagangai Dist., Tamil Nadu, India.
2
CE, University College of Engineering (BIT) - Tiruchirappalli -6 20024. Tamil Nadu, India
Email: jenika_sudar @yahoo.co.in

Abstract: This paper examines the possibility of using granite powder as partial replacement of sand and partial
replacement of cement with fly ash and copper slag in concrete. Superplasticiser is used to increase the workability
of concrete with lower water cement ratio. The percentage of granite powder added by weight was 0, 20, 40, 60, 80
and 100 as a replacement of sand used in concrete and cement was replaced with 15% fly ash, 15% slag and
superplasticiser. The effects of water ponding temperatures with 0.4 water-to-binder (w/b) ratios on mechanical
properties of the concrete were studied and compared with cement and natural fine aggregate concrete. The test
results obtained indicate that granite powder of marginal quantity as partial sand replacement has beneficial effect
on the mechanical properties such as compressive strength, split tensile strength. Furthermore, the test results
indicated that the values of concrete in the granite powder concrete specimens were nominal than those of ordinary
concrete specimens
Key words: Concrete, strength, Granite powder, Fly ash, Slag.

Introduction the problem associated with its disposal including the


environmental problems of the region. Substitutions of
Fine aggregate is an essential component of concrete.
alternate materials can result in changes in the
The most commonly used fine aggregate is natural river
performance characteristics that may be acceptable for
sand. The global consumption of natural river sand is
high performance concrete.
very high due to the extensive use of concrete. In
particular, the demand of natural river sand is quite high Use of chemical admixtures usually superplasticiser
in developed countries owing to infrastructural growth. reduces the water content, thereby reducing the porosity
The non-availability of sufficient quantity of ordinary within the hydrated cement paste. Fly ash and copper
river sand for making cement concrete is affecting the slag are generally called as mineral admixtures and
growth of construction industry in many parts of the called as cement replacement materials. These are
country. Recently, Tamil Nadu government (India) has pozzolanic in character and develop cementing
imposed restrictions on sand removal from the river properties in a similar way as normal Portland cement
beds due to unsafe impacts threatening many parts of when they come in contact with free lime. Use of these
the state. On the other hand, the granite waste generated materials individually or in combination with cement
by the industry has accumulated over years. Only and proper dosage of superplasticiser improves the
insignificant quantities have been utilized and the rest strength and durability of products. The admixtures can
has been dumped unscrupulously resulting in be added to cement concrete as a partial replacement of
environment problem. With the enormous increase in cement along with superplasticiser as a water reducer to
the quantity of waste needing disposal, acute shortage of get the high performance).While considering the
dumping sites, sharp increase in the transportation and inclusion of fly ash and slag in the mix, these materials
dumping costs affecting the environment, prevents the are generally cheaper than Portland cement. Secondly,
sustainable development. The waste disposal problem is they do not contribute to the slump loss. Accordingly,
becoming serious. this paper will examine the properties of concrete by
varying the granite powder as a replacement of sand in
In the present work, it is aimed at developing a new
the concrete that have originated from granite crushed
building material from the granite scrap, an industrial
unites along with admixtures such as fly ash, copper
waste as a replacement material of fine aggregate in
slag and superplasticiser as a partial replacement of
concrete. By doing so, the objective of reduction of cost
cement.
of construction can be met and it will help to overcome

#02061020 Copyright ©2013 CAFET-INNOVA TECHNICAL SOCIETY. All rights reserved.


119 S. MEENAKSHI SUDARVIZHI, M. ROHINI SHANMUGAPRIYA
AND R. ILANGOVAN

Literature Review mechanical and durability performance. It has been [9]


reported that the structural characteristics of concrete
It was [1] reported that the suitability of Crushed granite
using various combinations of lateritic sand and quarry
fine (CGF) to replace river sand in concrete production
dust as complete replacement for conventional river
for use in rigid pavement was investigated. Slump,
sand fine aggregate.
compressive and indirect tensile strength tests were
performed on fresh and hardened concrete. It has been [2] Experimental Investigation
suggested that the feasibility of the usage of Quarry
A. Materials
Rock Dust as hundred percent substitutes for
Conventional Concrete. It was [3] recommended that the 1. Cement: Ordinary Portland cement of 43 grade
results of an experimental study on the high manufactured by RAMCO CEMENT
performance concrete made with granite powder as fine confirming to I.S. 12239 specification were
aggregate having good strength. The percentage of used in the casting of the specimens. The
granite powder added by weight a range viz. 0, 25, 50, cement used is taken from a single lot.
75 and 100% as a replacement of sand used in concrete 2. Fine Aggregate: Fine aggregate used was clean
and cement was replaced with 7.5%Silica fume, 10% fly dry river sand. The sand was sieved to remove
ash, 10% slag and 1% superplasticiser. It [4] has been all pebbles and impurities in the soil.
observed that upto 80% replacement, Copper Slag and 3. Coarse Aggregate: Hard granite broken stone
Ferrous Slag can be effectively used as replacement for was used as coarse aggregate. Maximum size
fine aggregate. It was [5] reported that the optimizing the of aggregate is 20mm
particle sizes of the cement and fly ash for achieving 4. Copper Slag: Copper slag is an abrasive
desired performance in a blended product presented. By blasting grit made of granulated slag from
selecting the particle size distributions of cement and fly metal smelting processes (also called iron
ash, equivalent 1 d and 28 d strengths may be achieved silicate).Copper slag abrasive is suitable for
with about a 35% volumetric replacement blast cleaning of steel and stone/concrete
of cement with fly ash, while maintaining the same surfaces, removal of mill scale, rust, old paint,
volume fraction of water in the mixture, thus providing dirt etc.
an actual 35% reduction in cement content. It was [6] 5. Fly Ash: A major barrier to fly ash use is its
concluded that in lean concrete, the use of a large variable nature, both chemical and physical,
amount of fly ash, as replacement for both cement and due to differences in source coals, boiler design
sand, is highly beneficial. It was [7] states that the and stack removal processes. The difference
favorable physico-mechanical characteristics of copper between fly ash and Portland cement becomes
slag can be utilized to make the products like cement, apparent under a microscope.
fill, ballast, abrasive, aggregate, roofing granules, glass, 6. Granite Powder: It is defined in common
tiles etc. apart from recovering the valuable metals by commercial practice to include almost any hard
various extractive metallurgical routes. It has been (8] (harder than glass or steel), crystalline stone
reviewed that the results pointed out that there is a that accepts a high polish that is not marble,
potential for the use of copper slag as a supplementary limestone, travertine, sandstone or other softer,
cementing material to concrete production. The concrete common stone.
batches with copper slag addition presented greater 7. Physical properties of the materials
Table1 Physical Properties

Physical Fly
C.S (%) C (%) G.P% F.A%
properties Ash %

Particle shape Irregular fine Fine Irregular Irregular

Appearance Black, Glass Grey Grey light gray Wheat

Specific gravity 3.81 3.07 1.86 2.82 2.56

Fineness 0.15 0.10 0.12 3.24 3.14

B. Concrete Mix
1. Details of Specimen: Cube having dimension 150mmx150mmx150mm and cylinder having dimension
100mm diameter with 200mm long.41 Cubes and 41 Cylinders were including control specimens

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ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 02 (01), April, 2013, pp. 118-122
An Experimental investigation on Mechanical Properties of Concrete
120
Using Industry Waste

Table2 Mix ID

Mix ID % of Replacement

Gp0 15%FA+15%CS+0%-G.A

Gp20 15% FA+15% CS +20%G.A

Gp40 15% FA+15% CS +40%G.A

Gp60 15% FA+15% CS +60%G.A

Gp80 15% FA+15% CS +80%G.A

Gp100 15% FA+15% CS +100%G.A

2. Mix design: The mix proportion chosen for this study is given in Table 2.Concrete mixtures with different
proportions of fly ash, copper slag, Granite Power were considered.
Table3 Computed proportions of Concrete Mixes
Mix Cement Fly Water
S. No F.A(kg) C.A(kg) C.S(kg) G.P(kg)
ID (kg) ash(kg) (kg)
1. 0% 480 487.84 1210.69 ----- ----- ---- 191.58

2. Gp0 348 487.84 1175.84 60 ---- 72 191.58

3. Gp20 348 379.04 1175.84 60 95 72 191.58

4. Gp40 348 282.82 1169.80 60 188 72 191.58

5. Gp60 348 187.60 1169.80 60 282 72 191.58

6. Gp80 348 93.34 1169.80 60 373.36 72 191.58

7. Gp100 348 --- 1169.80 60 464.40 72 191.58

3. Sample preparation: The quantity of each replacement of cement with fly ash and copper
material should be calculated by IS method slag and fine aggregate replace to Granite
design mix and it is tabulated in the table: 3. powder various ages of concrete are given in
the constituents were weighed in separate Table:4 and Table:5.
buckets. The materials were mixed in a rotating
Table4 Cube Compressive Strength
pan in accordance with ASTM C192-98 [8].
The mixes were compacted using vibrating Compressive
table. The slump of the fresh concrete was Sl. strength(N/mm2)
determined to ensure that it would be within the no Mix ID
design value and to study the effect of fly ash, 14 days 28 days
copper slag, and Granite Power replacement on
the workability of concrete.The specimens 1 Gp0 32.65 46.18
were carefully casted and demouled after 24
2 Gp20 36.48 44.96
hours, without disturbing the specimens, these
were cured in the curing tank for 14, and 28 3 Gp40 37.88 48.77
days and then tested at room temperature at the
required age. 4 Gp60 29.88 42.46
C. TEST RESULTS 5 Gp80 36.52 40.21
1. Compressive and Tensile strength Test Results:
The average compressive strength and increase 6 Gp100 28.42 43.97
in compressive strength values due to

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121 S. MEENAKSHI SUDARVIZHI, M. ROHINI SHANMUGAPRIYA
AND R. ILANGOVAN

Table5 Cylinder Split Tensile Strength 3 Gp40 4.222 4.96


2
Sl. Tensile strength (N/mm ) 4 Gp60 4.042 3.67
no Mix ID 14 days 28 days 5 Gp80 3.883 4.17

1 Gp0 3.396 4.26 6 Gp100 4.233 4.09

2 Gp20 4.033 4.87

Fig1 Compressive Strength and Split Tensile Test Results at 14 and 28 Days
Discussion concrete mixtures 14 and 28 days of curing for
0.40 water-cement ratio.
i. The conventionally casted concrete in the
2. The test results show clearly that granite
grade M30 gives a target mean strength of
powder as a partial sand replacement has
36.6 Mpa. But the concrete casted with
beneficial effects of the mechanical properties
replacement of sand with granite powder and
of high strengthening concrete. All the 6
cement with copper slag and fly ash gives a
varying mixtures considered, concrete with
compressive strength in the range between 36.7
0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 100% of granite
Mpa to 48.76 Mpa. From the results obtained
powder
the strength of granite powder concrete
3. (Gp40) was found to be superior to other
provides more strength than the target mean
mixtures and compare to conventional
strength of the conventional concrete casted.
concrete.
ii. The split tensile strength results obtained on
4. Mechanical properties such as compressive
conventional concrete after 28 days gives a
strength and split tensile strength, Thus granite
tensile stress of 2.347 Mpa.whereas,the granite
powder aggregate in concrete is the best
powder concrete provides a strength of
choice, where they are available.
concrete in the range of 3.67 Mpa to 4.96
5. It is suggested that the granite powder concrete
Mpa.The tensile strength of granite powder
will be the benefit of construction industry in
concrete is 30 – 50% higher compared to the
the present condition.
test results of the conventional concrete.
6. As granite powder is a waste material from the
iii. Better results are obtained in 40% replacement
quarry it can be constructively used for
of fine aggregate with sand.
concreting. This can decrease the granite
Conclusion powder waste and increase the strength of
concrete.
1. An Experimental study on the strengthening of
concrete made with granite powder as partial VI. References
replacement fine aggregate and partial
[1] Khalifa S. Al-Jabri, Makoto Hisada, Salem K.
replacement of cement with 15% fly ash, 15%
Al-Oraimi, Abdullah H. Al-Saidy, “Copper
copper slag and superplasticiser subjected to
slag assand replacement for high performance
water curing is conducted for finding the
concrete”,Cement and Concrete Composites,
characteristic mechanical properties such as
Vol. 31, No. 7,August 2009, pp 483–488.
compressive strength, split tensile strength of

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An Experimental investigation on Mechanical Properties of Concrete
122
Using Industry Waste

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