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Ocean Engineering

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/oceaneng

VIV for marine risers in non-uniform current

Hongxiang Xue n, Wenyong Tang, Xue Qu

State Key Laboratory of Ocean Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China

art ic l e i nf o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Fatigue damage due to vortex induced vibrations (VIV) is one of the most signiﬁcant failure modes for

Received 26 August 2013 marine risers. Previous studies of fatigue prediction and analysis for marine risers typically focus on

Accepted 15 March 2014 cross-ﬂow VIV due to its larger response amplitude than in-line vibrations. In this study, a prediction

Available online 9 April 2014

model of VIV fatigue damage for riser accounting for both cross-ﬂow and in-line vibrations is proposed

Keywords: based on the energy equilibrium theory and the forced vibration experimental data of a rigid cylinder.

Fatigue damage The coupling effect of CF- and IL-VIV is taken into account and the response amplitude is corrected by

Vortex-induced vibration a weighted factor according to the input power within the overlap excitation region for each vibration

Cross-ﬂow mode. The experimental models of ﬂexible riser under stepped and sheared current are simulated to

In-line

validate the proposed approach and the results show reasonable agreement. Moreover, based on the

Riser

prediction model, the top velocity of sheared current, top tension, internal ﬂuid density and the material

of structures are invested to discuss their effects on the fatigue damage. The study may be worthwhile

for fatigue assessment and broaden the understanding of VIV fatigue damage characteristics for

deepwater risers.

& 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

fatigue damage induced by cross-ﬂow VIV. Common industry

Vortex induced vibration (VIV) has been known as the most practice is to adopt DNV-RP-F105 (DNV, 2006) for pipeline's in-line

important design issue for slender marine structures such as cables, VIV analysis. DNV-RP-F105 provides data on in-line response ampli-

pipelines and risers, especially for environments with high current tude versus reduced velocity that are based mainly on laboratory

proﬁle. The high frequency vibrations generate severe cyclic stresses, tests with simply supported beams exposed to uniform ﬂow.

which would contribute signiﬁcantly to fatigue damage. This pro- In general, it may lead to conservative fatigue damage estimates for

blem becomes more crucial in riser design as oil and gas explorations risers in sheared currents.

move to deeper water area, since large current variation acting on the VIV analysis procedures can be performed by CFD methods or

riser may lead to the Strouhal frequency varying over the riser's empirical models. CFD techniques which solve the viscous Navier–

length, having the effect that high order and multi-frequency can be Stokes equations directly are extremely computationally demand-

candidate for lock-in oscillation. ing and have not been attractive tools for practical engineering

VIV response can be categorized as cross-ﬂow (CF) or in-line (IL) design. Therefore, the empirical models which depends on VIV

VIV in which the riser oscillates in the direction transverse to or experiments have been widely used, such as Shear7 (Vandiver and

aligned with the ﬂow, respectively. Most of the previous studies Li, 2005) and VIVANA (Larsen and Vikestad, 2005). Finn et al.

focused on the cross-ﬂow direction because of its usually observed (1999) and Grant et al. (2000) developed ABAVIV to simulate riser

largest response, and few works have been undertaken about the VIV using the ﬁnite element package ABAQUS. In this code, the

effect of oscillating drag force, which causes the in-line VIV. However, lock-in algorithm is determined by Blevins (1990). Cheng and

recent experiments (Kang and Jia, 2013; Yin and Larsen, 2011; Dahl et Lambrakos (2007), Cheng and Xu (2009), Cheng and Lambrakos

al., 2010) have evidenced the signiﬁcant effect of in-line VIV due to (2010) carried out validation works for the code. The results

showed that ABAVIV could well predict cross-ﬂow vibration and

n

capture higher harmonics response, whereas lack ability to simu-

Correspondence to: No. 800, Dongchuan Road, School of Naval Architecture,

Ocean & Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

late the mean drag response and in-line oscillation. Sidarta et al.

Tel.: þ 86 21 34204968; fax: þ 86 21 34206642. (2010) developed a prediction code, SimVIV, which used the lift

E-mail address: hongxiangxue@sjtu.edu.cn (H. Xue). force model in Shear7. Gao et al. (2011) discussed the fatigue

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2014.03.023

0029-8018/& 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

H. Xue et al. / Ocean Engineering 83 (2014) 52–62 53

damage characteristics of steel catenary riser by using a simpliﬁed Assuming that the exciting force acting on riser segment follows

pinned-pinned cable model. Srinil (2011) studied the VIV of sinusoidal in one period, the lift force in both directions could be

variable-tension vertical risers in linearly sheared currents by expressed as

distributed diffusive wake oscillator model. Ma and Qiu (2012) Cross-ﬂow direction:

used the forced vibration test data to predict the cross-ﬂow VIV of 1

a model test carried out by Chaplin et al. (2005a, 2005b). F y ¼ C L;CF ðAnCF ; f r;CF Þρf DV 2 sin ð2π f CF tÞ ð3Þ

2

Actually, the coupled response characteristics of cross-ﬂow and

in-line is signiﬁcant from experimental observations (Jauvtis and In-line direction:

Williamson, 2004; Stappenbelt et al., 2007; Blevins and Coughran, 1

F x ¼ f amp ðAnCF ÞC L;IL ðAnIL ; f r;IL Þρf DV 2 sin ð2π f IL tÞ ð4Þ

2009). Sumer and FredsØe (2006) highlighted that when cross- 2

ﬂow response amplitude exceeds 0.2–0.3 times cylinder's where C L;CF and C L;IL are the lift coefﬁcients. f amp is the magniﬁca-

diameter, the in-line excitation force would be signiﬁcantly mag-

tion coefﬁcient due to CF-VIV, ρf is the ﬂuid density. AnCF and AnIL

niﬁed. The experimental observations from Baarholm et al. (2006)

are the cross-ﬂow and in-line non-dimensional displacement

show that, although the in-line amplitude is much weaker, the

amplitude A/D respectively, f r;IL ¼ f IL D=V and f r;CF ¼ f CF D=V are

fatigue damage induced by in-line VIV is almost the same to cross-

ﬂow due to higher dominant frequency. However, VIV fatigue the non-dimensional frequency, and V is the current velocity.

damage predictions for deepwater risers in in-line direction have In this study, the VIV forced vibration experimental data of a

not been much studied. The cross-ﬂow and in-line coupled rigid cylinder carried out by Gopalkrishnan (1993) and Aronson

analysis is mainly limited to a two-dimensional model in a and Larsen (2007) is adopted. Figs. 1 and 2 are the contours of lift

uniform ﬂow (Srinil and Zanganeh, 2012), which may hardly to coefﬁcients.

predict the fatigue damage distribution along the riser in a non- Fig. 1 shows that cross-ﬂow VIV excitation bandwidth can be

uniform current. deﬁned as a single interval around 0.125 of r;CF o0.20. Differing

Since most of the previous studies and numerical codes from CF-VIV, there exist two main excitation regions for in-line

mentioned above mainly focus on cross-ﬂow vibration, and do vibration. Fig. 2 indicates that the ﬁrst region is around

not include the prediction of in-line response and fatigue damage. 0.375 of r;IL o0.76 which is caused by the combined action of

Therefore, a prediction model for VIV induced fatigue damage normal vortex shedding giving rise to two oscillations per shed-

accounting for both cross-ﬂow and in-line vibrations, as proposed ding and symmetric vortex shedding which occurs as a result of

in the present study, would be worthwhile from a practical and

1.2

industrial viewpoint. The paper is structured as follows. In Section 2, -5

-4

a cross-ﬂow and in-line VIV response and fatigue damage assess- -3

-2

ment approach in frequency domain is proposed based on forced 1.0

-1 -1.5

Non-dimensional Amplitude A*CF

theory. In Section 3, the proposed model is validated against the VIV

0.8

experiments of vertical tensioned risers in stepped current and 0.5 0.3 -0.3

-0.3

sheared current, respectively. Some important physical parameters

and variables of riser are invested to discuss their effects on VIV 0.7

0.6

fatigue damage in Section 4. The conclusions are drawn in Section 5. 0 -0.1

0

0.4 -0.1

-0.3

2. Numerical model and analysis methodology

0.2

The deepwater riser has a large aspect ratio of length to diameter.

Considering the riser as a ﬂexural elastic structure satisfying the

0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35

Euler-Bernoulli beam hypothesis, the governing differential equation

Non-dimensional Frequency fr,CF

for a riser could be expressed as Eqs. (1) and (2) in the Cartesian

coordinate system with x-axial and y-axial, aligned with and trans- Fig. 1. Cross-ﬂow excitation coefﬁcient (Gopalkrishnan, 1993).

verse with current velocity respectively, and z-axial upwards.

Cross-ﬂow direction:

0.24

∂2 y ∂y ∂4 y ∂ ∂y

ðmr þ ΔmCF Þ 2 þ cs þ EI 4 T ¼ Fy ð1Þ

∂t ∂t ∂z ∂z ∂z

0.20

Non-dimensional Amplitude A IL

In-line direction:

*

∂2 x ∂x ∂4 x ∂ ∂x 0.16

ðmr þ ΔmIL Þ þ cs þEI 4 T ¼ Fx ð2Þ

∂t 2 ∂t ∂z ∂z ∂z 2nd Region -0.3

-0.2

0.12

where mr is the mass per unit length, ΔmCF and ΔmIL are the 1st Region

-0.2 0

added mass for cross-ﬂow and in-line direction respectively, cs is

the structural damping, E is the elastic modulus, I is the moment of 0.08

-0.1

0.05

-0.3

-0.2

inertia, T is the effective tension, Fx and Fy are VIV hydrodynamic 0.13 0.05

-0.1 0.1 -0.2

forces for in-line and cross-ﬂow direction, respectively. 0.04 0.1 0.13

0 0.1 -0.1

0.05 -0.1

0.00

2.1. Lift force models and lock-in regions 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

Non-dimensional Frequency fr,IL

When VIV lock-in takes place, the response of the riser will in

general be uni-modal and have the character of a standing wave. Fig. 2. In-line excitation coefﬁcient (Aronson and Larsen, 2007).

54 H. Xue et al. / Ocean Engineering 83 (2014) 52–62

9 2.5

In-Line

8 Cross-Flow

2.0

7

1.5

6

1.0

5

f amp

4 0.5

3

0.0

2

-0.5

1

0 -1.0

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

* Non-dimensional Frequency

Cross-Flow Non-dimensional Amplitude ACF

Fig. 4. Added mass model for CF- and IL-VIV.

Fig. 3. Ampliﬁcation factor of in-line excitation force.

in-line motion of the riser relative to the ﬂuid. The lift force in this

region is assumed to be associated with a vortex shedding while negative value means ﬂuid damping. The associated damp-

frequency corresponding to three times the Strouhal number, i.e. ing coefﬁcient can be obtained based on the assumption of

f s ¼ 3St V=D, where fs is the shedding frequency and St is the equivalent dissipated power in one period:

Strouhal number. The second excitation region is around

0.27 of r;IL o0.375, and only normal vortex shedding dominates C L ρf V 2 D

cf ¼ ð5Þ

the riser's response, so the vortex shedding frequency is corre- 2Aω

sponding to two times the Strouhal number, i.e.f s ¼ 2St V=D. The empirical damping model proposed by Venugopal (1996)

Actually, observations show that there may exists the third is used outside the test range for cross-ﬂow vibration.

excitation region. In this region, in-line VIV excitation occurs Damping in high non-dimensional frequency region:

together with the cross-ﬂow VIV excitation. Due to the reason

cf ¼ C hf ρf DV þcsw ð6Þ

that the forced vibration experiments are pure in-line VIV, and the

hydrodynamic coefﬁcients of this region cannot be obtained. where C hf is taken to be 0.18. csw is the still water damping

Hence, only the ﬁrst and the second excitation region as shown contribution given by

in Fig. 2 are considered in this study. " sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 #

Jauvtis and Williamson (2004) and Goncalves et al. (2012) ωπρf D2 2 A

csw ¼ 2 þ C sw ð7Þ

indicated that when CF-VIV is locked in, the non-dimensional 2 ωD2 =v D

frequency of in-line response is approximate in the second

excitation region deﬁned. Additionally, when the cross-ﬂow non- where ν is the kinematic viscosity of the ﬂuid, ω is the oscillation

dimensional amplitude exceeds 0.2–0.3, the in-line excitation circular frequency, and Csw ¼ 0.2.

force would be magniﬁed obviously. The magniﬁcation coefﬁcient Damping in low non-dimensional frequency region:

as a function of cross-ﬂow amplitude AnCF proposed by Sumer and

cf ¼ C lf ρf V 2 =ω ð8Þ

Fredsøe (2006), as shown in Fig. 3, is used to correct the in-line

exciting force. Hence, the cross-ﬂow VIV response should be where C lf is taken to be 0.20.

calculated ﬁrst and the amplitude will be taken as the input of In this study, IL-VIV also uses the above damping model

the in-line analysis in this proposal model. formula, but with different empirical parameter values due to

different oscillation directions and vortex shedding modes. By

2.2. Added mass coefﬁcients matching the extension of the in-line excitation coefﬁcient con-

tour, C hf and C lf are set to be 0.35 and 1.0, respectively. The dash

The added mass of the riser is not a ﬁxed value in the VIV lines in Fig. 2 show the extended contour calculated by the

system from the observations of forced vibration experiment. damping model.

When the riser is exposed to a non-uniform current proﬁle, added

mass will change along its length. The added mass coefﬁcient may

2.4. Response amplitudes and fatigue damage analysis

be assumed to be independent of the amplitude and is therefore

given as a function of the non-dimensional frequency. The simpli-

According to the modal superposition method, the response of

ﬁed added mass models proposed by Larsen and Vikestad (2005)

the riser can be composed as a series of mode-shapes:

and Aronson and Larsen (2007), as shown in Fig. 4, are used to

calculate the eigenfrequencies of the riser in this study. yðz; tÞ ¼ ∑ φy;k ðzÞqy;k ðtÞ; xðz; tÞ ¼ ∑ φx;k ðzÞqx;k ðtÞ ð9Þ

k k

The actual VIV response frequencies and mode-shape functions

are highly coupled with the added mass distribution along the where φk ðzÞ is the kth mode shape, and qk ðtÞ is the kth modal

riser, and iteration is necessary to carried out in modal analysis. coordinate. The subscripts ‘y' and ‘x’ stand for cross-ﬂow and

in-line directions, respectively.

2.3. Damping models Substituting Eq. (9) into Eqs. (1) and (2), and assuming that

coupling is negligible, one obtains

Generally, positive value in the contours of lift coefﬁcient

denotes that the excitation force synchronize to the riser's velocity, M CF;k q€ y;k ðtÞ þ RCF;k q_ y;k ðtÞ þK CF;k qy;k ðtÞ ¼ P CF;k ðtÞ ð10Þ

H. Xue et al. / Ocean Engineering 83 (2014) 52–62 55

M IL;k q€ x;k ðtÞ þ RIL;k q_ x;k ðtÞ þ K IL;k qx;k ðtÞ ¼ P IL;k ðtÞ ð11Þ

R

L ½mr þ ΔmðzÞφ ðzÞdz, Rk is the modal damping and can be

2

R R

expressed as Rk ¼ L cs ðzÞφ2k ðzÞdz þ L Lin cf ðzÞφ2k ðzÞdz, in which Lin

is the length of lock-in region, K k is the modal stiffness, and P k is

the modal force and can be expressed as

R

P k ðtÞ ¼ Lin 12C L ðz; tÞρf DV 2 φk ðzÞdz. The subscripts ‘CF’ and ‘IL’ in

Eqs. (10) and (11) stand for cross-ﬂow and in-line directions,

respectively. Fig. 6. Sketch of overlap region excited by two modes.

The modal velocity for mode k can be expressed as

q_ k ðtÞ ¼ Ak ωk sin ðωk tÞ ð12Þ

where Ak is the modal displacement amplitude for the kth mode.

Therefore, the input and output power of the riser for mode k sheared current, as shown in Fig. 5. If the empirical shrinking

can be described as procedure for cross-ﬂow mentioned above is adopted for in-line

Z analysis, one of the power-in centers would disappear in some

1

Π in

k ¼ C L ðz; tÞρf DV 2 Ak ωk sin 2 ðωk tÞφk ðzÞdz ð13Þ cases.

Lin 2 In this study, it is assumed that the shedding vortex modes

Z Z associated with different stability regions for IL-VIV are indepen-

Π out

k ¼ cs ðzÞφ2k ðzÞA2k ω2k sin 2 ðωk tÞdz þ cf ðzÞφ2k ðzÞA2k ω2k sin 2 ðωk tÞdz dent mutually. The response amplitude of CF-VIV or IL-VIV excited

L L Lin

by the same excitation region is corrected by a weighted factor for

ð14Þ

each vibration mode. Assuming that the structure is excited by

On condition that the cylinder is in a stable lock-in state, the mode i and mode j according to the lock-in bandwidth, the power-

energy feed into the structure and the dissipated energy by in region can be divided into four zones as shown in Fig. 6. Zone1

structural and ﬂuid damping will be in balance. Let the integral and zone2 are excited by mode i, and zone3 and zone4 compose

value of Π k be equal to Π k in one period, then the response

in out the j-th mode power-in region. The input power of mode i and

amplitude can be obtained by mode j within the overlap is to be reduced by the weights.

R The input power of mode i and mode j can be expressed as

2 Lin C L ðzÞρf DV jφk ðzÞjdz

1 2

Ak ¼ R R ð15Þ Π i ¼ Π 1 þ δi Π 2 ; Π j ¼ δj Π 3 þ Π 4 ð16Þ

L cs ðzÞφk ðzÞωk dz þ L Lin cf ðzÞφk ðzÞωk dz

2 2

where δi and δj are the weight factors for mode i and mode j,

It should be noted that the lift and damping coefﬁcients are respectively, δi ¼ Π 2 =Π 2 þ Π 3 , δj ¼ Π 3 =Π 2 þ Π 3 , and Π 1 Π 4 are

coupled with response amplitude for cross-ﬂow and in-line VIV. calculated by Eq. (13).

Then an iteration procedure will be performed for the calculation Hence, the VIV amplitude corrected factor for each mode is

until convergence is achieved. obtained as follows:

Bases on the theory of Shear7, the concept of mode cutoff is

introduced, i.e. a mode’s power-in region will be excluded in the Πi Π1 Π 22

wi ¼ ¼ þ

subsequent calculation if the power ratio for this mode is less than Π 1 þ Π 2 Π 1 þ Π 2 ðΠ 1 þ Π 2 ÞðΠ 2 þ Π 3 Þ

the cutoff value. The cutoff value is set as 0.7 for cross-ﬂow and Πj Π4 Π 23

in-line VIV prediction in this paper. wj ¼ ¼ þ ð17Þ

Π 3 þ Π 4 Π 3 þ Π 4 ðΠ 2 þ Π 3 ÞðΠ 3 þ Π 4 Þ

Non-uniform current proﬁle may induce multi-frequencies VIV

response and there may exist overlaps between adjacent power-in Vortex-induced vibration will cause signiﬁcant cyclic stress on

regions. In the previous studies, the overlap problem is usually risers, which can cause fatigue damage. The stress can be given by

solved by empirical method or assumptions. Bokaian (1994) M x ðtÞD M y ðtÞD

assumed that the overlap region was excited by higher-order sðθ; tÞ ¼ sin θ þ cos θ ð18Þ

2I 2I

mode. In Shear7 software, a mode overlap elimination procedure

where M x and M y are the bending moments on the riser section

was performed to shrink the power-in region length of each mode

induced by CF-VIV and IL-VIV, respectively. θ is the angle as shown

involved in the overlap equally until the overlap disappears. It

in Fig. 7. The bending moments in mode k can be calculated by

should be noted that the shrinking procedure is useful for CF-VIV

M x;k ðz; tÞ ¼ EI φ″y;k ðzÞqy;k ðtÞ and M y;k ðz; tÞ ¼ EI φ″x;k ðzÞqx;k ðtÞ.

response prediction, but may lead to new problems when applying

Miner’s rule is widely used in fatigue analysis for marine and

in IL-VIV. As described in Section 2.1, there exist two main

offshore structures. In accordance with DNV standard (DNV, 2001),

excitation regions for in-line vibration with different vortex shed-

the fatigue damage of the riser in mode k can be expressed as

ding modes and frequencies, and both of the regions may induce

signiﬁcant exciting force. Furthermore, there will be several T D f k ½SCF Δsk ðzÞm

Df ;k ðzÞ ¼ ð19Þ

centers of the power-in regions when the riser is exposed to a A

where T D is design life of the structure, f k is the cycle counting

frequency, Δs is the stress range, m and A are the parameters of

S–N curve, and SCF is the stress concentration factor.

When multi-frequency response occurs, the fatigue stress can

be combined by the square root of the sum of squares (SRSS)

approach and the cycle counting frequency is taken as the

weighted SRSS frequency.

sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

ﬃ

rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Δsi ðzÞ 2

ΔsSRSS ðzÞ ¼ ∑ Δsi ðzÞ ; f SRSS ðzÞ ¼ ∑ f i

2

ð20Þ

Fig. 5. Sketch of overlap region in IL-VIV. i i ΔsSRSS ðzÞ

56 H. Xue et al. / Ocean Engineering 83 (2014) 52–62

The laboratory VIV measurements of a tensioned riser in a Fig. 8. Layout of Chaplin’s VIV tests.

stepped current were carried out by Chaplin et al. (2005a, 2005b).

The riser model was 13.12 m long and 28 mm diameter, and its

lower 45% length was in a uniform current, while the upper part Table 1

was in still water. The layout of the experiments is shown in Fig. 8, Properties of the riser model in Chaplin’s tests.

and other properties of the riser model are listed in Table 1.

Properties Values

Three cases of which current velocity varies from 0.16 m/s to

0.54 m/s are chosen for VIV predictions and comparisons in this Total length (m) 13.12

study, as shown in Table 2. Diameter (m) 0.028

The envelopes of cross-ﬂow and in-line VIV amplitude are Mass (including internal water) (kg/m) 1.85

given in Fig. 9. For CF-VIV response, the present method predicts Apparent weight (N/m) 12.1

Flexural rigidity (N/m2) 29.9

the same main excited mode and the approximate amplitudes as

Structural damping 0.33%

well as the experimental data. The response is mainly dominated

by single mode and the higher mode is excited with the current

velocity increasing.

For IL-VIV, the values shown in Fig. 9 are the dynamic response

Table 2

amplitude, not including the static displacement due to in-line

Test conditions for VIV prediction and comparison.

current. The prediction values have general agreement with the

measure values, while the envelopes of displacement show that Cases Current speed (m/s) Top tension (N)

the in-line response is composed as multiple frequencies. From

Fig. 2 it can be found that the ﬁrst excitation region A 0.16 405

B 0.31 457

(0.375of r;IL o 0.76) has a wide non-frequency bandwidth and C 0.54 598

the variation of lift coefﬁcient is smooth, which lead to approx-

imate input-power for adjacent vibration modes. However, the

bandwidth for the second excitation region (0.27 of r;IL o0.375) is

relatively narrow, and single frequency is likely to be excited.

Fig. 10 shows the cross-ﬂow and in-line response frequencies

and mode weight factors. The in-line vibration contains the double According to Fig. 12(a), the present model and experimental

and triple cross-ﬂow frequency components with higher order data show that mode 11(2.1 Hz) and mode 12(2.3 Hz) are the

modes, which is quite different with CF-VIV. dominant modes in this case. The maximum non-dimensional

displacement is about 0.35, which occurs near the bottom end of

the riser. The prediction results have more regular modal shapes

3.2. Tensioned risers in a linearly sheared current which lead to a little larger than the experimental values,

especially near the top end of the riser. Fig. 12(b) is the comparison

HanØtangen’s experiment was carried out on the west coast of of the curvature along the riser in cross-ﬂow direction. The ﬁlled

Norway. The 90 m riser model was attached to a ﬂoating vessel circles represent the experimental measurements. The results

and kept at constant tension by a buoyancy can, as shown in Fig. 11 show that in the mid-region of the riser, the present model

(Lie and Kaasen, 2006). By moving the vessel at a constant speed, predicts little lower results, and in the two end regions, the

the riser was exposed to a linearly sheared current. The main curvature values are approximate with the experimental data.

parameters of the riser are listed in Table 3. Fig. 13 shows the RMS values of the in-line VIV displacement

The case with top velocity of 0.54 m/s is calculated by the and the curvature along the riser. It can be found that the

proposal numerical model in this study. Fig. 12 shows the root- experimental measurements of in-line response are more irregular

mean-square (RMS) values of the cross-ﬂow VIV displacement and than the cross-ﬂow vibration with wide and high participating

the curvature along the riser. modes. The results of present model indicate that the dominant

H. Xue et al. / Ocean Engineering 83 (2014) 52–62 57

st

Cross Flow In Line (2nd Region) In Line (1 Region)

Mode 2, 0.88Hz

Mode 4, 1.84Hz

Case A Mode 5, 2.30Hz

Mode 6, 2.81Hz

Mode 4, 1.95Hz

Mode 7, 3.74Hz

Case B

Mode 9, 5.00Hz

Mode 10, 5.69Hz

Mode 6, 3.50Hz

Mode10, 6.54Hz

Case C Mode 12, 8.15Hz

Mode 13, 9.02Hz

Mode 14, 9.95Hz

Mode Weight Factor

modes are mode 21(4.8 Hz), mode 22(5.2 Hz) and mode 23(5.5 Hz), RMS displacement is a little larger than the measurements except

while the experimental amplitude spectrum shows the peaks are for the riser’s bottom zone. Fig. 13(b) is the comparison of the

around 4.2 Hz and 5.4 Hz (Lie and Kaasen, 2006). The predicting curvature along the riser in in-line direction. The maximum

58 H. Xue et al. / Ocean Engineering 83 (2014) 52–62

predicting value is about 1.43 mm 1 and it is closed to the distribution would inﬂuence curvature’s precision largely. In gen-

measurements. eral, the prediction values have reasonable agreement with the

It should be noted that the curvature, being proportional to the experiment data in this case.

bending stress in structural fatigue damage calculations, is

obtained by the second derivative of the displacement. Therefore,

the computational accuracy of response amplitude, added mass

4. Discussions on VIV fatigue damage characteristics

Table 3

Properties of the HanØtangen’s riser model. In this section, the HanØtangen’s riser model described in

Section 3.2 is used to carry out the parametric studies on the

Properties Values

fatigue damage induced by CF- and IL-VIV. The load case with

Length (m) 90.0 parameters in Table 3 and the top velocity of 0.54 m/s is deﬁned as

Outer diameter (m) 0.030 the base case. The D-curve from DNV standard (DNV, 2010) is

Inner diameter (m) 0.026 applied which is valid for specimens in seawater exposed to free

Elastic modulus (N/m2) 2.1 1011

corrosion. The stress concentration factor is set to 1.0, and the

Mass (kg/m) 2.27

Top tension (N) 3700 length and diameter of the riser remain constant for all cases. The

variables of the top velocity, riser tension, internal ﬂuid density

Fig. 14. Fatigue damage distributions under different current velocity proﬁles.

H. Xue et al. / Ocean Engineering 83 (2014) 52–62 59

and the material of riser are invested to discuss their effects on VIV From this case study, it can be drawn that increasing top

fatigue damage. tension properly would be beneﬁt for riser’s VIV fatigue damage,

especially in cross-ﬂow vibration. However, this will also increase

the tension stress of the riser cross section, therefore, an optimized

4.1. Effect of the top velocity in sheared current strategy should be considered for both fatigue and yielding

strength in practical engineering.

The velocity of the top velocity is multiplied by 0.90 and 1.10, i.e.

0.486 m/s and 0.594 m/s. The resulting damages are compared with

4.3. Effect of the internal ﬂuid density

the base case, see Fig. 14. It is shown that the maximum fatigue

damage induced by cross-ﬂow and in-line VIV is around 0.86 and

The risers may contain different ﬂuid in drilling and oil produc-

0.78, respectively. Although the response displacement in cross-ﬂow

tions. In this study, the typical densities of oil, sea water and mud are

direction is quite larger than in-line values, the maximum fatigue

selected to invest the effects of internal ﬂuid on VIV fatigue. The

damage is approximately at the same level. The results under

fatigue damage distributions along the riser with different internal

different velocity proﬁles show that high velocity will excite high

ﬂuids are shown in Fig. 16. The general trend of the fatigue damage is

order modes which will cause more severe damage.

to be increased with higher internal ﬂuid density due to its effect on

It is worthwhile to point out that a reduction of 10% from the

the riser’s natural frequencies. It seems that the variations of fatigue

base case in the current velocities leads to a decrease in fatigue

damage are less regular and mainly depend on the excited vibrating

damage of around 50% for both cross-ﬂow and in-line vibrations.

modes. For CF-VIV, the dominant modes for oil density and the base

case, seawater, are mode 11 and mode 12, which may lead to slight

4.2. Effect of the top tension difference in fatigue damage. The dominant frequencies will be

moved to mode 12 and mode 13 when mud density is selected,

The top tension is varied around the base case value, consider- which will cause more severe damage than other ﬂuids. For IL-VIV,

ing 2960 N and 4440 N. The fatigue damage distributions along the dominant response frequencies are both 22nd and 23rd modes

the riser with different top tensions are shown in Fig. 15. It can be for seawater and mud density, meanwhile the riser with oil will be

found that the fatigue damage will decrease when the top tension excited in 21st and 22nd modes.

increases for both CF- and IL-VIV. It is the reason that the riser’s

natural frequencies would be increased with larger tension and 4.4. Effect of the riser’s material

lower order modes might be excited, which would lead to reduce

the bending stress and cycle counting frequency. The aluminum alloys with higher speciﬁc strength among

One important observation should be noted that the fatigue metals have attracted the designers’ attention as an alternative

damage variations are limited in a certain range for in-line VIV material in the fabrication of risers in recent years. In this study,

with different top tensions. It is known that the eigenfrequencies the VIV fatigue damage for the aluminum alloy riser (AAR) is

of a tensioned riser will be tension dominated for the lower predicted to compare with the conventional steel riser (SR).

modes, while the bending stiffness becomes more important with The principal parameters of SR and AAR are listed in Table 4.

increasing mode order. Hence, the effort of tension is much more The geometrical dimensions and velocity remain the same as the

signiﬁcant for cross-ﬂow vibration than in-line VIV. base case. The S-N curve for AAR is adopted from the fatigue test

Fig. 16. Fatigue damage distributions with different internal ﬂuid densities.

60 H. Xue et al. / Ocean Engineering 83 (2014) 52–62

results in seawater published in Gelfgat et al. (2004), see Fig. 17. Fig. 18 shows the natural frequencies of mode 1 to mode 30 for

The top tension applied on the AAR is 1530 N, which keeps the the SR and AAR in the still water. The frequencies of the AAR are

same ratio of tension to apparent weight as the steel riser in the lower than the steel riser’s, due to the difference in elastic

base case. modulus.

The distributions of combined fatigue stress are shown in

Fig. 19. The peak stress for the SR is 18.1 MPa and 13.3 MPa for

Table 4

CF- and IL-VIV respectively, while the values are about 9.7 MPa

Principal parameters of steel riser and aluminum alloy riser.

and 8.2 MPa for the AAR in the same current proﬁle. Even though

Parameters Steel riser (SR) Aluminum alloys riser (AAR) the dominant modes of the AAR are higher than the SR, their

response frequencies are of slight difference, as shown in Fig. 20.

Elastic modulus (N/m2) 2.1 1011 7 1010 Fig. 21 shows the fatigue damage distributions of the steel riser

Density (kg/m3) 7800 2650

Top tension (N) 3700 1530

and the aluminum alloys riser. The fatigue damage of the AAR is

about 10% of the SR due to its lower bending stress both for CF and

IL vibrations. From this viewpoint, the application of the alumi-

num alloys shows signiﬁcant beneﬁts in VIV fatigue for deepwater

risers.

5. Conclusions

in-line directions for marine risers is presented from practical and

industrial viewpoints. The forced vibration experimental data of a

rigid cylinder and the empirical non-linear damping model is used

to simulate the cross-ﬂow and in-line hydrodynamic coefﬁcient,

respectively. The response amplitude is corrected by the input

power within the overlap excitation region. In order to validate the

approach, two ﬂexible riser models under stepped and linearly

sheared currents are simulated to compare with the measured

data. The VIV fatigue damage characteristics affected by some key

Fig. 18. Comparison of natural frequencies for SR and AAR. Fig. 20. Dominant response frequency.

H. Xue et al. / Ocean Engineering 83 (2014) 52–62 61

variables are discussed based on the proposal model. The conclu- and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher

sions obtained can be summarized as follows: Education of China (Grant No. 20100073120017).

able agreement with the experimental observations in CF and

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