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PATENT SPECIFICATION

Application Date: Dec. 74, 1937. No. 34,657/37,


Complete Left: Nov. 70, 7932.
Complete Accepted: June 74, 1933. POOR
PROVISIONAL SPECIFICATION. QUALITY
Improvementsin and relating to ‘Sound-transmmission, Sound-
recording and Sound-reproducing Systems.
We, Atan Dowrr Brumezrn, of 657, trolling the sound, emitted for example
Earl’s Court Square, London, S.W. 5, a by such loud speakers, in such a way that
British subject, and Execrric
anp the directional effect will be retained.-
Musrcat Inpusrrizs, Limrrep, of BlythThe operation of the ears in determin-
5 Road, Hayes, in the County of Middlesex, ing the direction of a sound source is not
a collpany revistered under the laws of yet fully known but it is fairly well estab-
Great Britain, do hereby declare the lished that the main factors having effect 60
nature of this invention to be as are phase differences and intensity differ-
follows :— ences between the sounds reaching the-two
This invention relates to the transmis- ears, the influence which each of these
sion, recording and reproduction“of sound has depending upon the frequency of the
and is more particularly directed to sounds emitted. For low frequency sound 65
systems for recording and reproducing waves there is little or no difference in
speech, music and other sound effects, intensity at the two ears but there is a
i 45 especially when associated with picture marked phase difference. For a given

effects as in talking motion pictures. obliquity of sound the phase difference is
The fundamental object of the inven- approximately proportionalto frequency, 70
¥ tion is to provide a sound recording and representing a fixed time delay between
reproducing system whereby a true direc- sound arriving at the two ears, by noting
ard 20 tional impression may be conveyed to a which the brain decides the direction froin
listener thus improving the illusion that which the sound arrives. This operation
eH

& .
the sound is coming, and is only coming, holds for all frequencies up to that at 35
from the artist or other sound source pre- which there is a phase difference of z
sented to the eye. In order that the radians or more between sounds arriving
hee

29 physical basis “of the invention can be at the two ears from a source located on
appreciated and the stages of it§ develop- the line joining them; but above such'a
2
so;

ment understood, known and established


facts’ concerning the physical relations
frequency if phase difference were the sole 80
feature relied upon for directional loca-
between sound sources, sound waves tion there would be ambiguity in the
30 emitted thereby, and the human ears will apparent position of the source. At that
be briefly summarised. stage however the head begins to become
Human ability to determine the direc- effective as a baffle and causes noticeable 85
tion from which sound arrives is due to intensity differences between the sounds ©.
35
binaural hearing, the brain being able to reaching the two ears, and it is by noting
detect differences ‘between sounds received such intensity differences that the brain
by the two ears from the same source and determines direction of sounds at higher
thus to determine angular direction, This frequencies. It has been’ stated that the 90
function is well known and has been frequency at which the brain changes overt
employed to considerable extent for from phase- to intensity-discriminition
a 0 examplé in sub-aqueots directional detec- occurs at about 700 c.p.s. but it miust be
tion in which two microplionesare con: understood that this may vary within
nected by headphones, one to each ear of quite wide limits in different circum- 95
an observer, the two channels between stances and from person to person, and
the microphones andthe two ears being that in any case the transference is’ not
e kept entirely separate. sudden or discontinuous but there is con~
With two microphones correctly spaced siderable overlap of the two phenomena
and the two channels entirely separate so that over a considerable frequency 100
it is known that this directional effect can range differences of both phase and intén-
also be obtained for example in a studio, sity will to some extent have an effectin
50 but if the channels are not kept separate determining. the sense of direction experi-
(for example, by replacing the headphones enced. "
by two loud speakers) the effect is largely
Jost. The invention contemplates con-
From the above‘ considerations it will
be clear that a directional effect is to ‘ba 105
(
Sener]
R
394,325

er saa
‘Qemweeen.

obtained by providing low-frequency mission, recording and/or reproduction,


phase differences and high-frequency and in further featpres which will become
intensity differences at the two ears, and apparent from the following description

ote!
it would appear that in reproducing from of one manner of carrying out the inven-
5 two loud speakers the differences received tion. It must be understood however that ‘4
by two microphones suitably spaced to this description is given merely by way
represent human ears would give this of example and does not ‘impose any
effect to a listener if each microphone restrictions upon the scope of the inven-
were connected only to one loud speaker, tion or the manner and means whereby it
40 it Gan 06 Shown howeverthat phase differ- may be accomplished 75
ences necessary at the ears for low-fre- It will be clear that the invention is
quency directional sensation are not pro- particularly applicable to talking motion
duced by phase differences at two loud pictures and the following description
speakers (both of which communicate will therefore be given with reference to |
i5 with both ears) but are produced by this application. In one form of the 90,
intensity differences at the speakers: invention convenient for this purpose the
while initial intensity differences from the sounds to be recorded and reproduced with
sources necessary for high-frequencies are the pictures may be received by two pres- i
not sufficiently marked when the sounds sure microphones mounted on opposite :
20 reach the ears, and to produce suitable sides of a block of wood to represent ears 83
effects therefore the initial differences On an artificial head. The outputs from
must be amplified. the two microphones are taken to suitably

Reeeee
It will be seen therefore that the inven- arranged transformers or bridge or net-
tion consists broadly in so controlling the work circuits which convert the two

+
25 intensities of sound to be or being, emitted primary channels into two’ secondary 96 '
by a plurality of loud speakers or similar channels which may he called the sum-
sound sources, in suitable spaced relation- mation and difference channels. These
ship to the listener, that the listener’s ears are arranged so that the current
will note low-frequency phase differences flowing into the summation channel
30 and high-frequency intensity differences will represent half the sum, or the §%
suitable for conveying to the brain a mean, of the currents flowing in”
desired sense of direction of the sound the two original channels, while the
origin. current flowing into the difference channel
It must be understood that the control- will represent Ralf the difference of the
ling of intensities of a plurality of loud currents in the original channels. If 106
speakers spaced, for example, round a the original currents differ in phase only,
motion picture screen has previously been the current in the difference channel will
proposed and no novelty for mere inten-
sity control per se is claimed, except inso- be- different in phase from the current
20 far as the nature ofthe control is such as in the summation channel. This differ-
to provide the necessary phase and inten- ence current is then passed through a 10%
sity difference sensations. -If the sound condenser; the voltage across this con-
is first recorded and subsequently repro- denser will be in phase with the summa-
duced from the records, the control may tion channel current. By passing the
45 be wholly effected either during the summation channel currend through a
recording or during reproduction, or may resistance, a voltage is obtained which [10
be partially carried out in each stage. remains in phase with the voltage across
More specifically the invention consists the condenser in the difference channel.
in a method of transmitting, recording These two voltages are then combined and
50 and/or reproducing sound wherein a re-separated by the same process as pre-
plurality of transmission channels so viously adopted so as to produce two final 443,
interact, each upon each, or are in such channels. The voltage in the first final .”.
relation or so relatively modified in com- channel will be the sum of these voltages ~~"
bination and subsequently reseparated, and the voltage in the second final channel ~
55 that the complete intelligence initially will be the difference between these volt-
transmitted is further conveyed, differ- ages. Since these voltages were in phase ie
ently arranged, between the channels. the two final channels will be in phase °*
The invention also consists in a method but will differ in magnitude.’ By choos- ~~,
of transmitting, recording and/or repro- ing the value of the shunt resistance in .~
60 ducing sound wherein phase differences the summation channel and the shunt -
between a plurality of signals are con- condenser in the difference channel for a 43h.
verted into amplitude differences. given frequency, any degree of amplitude:
The invention also consists in apparatus difference in the final channel can he
and means for carrying into effect the
et Raw

obtained for a given phase difference in


65 above specified methods of sound trans-
SAU TEL Hey

the original channels. For the low fre-

~ a
394,925 3
quencies it can be shown that the phase It will be appreciated that the amount
difference between the waves will, for a of modification of the impulses trans-
given obliquity of the sound source, vary mitted through the summation and differ-
proportionately with frequency, being ence channels as indicated above depends
10 6 very small for a very low frequency. upon a number of factors, including the 7¢
Hence the use of a shunt condenser in relative spacing of the microphones and
the difference circuit will have the effect of the loud speakers, and the size and
of producing a fixed intensity difference positioning of the screen. It can be
in the final channels for a given obliquity shown that for low frequencies w the
5| 10 at all low frequencies, degree of modification required in the 75
For the higher frequencies as indicated difference channel as compared with the
aboveit is not necessary to convert phase modification in the summation channel is
shifts into amplitude differences, but given by :—
simply to modify amplitude differences.
80 | 45 The shunt condenser in the difference cir- Kot Ye
cuit is therefore built out with a resistance jo Ok a
whose value determines the degree of where 86°
modification. v=velocity of sound.
It may be found necessary to employ y=fraction of half picture film width
85 20 more complex circuits than the shunt which the image of the sound
resistance and condenser in the summation source is off centre.
circuit and shunt resistance in the differ- §=angle of obliquity, in radians, of the 85-
ence circuit, which however form the source from the median plane
basic arrangement. However it must be between the microphones. —
95, understood that the circuits employed may k= effective distance apart of the micro-
“~ be considerably modified as required phones.
without departing from the scope of the s=width of screen of theatre. 90
invention. a=distance apart of loud speakers in
If two very small microphones are used theatre.
. 9 and placed very close together it may be This expression in effect gives the
found possible to obtain microphone out- impedance of the shunt capacity in the
puts which do not differ appreciably in difference channel in terms of the resis- 95
amplitude but only in phase for all work- tance in the summation channel. It holds
ing frequencies. In this case the modi- for all frequencies where / is small com-
35 fying circuit would be arranged to con- pared to the wavelength, and is based on
" vert phase differences into amplitude the assumption that the 9 is small and
differences throughout the entire fre- that @ and s are small compared with the 100
quency range. The phase differences distance of the listener from the screen
dealt with at the low-frequencies however and loud speakers.
49 may be so small that in this case slight The portion + is a factor of the
” differences in the two microphone circuits
would have very large effects. On this recording, and is constant for a given _
account microphone spacing of the same arrangement if either the camera is in 105.
order as that of the human ears is most line with the microphones and the centre
45 suitable. ; of the picture, or the action does not move
The impulses transmitted through thé appreciably to or from the microphones
two channels as indicated above may then tive and camera. When recording, the rela- ,.
film, distances of camera and microphones 116
be recorded on two sound tracks on a
for example, by any suitable or known and the focal length of the lens may be
5Q means, which record may comprise a adjusted to maintain this factor a con-
sound track of constant density and vari- stant.
iar

. s&s,
able width (e.g. an oscillograph record),
1

The expression yz sa constant for the


or a sound track of constant width and
variable density (e.¢ a Kerr cell record). theatre. As regards low frequencies only, 115:
BB Such a record may be reproduced by the distance apart of the speakers need
passing light from the sameslit through not. exceed the screen width, but should
the two tracks. separating the beam into certainly not be closer than 70%of the
the two. record portions by means of screen width. The closer the loud
prismsor like optical means and employ- speakers the greater the necessary power 120
~ ing the outputs from two photo-electric handling capacity, but the less the
cells, excited by these separate parts of troubles introduced by formation of
the beam (after amplification) to operate stationary waves.
two loud speakers disposed one on each For the high frequencies no definite
side of the screen upon which the cinema- expression can easily be obtained, and the ig5
68 tograph pictures are projecte d. modification used will probably have to
T it
394325
be gauged empirically by trial and ervor. indicated above, while the binaural
The arguments and formula given above ‘transfer’? frequency (from phase- to
are based on a direct wave analysis and intensity-discrimination) need have no
may have to be considerably modified in definite significance in recording, since it
5 order to allow for reflection or other is a function of the human brain it is:
acoustic effects. It is preferred there- nevertheless uecessary to fix a change-
fore to introduce the modifications it is over frequency from high- to low-fre-
proposed to employ, at the theatre since quency working for recording, since thia
all factors will then enter into considera- frequency fixes the form of modification
- 40 tion. It will be clear that, as indicatéd to be used, the distamce apart of the °
above, the modifying networks and microphones and the form of bafile
channel arrangements may be employed between them. Any convenient fre-
between the microphones and the film quency may be choseri as standard after
during recording, or between the’ record experietice has decided which is most
15 and the loud speakers during reproduc- suitable. Instead of standardising it may
tion, and the latter course, in addition to be possible from the preliminary experi- .
allowing of adjustment of the azrange- ments to allow electrically for variation
ments to suit the particular theatre as of microphone positions and/or of micro-
indicated above, has the additional hone spacing (although the latter would
20 advantage that the sound film can be e extremely difficult) and it must be
reproduced by a single reproducing head. understood that this arrangement fallr
or channel if for example one of the dual within the scope of the invention.
arrangements breaks down, orin a theatre The above described system is based
which, having one iristallation, does not upon considerations in which no account
25 wish to go to the expense of installing a is taken of sound reflections or interfer-
second apparatus. ence either during recording ot reproduc-
In order to employ successfully a system tion. If difficulties arise from this cause
of the kind described above it is neces- they may be overcome by employing a
sary to carry out preliminary experiments second pair of loud speakers differently
30 to determine the most suitable value of spaced and having a different modifying
modification to be employed for each network from the first pair: or a row of
recording, and it is also necessary to speakers may be used with a composite,
standardise various factors entering into progressive modifying network to supply
every recording. In the preliminary them: or the two speakers may be placed
.35 experiments, before recording, volume comparatively close together, no direc- A
indicator measurements may be made with tional effect in this case being given te
a‘ statidard ‘source placed at the extrenties high frequencies, except insofar as a
of the “ set’, i.e. the space within which phase difference (when the angle of
recording is to be effected, and from these obliquity of the sound varies only withix
20 the proposed modifying networklaid: out. such very small limits as to avoid R
A further experiment may also be effected ambiguous results) may be employed te
to standardise phase angles on the film. give some such eifect even at high fre-
At the theatre a simple adjustment may quencies.
be provided to check and balance the input The system so-far described employs to
45 to the two channels, a length of test film receive the sound waves two pressure
being used for this pufpose. It will thus microphones.
Velocity or moving con-
be'seén that the total theatre equipment ductor microphones (e.g. moving strip
. necessary is very sitiple and consists in microphones) aré also very suitable and
a transmission modifier (comprising two may be employed, in which case various
50 or four transformers, for example, arti- alterations in the system may be neces- ,
ficial line resistances and the control net- sary. Suchvelocity microphones give a
work, which may be no more than a con- response varying as the cosine of the
denser and a resistance) and two normal angle of incidence of the sound relative
sound-reproducing heads or pick-ups, or to the direction of normal or optimum
55 one specially designed head or pick-up incidence, and they have the advantage
adapted to separate the two recordings in the present system that a specific degree:
to: two complete reproducing channels. of loud speaker outputseparation may be
There is no reason why the second channel obtained without phase-conversion or like
used should not be the ‘“‘ stand-by ” network modifications.
:: 60 channel now often installed for safety
since if, as indicated above, one of the
Three general arrangements employing x
velocity microphones are possible, and: in ’
channels breaks down reproduction may all cases the microphones are placed as
be continued without serious consequences near together as possible instead’ of being
onthe other channel only. spaced as artificial ears, as in the case of
63 In connection with the standardisation pressure microphones. #
x
394,325 5
_ (1) Two velocity microphonesare placed and it will be clear also that this pro-
one with its axis directly facing’ in ‘thie vides a method of directional sound trans-
direction of the centre of the scene, and mitting, recording and reproduction which
the other with its axis at right angles to avoids ths necessity of combining and
6 that direction. A performer speaking reseparating the two channels, =~
from the middle of the scene will affect Two velocity microphones set with their 70
only the face-on microphone, but if he axes symmetrically inclined to the direc-
moves to one side both microphones will tion of the centre line of ‘the scene, may,
provide outputs, while if he moves the if placed one above the other, be employed
10 other way the outputs are identical but also to provide significance of vertical as
the phase of the edge-on microphone is well as horizontal movement of the sound 15
reversed. Since the microphones are source. Such vertical displacement of
elose together no phase differences are the source will in this arrangement give
experienced between them and if their phase differences to the outputs while
45 outputs are summed and differenced after lateral displacement gives amplitude
a suitable amount of relative amplifica- differences, and these can be separated, 80
tion the two final channels differ in magni- the phase differences converted to inten-
iude in the correct manner for operating sity differences by modifying networks,
the loud speakers to give the desired direc- as described, and the resulting impulses
20 tional effect. Such sum and difference employed to operate four or more loud
REE,

arrangement differs from the modifying speakers distributed round the screen, the
85
network employed with pressure micro- transmission occupying however only two
ent in nh etal

phones in that the pressure type provide channels. A similar effect may be
phase differences (whereby direction is obtained with a plurality of pressure
25 determined) which have to he converted, microphones by employing suitable modi-
whereas with the velocity type the edge- fication previous to transmission. 80
on microphone provides an output pro- In obtaining a complete directional
portional to the obliquity of the source. “sound picture’, ize. both horizontal
(2) Two velocity microphones may he and vertical directional effects, the inven-
placed with their axes perpendicular to tion is not limited solely to the use of
'
'

one another and each axis at 45° to the two microphones. A plurality may be ob
direction of the centre of the screen. employed and their outputs suitably
mye

They are sufficiently close together to collected and/or modified and/or


Ie jai ane

render phase differences of the outputs separated to transmit suitable differences


‘¢

35 negligible and the output amplitudes of impulses to a plurality of loud speakers.


differ approximately proportionally to the The general feature is that two trans- 100
obliquity of the incident sound, They mitting channels, receiving impulses from
may therefore be amplified similarly, and two or-more microphones for example,
LeemanDN eneee bea ne ere eat

supplied directly to the loud speakers to communicate two directional senses at


40 which they’ will. give the-correct ampli- right angles to one another, the sounds
tude differences for the desired directional whereby this is‘done being provided ‘by 4 495
effect provided the relationship’ between plurality of loud speakers.
the various dimensions of the recording’ Tt will be seen that while with pressure
and reproducing ‘‘ lay-outs ”” are correct. . microphones it is preferred to transmit.
45 If it is desired to accommodate any differ- phase differences rather than amplitude
encies between the ‘‘ lay-outs’’ the out- ifferences and convert from ‘one to the 4ig
puts may be modified by networks, in the other in the last stage, ‘with’ velocity
manner described, suitably to increase or microphones it- is more convenient to’
decreasethe differences between them. transmit the two channels in phase but at”
(8) Two microphones may be arranged, different amplitudes, the only modifica-’
80 with the two axes lying symmetrically to tion then necessary being an increase or
the direction’ of the centre of the screen decrease of the amplitude differences
and with an angle between them -of say 9 should the reproducing “ lay-out ’ differ”
degrees, so that sound from a performer fromthe recording “‘ lay-out.’ or should
more than two loud speaker positions be
55 at the centre subtends an angle of used. 120
degrees to each microphone. If @ is There is a simple method by which
small a small movement of the performer modifications for increase or decrease ‘of
to one side is sufficient to make one micro- differences between channels may he
phone ‘‘ edge-on ”’ and to reduce its out- effected if no conversion of phase differ-
put to zero, while if @ is large a large ences into amplitude differences ‘is 19%
60 movement of the performeris necessary to required. The method is particularly “-
weed eel

do this. By making @ adjustable different useful for the operation of more than twa
** lay-outs ”? may be accommodated with- loud speakers. Tf the transmission is
out the modification indicated under (2) effected in the form of two channels of
ee
coe)

394,325
similar phase but different amplitudes, an present invention, one being only slightly
alteration of these amplitude differences different from the other, since a certain
may be effected by connecting one wire amount of créss-talk in this case does not
of each channel together and connecting matter, or can be allowed for. Further-
a choke between the other two wires of the more, the records now proposed are dis-
two channels. The outgoing channels tinguished from those previously known
whose difference is to be a modification of in that both channels may separately be
the original difference, are connected to recorded in one groove by single record-
the common point of the original ing tool (either of moving iron or mov-
10 channels, and to tappings along the choke. ing coil type) and be reproduced there-
If the differences are to be increased, the rom by a single reproducing device or
tappings at which the output channels are pick-up. .
connected lie outside the tappings to Tf the two channels being recorded are
which the input channels are connected, directly picked up from two micro-
15 so that the choke operates in effect as an
phones, or are intended to work unmodi- BG
auto-transformer amplifying the differ- fied into two speakers, that is with intensi-
ence voltages. Similarly, for a reduction ties and qualities similar, it is preferred
of differences, the output channels are not to cut one track as lateral cut and the
tapped intermediately between the two other as hill and dale, but to cut themas
20 input channels. Modifications of this two tracks whose movement axes lie at
arrangement in which the devices are 45° to the wax surface, or at some other
balanced about earth, etc. may be convenient angle dependent on the rela-
arranged, but the chief advantage is that tive available intensities from lateral cut
the modification is varied entirely by and hill and dale respectively. If, how-
altering tappings along a transformer or ever, the two channels recorded are such
choke, and that no great power loss is as summation and difference channels, it
involved. is preferred to separate them completely
This arrangement. of a choke or trans- into pure hill and dale and pure lateral
former is well suited to working a number cut, i.e. to make the recording axes nor-
30 of loud speakers for binaural reproduc- mal and tangential to the wax surface.
tion. In this case, the two outputs from The result in the two above suggested
power valves are fitted to a choke along cases is very similar since channels
which the loud speakers are tapped. The recorded at 45° to the wax surface give
position of the loud speaker tappings can their sum and difference as the effective
35 be adjusted to suit their relative positions, lateral and hill and dale amplitudes. 208
and it can be arranged that the valves are It will be appreciated that a record,
working into their best impedances. cut as a combined hill and dale and
Transformers may be used to ensure the lateral, may be reproduced if desired as
speakers taking their correct fraction of two skew direction cuts, the basic
40 the output. . principle being that the sroove has ampli- 403
While, in connection with the above tude in anydirection in the plane at right
described systems, it is suggested that angles to the direction of wax movement,
when it is desired to record the sounds and the recording and reproducing direc.
for subsequent reproduction this may be tions may be chosen as any pair of axes
45 done upon a film, the invention is not lines, not necessarily at right angles in
limited to that medium since the record- this plane.
ing may if desired be effected on discs or It would appear that for such a record,
cylinders of suitable material. In carry- a material other than that now used for
ing out the invention in this manner the lateral cut records, would be desirable,
50 two channels may if desired be recorded and a material of the nature of cellulose
in separate eroovesbut it is preferred that acetate is indicated.
they be recorded in the same groove hav- The track section is preferably adapted
inga hill and dale and also a lateral cut to work with a sapphire and have a suffi-
movement, For the purposes of television ciently fine angle to give lateral as well
been made as vertical control to the sapphire.
BB previous proposals have a sound record as The recorder whereby both channels
whereby a wax disc has
9 hill and dale cut and a picture record may be cut by a single tool on the same
as a laterally cut V-shaped groove at the eroove may take various forms, the under-
bottom of the hill and dale groove, or vice lying feature being that a light stylus is
records appear unsuited for pulled in two directions at right angles to
60 versa. Such
separate and distinct sound recordings one another and each preferably at 45°
since undoubtedly considerable cross-talk to the wax surface.
between the two recordings would occur. In one such form the recorder may con-
They can however be used for two sist in a short circular reed mounted close
65 channels of the kind contemplated in the above and parallel with the wax track, 130
ee
394,325
One end of this reed may be firmly fixed like manner any axis conversion can be
in the one pole of an electromagnet which effected by suitably c&bining the
would pass back over it and complete the channels through transformers.
magnetic circuit in two laminated arms In designing an electric
70 5 extending down towards the other free reproduce both- channels care pick-up to
must be
end of the reed. ‘These arms form two taken that the inertia is kept as low as
poles adjacent to a square portion of the possible, and with this in mind a
very
reed at its free end, each pole being light replica of the above described mov-
adapted to pull the reed in a direction at ing iron recorder may be employed.
15 i0 45° to the wax surface. The reed may Alternatively, a moving system
ME aet te ee

in the
he suitably damped, e.g. with rubber, and form of a J following the lines of the 5
have a resonant frequency at the top of, moving coil recorder suggested above,
or above, the working range. The free may be employed; moving coils may be
end of the reed carries the sapphire. The used for such a pick-up or the coils
45 two pole pieces may be wound with replaced by air gaps of an iron system.
speech coils, and the energisation of one Since the fundamental resonant frequency 80
of these would move the sapphire in an of a pick-up appears to be of no critical
upward direction at 45° to the wax sur- importance as regards its characteristic,
face. Any reduction in the pull of one it may not be necessary to adjust the
20 pole due to the increased flux of the resonant frequency in the two modes to
other, may be compensated hy additional thesame value, which would simplify 85
windings on one pole connected in series the design. Adjustments for sensitivity
with those on the other. Thus energis- in the two modes could be made by suit-
ing any winding will produce the required ably connecting coils wound on the two
movement at 40° to the wax surface, the limbs of the magnetic circuits.
characteristic being equalised. The hereindeseribed acoustic system 90
an ee ee ence sete ee lea Glfo

An alternative moving coil design while being especially applicable to talk-


employing electromagnetic damping may ing pictures is not limited' to such use.
consist of a moving member in the shape It may be employed in recording sound
,
a

30 of aT. The lower arm of the T. extends quite independently of any picture effects
wt

towards the wax and carries the sapphire; and in this connection (as well as when 98
the horizontal memberof the T is at right used in cinematograph work) it seems
angles to the direction of wax movement, probable that the binaural effect intro-
'

and carries at its ends two wound moy- duced will be found to improve the
35 ing coils. These moving coils whose axes acoustic properties of recording studios 100
'

are vertical move in suitable annular field- and to save any drastic acoustic treat-
n

gaps. The movement may be supported ment thereof while providing much more
at approximately the cenire of the T by realistic and satisfactory reproduction.
ees eammntnet

elastic means, which permit of both rota- Furthermore, the system mayclearly be
tional and vertical movement within the employed when the microphone outputs 0
plane of the T. Adjustments may be are led directly to the loud speakers
provided to make the resonant frequency instead first of being recorded, and such
of these two movements similar. The an arrangement may for example be
characteristic correction for each coil employed in public address systems in
45 drive may be similar to those used for the which directional sound effects are desired.
. moving coil sound recorder described in In general the invention is applicable in
the specification of British Patent No. all cases where it is desired to give direc-
PeteeenetNeieee + + eaten= seen ate EE teres oN eee cccel

350,998. tional effects to emitted sound. Also in


Energisation of one coil both rotates all cases, both when the impulses are fed
and translates the T member giving an directly to the loud speakers and when
inclined cutting direction. By suitably they are recorded for subsequent reproduc- 445
proportioning the length of the vertical tion the total modification and/or inter-
member of the J this axis can be placed action of the channels may be accom-
where desired, and further can also be plished in more than one stage. For
55 controlled by interconnecting portions of example, using pressure microphones, the 120
the coil windings. low frequency phase differences may be
In all the devices described above, the amplified, the medium frequency phase
angles of the axes can be alteredby suit- differences converted to amplitude differ-
ably connecting the speech windings; for ences, and the high frequency amplitude
instance, axes which are normallyinclined differences augmented in a first stage of
at 45° to the wax surface can be converted modification; the low frequency phase
into pure hill and dale and lateral cut differences may then be converted to
axes byarranging that the speech wind- amplitude differences in a later stage of
ings are in series aiding for one channel modification. One or both of these stages
5 and opposing for the other channel. In may occur either before or after the
{30
394,325

sound has been recorded, In this manner another. Such uses fall within the scope
¢es the very small low frequencyphase .differ- of this invention. - ~ a
ences are augmented before they are It must finally be understood that the
amplified, so avoiding troubles due to invention is not restricted solely to the
5 small low frequency phase shifts in details of arrangements of the forms of
* amplifiers. -
the invention described above since
Moreover, the various devices employed varidtts modifications may be introduced
for carrying the invention into effect must in order to carry the invention into effect
be understood not to be limited to theirunder different conditions and require-
40 use with the other devices also herein- ments which have to be fulfilled without
described since clearly manyparts, such, departing in any way from the scope
for example, as the dual track record pre- covered thereby.
pared by a single cutter, and the multi-
strip direction-detecting microphone, are Dated this 14th day of December 1931.
45 clearly of wide use separately of one MARKS & CLERK.

COMPLETE SPECIFICATION.
Improvements in and relating to Scund-transmission, Sound-
‘recording and Sound-reproducing Systems.
We, Atan Dower Biumurty, of 57, siderable trouble is experienced with the
Earl’s Court Square, London, S.W. 5, a unpleasant effects produced by echoes
30 British subject, and TErcrric: anp. which in the normal way would not be
Musrcan Inpusrrizs, Luurren, of Blyth noticed by anyone listening in the room
Road, Hayes, in the County of Middlesex, in which the performance is taking place. 75
a company registered under the laws of An observer’ in the room is listening with
Great Britain, do hereby declare the two ears, so that, echoes reach him with
35 Bature of this invention and in what the directional significance: which he
manner the same is to be performed, to associates with the music performed in
be particularly described and ascertained. such a room. He therefore discounts these 80
in and by the following statement :— echoes and psychologically focuses his
This invention relates to the ‘trans attention on the source of sound. When
ZQ Mission, recording and reproduction of the music is reproduced through a single
sound and is more particularly directed to channel the echoes arrive from the same
systems for recording and reproducing direction as the direct sound so that con-
speech, music and other sound effects. It fusion results. -It is a subsidiary object of
is ‘applicable in particular, although not this invention So to give directional
245 exclusively, to systems associated with significance to the sounds that whenre-
picture effects as in talking motion produced the echoes are perceivedas such.
pictures, _ In order that the physical basis of thé
The fundamental object of the inven- invention can be appreciated -and the
tion is to provide a sound recording, re- stages of its development understood,
50 producing and/or transmission system known and established facts concerning
whereby there is conveyed to the listener. the physical relations between- sound
a realistic impression that the intelligence sources, sound waves emitted thereby, and |
is being communicated to him over two the human ears will be briefly sum
acoustic paths in the same manner as he marised, : :
55 experiences ‘in listening to everyday: _ Human ability to determine the direc-
acoustic intercourse and this object em- tion from which sound arrives is due to
braces also the idea of conveying to the binaural hearing, the brain being: able to
listener a true directional impression and detect differences between soundsreeerved
thus, in the case in which the sound is- by the two ears from the same source and !
60 associated with picture effects improving thus to determine angular directions from
the illusion that the sound is coming, and which various sounds arrive. This func-
is only coming, from the artist or other tion is well known and has been employed 10
sound source presented to the eye. to considerable extent for example in
The invention is not, however, limited subaqueous directional detection in which
age thyRTT IeeeA oe tanto

65 to use in connection with picture effects, two microphones are connected by head-
but may, for example, be used for im- phones, one to each ear of an observer
proving the qualities of public address, the two channels between the microphones +?
telephone or radio transmission systems, and the two ears being kept entirety”
or for improving the quality of sound separate. ‘ a -
70 recordings. When recording’ music con"! With two microphones correctly spaced
394,325
and the two channels kept entirely in determining the sense of direction
Separate e.g. by using headphones it is experienced,
known that this directional effect can also From the above considerationsit will
be obtained for example in a studio, Tf, clear that a directional effect is ta be
be
5 however, the channels are not kept obtained by providing impressions at the
separate (as, for example is the case in twoears of low frequency phase differenc 70
es
previously proposed arrangements for awh high frequency intensity differences,
recording and/or reproducing sound, in and it would appear that in reproduc
ing
cee

which sounds picked up by a plurality of from two loud speakers the differenc
es
10 pressure microphones are led to loud received by two microphones suitably
speakers which take the place of the head. spaced to represent human ears would give
Phones) the effect is almost entirely lost this effect to a listener if each microphone
and such systems have therefore not come were connected only to one loud speaker.
into common use since they are quite un- It can be shown however that phase
15 satisfactory for the purpose. The present differences necessary at the ears for low
invention contemplates controlling the frequency directional sensation are not 80
sound, emitted for example by such loud produced solely by phase differences at
ee ee

speakers, in such a way that the direc- two loud speakers (both of which com-
tional effect will be retained, municate with both ears) but that
20 The operation of the ears in determin- intensity differences at the speakers are
ing the direction of a sound source is necessary to give an effect of phase 85
not yet fully known but it is fairly well difference: while initial intensity
established that the main factors having differences from’ the sources necessary for
penton ees tk

effeet are phase differences and intensity high frequencies are not sufficiently
differences between the sounds reaching marked when the sounds reach the ears,
2) the two ears, the influence which each of and to produce suitable effects therefore 90
these has depending upon the frequency af the initial intensity differences must he
Be

the sounds emitted. For low frequency amplified. It is for this reason that the
- sound waves thereis little or nodifference aforementioned metheds previously pro-
- 30 in intensity at the two ears but there is a
posed (wherein only pressure microphones
marked phase difference. For a given were used) are not successful in achieving 9b
obliquity of sound the phase difference is the desired effect, these necessary altera-
approximately proportional to frequency, tions not having been understood or in
representing a fixed time delay between any way attained in those prior arrange.
35 sound arriving at the two ears, by noting ments.
which the brain decides the direction from LOO
It will be seen therefore that the inven-
which the sound arrives. This operation tian consists broadly in so controlling the
holds for all frequencies up to that at intensities of sound fo be, or Being,
which there is a phase difference of = emitted by a plurality of loud speakers or
40 radians or more between sounds arriving similar sound sources, in suitable spaced 103
at the two ears from a source located on relationship to the listener, that the
the line joining them; but above such a listener’s ears will note low frequency
frequency if phase difference were the sole phase differences and high frequency in-
feature relied upon for directional loca- tensity differences suitable for conveying
45 tion there would be ambiguity in the to the brain a desired sense of direction
apparent position of the source, At that of the sound origin. In other words the 140
stage however the head begins to become direction from which the sound arrives at
effective as a baffle and causes noticeable the microphones determines the charac-
intensity differences fhetween the sounds teristics (more especially, as will become
50 reaching the two ears, and it is by noting apparent hereafter, the intensities) of the
such intensity differences that the brain sounds emitted by the loud speakers in
determines direction of sounds at higher such a way as to provide this directional
frequencies. It has been stated that the sensation,
frequency at which the brain changes over It must be understood that the manual
55 from phase- to intensity-discrimination control by an observer of intensities of a 420
occurs at about 700 c.p.s, but it must be plurality of loud speakers spaced round a
understood that this may vary within motion picture screen has previously been
quite wide limits in different circum- proposed but this methad suffers consider-
stances and from person to person, and ably from the defectsindicated above, and
60 that in any case the transference is not in any case is very difficult and incon-
sudden or discontinuous but there is con- venient to operate. No novelty for mere
siderable overlap of the two phenomena intensity control per se is however
sa that over a considerable frequency claimed, except insofar as the nature of
range differences of both phase and in- the control is such as to provide the
65 tensity will to some extent have an effect necessary relative phase and intensity 130
se
10 394,325
difference sensations, is picked up by two directionally sensitive
If in accordance with the invention the microphones which are so spaced and/or
sound is first recorded and subsequently with their axes of maximum sensitivity so
reproduced from the records, the control directed relative fo one another and to
may be wholly effected either during the the sound source, that the relative loud-
recording or during reproduction, or may ness of loudspeakers which reproduce the
be partially carried out in each stage. It impulses is controlled by the direction
must be understood that wherever from which the sound reaches the micro-
throughout this specification the words phones.
10 “sound transmission’’ are employed
The invention also consists in a system teeee
(more especially in the claims specified as set forth above wherein two sets of im-
a

below), they cover (unless the context pulses are mechanically recorded in the
“otherwise requires) not only the case in same groove.
which impulses pass directly from the The invention also consists in a system
15 microphones to the loud speakers, but also as set: forth above wherein the impulses are
those arrangements embodying an inter-

oe
ot
transmitted by Sadio telephony.
mediate process or system of recording; The invention also consists in a system
and in the latter cases the said words as set forth above in combination with
apply to either, or both, the passage of means for the photographie recording or
20 impulses from the microphones to the
transmission and/or reproduction of
recording system, and from the reproducer pictures,
to the loud speakers. The word channel, as employed herein,
More specifically the invention consists Means an electric circuit carrying a
in a system of sound transmission wherein current having a definite form depending
the sound is picked up by a plurality of upon the original sounds in the studio.
microphone elements and reproduced by a Thus two channels may be different not
plurality of loud speakers, comprising two only because the average intensities or
or more directionally sensitive micro- types of current in them differ but also
} phones and/or an arrangement of elements because they originate from two micre-
i!
t 30 in the transmission circuit or circuts phones in different positions in the studio.
i?
whereby the relative loudness of the loud The nature of the invention will become
speakers is made dependent upon the apparent from the following description
direction from which the sounds arrive at of various methods and modes of carrying
the microphones. it into effect but
35 The invention also consists in a system that the differ it must be understood
ent forms described are
of sound transmission wherein the sound given merel
is received by two or more microphones, not impos y by way of example and do
wherein at low frequencies difference in of the invene any restri ctions upon the scope
tion or the manner and means
the phase of sound pressure at the micro- whereby it may
£0 phone is reproduced as difference in be accomplished.
The description will be more readily
volumeat the loud speakers. understood by reference to the accompany-
The invention further consists in a ing drawi
system of sound transmission in which the
ngs, wherein
Figure 1 represents diagrammatically
original sound is detected by two or more
45 microphones of a type such as velocity the assembly of one system according to
the invention ;
microphones whose sensitivity varies Figure 2 represents a microphonic
with the direction of incident sound, and arrangement for use according to one form
in which the dependence of the relative
responses of the microphones to the direc- of the invention :
50 tion of an incident sound wave is used Figure 8 represents a transformer
arrangement employed in one form of the
to control the relative volumes of sound
emitted by two or more loud speakers, invention: and
The invention also consists in a system Figure 4 shows a symbolic representa-
of sound transmission wherein impulses tion of the arrangement shown in Figure
55 from two microphones transmitted over
Figures 5, 6 and 7 represent various %
individual channels are adapted to inter-
act whereby two sets of impulses are circuit arrangements applicable to various
further transmitted consisting in half the forms of the invention, while
sum and half the difference respectively Figures 8. 9, 10 and 11 represent
60 of the original impulses, said impulses different forms of sound recorders which
being thereafter modified to contro! the mav be employed. 4 aide
wa

relative loudness of loud speakers whereby Tt. will the clear that the invention is
the sound is to be reproduced, varticularly anvlicable to talking motion
pictures and the following description
65 The invention also consists in a system will therefore be wiven with reference to
of sound transmission wherein the sound
this application. In one form of the in-

wre
394,325 ll
vention convenient for this purpose shown phase with the voltage across the con-
in Figure 1 the sounds to be recorded and deuser f in the difference channel. These
reproduced with the pictures may ite two voltages are then combined and re-
received from a source a by two pressure separated by a sum and difference process
microphones a,, a mounted on opposite such as previously adopted so as to pro-
ay

‘sides of a block of wood or baffle 8 which duce two final channels. The voltage
in
serves to provide the high frequency the first final channel willbe the sum of 70
intensity differences at the microphones in these voltages and the voltage in the
the same way as the human head operates second final channel will be the difference
10 upon the ears as indicated above, The between these voltages. Since these
outputs from the two microphones are voltages were in phase the two final
after separate amplification by separate channels will be in phase but will differ 75
similar amplifiers 6,, b, taken to suitably in magnitude. By choosing the valueof the
arrange circuits c comprising transformers shunt resistance 7in the summation channel
1h or bridge or network circuits which con- and the shunt condenserf in the difference
vert the two primary channels into two channel for ga given frequency,
secondary channels which may be called any degree of amplitude difference in the 80
the summation and difference channels. final channels can be obtained for a given
These are arranged so that the current phase difference in the original channels.
20 flowing into the summation channel will For the low frequencies it can be shown
represent half the sum, or the mean, of that the phase difference between the
the currents flowing in the two original waves will, for a given obliquity of the 85
channels, while the current flowing into sound source, vary proportionately with
the difference channel will represent half frequency, being very small for a very low
25 the difference of the currents in the frequency. Thus for a given obliquity
sett

original channels.
eon,

of the sound the current in the difference


One convenient transformer arrange- channel will be increasingly great com- 90
-ment for this purpose is shown in Figure pared with that in the summation channel
sane DN aos

3 wherein input currents from amplifiers the higher the frequency. Hence the use
_ 30_ primar
b,, b, are separately fed each to two of a shunt condenser f in the difference
y windings, one on each of two circuit will have the effect of producing a
RPh et a ee te et Re tNlatte Met he ee

transformers, the secondary winding of fixed intensity difference in the final 95


each transformer providing a “‘ sum ” or channels for a given obliquity at all low
“ difference’? output curvent on account frequencies,
:

- 35 of the senses in which the primary coils For the higher frequencies as indicated
ss

are wound as shown. A diagrammatic above it is not necessary to convert phase


representation of a sum and difference shifts into amplitude differences, but 400
arrangement (which may consist of a simply to reproduce amplitude differences.
transformer similar to that of Figure 3 or The shunt condenser f in the difference
40 any other suitable arrangement of cireuit circuit is therefore built out with a resist-
elements) is shown in Figure 4. . ance k whose value is substantially equal
Tn accordance with the form of the in- to that of resistance 7.
L

vention being described the two outputs In building this cireuit the capacity of
from the sum and difference arrangement the condenser f is of such value that its
are modified in order to obtain subse- impedance is small compared with that of
quently the desired sound effeets and one the series resistances d and « over the
convenient circuit arrangement for effect- whole working range, while the value of 110
ing this is shown in Figure § which re- resistance & is such that it equals the

presents the portion of the circuits reactance of the condenser at approxi-


indicated by c in Ficure 1. Assuming mately the frequency above which it is
the original currents differ in phase only, desired not to convert phase differences
the current in the difference channel will into amplitude differences. The value of i 115
be = different in phase from the current is in general equal to that of ¢, in which
ee td

case the amplitude differences for hich


in the summation channel. This frequencies are passed on without modi-
55 difference current is passed through two fication. 420
resistances d and ¢ in series between which Tt may be found necessary to employ
a condenser f forms a shunt arm. The more complex circuits than the shunt
voltage across this condenser f will be in resistance & and condenser f in the-
phase with that in the summation difference circuit and shunt resistance 7
60
channel. By passing the current in the in the summationcircuit, which however
summation channel through a plain resis- form the basic arrangement. However 125
tive attenuator network composed of series it must be understood that the circuits
resistances g, fh and a shuntresistance 7, emploved mayhe considerably modified as
a voltave is obtained which remains in required without departing from the scope
12 394,825
of the invention. of modification necessary to the impulses
The outputs from the modifying circuit transmitted through the summation and
¢ (Figure 1) are passed to amplifiers dh, difference channels as indicated above
d, and thence to loud speakers ¢,,¢, suit- depends upon a numberof factors, includ-
ably disposed on each side of a picture ing the relative spacing of the micro-
screen. It is to be understood that Figure phones and of the loud speakers, and the
1 merely traces the passage of intelli-- size and positioning of the sereen. It can
gence from the source a to a recipient and be shown that for low frequencies w the
no recording or reproducing system has degree of modification required in the
10 been shown. Such may however be in- difference channel as compared with the

a4
ot
serted anywhere along the eléctrical cir- modification in the summation channel is
cuit such for example as hetween given by :—
amplifiers b,, b, and modifying assembly
¢, or between assembly c and amplifiers
1) Gg.
In the latter case the impulses trans-
mitted through the two channels as in- where
dicated above may for example be v=velocity of sound. &0
recorded on two sound tracks on a film y=fraction of half picture film width
20 by any suitable or known means, each of which the image of the sound
which records may comprise either a source is off centre.
sound track of constant density and vari- f=angle of obliquity, in radians, of
able width (e.g. an oscillograph record), the source from thea@median plane
or a sound track of constant width and between the microphones.
variable density (e.g. a light valverecord). k=ellective distance apart of the
or
wt

Alternatively both records may be made microphones,


on a single track comprising a combina- s=width of screen of theatre.
tion of the variable width and variable w=distance apart of loud speakers BG
density forms of recording. in theatre.
30 Such a record may be reproduced by This expression in effect gives the im-
‘passing light from the same slit through pedance of the shunt capacity f in the
the twotracks, separating the beam into difference channel in terms of the resist-
the two record portions by means of ance ? in the summation channel. It
prisms or like optical means and employ- holds for all frequencies where & is small
compared to the wavelength, and is based
35 ing the outputs from two photo-electric
cells, excited by these separate parts of on the assumption that the @ is small and
the beam (after amplification) to operate that w and s are small compared with the
two loud speakers disposed one on each distance of the listener from the screen 100
side of the screen upon which the cine- and loud speakers.
40 matograph pictures are projected. The portion df is a factor of the record-
From the above description it will be is

clear that obliquity of the direction of ing, and is constant for a given arrange-
sound wave propagation relative to the ment if either the camera is in line with
microphones a,, a, will produce differences the microphones and the centre of the
45 of intensity at the Toud speakers so as to picture, or the action does not move appre-
give an impression to an observer of ciably to or from the microphones and
oblique sound incidence. camera. When recording, the relative
If two very small microphones are used distances of eamera and microphones
and placed very close together it may be and the focal length of the lens may be 1410
found possible to obtain microphone out- adjusted to maintain this factor a con-
puts which-do not differ appreciably in stant,
amplitude but only tn phase for all
working frequencies. In this case the The expression = is a constant for the
modifying circuit may be arranged to theatre, As regards low frequencies only,
5D convert phase differences into amplitude the distance apart of the speakers need un
differences throughout the entire fre- not exceed the screen width, but should
quency range. The phase differences certainly not be closer than 70 percent. of
dealt with at the low-frequencies however the screen width. The closer the loud
may be so small that in this case slight speakers the greater the necessary power
6G differences in the two microphonecireuits handling capacity, but the less the 120
would have very large effects. On this troubles introduced by formation of
account microphone spacing of the same stationary waves. ;
order as that of the human ears is most For the high frequencies no definite
suitable. expression can easily be obtained, and the
65 Ti will be appreciated that the amount modification, if any, used will probably 125
894,325
Is
have to be gauged empirically by trial
In connection with the standardisat
and error. indicated above, while the bina ion
The arguments and formula given above ' tran ural
are hased on a direct wave analysis and inte sfer "’ frequency (from phase- to
may have to be considerably modified in nsity-discrimination) need have no
order io allow for reflection of other defin ite significance in recording, since it
is a function of the human brain, it 70
acoustic effects. It is preferred therefore neve is
to introduce the modificationsit is proposed rthe léss nece ssar y to fix a change-over
frequency from high: to low-frequenc
‘to employ, at the theatre since all facto
rs working for recording, since y
10 will then enter into consideration, I+ will this fre-
be clear that, as indicated above, the quen cy fixes the values af the elements
in the modifier and thus the
modifying networks and channel arrange- form of
modification to be used, the distance apar
ments may be employed between the
of the microphones and the form of bafflt
microphones and the film during reeor
d- between them. Any convenient freq e
15 ing, or thetween the record and the loud may be uency
speakers during reproduction, and the chosen as standard after
latter course, in addition to allowing of expe rien ce has decided which is most suit- 80
adjustment of the arrangements to suit
able . Inst ead of standardising it may be
the particular theatre as indicated ahove, possible from the preliminary experiments
to allow electrically for ‘variation
20 has the additionaladvantage that the sound microphone of
film can be reproduced by a single repro- positions and/or of micro-
ducing head or channel if, for example,
phon e spacing (although the latter would
one of the dual arrangements breaks down, unde be .extremely difficult) and it must
rstost that this arrangement falls he
or in a theatre which, havingone installa.
tion, does not wish to.go to the expense of within the scope of the invention.
installing a second apparatus, The above analysis is based upon
siderations which take no acco
con-
In order to employ successfully a soun unt of
system of the kind described above it is repr d reflections or interference during
necessary to carry out preliminary experi- oduction. The reflected sound
waves
ments to determine the most suitable which arise during reeording will be re-
value of modification to be employed for produced with a directional sense and will
sound more uatural than they would 3

ico}
each recording, and it is also neces
sary a non-directional reproduc with
to standardise various factors entering ing system. Tf
difficulties arise in reproduction they
into every recording. In the preliminary
be overcome may
35 expetiments, before recording, volume in- loud speakersby employinga second pair of
dicator measurements may be made with differently spaced and hay- 100
ing a different modifying networ
k
the first pair: or a row of speakers from
a standard sound source placed at the
extremes of the ‘‘set’’, i.e. the space be
within which recording is to Ibe effected,, used with a composite, progressmay
mod ify ive
ing network to supply them: or the
40 and from these the proposed modifying two spea kers may be placed comparativel
network laid out. A further experiment y 495
may also he effected to standardise phase close together,
angles on the film, At the theatre In this last arrangement the
a direction of the apparent sou sense of
simple adjustment may be provided to nd source
will only
45 check and balance the input to the two the full be conveyed to a listener for
channels, a length of test film being used frequency range for positions
140
for this purpose. It will thus be seen that lying between the loud speakers ; but if it
the total theatre equipment necessary is is desi red to con vey the imp res sion that
very simple and consists in a transmission the sound source has moved to a position
modifier (comprising two or four trans- bey ond the space between the lou
d
formers, for example, artificial line speakers the modifying networks may be
resistances and the control network, whic
alT anged to reverse the phase of that 415
h speaker remote from whi loud
may be no more than a condenser and a ch the source 18
resistance) and -two normal sound-repro- desired to appear, and this will suffice to
ducing heads or pick-ups, or one speci convey the desired impression
ally frequency sounds. With thisfor the low
designed head or pick-up adapted arr
separate the two recordings to two to ment of loud speakers close together ange- 126
com- ever, it would not be possible , how-
plete reproducing channels, There
is no similar illusion in connec to effe ct a
reason why the second channel used tion with high
frequencies,
G6 should not be the “ stand-by ’’ channel The system so far described employ
now often installed for safety since s to 425
as indicated above, one of the chann if, rece ive the sound waves two
els dire non-
breaks down reproduction may be ctio nal microphones, @.8. pressure
tinued without serious consequences con- microphones, Directionally
on the microphones mayalso be employ sensitive
other channel only, ed spa
a small distance apart, the outputs ced
a
wut

being 134
14 394,325
modified as indicated so that the relative
this form of the invention is shown in
outputs of the loud speakers are controlled
Figure 6. ‘This is substantially identical
both by differences in phase and differ- with that shown in Figur
ences in magnitude of the microphone the shunt conden e 5 except thar
ser f and resistance & in
outputs. Such directionally sensitive series, and the shunt resistance
microphones may be, but i are re-
are not placed by shunt resistances 1 im
necessarily, of the type known as velocity are preferably variab which
microphones, and preferably provided lines therefore form le as shown. These
with movable conductor elements so heht and by altering theirartificial attenuators
relative attenuation
10 as to move substantially as the surround- the intensity differences in the two lines
ing air. corresponding to a given obliquity of
Velocity or moving conductor micro- sound is controlled,
phones (e.g. moving strip microphones) (2) Two velocity mierophones or micro-
are very suitable for any system accord- phone elements, may
be placed with their
15 ing to the invention and in addition to axes perpendicular to one another and
use with-circuit arrangements described each axis at 45° to
above: they may also be employed with cenire of the screen. the direction of the
his
various alterations in the circuits. These is represented diagrammatic arrangement
microphones give a response varying as x wherein » and o representally in Figure
the cosine of the angle of incidence of the or directionally sensitive microptwo velocity,
sound relative to the direction of normal above the other arranged hones one
perpendicular to
or optimum incidence, and they thereforety one another and at equal
angles
have the advantage that a certain degree to the direction of the centre of theat 45°
of loud speaker output separation may from which sound is field
to be received. 4,
be obtained without phase-conversion or will be clear that movement of the sound
like network modifications. ; source a laterally to a position p removed
‘Three general arrangements employing from the centre of the field will result in
velocity microphones are possible, and in the sound wavesstriking o at a more acute
all cases the microphones are placed as angle than they strike n and differences
30 near together as possible instead of being in the microphone outputs will result.
spaced as artificial ears, ay in the case of The microphones are sufficiently close
pressure microphones. together to render phase differences of the
(1) Two velocity microphones are placed incident sound negligible and the output
one with its axis of maximum response amplitudes therefore differ approximatel
y
35 directly facing in the direction of the proportionally to the obliquity of the Vor
centre of the scene, and the other with its incident sound. They may therefore be
axis at right angles to that direction. amplified similarly, and supplied directly
Both moving strips are in line, wd to the loud speakers to which they will
arranged so that this line is vertical, give the correct amplitude differences for
40 vterea s the sound source moves in a hori- the desired directional effect provided the ;,-
zontal plane. A performer speaking relationship between the various dimen-
from the middle of the scene will affect sions of the recording and reproducing
only the face-on microphone, but if he “‘ lay-outs ’? are correct. If it is desired
moves to one side both microphones will to accommodate any differences between
45 provide outputs, while if he moves the the ‘‘ lay-outs ”’ the outputs may be modi-
other way similar outputs are provided fied by networks, in the mannerdescribed,
but the phase of the edge-on microphone suitably to increase or decrease the
is reversed. Since the microphones are differences between them, An arrang
e-
close together no phase differences are ment such as shown in Figure 6 is suit-
50 expertenced between them and if their able for this purpose, and such an
outputs are summed and differenced after arrangement may of course also be
a suitable amount of relative amplification employed even if the lay-out is correct if
the two final channels differ in magnitude it is desired for any reason to control or
in the correct manner for operating the modify the amplitude differences of the
loud speakers to give the desired direc- loud speaker outputs.
ot
cr

tional effect. Such sum and difference (3) Two microphones may be arranged
arrangement differs from the modifying with the two axes lying symmetrically
network employed with pressure micro- to the direction of the centre of the field
phones in that the pressure type provide and with an angle between them of say 8
60 phase differences (whereby direction is degrees, so that sound from a performer
determined) which have to be converted, {on
whereas with the velocity type the edge- at the centre subtends an angle of o
on microphone provides an output pro- degrees to each microphone. Tf @ is
small
portional to the obliquity of the source. a small movement of the performer
65 A suitable modifying arrangement for side is to one
sufficient to make one microphone
394,325 1
“edge-on ’’ and to reduce its output to “sound picture’, i.e. both horizontal
zero, while if @ is large a large movement and vertical directional effects, the inven-
of the performer is necessary to do this. tion is not limited solely to the use of two
By making 6 adjustable different “ lay- microphones. A plurality may be
outs ’’ may be accommodated without the employed and their outputs suitably col-
modification indicated under (2) and it lected, modified 70
will be clear also that this provides a
and separated to transmit
suitable differences of impulses to a
method of directional sound transmitting, plurality of loud speakers. The general
recording and reproduction which avoids feature is that two transmitting channels,
“40 the necessity of combining and reseparat- receiving impulses from two or more
wr

ing the two channels. microp vis


hones for example, communicate
The microphone elements in any of the impulses which can be modified and
above cases may be enclosed in a single separated to provide two directional senses
casing if desired for convenience, and may at right angles to one another, the sounds
{5 also be positioned in a single magnetic whereby this is done being provided by
system common to both, a plurality of loud speakers. It will 80
Two velocity microphones set in line moreover be clear that if the sound source
with one another and with their axes of moves away from or towards the micro-
maximum response symmetically inclined phones the overall intensity of the com-
to the direction of the centre line of the bined loud speaker propagations will vary
scene, may, if placed one abovethe other, 85
and thus provide indication of the position
be employed also to provide significance of the source along that axis, Full three-
of vertical as well as horizontal movement dimensional location of the source is thus
of the sound source in a plane perpen- obtained by this arrangement.
25 dicular to the axis of maximum response It will béseen that while with pressure
of the microphone system. Such vertical microphones it is preferred to transmit 90
displacement of the source will in this phase differences rather than amplitude
arrangement give phase differences to the differences and convert from one to the
outputs while lateral displacement gives other as late as possible prior to repro-
30 amplitude differences, and these can be duction, with velocity microphones it is
separated, the phase differences converted

&
more convenient to tranmit the two vi
to intensity differences by modifying channels in phase but at different
networks, as described, and the resulting amplitudes, the only modification then
impulses employed to operate four or necessary being an increase or decrease of
35 more loud speakers distributed round the the amplitude differences should the re- 400
screen. The transmission in such a producing ‘‘ lay-out” differ from tne
system occupies only two channels (one recording ‘‘ lay-out’? or should more than
leading from each microphone) up to a two loud speaker positions be used,
point in the system where each of these There is a simple method by which
40 channels is divided into tao parallel modifications for increase or decrease of
SPSantetg

channels thus providing four channels in differences between channels may be 105
all at this point. Two channels, one from effected if no conversion of phase
each parallel pair of these divided differences into amplitude differences is
channels, are connected to one modifying required. The methodis particularly uae-
45 network adapted to deal with phase ful for the operation of more than two
differences, and the other two channels, loud speakers, and is also useful for work- 110
one from each pair, connected to another ing into high impedances such as the grid
modifying network adapted to augment impedance of a
thermi
intensity differences, Each modifying arrangement is shown onic valve. The
diagrammatically
50 network operates a plurality of loud in Figure 7. If the transmission
speakers providing a directional sensa- effected in the form of is 145
tion in one direction, and in this manner of similar phase but differetwo channe ls 5
nt amplitudes,
directional senses in two directions at an alteration of these amplitude
right angles can be obtained, It will be differences may be effecte
d by connecting
seen that in such an arrangement the one wire of each channe
l 7 and s together 120
transmission and/or recording (which is at ¢ and connecting a choke
the most expensive anddifficult operation the other two wires of the wu between
two channels.
dn teey eee be

of the system) may be effected over only The outgoing channels


two channels although directional sensa~ difference is to be a modifi
» and w whose
cation of the
60 tions in two perpendicular directions are original difference, are connected by
subsequently obtained. A similar effect wire each to the commo one 425
n point ¢ of the
may be obtained with a plurality of original channels, and by their
pressure microphones by employing suit- to tappings along the otherwires
able modification previous to transmission. differences are to be choke u. If the
65 increased, the tap-
In obtaining a complete directional pings at which the output
channels are 433
I we
wn
mo ettemca
eee 394,325 .
connected lie outside the tappings
which the input channels are connecte to If the two channels heing recorded are
so that the choke operates in effect d, directly picked up from two micropho
as an nes,
auto - transformer or are intended to work unmodified
amplifying
difference voltages, Similarly, for the two speakers, that is with intensities inic
and
duction of differences, the output chananels
re- qualities simitar to those of the original
are tapped intermediately between the sounds received, it is preferred not io
input channels. Modifications of
two one track as lateral cut and the other cut
as
arrangement in which the devices this kill and dale, but to cut them as
two
are tracks whose movement axes lie at
40 balanced about earth, etc. may be 45° to
arranged, but the chief advantage is the wax surface, or at some othe
r con-
the modification is varied entirely that venient angle dependent on the relat
ive
altering tappings along a transformer by available intensities from lateral cut and
or hill and dale respectively. If, however,
choke, and that no great power loss is
the two channels recorded are such
15 involved. summation and difference channels, as
This arrangement of a choke or trans- it 18
preferred to separate them complete
formeris-well suited to working a number ly
of loud speakers for binaural reproduc pure hill and dale and pure later inte
al cut,
- i.e. tomake the recording axes normal
tion. In this case, the two outputs from and
tangential to the wax surface.
20 Power valves arefitted to a choke such as The result in the two above sugg
u along which the loud speakers are
tapped. The position of the loud speaker cases is very similar since chanested
recorded at 45° to the wax surface nels
tappings can be adjusted to suit their
their sum and difference as the give
relative positions, and it can be arranged
lateral and hill and dale amplitudeffective
25 that the valves are working into their best es.
It will be appreciated that @ reco
impedances. Transformers may lbe used to
ensure the speakers taking their correct cut as a combined hill and dale rd,
fraction of the output. lateral, may be reproduced if desiredand
two skew direction cuts, the basias
While, in connection with the above
principle being that the groove hasc
30 described systems, it is suggested that amplitude in any direction in the
when it is desired to record the sounds plan
for subsequent reproduction this may be at right angles #8 the direction of waxe
movement, and the recording and repr
done upon a film, the invention is’ not duci
o-
limited to that medium since the recording ng directions may be chosen as
any
pair of axes lines, not necessarily at
35 may if desired be effected on dises or angles, in this plane.
right
cylinders of suitable material. In carry-
[t would appearthat for such a record,
tar
ing out the invention in this manner the a material other than that now used
two channels may if desired be recorded lateral cut records, would ‘he desir
for
in separate grooves but it is preferred that able,
and a material of the nature of cellulose
40 they be recorded in the same groove hay- acet
ate is indicated.
ing a hill and dale and-also a lateral The track section is preferably adapted qe
cut movement, For the purposes of tele- to
work with a sapphire and have
vision previous proposals have been made suffi
ciently fine angle to give lateral a
whereby a wax disc has a sound record well as
as vertical control to the sapphire.
45 asa hill and dale cut and a picture record The recorder whereby both channels
as a laterally cut Y-shaped groove at the may
be
bottom of the hill and dale groove, or groove cut by a single tool on the same
vice versa. Such records appear unsuited lyin may take various forms, the under-
for separate and distinct sound recordings pull
g feature being that a light stylus is
ed into two directions at right angles
50 since undoubtedly considerable cross-talk to one another
between the two recordings would occur. to the and each preferably at 45° is
They can however be used for two wax surface.
Figu
channels of the kind contemplated in the of this re 8 shows schematically a recorder
present invention, one being only slightly havi kind suitable for producing records
ng complex euts. 1 and 2 represent
55 different from the other, since a certain the driv
amount of cross-talk in this case does not norm ing elements of two recorders 420
ally adapted for cutting lateral cut
matter, or can be allowed for. Further- recor
more, the records now proposed are dis- arms 3
ds. Thesé driving elements drive
tinguished from those previously known in the plan and 4 about axes at right angles to
e of the pape
60 that both channels may be recorded as The ends of these armsr within 1 and 2.
Separate cuts in one groove and may be ligament are connected by
recorded by a single recording tool (either whic s 5 and 6 to the end of a reed 7
h extends backwards along an exis
of moving iron or moving coil type) and perpendi
be reproduced therefrom cular to the paper to supports
65 reproducing device or pick- by a single not shown. This reed carries a cutting
up. sapphire 8. Movements of the recording 109
394,325 17
arms 3 and 4 produce movements in the this point, and may also
end of the reed 7. Thus, currents in move- translate
vertically, though it is resistant to hori-
ment 1 will cause the reed 7 to move zontal movements in the plane of the
along an axis approximately 45° to the paper. The device is driven by moving
vertical rising from left to right acrosscoils, e.g. speech coils, 19 and 20 which
the figure. Similarly, currents in move- are freely located and immersed re)
ment 2 will produce movement of the steady magnetic field provided in annular
in the
reed 7 in an axis at right angles to the gaps in a magnetic system,
former axis, while currents in both move- Current in one of the moving not shown,
coils tends
10 ments will of course result in vertical to both rotate and translate the device
so
movement of the reed. that the sapphire 8 moves along an axis at
Another such form of recorder shown approximately 45° to the vertical.
The
in Figure 9, representing a moving iron movement of this device may be damped
recorder, may consist in a short reed 9 and equalised along the lines described
mounted close above and parallel with British Patent Specification No. 350,998. in
the wax track and carrying the cutting As before any required axes of movement 80
sapphire 8. This reed 9 may extend back- may be obtained by suitable interconnec-
wards perpendicularly to the paper to tion of the two driving coils. Such
supports (not shown) which join the top movementpreferably has the same naturala
20 of a laminated pole system 10 to complete frequency for both rotation and transla-
a polarising magnetic system therewith. tion. Further the distribution of mass is 8b
The two laminated armsof the pole piece preferably such that a small instantaneous
10 extend down towards the free end of force applied at one coil produces no
the reed 9. These arms form two poles movement at the other,
25 adjacent to a square portion of the reed Figure 11 shows another form of
at its free end, each pole being adapted 90
recorder similar in principle to the one
to pull the reed in a direction at 45° to shown in Figure 10 except that a moving
the wax surface. The reed may be suit- iron drive is employed. The member 17
‘ably damped, e.g. by a rubber line, and moving about axis 18 is constructed of
80 have a resonant frequency at the top of, or magnetic material,-or has a magnetic
above, the working range. The two pole upper portion. The “‘ £ ”’ shaped member 25
- pleces may be wound with speech coils, Al is polarised either by being partially
and the energisation of one of these moves permanently magnetised, or having a
the sapphire in an upward direction at magnetising winding on it, so that the
- 35 45° to the wax surface. The terminals 15 central pole is of opposite polarity to the 100
of one channel are connected to main. two outer poles. Speech windings on the
winding 12 and compensating winding 11. outer poles are brought out to terminals
The terminals 16 of the other channel 15 and 16 to which the two channels are
are connected to main winding 14 and connected,
40 compensating winding 18. Current in Tn all the devices described above, the
either channel will pull the reed towards angles of the axes defining the movements 105
the pole carrying the main winding,” the of the sapphire can be altered by suitably
purpose of the compensating winding connecting the speech windings: for
being to prevent movement of the reed instance, axes which are normally inclined
45 away from the other pole due to the flux at 45° to the wax surface can be con- 410
drawn away from this pole by the main. verted into pure hill and dale and lateral
winding. With the winding shown, cut axes by arranging that the speech wind-
currents in either channel will cause the ings are in series aiding for one channel
reed to cut a track at approximately 45° and opposing for the other channel. Tn
50 to the vertical. By a suitable re- like manner any axis conversion can be 1id
arrangement of windings, or by a suitable effected by suitably combining the
transformer connection between the channels through transformers,
channels and the terminals of the recorder In designing an electric pick-up to
as shown, any other movement axes may reproduce both channels care must he
55 be obtained. Thus for example the tool taken that the inertia is kept as low as 120
may have one movement by torsion of its possible, and with this in mind a very
supporting reed and another by flexure light replica of any of the above described
thereof. recorders may be employed. Preferably,
An alternative moving coil design which @ moving system in the form of a T
60 may employ electromagnetic damping following the lines of the moving iron 125
may consist of a moving member in the recorder shown in Figure 11 is employed
shape of a T as shown in Figure 10. The as best suited for the purpose. Since the
recorder sapphire 8 is supported on a light fundamental resonant frequency of a pick-
ft T member 17, which is supported at 18 by up appears to be of no critical importance
i 85 elastic means such that it mayrotate about as regards its characteristic, it may not 130
dae teak IAs ade eRe
~
Se £525

qo
be necessary to adjust the resonant fre- the summing and differencing processes
quency in the two modes to the same in the radio link, For example, by de-
value, which would simplify the design, modulation at the receiving end with twa
Adjustments for sensitivity in the two carrier waves 90° out of phase, which
modes may be made by suitably connect- carrier waves are 45° out of phase with
ing coils wound on the two limbs of the the original modulating carriers, the
magnetic circuits. As in the recorder resultant low frequency channels are the
design the distribution of mass in the re- sums and differences of the original low
producer is preierably such that forces frequency channels at the transmitter.
10 producing motion in one direction (e.g. The hereindescribed system while being 15
- lateral movements) leave it substantially especially applicable to talking pictures is
undisturbed in its reproduction by motions not limited to such use. It may be
in another direction (e.g. hill-and-dale). employed in recording sound quite inde-

apne ee
A good binaural effect may be obtained pendently of any picture effects and in
by giving directional significance to only this connection (as well as when used in 80
a limited range of frequencies. For cinematograph work) it seems probable
example, although good reproduction re- that the binaural effect introduced wilt
quires the transmission of all frequencies be found to improve the acoustic pro.
up to, say, 10,000 c.p.s. yet a good direr- perties of recording studios and to save
20 tional effect is obtained from frequencies any drastic acoustic treatment thereoi 83
up to, say, 3,000 c.p.s. This would assist while providing much more realistic and
dise recording of the binaural impulses satisfactory records for reproduction.
since the lateral cut which represents the Furthermore, the system may clearly be
sum of the two channels to the speakers employed when the microphone outputs
might liave a frequency range extending are led to the loud speakers instead lrst 90
25
to 10,000 c.p.s. whereas the hill-and-dale of being recorded, and such an arrange-
cut need transmit frequencies no higher ment may for example be employed in
than 3,000 c.p.s. This would consider- pwhlic address systems in which direc.
ably simplify the design of the recorders tional sound effects are desired. In
30 and pick-ups in that low inertias would general the invention is applicable in all 95
only be required for the lateral cut and cases where it is desired to give directional
design would thus be greatly simplified. effects to emitted sound. Also in all
These frequencies are given merely by cases, both when the impulses are fed to
way of example, and are not necessarily the loud speakers without recording and
35 the optimum frequencies for design of this whenthey are recorded for subsequent re- 100:
character, which will be determined by production the total modification and/or
other considerations. interaction of the channels may be accom-
In transmitting the two channels plished in more than one stage. For
indicated in the various systems above example, using pressure microphones, the
40 described, instead of emploving line low frequency phase differences may be 105
transmission, radio transmission may augmented, the medium frequency phase
if desired be employed. Each differences converted to amplitude
channel may be separately transmitted differences, and thefhigh frequency ampli-
or preferably the two channels may be tude differences augmented in a first stage
45 sent as different modulations of the same of modification; the low frequency phase ie
carrier wave. Thus one channel may he differences may then be converted to
transmitted as an amplitude modulation amplitude differences in a later stage of
and the other as a phase or frequency modification. One or both of these stages
modulation of the same carrier wave. mayoccureither before or after the sound
50 Alternatively the two channels may be has been recorded, In this manner the 115
transmitted as amplitude modulations very small low frequency phase differences
of different carrier waves which are 90° are augmented before they are amplified,
out of phase, the two waves being radiated so avoiding troubles due to small low
from the same aerial in combination as a frequency phase shifts in amplifiers.
55 single wave propagation. Various systems Moreover, the various devices employed 120
for the transmission and reception of for carrving the invention into effect
duplex radio signals along these lines are must be understood not to he limited to
known and any one of such or similar their use with the other devices in the
arrangements may be used in connection systems also hereindescribed since clearly
60 with the invention described herein many parts, such, for example, as the 125
according to its applicability or con- dual track record prepared by a single
venience in the circumstances under con- cutter, and the multi-strip direction-
sideration. It must be understood that detecting microphone, are clearly of wide
with such a system of duplex radiation, it use in such systems separately from one
65 is possible, if desired, to perform one of another. Such uses in binaural systems 1a
19
394,325

scope transmitted over individual channels are


as herein described fall within the adapted to interact whereby two
sets of
of this invention. the impulses are further tran smit ted consi st-
Tt must finally be understood that the ing in half the sum and half the
invention is not restricted solely to of difference respectively of the original
im- Te
s
details of arrangements of the form e since pulses, said impu lses bein g there after
n desc ribe d abov of
the inve ntio
oduced modified to control the relative loudness
various modifications may be intr effect loud spea kers wher eby the soun d is to be
o|

orde r to carr y the inve ntio n into


in require- reproduced.
saec

under different conditions and without 7. A system as claimed in Clai of


m 6
fulfi lled
c na

410 ments whic h have to be modi fica tion the two sets
scope wher ein after
‘departing in any way from the impulses are treated by a repetition ally
of the
covered thereby. sum and diffe rence proc ess initi
d and
Having now particularly describeinven-
gtsar

said effected.
ascertained the nature of our 8. A system as claimed in Claim 6
or 30
the same is to
tion and in what manner 7 wherein after the initi al impu lses have
we declare that what we im-
be performed, been translated to sum anddifference sum
claim i8 :— pulses modification is effec ted in each
ion
system of sound transmiss a or net-
ceetary emt, atten, gg

1. A
ked up by and difference channel by attenuat
wherein the sound is pic works and/or phase modi fyin g arra nge- 85:
ts and re-
. plurality of microphone elemend speakers, ments.
produced by a plurality of lou m 8
ctionally 9, A system as claimed in Clai
comprising two or more dire an arrange- wherein modi fica tion of the impu lses is
sensitiv e mic rop hon es and /or t elem ents , ¢.2.
transmission effected by plain shun
meut of elements in thee relative loud- resistances and/or condensers, which may 9
circuit or circuits wherebyth
e dependent be variable in value. rding to any ol
ness of the loudspeakers1s mad ch the sounds 10. A system acco
upon the direction from whi the fre-
Claims 5—9 wherein for part of
arrive at the microphones. quency rang e phas e diffe rence s in the
transmission
2, A system of sound i-
converted to ampl
by two or - original channels are resultant channels.
?

n the sou nd is rece ived


.

30 whe rei eren ces in the


at low tre- tude diff
more microphones, wherein se of sound 11. A system according to any
of
quencies differen ce in the pha rei n over all or part of
is reproduced Claims 5—1 0 whe
pressure at the microphones the loud the frequency range
the differences
as differen ce in vol ume at are augmented or 100:
; between the chan nels
35 spea kers .
sion, 1 reduced,
3. A system of sound transmis cted by 12. A system according to any prec
ed-
ch the orig inal sou nd is dete two sepa rate micr o-
whi ng
a type such as ing claim comprisi
two cr more microphones of sensitivity phones arr ang ed apar t by a shor t dist ance ,
velo city mic rop hon es who se for exa mpl e, to the 103
of incideut approximately equal,
varies with the direction ndence of the separation of the human ears.
sound, and in which the depe rophones on 13. A system according to Cla
im 12
relative responses of the mic nd wave is comprising two pressure microphones
sou
the direction of an ineident is provided,
volumes of between which a bafile rding, to any of 110
used to control the rela tive em acco
i4. A syst
by two or more loud ction-
45 sound emitted Cla ims 2 or 4—12 comprising dire
speakers. e micr opho nes.
transmission ally sensitiv
4. A system of sound i5. A system of sound transmis
sion
waee

mic rop hon es are used


A,

wherein two or mor e the soun d is pick ed up by two


ct the orig inal sou nd, and both the wherein mic rop hon es whi ch 115
to dete ctionally sensitive
pha se and volume of the output dire or wit h thei r axes of
re

50 rela tive d to con- are so spac ed and/


two mic rop hon es are use so dire cted rela tive
of the direction of maximum sensitiv
ity
trol, according to the nd wave, the to one another and to the sound source,
incidence of the original sou ness of loud speakers
two or more that the relative loudimpulses is controlled 420
wet< consegs ne erg SP

relative output volumes of which repr oduc e the


sound
55 loud speakers.
acco rdin g to any of by the direction from which the
5, A system micr opho nes.
two or more reaches the
Claims 1—4 in which separated into 16. A system as claimed in
any of
and
channels are combinedthat the resultant Claims i—11, 14 or 15 comprising two
other channels so microphones or microphone
chan nels , tho ugh not similar to the former velocity placed in close juxtaposition
60 them con- elements
channels, are modifications of lligence in with their axes of maximum sensitivity
3 veying the same directio nal inte
pointing in different directions.
17. A system as claimed in any
another form. of
smission,
6. A system of sound tran ophones Claims 1-12 or 14—16 comprising 180
micr
wherein impulses from two
. 65
20 894,825

velocity microphones or microphone density form.


elements in the form of a conductor so 27. A system as claimed in any of
light as to move substantially as the sur- Claims 1—25 wherein a record of twosets
rounding air, of impulses is located upon a single film
18. A system as claimed in any of track in the form of a combined variable 70
Claims J—12 or 14—l7 wherein a width and variable density recording.
plurality, e.g. two, velocity microphone -28. A system as claimed in any of
elements are built into a single container Claims 1—25 wherein the impulses are
with xu common magnetic system, or recorded upon dises or cylinders of wax
10 separate magnetic systems. or like suitable material. 1S
19. A system as claimed in any of 29, A system as claimed in any of
Claims 1—12 or 14—18 comprising two Claims 1—25 or 28 wherein the twosets
velocity microphones, one with its element of impulses are recorded upon the same
perpendicular to the direction of the evlinder or disc.
15 centre of the ““‘ sound field’ and the 30. A system as claimed in Claim 29 8&6
other with its element in line with said wherein two sets of impulses are mechanic-
direction, both elements lying longitudin- ally recorded in the same groove.
ally in line, and at right angles to the 31, A system as claimed in Claim 29 or
plane in which the sound source moves. 30 wherein one record is a lateral cut
20 20. A system as claimed in any of and the other a hill-and-dale cut in a 85
Claims 1—12 or 14—18 wherein two single groove.
velocity microphones lie with their 32. A system as claimed in any of
elements at equal angles (e.g. each at 45°) Claims 28-3] wherein the recordings are
to ie direction of the centre of the sound effected simultaneously.
eld. 33. A system as claimed in any of 90
21. A system as claimed in any of Claims 28—32 wherein the recordings are
Claims 1—12, 14—18 or 20 comprising effected by a single cutting tool.
two velocity microphone elements the 34. A system as claimed in Claim 33
angle between which (and hence the angle wher ein the cutting tool is capable of con-
30 of each relative to the centre of the trolled movement in all directions in a
‘sound field’’) is adjustable. plane perpendicular to the direction of
22. A system as claimed in any of movement of the wax. .
Claims 15—21 wherein the directionally 35. A system as claimed in Claim $35
sensitive microphones are so arranged and or 34 wherein the cut of the recording
35 directed as to provide impulses whereby tool is in form a combination of lateral 100
the desired relative loudnesses of the loud and hill-and-dale cuts, or equivalent to
speakers are obtained, said impulses being that form.
transmitted to the loud speakers without 36. A system as claimed in any of
modification or interaction. Claims 28—35, wherein one channel is
40 20. A system as claimed in any of recorded as a cut in a direction at an 105.
Claims 15—21 wherein the, impulses angle to the normal to the wax and the
generated by the directionally sensitive other channel is recorded as a cut at the
microphones are modified(e.g. by attenuator same angle to the normal to the wax but
networks in sum anddifference channels) on the other hand relative to the groove.
45 before being reproduced by the load 37. A system as claimed in any of 110
speakers, Claims 26—36, wherein the desired modi-
24. A system as claimed in Claim 23 fication of the two channels is wholly
wherein modification is effected by a effected either before recording or after
common choke inserted between two reproduction from the record, or is
50 microphones and two loud speakers, four partially effected in each stage. 115
leads (one from each microphone and each 38. A sound reproducing system where-
loud speaker) being connected together in the sounds are reproduced without
while the other lead from each memberis modification from one or more sound
movably connected to tappings on the records prepared by a system according
55 choke.
¢ to any preceding claim.
25. A system as claimed in any of 39. Microphone arrangements for a
Claims 1—21, 28 or 24 wherein the modi- system according to any preceding claim
fication of the impulses is effected in two comprising a plurality of directionally
or more stages. sensitive elements arranged with a
60 26. A system aa claimed in any preced- common magnetic system, or separate 125
ing claim wherein the transmitted im- magnetic systems, in a common casing
pulses are photographically reeorded upon or container, the axes of maximum sen-
separate film sound tracks, preferably sitivity of the elements being arranged at
adjacent to one another, either track being an angle to one another, the elements
65 either of the variable width, or variable being ‘connected to separate transmission 130
<<Beek
seteENTCELE
21
894,820 ol

one movement by torsion


ulses are adapted to have
channels whereby the imp elements. of its supporting reed and another by
the
separately ivansmitted from a8 flexure thereof,
now

40. Microphone - arrangements angle 51. A system embodying


a sound
2POI eo i

claimed in Claim 39, wherei n the ime d in Cla im 50 wherein 70


ust able. recorder as cla
5 bet wee n the ele men ts is adj ass emb ly is dri ven by
to any of the cutting cool es, comprising speech
41. A system according ing coil driv
a sound mov
Claims 28—37, embodyingrating move- coils attached thereto freely immersed in
recorder comprisin g an ope
both channels a steady magrod netic field.
ment adapted to respond to records of bot h 32, A rep ucer for a transmitting
40 of impulses and to eut system as cla ime d in any of Claims 1—
ly. ments of small weight
@ sound 38, comprising ele
simu ltan eous
42. A system embodying Ai compris- and inertia but otherwise substantially
im form and arrangement with
recorder as claimed in Cla
ted to operate identical inrecorder as claimed in any of 80
ing a single cutting tool adap those of a
{5 in a single groove. tool therein
ody ing a sou nd Claims 41—51, the cutting us whereby
43, A system emb im 41 or 42 being rep lac ed by a styl
recorder as claimed in Cla ions are produced in the
d of record- electrical vibrat gs by vibrations imparted
,

ent kin
Semet

adapted to effect a dif fer win din


l-and-dale) for magnetic movable
ing cut (e.g. lateral or hil to the movable reed or like
h of the cha nne ls.
20 eac a sound armature.
Sy > . —i Somer

44, A system embodying aim 41 or 42 53, A system as claimed in or sound


Claim 41
as cla ime d in (Cl sou nd rec ord ing
rec ord er
similar manner to, emb
odying a repre-
adapted to respond in
r for m for , eac h rep roducing device substantially as $0
and eff ect cut s of sim ila 9.
opp osi te sen se rel ati ve to sented in Figure in: Cla im 41
9% channel, but in h4. A system as claimed
Ne!

or sound
the groove. 2 sound embodying a sound recording as repre-
embodying ally
45, A system
any of Claims 41— reproducing device substanti
~ recorder as claimed in g tool capable of sented in Figure 10. im 41 2
44 comprising a cut tin 35, A system as claimed in Cla
d mo ve me nt in all directions 10 sou nd rec ord ing or sound
9 contro lle dir ect ion of embodying a
dic ula r to the sta nti all y as rep re-
a plane perpen reproducing device sub
move me nt of the wax . Fig ure 11.
ing a sound sented in sound record prepared by a
4G. A system embody Cla ims 41 — 56. A 400
recorder as claimed in an y of
movements system as cla
imed in any of Claims 1—38
g a cut tin g too l the
35 45 comprisin 51.
s, perpendicular or 44—A sound record comprising in one
of which in two direction r, are 57. s
two substantially separate record
one ano the
or at an angle to the driving arms groove nd which emanate from the same
sep ara tel y con tro lle d by of sou
nts. up by 103
of separate recording e emeing & sound source, Which sounds are picked /or are
47.4 system emb
ody y sensitive devices and
49 of Claims 41— directionall modifications by elements in
recorder as claimed in any tool carried upo n sub jec ted to
manner
45 comprising @ cutting ‘to be moved in the recording circuit, in such a d, one
d ada pte d n the record s are rep rod uce
a flexible ree perpendicular or that wheloud speaker and the other in 1410
either of two directions, or to be sub - in one of the
another; loud speaker, the intensities
45 at an angle to one ve ment equivalent another d convey
to a res ult ant mo ult ane ous ly pro pag ate
jected
such motions in both
sounds sim al effect to
to the combination of in combination a true binaur
ion s. ener .
' direct
48, A system embody
ing & sound the list d in Claim 415
in Cl ai m 47 wherein 58. A sound record as claime different
er as cla ime d sin g sep ara te cuts of
BO record are effected by 57 compriof same forms along any pair of
movements of the reed" imposed by form, or
for ces ular to the direc-
electromagnetic
a co- ope rat ing mag net ic axes in a plane perpendicthe was, for the
adjacent poles of movement of
impulses to be tion of recordings. 42u
system excited by the separate ada pte d
ng dev ice
58 recorded.
ing & sound 59, A sound reproduci in one
49. A system embodyaim 48 wherein to reproduce sounds from motions) on 2
ime d in Cl n (e.g. lateral mor eme nts
recorder as cla wound on the directio to any
compensating coils areition to the excit- sound record prepared accordinging sub- 425
tn add le rem ain
magnetic system
ls in order to neutra
lise of Claims 48—51, whi in its reproduction
g spe
ing sp ech coi jmpulses in the stantially undisturbed direction (e.g. hill-
effects upon one pole of e. by motions in another
speech coil of the other pol sou nd and-dale).
dying & in any of
50. A system. embo y of Claims 41— GO. A system as claimed
er as cla ime d in an whe rei n the imp ulses are 430
aw record ° cut tin g too l ass emb ly Claims 1-39
82 45 comprising i a
R2 394,325

transmitted by radio telephony. where the symbols have the meanings


61. A system as claimed in Claim 60 defined herein.
wherein transmission is effected by the 66. A system as claimed in any of
duplex modulation of a singia. _-rier Claims 1—89 or 60—68, or a plurality ot
wave, or by radiation of a single wave such systems in combination as a single 3u
formed of separately modulated com- system, adapted to provide a full direc-
ponents, “tional significance to sounds emitted by
62. A system as claimed in any of a source movable in any direction in a
Claims 1—39, 60 or 61 in combination plane-perpendicular to the axis of maxi-
40 with means for the photographic record- mum response of the microphone system.
ing, or for the reproduction of pictures. 67. A system as claimed in Claim 66
63. A sound and picture reproducing wherein the total sound emission of all
system as claimed in Claim 62 wherein loud speakers determines the position of
the relative volumes of the reproducing the sound source along the said axis of
15 loud speakers are so controlled as to pro- maximum response, so that full three-

me
est
vide apparent location of the sound origin dimensional acoustic location of the sound
in coincidence with the optical location of source is obtained.
the image from which the sound is sup- 68. Systems of sound transmission sub-
posed to emanate, : stantially as described herein, with
20 64. A system as claimed in Claim 62 or reference to the accompanying drawings.
63 wherein the relative modifications of 69, Means for the transmission, record-
the two channels is determined by the ing and reproducing of sound substan-
dimensions and lay-out of scene to be tially as described herein with reference
recorded, and/or the theatre in which re- to the accompanying drawings.
25 production is presented. 70. Systems for the transmission,
of combined
65. A system as claimedin Claim 62, 63 recording and reproduction substan tially as
or 64 wherein the relative values of the picture and sound effects
with refere nce to the
modifying networks in the two channels described herein
is defined by the formula accomp anying drawin gs.

30 ~My fs Dated this 9th day of November, 1932.


K= 55° Oh’ © MARKS & CLERI:.

Office, by Love & Malcomson, Ltd.—1938.


Redhill: Printed for His Majesty’s Stationery
394,325 COMPLETE SPECIFICATION

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