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Chapter 1

Mathematical Tables and Units and


Systems of Weights and Measures
Philip Franklin, Massachusetts
Inst.of Technology*
L.E. Barbrow. U.S. Nat].Bureau of Standards

Contents

Mathematical Tables Compound Interest


By PhilipFranklin Table 1.34-Amount of a Given Principal I-62
Table 1.35-Amount of an Annuity l-63
Numbers Table 1.36-Principal Amounting to a Given Sum l-64
Table 1 .l-Squares I-2 Annuities
Table I.2-Gibes I-7
Table 1.37-Amountino to a Given Sum
Table 1.3-Square Roots .i-ii
(Sinking Fund) y., l-65
Table 1.4-Cube Roots l-14 Table 1.38-Present Worth l-66
Table 1.5-Three-Halves Pow& : :: :: ::: :: : :::: :l-19
Table 1.39-Provided for by a Given Capital 1-66
Table 1.6--Reciprocals 1-21
Table 1.40-Decimal Equivalents l-67
Circles
Table 1.7-Circumferences by Hundredths l-24 Units and Systems of Weights
Table 1.8-Areas by Hundredths .I-26 and Measures
Table 1.9-Circumferences and Areas by Eighths l-28 by L.E. Barbrow
Table 1 .lO-Areas in Square Feet I-30
Table 1 .ll-Segments, ‘Given h/c ............... l-31 Conversion Tables
Table 1.12-Segments. Given h/D ................ 1-32 Table 1.41-Length Equivalents 1-71
Spheres Table 1.42-Conversion of Lengths :: : ::: I-71
Table 1.13-Segments ......................... 1-33 Table 1.43-Common Fractionsof an Inch
Table 1,14-Volumes by Hundredths .............. 1-34 to Millimeters I-72
Table 1 .I5-Regular Polygons .................. l-36 Table 1.44-Decimals of an Inch to Millimeters l-72
Table 1.16--Binomial Coefficients............... 1-37 Table 1.4%Millimeters to Decimals of an Inch I-72
Table 1,17-Common Logarithms (1.OO to 2.00) 1-38 Table 1.46-Area Equivalents l-73
Table I .18-Common Loqarithms I-40 Table 1.47-Volume and Capacity Equivalents I-73
Table 1.19-Degrees and-Minutes in Radians ....... l-42 Table1.48-Areas I-74
Table 1.20--Radians in Degrees ...... ......... 1-43 Table 1.49-Volumes or Cubic Meters l-74
Table 1.21-Natural Sines and Cosines l-44 Table 1.50-Volumes or Capacities ::: I-74
Table 1.22-Natural Tangents and Cotangents l-46 Table 1.51-Mass Equivalents l-75
Table 1.23-Natural Secants and Cosecants l-48 Table 1.52-Masses .‘,‘,’‘.’‘.’ I-75
Table 1.24-Trigonometric Functions ........... I-50 Table 1.53-Velocity Equivalents l-76
Table 1.25-Exponentials ........... ........... 1-55 Table 1.54-Linear and Angular Velocities : : : I-76
Table 1.26-Natural Logarithms I-56 Table 1.55--Pressures l-76
Table 1.27-Hyperbolic Sines 1-58 Table 1.56-Pressure Eauivalents ‘.‘. l-77
Table 1.28-Hyperbolic Cosines : : : : : : : : : : : : : 1-59 Table 1.57-Energy or Work Equivalents l-77
Table 1.29-Hyperbolic Tangents I-60 Table 1.58-Energy, Work, Heat I-78
Table 1.30-Multiples of 0.4343 l-60 Table 1.59-Pow& Equivalents I-78
Table 1.31-Multiples of 2.3026 I-60 Table 1.60-Power .. ‘, l-78
Table 1.32-Standard Distribution of Residuals : I-61 Table 1.61--Density Equivalents l-79
Table 1.33-Factors for Computing Probable Error 1-61 Table 1.62-Thermal Conductivity l-79
Table 1.63-Thermal Conductance :: I-79
Table 1.64-Heat Flow I-79
‘This chapter I” the 1962 edMn was written by Ph,l,p Franklm and Laws ”
Table 1.65-Relative DensitiesCorrespondtng to
Judson (both deceased)
OAPI and Weights per U.S. Gallon l-80
l-2 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING HANDBOOK

TABLE 1 .I -SQUARES OF NUMBERS

Average
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Difference
1.000 1.002 1.004 1.006 1.008 1.010 1.012 1.014 1.018 1.018 2
1.020 1.022 1.024 1.026 1.028 1.030 1.032 1.034 1.036 1.038
1.040 1.042 1.044 I.047 1.049 1.051 1.053 1.055 1.057 1.059
1.081 1.083 1.065 1.087 1.089 1.071 1.073 1.075 1.077 1.080
1.082 1.084 1.086 1.088 1.090 1.092 1.094 1.096 1.098 1.100
1.05 1.102 1.105 1.107 1.109 1.111 1.113 1.115 1.117 1.119 1.121
1.08 1.124 1.128 1.128 1.130 1.132 1.134 1.138 1.138 1.141 1.143
1.07 1.145 1.147 1.149 1.151 1.153 1.156 1.158 1.160 1.162 1.184
1.08 1.166 1.189 1.171 1.173 1.175 1.177 1.179 1.182 1.184 1.186
1.09 1.188 1.190 1.192 1.195 1.197 1.199 1.201 1.203 1.206 1.208
1.10 1.210 1.212 1.214 1.217 1.219 1.221 1.223 1.225 1.228 1.230
1.11 1.232 1.234 1.237 1.239 1.241 1.243 1.245 1.248 1.250 1.252
1.12 1.254 1.257 1.259 1.281 1.263 1.266 1.268 1.270 1.272 1.275
1.13 1.277 1.279 1.281 1.284 1.286 1.288 1.290 1.293 1.295 1.297
1.14 1.300 1.302 1.304 1.306 1.309 1.311 1.313 1.316 1.318 1.320
1.15 1.322 1.325 1.327 1.329 1.332 1.334 1.336 1.339 1.341 1.343
1.16 1.346 1.348 1.350 1.353 1.355 1.357 1.360 1.362 1.364 1.387
1.17 1.369 1.371 1.374 1.376 1.378 1.381 1.383 1.385 1.388 1.390
1.18 1.392 1.395 1.397 1.399 1.402 1.404 1.407 1.409 1.411 1.414
1.19 1.416 1.418 1.421 1.423 1.426 1.428 1.430 1.433 1.435 1.438
1.20 1.440 1.442 1.445 1.447 1.450 1.452 1.454 1.457 1.459 1.462
1.21 1.484 1.467 1.469 1.471 1.474 1.476 1.479 1.481 1.484 1.486
1.22 1.488 1.491 1.493 1.496 1.498 1.501 1.503 1.506 1.508 1.510
1.23 1.513 1.515 1.518 1.520 1.523 1.525 1.528 1.530 1.533 1.535
1.24 1.538 1.540 1.543 1.545 1.548 1.550 1.553 1.555 1.558 1.560
1.25 1.582 1.585 1.568 1.570 1.573 1.575 1.578 1.580 1.583 1.585 3
1.26 1.588 1.590 1.593 1.595 1.596 1.6OC 1.803 1.805 1.606 1.610
1.27 1.813 1.815 1.618 1.821 1.823 1.626 1.628 1.831 1.833 1.838
1.28 1.638 1.641 1.644 1.648 1.849 1.651 1.654 1.658 1.659 1.862
1.29 1.684 1.667 1.669 1.672 1.874 1.677 1.680 1.682 1.685 1.887
1.30 1.690 1.893 1.695 1.898 1.700 1.703 1.708 1.708 1.711 1.713
1.31 1.716 1.719 1.721 1.724 1.727 1.729 1.732 1.734 1.737 1.74c
1.32 1.742 1.745 1.748 1.750 1.753 1.756 1.758 1.761 1.764 1.766
1.33 1.769 1.772 1.774 1.777 1.780 1.782 1.785 1.788 1.790 1.793
1.34 1.796 1.798 1.801 1.804 1.806 1.809 1.812 1.814 1.617 1.820
1.35 1.822 1.825 1.828 1.831 1.833 1.836 1.839 1.841 1.844 1.847
1.38 1.850 1.852 1.855 1.858 1.880 1.863 1.886 1.889 1.871 1.874
1.37 1.877 1.880 1.882 1.885 1.888 1.891 1.893 1.896 1.899 1.902
1.38 1.904 1.907 1.910 1.913 1.915 1.918 1.921 1.924 1.927 1.929
1.39 1.932 1.935 1.938 1.940 1.943 1.946 1.949 1.952 1.954 1.957
1.40 1.960 1.963 1.966 1.968 1.971 1.974 1.977 1.980 1.982 1.985
1.41 1.988 1.991 1.994 1.997 1.999 2.002 2.005 2.008 2.011 2.014
1.42 2.016 2.019 2.022 2.025 2.028 2.031 2.033 2.036 2.039 2.042
1.43 2.045 2.048 2.051 2.053 2.056 2.059 2.062 2.065 2.068 2.071
1.44 2.074 2.076 2.079 2.082 2.085 2.088 2.091 2.094 2.097 2.100
1.45 2.102 2.105 2.108 2.111 2.114 2.117 2.120 2.123 2.126 2.129
1.48 2.132 2.135 2.137 2.140 2.143 2.146 2.149 2.152 2.15" 2.158
1.47 2.181 2.164 2.187 2.170 2.173 2.176 2.179 2.182 2.184 2.187
1.48 2.190 2.193 2.198 2.199 2.202 2.205 2.208 2.211 2.214 2.217
1.49 2.220 2.223 2.226 2.229 2.232 2.235 2.238 2.241 2.244 2.247
1.50 2.250 2.253 2.258 2.259 2.282 2.285 2.268 2.271 2.274 2.277
1.51 2.280 2.283 2.286 2.289 2.292 2.295 2.298 2.301 2.304 2.307
1.52 2.310 2.313 2.316 2.320 2.323 2.326 2.329 2.332 2.335 2.338
1.53 2.341 2.344 2.347 2.350 2.353 2.356 2.359 2.362 2.385 2.389
1.54 2.372 2.375 2.378 2.381 2.384 2.387 2.390 2.393 2.396 2.399
1.55 2.402 2.406 2.409 2.412 2.415 2.418 2.421 2.424 2.427 2.430
1.56 2.434 2.437 2.440 2.443 2.448 2.449 2.452 2.455 2.459 2.462
1.57 2.465 2.488 2.471 2.474 2.477 2.481 2.484 2.487 2.490 2.493
1.58 2.496 2.500 2.503 2.506 2.509 2.512 2.515 2.519 2.522 2.525
1.59 2.528 2.531 2.534 2.538 2.541 2.544 2.547 2.550 2.554 2.557

Exolanation of Table of Souares

This tablegivesthe value of N2 forvalues of N from 1 to 10, correctto fourfigures.(Interpolated


values may be in error
by 1 in the fourthfigure.)
To findthe square of a number N outside the range from 1 to 10, note that moving the decimal point one place in
Column N is equivalent to moving it two places in the body of the table. For example, (3.217)'=10.35,
(0.03217)'=0.001035, and (3,217)'=10,035,000.
This table also can be used inverselyto give square roots.
MATHEMATICAL TABLES & UNITS & SYSTEMS OF WEIGHTS & MEASURES 1-3

TABLE l.l-SQUARES OF NUMBERS(continued)

Average
N 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Difference
1.60 2.560 2.583 2.566 2.570 2.573 2.576 2.579 2.582 2.586 2.589 3
1.61 2.592 2.595 2.599 2.602 2.805 2.608 2.811 2.815 2.818 2.621
1.62 2.824 2.828 2.631 2.634 2.637 2.641 2.644 2.647 2.650 2.654
1.83 2.657 2.680 2.683 2.667 2.670 2.673 2.676 2.680 2.883 2.688
1.84 2.690 2.693 2.696 2.899 2.703 2.706 2.709 2.713 2.716 2.719
1.65 2.722 2.726 2.729 2.732 2.738 2.739 2.742 2.748 2.749 2.752
1.88 2.758 2.759 2.762 2.768 2.789 2.772 2.776 2.779 2.782 2.788
1.87 2.789 2.792 2.796 2.799 2.802 2.806 2.809 2.812 2.816 2.819
1.88 2.822 2.828 2.829 2.832 2.836 2.839 2.843 2.848 2.849 2.853
1.89 2.856 2.859 2.863 2.866 2.870 2.873 2.876 2.880 2.883 2.887
1.70 2.890 2.893 2.897 2.900 2.904 2.907 2.910 2.914 2.917 2.921
1.71 2.924 2.928 2.931 2.934 2.938 2.941 2.945 2.948 2.952 2.955
1.72 2.958 2.962 2.965 2.989 2.972 2.978 2.979 2.983 2.986 2.989
1.73 2.993 2.996 3.000 3.003 3.007 3.010 3.014 3.017 3.021 3.024
1.74 3.028 3.031 3.035 3.038 3.042 3.045 3.049 3.052 3.058 3.059
1.75 3.082 3.066 3.070 3.073 3.077 3.080 3.084 3.087 3.091 3.094 4
1.78 3.098 3.101 3.105 3.108 3.112 3.115 3.119 3.122 3.126 3.129
1.77 3.133 3.138 3.140 3.144 3.147 3.151 3.154 3.158 3.161 3.165
1.78 3.188 3.172 3.176 3.179 3.183 3.186 3.190 3.193 3.197 3.201
1.79 3.204 3.208 3.211 3.215 3.218 3.222 3.226 3.229 3.233 3.236
1.80 3.240 3.244 3.247 3.251 3.254 3.258 3.262 3.285 3.289 3.272
1.81 3.276 3.280 3.283 3.287 3.291 3.294 3.298 3.301 3.305 3.309
1.82 3.312 3.316 3.320 3.323 3.327 3.331 3.334 3.338 3.342 3.345
1.83 3.349 3.353 3.356 3.360 3.364 3.367 3.371 3.375 3.378 3.382
1.84 3.386 3.389 3.393 3.397 3.400 3.404 3.408 3.411 3.415 3.419
1.85 3.422 3.426 3.430 3.434 3.437 3.441 3.445 3.448 3.452 3.458
1.88 3.480 3.463 3.467 3.471 3.474 3.478 3.482 3.486 3.489 3.493
1.87 3.497 3.501 3.504 3.508 3.512 3.516 3.519 3.523 3.527 3.531
1.88 3.534 3.538 3.542 3.546 3.549 3.553 3.557 3.561 3.565 3.566
1.89 3.572 3.578 3.580 3.583 3.587 3.591 3.595 3.599 3.602 3.606
1.90 3.610 3.614 3.618 3.821 3.825 3.829 3.833 3.837 3.640 3.844
1.91 3.648 3.652 3.656 3.680 3.663 3.667 3.671 3.675 3.679 3.683
1.92 3.888 3.890 3.694 3.698 3.702 3.706 3.709 3.713 3.717 3.721
1.93 3.725 3.729 3.733 3.738 3.740 3.744 3.748 3.752 3.758 3.760
1.94 3.784 3.787 3.771 3.775 3.779 3.783 3.787 3.791 3.795 3.799
1.95 3.802 3.806 3.810 3.814 3.818 3.822 3.826 3.830 3.834 3.838
1.98 3.842 3.846 3.849 3.853 3.857 3.861 3.865 3.869 3.873 3.877
1.97 3.881 3.885 3.889 3.893 3.897 3.901 3.905 3.909 3.912 3.916
1.98 3.920 3.924 3.928 3.932 3.936 3.940 3.944 3.948 3.952 3.956
1.99 3.960 3.964 3.968 3.972 3.976 3.960 3.984 3.988 3.992 3.996
2.00 4.000 4.004 4.008 4.012 4.016 4.020 4.024 4.028 4.032 4.036
2.01 4.040 4.044 4.048 4.052 4.056 4.060 4.064 4.068 4.072 4.076
2.02 4.080 4.084 4.088 4.093 4.097 4.101 4.105 4.109 4.113 4.117
2.03 4.121 4.125 4.129 4.133 4.137 4.141 4.145 4.149 4.153 4.158
2.04 4.162 4.186 4.170 4.174 4.178 4.182 4.188 4.190 4.194 4.198
2.05 4.202 4.207 4.211 4.215 4.219 4.223 4.227 4.231 4.235 4.239
2.08 4.244 4.248 4.252 4.258 4.280 4.284 4.268 4.272 4.277 4.281
2.07 4.285 4.289 4.293 4.297 4.301 4.306 4.310 4.314 4.318 4.322
2.08 4.328 4.331 4.335 4.339 4.343 4.347 4.351 4.358 4.360 4.364
2.09 4.388 4.372 4.378 4.381 4.385 4.389 4.393 4.397 4.402 4.406
2.10 4.410 4.414 4.418 4.423 4.427 4.431 4.435 4.439 4.444 4.448
2.11 4.452 4.458 4.461 4.465 4.469 4.473 4.477 4.482 4.486 4.490
2.12 4.494 4.499 4.503 4.507 4.511 4.516 4.520 4.524 4.528 4.533
2.13 4.537 4.541 4.545 4.550 4.554 4.558 4.562 4.587 4.571 4.575
2.14 4.580 4.584 4.588 4.592 4.597 4.801 4.605 4.610 4.814 4.618
2.15 4.622 4.627 4.831 4.635 4.640 4.844 4.648 4.653 4.857 4.661
2.18 4.886 4.670 4.674 4.679 4.683 4.887 4.692 4.696 4.700 4.705
2.17 4.709 4.713 4.716 4.722 4.728 4.731 4.735 4.739 4.744 4.748
2.18 4.752 4.757 4.761 4.765 4.770 4.774 4.779 4.783 4.787 4.792
2.19 4.796 4.800 4.805 4.809 4.814 4.818 4.822 4.827 4.831 4.836

2
r =9.66960; l/r2 =0.101321, e2 =7.38906. x2 =9.669w; (T/z)* =2.46740; l/n2 =0.101321.

(continued on next page)


I-4 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING HANDBOOK

TABLEl.l-SQUARES OF NUMBERS(continued)

Average
N 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 7 8 9 Difference
- - ~
2.20 4.840 4.844 4.849 4.853 4.858 4.882 4.888 4.871 4.875 4.880 4
2.21 4.884 4.889 4.893 4.897 4.902 4.906 4.911 4.915 4.920 4.924
2.22 4.928 4.933 4.937 4.942 4.948 4.951 4.955 4.960 4.964 4.988
2.23 4.973 4.977 4.982 4.986 4.991 4.995 5.000 5.004 5.009 5.013
2.24 5.018 5.022 5.027 5.031 5.036 5.040 5.045 5.049 5.054 5.058

2.25 5.062 5.067 5.072 5.076 5.081 5.085 5.090 5.094 5.099 5.103 5
2.26 5.108 5.112 5.117 5.121 5.128 5.130 5.135 5.139 5.144 5.148
2.27 5.153 5.157 5.162 5.167 5.171 5.176 5.180 5.185 5.189 5.194
2.28 5.198 5.203 5.208 5.212 5.217 5.221 5.226 5.230 5.235 5.240
2.29 5.244 5.249 5.253 5.258 5.262 5.267 5.272 5.276 5.281 5.285
2.30 5.290 5.295 5.299 5.304 5.308 5.313 5.318 5.322 5.327 5.331
2.31 5.338 5.341 5.345 5.350 5.355 5.359 5.364 5.388 5.373 5.378
2.32 5.382 5.387 5.392 5.396 5.401 5.408 5.410 5.415 5.420 5.424
2.33 5.429 5.434 5.438 5.443 5.448 5.452 5.457 5.482 5.488 5.471
2.34 5.478 5.480 5.485 5.490 5.494 5.499 5.504 5.508 5.513 5.518
2.35 5.522 5.527 5.532 5.537 5.541 5.548 5.551 5.555 5.580 5.565
2.38 5.570 5.574 5.579 5.584 5.588 5.593 5.598 5.603 5.807 5.612
2.37 5.871 5.822 5.626 5.631 5.636 5.641 5.645 5.650 5.855 5.660
2.38 5.884 5.889 5.674 5.879 5.883 5.688 5.693 5.698 5.703 5.707
2.39 5.712 5.717 5.722 5.726 5.731 5.738 5.741 5.746 5.750 5.755
2.40 5.780 5.785 5.770 5.774 5.779 5.784 5.789 5.794 5.798 5.803
2.41 5.808 5.813 5.818 5.823 5.827 5.832 5.837 5.842 5.847 5.852
2.42 5.856 5.861 5.866 5.871 5.876 5.881 5.885 5.890 5.895 5.900
2.43 5.905 5.910 5.915 5.919 5.924 5.929 5.934 5.939 5.944 5.949
2.44 5.954 5.958 5.963 5.988 5.973 5.978 5.983 5.988 5.993 5.998
2.45 8.002 6.007 6.012 6.017 6.022 6.027 6.032 6.037 6.042 6.047
2.48 8.502 6.057 6.061 6.088 8.071 6.078 8.081 6.086 6.091 6.096
2.47 8.101 6.108 6.111 6.116 6.121 6.126 6.131 6.136 6.140 6.145
2.48 6.150 6.155 6.180 6.185 8.170 8.175 6.180 6.185 6.190 8.195
2.49 6.200 6.205 6.210 6.215 6.220 6.225 6.230 6.235 6.240 6.245
2.50 8.250 6.255 6.260 8.265 6.270 6.275 6.280 6.285 6.290 6.295 5
2.51 8.300 6.305 6.310 8.315 6.320 6.325 6.330 6.335 8.340 6.345
2.52 6.350 6.355 6.380 8.366 8.371 6.378 8.381 6.388 6.391 6.396
2.53 6.401 6.406 6.411 8.416 8.421 6.428 8.431 8.438 6.441 6.447
2.54 6.452 6.457 6.462 8.467 6.472 6.477 8.482 6.487 8.492 6.497
2.55 8.502 6.508 6.513 8.518 8.523 6.528 8.533 8.538 8.543 6.548
2.56 6.554 8.559 6.564 6.569 8.574 6.579 8.584 6.589 6.595 6.600
2.57 6.605 8.810 6.815 8.620 8.625 6.831 6.636 8.641 8.848 8.651
2.58 6.656 6.862 6.667 8.672 8.677 6.882 6.687 8.693 8.698 8.703
2.59 6.708 8.713 6.718 6.724 8.729 6.734 6.739 8.744 8.750 6.755
2.60 6.780 8.765 6.770 8.776 8.781 6.788 6.791 8.798 8.802 8.807
2.61 6.812 8.817 6.323 8.828 8.833 6.838 6.843 6.849 8.854 8.859
2.62 6.884 8.870 6.375 8.880 8.885 6.891 6.896 6.901 8.906 6.912
2.63 6.917 6.922 6.927 6.933 6.938 6.943 6.948 6.954 6.959 6.964
2.64 6.970 8.975 f5.980 8.985 8.991 6.996 7.001 7.007 7.012 7.017
2.65 7.022 7.028 7.033 7.038 7.044 7.049 7.054 7.060 7.085 7.070
2.68 7.076 7.081 7.086 7.092 7.097 7.102 7.108 7.113 7.118 7.124
2.87 7.129 7.134 i.140 7.145 7.150 7.158 7.161 7.166 7.172 7.177
2.68 7.182 7.188 7.193 7.198 7.204 7.209 7.215 7.220 7.225 7.231
2.89 7.238 7.241 7.247 7.252 7.258 7.263 7.288 7.274 7.279 7.285
2.70 7.290 7.295 7.301 7.306 7.312 7.317 7.322 7.328 7.333 7.339
2.71 7.344 7.350 7.355 7.360 7.366 7.371 7.377 7.382 7.388 7.393
2.72 7.398 7.404 7409 7.415 7.420 7.426 7.431 7.437 7.442 7.447
2.73 7.453 7.458 7.484 7.469 7.475 7.480 7.486 7.491 7.497 7.502
2.74 7.508 7.513 7.519 7.524 7.530 7.535 7.541 7.546 7.552 7.557
2.75 7.562 7.588 7.574 7.579 7.585 7.590 7.596 7.801 7.607 7.812 8
2.76 7.618 7.623 7.629 7.634 7.840 7.645 7.851 7.656 7.662 7.867
2.77 7.673 7.678 7.884 7.690 7.895 7.701 7.708 7.712 7.717 7.723
2.78 7.728 7.734 7.740 7.745 7.751 7.756 7.782 7.767 7.773 7.779
2.79 7.784 7.790 7.795 7.801 7.806 7.812 7.818 7.823 7.829 7.834

r’=966960. -In2 =0.101321, e2 =7389X r2=9.86960, (n/2)* =2.46740. l/n2 =0 101321


MATHEMATICAL TABLES & UNITS & SYSTEMS OF WEIGHTS & MEASURES l-5

TABLE l.l-SQUARES OF NUMBERS (continued)

Average
N 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Difference
2.80 7.840 7.646 7.851 7.857 7.862 7.868 7.874 7.879 7.885 7.890 6
2.81 7.896 7.902 7.907 7.913 7.919 7.924 7.930 7.935 7.941 7.947
2.82 7.952 7.958 7.964 7.969 7.975 7.981 7.986 7.992 7.998 6.003
2.83 8.009 8.015 8.020 8.026 8.032 8.037 8.043 8.049 8.054 8.060
2.84 8.066 8.071 8.077 8.083 8.088 8.094 8.100 8.105 8.111 8.117
2.85 8.122 8.128 8.134 8.140 8.145 8.151 8.157 6.162 8.168 8.174
2.86 8.180 8.185 8.191 8.197 8.202 8.208 8.214 8.220 8.225 8.231
2.87 8.237 6.243 8.248 8.254 8.260 8.266 8.271 8.277 8.283 8.289
2.88 8.294 8.300 8.306 8.312 8.317 8.323 8.329 8.335 8.341 8.346
2.89 8.352 8.358 8.384 8.369 8.375 8.381 8.387 8.393 8.398 8.404
2.90 8.410 8.416 8.422 6.427 8.433 8.439 8.445 8.451 8.456 8.462
2.91 8.468 8.474 8.480 8.486 8.491 8.497 8.503 8.509 8.515 8.521
2.92 8.526 8.532 8.538 8.544 8.550 8.556 8.561 8.567 8.573 8.579
2.93 8.585 8.591 8.597 8.602 8.606 8.614 8.820 8.626 8.632 8.638
2.94 8.644 8.649 8.655 8.661 8.667 8.673 8.679 8.885 8.691 8.697
2.95 8.702 8.708 8.714 8.720 8.726 8.732 8.738 8.744 8.750 8.756
2.96 8.762 8.768 8.773 8.779 8.785 8.791 8.797 8.803 8.809 8.815
2.97 8.821 8.827 8.833 8.839 8.845 8.851 8.857 8.863 8.868 8.874
2.98 8.880 8.886 8.892 8.898 8.904 8.910 8.916 8.922 8.928 8.934
2.99 8.940 8.946 8.952 8.958 8.964 8.970 8.976 8.982 8.988 8.994
3.00 9.000 9.006 9.012 9.018 9.024 9.030 9.036 9.042 9.048 9.054
3.01 9.060 9.066 9.072 9.078 9.084 9.090 9.096 9.102 9.108 9.114
3.02 9.120 9.126 9.132 9.139 9.145 9.151 9.157 9.163 9.169 9.175
3.03 9.181 9.187 9.193 9.199 9.205 9.211 9.217 9.223 9.229 9.236
3.04 9.242 9.248 9.254 9.260 9.266 9.272 9.278 9.284 9.290 9.296
3.05 9.302 9.309 9.315 9.321 9.327 9.333 9.339 9.345 9.351 9.357
3.06 9.364 9.370 9.376 9.382 9.388 9.394 9.400 9.406 9.413 9.419
3.07 9.425 9.431 9.437 9.443 9.449 9.456 9.462 9.468 9.474 9.480
3.08 9.486 9.493 9.499 9.505 9.511 9.517 9.523 9.530 9.536 9.542
3.09 9.548 9.554 9.560 9.567 9.573 9.579 9.585 9.591 9.598 9.604
3.10 9.610 9.616 9.622 9.629 9.635 9.641 9.647 9.653 9.660 9.666
3.11 9.672 9.678 9.685 9.691 9.697 9.703 9.709 9.716 9.722 9.728
3.12 9.734 9.741 9.747 9.753 9.759 9.766 9.772 9.778 9.784 9.791
3.13 9.797 9.803 9.809 9.816 9.822 9.828 9.834 9.841 9.847 9.853
3.14 9.860 9.866 9.872 9.878 9.885 9.891 9.897 9.904 9.910 9.916
3.15 9.922 9.929 9.935 9.941 9.948 9.954 9.960 9.967 9.973 9.979
3.16 9.986 9.992 9.998 10.005

3.1 9.99 10.05 10.11 10.18


3.2 10.24 10.30 10.37 10.43 10.50 10.56 10.63 10.69 10.76 10.82
3.3 10.89 10.96 11.02 11.09 11.16 11.22 11.29 11.36 11.42 11.49
3.4 11.56 11.63 11.70 11.76 11.83 11.90 11.97 12.04 12.11 12.18
3.5 12.25 12.32 12.39 12.46 12.53 12.60 12.87 12.74 12.82 12.89
3.6 1296 13.03 13.10 13.18 13.25 13.32 13.40 13.47 13.54 13.62
3.7 13.69 13.76 13.84 13.91 13.99 14.06 14.14 14.21 14.29 14.36 8
3.8 1444 14.52 14.59 14.67 14.75 14.82 14.90 14.98 15.05 15.13
3.9 15.21 15.29 15.37 15.44 15.52 15.60 15.68 15.76 15.84 15.92
4.0 16.00 16.08 16.16 16.24 16.32 16.40 16.48 16.56 16.65 16.73
4.1 16.81 16.89 16.97 17.06 17.14 17.22 17.31 17.39 17.47 17.56
4.2 17.64 17.72 17.81 17.89 17.98 18.06 18.15 18.23 18.32 18.40
4.3 18.49 18.58 18.66 18.75 18.84 18.92 19.01 19.10 19.18 19.27 9
4.4 19.36 19.45 19.54 19.62 19.71 19.80 19.89 19.98 20.07 20.16
4.5 20.25 20.34 20.43 20.52 20.61 20.70 20.79 20.88 20.98 21.07
4.6 21.16 21.25 21.34 21.44 21.53 21.62 21.72 21.81 21.90 22.00
4.7 22.09 22.18 22.28 22.37 22.47 22.56 22.66 22.75 22.85 22.94 10
4.6 23.04 23.14 23.23 23.33 23.43 23.52 23.62 23.72 23.81 23.91
4.9 24.01 24.11 24.21 24.30 24.40 24.50 24.60 24.70 24.80 24.90
5.0 25.00 25.10 25.20 25.30 25.40 25.50 25.60 25.70 2581 25.91
5.1 26.01 26.11 26.21 26.32 26.42 26.52 26.63 26.73 26.83 26.94
5.2 27.04 27.14 27.25 27.35 27.46 27.56 27.67 27.77 27.88 27.98
5.3 28.09 28.20 28.30 28.41 28.52 28.62 28.73 28.84 28.94 29.05 11
5.4 29.16 29.27 29.38 29.48 29.59 29.70 29.81 29.92 30.03 30.14

r2 =986960. l/r2 =0101321.e2=736906 r2 =9.66960. (T/Z)~ =2.46740. l/n2 =o 101321

(contmued on next page)


l-6 PETROLEUM ENGINEERINGHANDBOOK

TABLE l.l-SQUARES OF NUMBERS (continued)

Average
N 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Difference
5.5 30.25 30.36 30.47 30.58 30.69 30.80 30.91 31.02 31.14 31.25 11
5.6 31.36 31.47 31.58 31.70 31.81 31.92 32.04 32.15 32.26 32.38
5.7 32.49 32.60 32.72 32.83 32.95 33.06 33.18 33.29 33.41 33.52
5.8 33.64 33.76 33.87 33.99 34.11 34.22 34.34 34.46 34.57 34.69 12
5.9 34.81 34.93 35.05 35.16 35.28 35.40 35.52 35.64 35.76 35.88
6.0 36.00 36.12 36.24 36.36 36.48 36.60 36.72 36.84 36.97 37.09
6.1 37.21 37.33 37.45 37.58 37.70 37.82 37.95 38.07 38.19 38.32
6.2 38.44 38.56 38.69 38.81 38.94 39.06 39.19 39.31 39.44 39.56
6.3 39.69 39.82 39.94 40.07 40.20 40.32 40.45 40.58 40.70 40.83 13
6.4 40.96 41.09 41.22 41.34 41.47 41.60 41.73 41.86 41.99 42.12
6.5 42.25 42.38 42.51 42.64 42.77 42.90 43.03 43.16 43.30 43.43
6.6 43.56 43.69 43.82 43.96 44.09 44.22 44.36 44.49 44.62 44.76
6.7 44.89 45.02 45.16 45.29 45.43 45.56 45.70 45.83 45.97 46.10
6.8 46.24 46.38 46.51 46.65 46.79 46.92 47.06 47.20 47.33 47.47 14
6.9 47.61 47.75 47.89 48.02 48.16 48.30 48.44 48.58 48.72 48.86
7.0 49.00 49.14 49.28 49.42 49.56 49.70 49.84 49.98 50.13 50.27
7.1 50.41 50.55 50.69 50.84 50.98 51.12 51.27 51.41 51.55 51.70
7.2 51.84 51.98 52.13 52.27 52.42 52.56 52.71 52.85 53.00 53.14
7.3 53.29 53.44 53.58 53.73 53.88 54.02 54.17 54.32 54.46 54.61 15
7.4 54.76 54.91 55.06 55.20 55.35 55.50 55.65 55.80 55.95 56.10
7.5 56.25 56.40 56.55 56.70 56.85 57.00 57.15 57.30 57.46 57.61
7.6 57.76 57.91 58.06 58.22 58.37 58.52 58.68 58.83 58.98 59.14
7.7 59.29 59.44 59.60 59.75 59.91 60.06 60.22 60.37 60.53 60.68
7.8 60.84 61.00 61.15 61.31 61.47 61.62 61.78 61.94 82.09 62.25 16
7.9 62.41 6257 62.73 62.88 63.04 63.20 63.36 63.52 83.68 63.84
8.0 64.00 64.16 64.32 64.48 64.64 64.80 64.96 65.12 65.29 65.45
8.1 65.61 65.77 65.93 66.10 66.26 66.42 66.59 66.75 66.91 67.08
8.2 67.24 67.40 67.57 67.73 67.90 68.06 68.23 68.39 68.56 68.72
8.3 68.89 69.06 69.22 69.39 69.56 69.72 69.89 70.06 70.22 70.39 17
8.4 70.56 70.73 70.90 71.06 71.23 71.40 71.57 71.74 71.91 72.08
8.5 72.25 72.42 72.59 72.76 72.93 73.'10 73.27 73.44 73.62 73.79
8.6 73.96 74.13 74.30 74.48 74.65 74.82 75.00 75.17 75.34 75.52
8.7 75.69 75.86 76.04 76.21 76.39 76.56 76.74 76.91 77.09 77.26
8.8 77.44 77.62 77.79 77.97 78.15 78.32 78.50 78.68 78.85 79.03 18
8.9 79.21 79.39 79.57 79.74 79.92 80.10 80.28 80.46 80.64 80.82
9.0 81.00 81.18 81.36 81.54 81.72 81.90 82.08 82.26 82.45 82.63
9.1 82.81 82.99 83.17 83.36 83.54 83.72 83.91 84.09 84.27 84.46
9.2 84.64 84.82 85.01 85.19 85.38 85.56 85.75 85.93 86.12 86.30
9.3 86.49 86.68 86.86 87.05 87.24 87.42 87.61 87.80 87.98 88.17 19
9.4 88.36 88.55 88.74 88.92 89.11 89.30 69.49 89.68 89.87 90.06
9.5 90.25 so.44 90.63 90.82 91.01 91.20 91.39 91.58 91.78 91.97
9.6 92.16 92.35 92.54 92.74 92.93 93.12 93.32 93.51 93.70 93.90
9.7 94.09 94.28 94.48 94.67 94.87 95.06 95.28 95.45 95.65 95.84
9.8 96.04 96.24 96.43 96.63 96.83 97.02 97.22 97.42 97.61 97.81 20
9.9 98.01 98.21 98.41 98.60 98.80 99.00 99.20 99.40 99.60 99.80
10.0 100.0

2
r =986960 lh2 =o 101321. e2 =736906 r2=966960.(r12)2=246740. l/r2 =o 101321
MATHEMATICAL TABLES & UNITS & SYSTEMS OF WEIGHTS & MEASURES 1-7

TABLE1.2-CUBESOFNUMBERS

Average
N 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Difference
1.00 1.000 1.003 1.006 1.009 1.012 1.015 1.018 1.021 1.024 1.027 3
1.01 1.030 1.033 1.036 1.040 1.043 1.046 1.049 1.052 1.055 1.058
1.02 1.061 1.064 1.067 1.071 1.074 1.077 1.080 1.083 1.086 1.090
1.03 1.093 1.096 1.099 1.102 1.106 1.109 1.112 1.115 1.118 1.122
1.04 1.125 1.128 1.131 1.135 1.138 1.141 1.144 1.148 1.151 1.154
1.05 1.158 1.161 1.164 1.168 1.171 1.174 1.178 1.181 1.184 1.188
1.06 1.191 1.194 1.198 1.201 1.205 1.208 1.211 1.215 1.218 1.222
1.07 1.225 1.228 1.232 1.235 1.239 1.242 1.246 1.249 1.253 1.256
1.08 1.260 1.263 1.267 1.270 1.274 1.277 1.281 1.284 1.288 1.2Sl 4
1.09 1.295 1.299 1.302 1.306 1.309 1.313 1.317 1.320 1.324 1.327
1.10 1.331 1.335 1.338 1.342 1.346 1.349 1.353 1.357 1.360 1.364
1.11 1.368 1.371 1.375 1.379 1.382 1.386 1.390 1.394 1.397 1.401
1.12 1.405 1.409 1.412 1.416 1.420 1.424 1.428 1.431 1.435 1.439
1.13 1.443 1.447 1.451 1.454 1.458 1.462 1.466 1.470 1.474 1.478
1.14 1.482 1.485 1.489 1.493 1.497 1.501 1.505 1.509 1.513 1.517
1.15 1.521 1.525 1.529 1.533 1.537 1.541 1.545 1.549 1.553 1.557
1.16 1.561 1.565 1.569 1.573 1.577 1.581 1.585 1.589 1.593 1.598
1.17 1.602 1.606 1.610 1.614 1.618 1.622 1.626 1.631 1.635 1.639
1.18 1.643 1.647 1.651 1.656 1.660 1.664 1.668 1.672 1.677 1.681
1.19 1.685 1.689 1.694 1.698 1.702 1.706 1.711 1.715 1.719 1.724
1.20 1.728 1.732 1.737 1.741 1.745 1.750 1.754 1.758 1.763 1.767
1.21 1.772 1.776 1.780 1.785 1.789 1.794 1.798 1.802 1.807 1.811
1.22 1.816 1.820 1.825 1.829 1.834 1.838 1.843 1.847 1.852 1.856
1.23 1.861 1.865 1.870 1.075 1.879 1.884 1.888 1.893 1.897 1.902
1.24 1.907 1.911 1.916 1.920 1.925 1.930 1.934 1.939 1.944 1.948 5
1.25 1.953 1.958 1.983 1.967 1.972 1.977 1.981 1.986 1.991 1.996
1.26 2.000 2.005 2.010 2.015 2.019 2.024 2.029 2.034 2.039 2.044
1.27 2.048 2.053 2.058 2.063 2.068 2.073 2.078 2.082 2.087 2.092
1.28 2.097 2.102 2.107 2.112 2.117 2.122 2.127 2.132 2.137 2.142
1.29 2.147 2.152 2.157 2.162 2.167 2.172 2.177 2.182 2.187 2.192
1.30 2.197 2.202 2.207 2.212 2.217 2.222 2.228 2.233 2.238 2.243
1.31 2.248 2.253 2.258 2.264 2.269 2.274 2.279 2.284 2.290 2.295
1.32 2.300 2.305 2.310 2.316 2.321 2.326 2.331 2.337 2.342 2.347
1.33 2.353 2.358 2.363 2.369 2.374 2.379 2.385 2.390 2.395 2.401
1.34 2.406 2.411 2.417 2.422 2.428 2.433 2.439 2.444 2.449 2.455
1.35 2.460 2.466 2.471 2.477 2.482 2.480 2.493 2.499 2.504 2.510 6
1.36 2.515 2.521 2.527 2.532 2.538 2.543 2.549 2.554 2.560 2.566
1.37 2.571 2.577 2.583 2.588 2.594 2.600 2.605 2.611 2.617 2.622
1.38 2.628 2.634 2.640 2.645 2.651 2.657 2.663 2.668 2.674 2.680
1.39 2.686 2.691 2.697 2.703 2.709 2.715 2.721 2.726 2.732 2.738
1.40 2.744 2.750 2.756 2.762 2.768 2.774 2.779 2.785 2.791 2.797
1.41 2.803 2.809 2.815 2.821 2.827 2.833 2.839 2.845 2.851 2.857
1.42 2.863 2.869 2.875 2.881 2.888 2.894 2.900 2.906 2.912 2.918
1.43 2.924 2.930 2.936 2.943 2.949 2.955 2.961 2.967 2.974 2.980
1.44 2.986 2.992 2.998 3.005 3.011 3.017 3.023 3.030 3.036 3.042
1.45 3.049 3.055 3.081 3.068 3.074 3.080 3.087 3.093 3.099 3.106
1.46 3.112 3.119 3.125 3.131 3.138 3.144 3.151 3.157 3.164 3.170
1.47 3.177 3.183 3.190 3.196 3.203 3.209 3.216 3.222 3.229 3.235
1.48 3.242 3.248 3.255 3.262 3.268 3.275 3.281 3.288 3.295 3.301 7
1.49 3.308 3.315 3.321 3.328 3.335 3.341 3.348 3.355 3.362 3.368
1.50 3.375 3.382 3.389 3.395 3.402 3.409 3.416 3.422 3.429 3.438
1.51 3.443 3.450 3.457 3.464 3.470 3.477 3.484 3.491 3.498 3.505
1.52 3.512 3.519 3.528 3.533 3.540 3.547 3.554 3.561 3.568 3.575
1.53 3.582 3.589 3.596 3.603 3.610 3.617 3.624 3.631 3.638 3.645
1.54 3.652 3.659 3.667 3.674 3.681 3.688 3.695 3.702 3.709 3.717
1.55 3.724 3.731 3.738 3.746 3.753 3.760 3.767 3.775 3.782 3.789
1.56 3.796 3.804 3.811 3.818 3.826 3.833 3.840 3.848 3.855 3.863
1.57 3.870 3.877 3.885 3.892 3.900 3.907 3.914 3.922 3.929 3.937
1.58 3.944 3.952 3.959 3.967 3.974 3.982 3.989 3.997 4.005 4.012 a
1.59 4.020 4.027 4.035 4.042 4.050 4.058 4.065 4.073 4.081 4.088

Explanationof Table of Cubes

This tablegives the value of N3 forvalues of Nfrom 1 to 10, correctto four figures.(Interpolated
values may be in error
by 1 in the fourthfigure.)
To findthe cube of a number Noutsidethe range from 1 to 10, notethatmovingthe decimal pointone place inColumn
Nis equivalentto moving itthreeplaces in the body ofthelable. For example,(4.852)3 = 114.2,(0.4852)3=0.1142, and
(485.2)3=114,200.000.
This table also can be used inverselyto give cube roots.
(continued on next page)
1-B PETROLEUM ENGINEERINGHANDBOOK

TABLE 1.2-CUBES OF NUMBERS (continued)

Average
N 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Difference
- -
1.60 4.096 4.104 4.111 4.119 4.127 4.135 4.142 4.150 4.158 4.166 8
1.61 4.173 4.181 4.189 4.197 4.204 4.212 4.220 4.228 4.236 4.244
1.62 4.252 4.259 4.267 4.275 4.283 4.291 4.299 4.307 4.315 4.323
1.63 4.331 4.339 4.347 4.355 4.363 4.371 4.379 4.387 4.395 4.403
1.64 4.411 4.419 4.427 4.435 4.443 4.451 4.460 4.468 4.476 4.484
1.65 4.492 4.500 4.508 4.517 4.525 4.533 4.541 4.550 4.558 4.566
1.66 4.574 4.583 4.591 4.599 4.607 4.616 4.624 4.632 4.641 4.649
1.67 4.657 4.666 4.674 4.683 4.691 4.699 4.708 4.716 4.725 4.733
1.68 4.742 4.750 4.759 4.767 4.776 4.784 4.793 4.801 4.810 4.818
1.69 4.827 4.835 4.844 4.853 4.861 4.870 4.878 4.887 4.896 4.904 9
1.70 4.913 4.922 4.930 4.939 4.948 4.956 4.965 4.974 4.983 4.991
1.71 5.000 5.009 5.018 5.027 5.035 5.044 5.053 5.062 5.071 5.080
1.72 5.088 5.097 5.106 5.115 5.124 5.133 5.142 5.151 5.160 5.169
1.73 5.178 5.187 5.196 5.205 5.214 5.223 5.232 5.241 5.250 5.259
1.74 5.268 5.277 5.286 5.295 5.304 5.314 5.323 5.332 5.341 5.350
1.75 5.359 5.369 5.378 5.387 5.396 5.405 5.415 5.424 5.433 5.442
1.76 5.452 5.461 5.470 5.480 5.489 5.498 5.508 5.517 5.526 5.536
1.77 5.545 5.555 5.564 5.573 5.583 5.592 5.602 5.611 5.621 5.630 IO
1.78 5.640 5.649 5.659 5.668 5.678 5.687 5.697 5.707 5.716 5.726
1.79 5.735 5.745 5.755 5.764 5.774 5.784 5.793 5.803 5.813 5.822
1.80 5.832 5.842 5.851 5.861 5.871 5.881 5.891 5.900 5.910 5.920
1.81 5.930 5.940 5.949 5.959 5.969 5.979 5.989 5.999 6.009 6.019
1.82 6.029 6.039 6.048 6.058 6.068 6.078 6.088 6.098 6.108 6.118
1.83 6.128 6.139 6.149 6.159 6.169 6.179 6.189 6.199 6.209 6.219
1.84 6.230 6.240 6.250 6.260 6.270 6.280 6.291 6.301 6.311 6.321
1.85 6.332 6.342 6.352 6.362 6.373 6.383 6.393 6.404 6.414 6.424
1.86 6.435 6.445 6.456 6.466 6.476 6.487 6.497 6.508 6.518 6.529
1.87 6.539 6.550 6.560 6.571 6.581 6.592 6.602 6.613 6.623 6.634 11
1.88 6.645 6.655 6.666 6.677 6.687 6.698 6.708 6.719 6.730 6.741
1.89 6.751 6.762 6.773 6.783 6.794 6.805 6.816 6.827 6.837 6.848
1.90 6.859 6.870 6.881 6.892 6.902 6.913 6.924 6.935 6.946 6.957
1.91 6.968 6.979 6.990 7.001 7.012 7.023 7.034 7.045 7.056 7.067
1.92 7.078 7.089 7.100 7.111 7.122 7.133 7.144 7.156 7.167 7.178
1.93 7.189 7.200 7.211 7.223 7.234 7.245 7.256 7.268 7.279 7.290
1.94 7.301 7.313 7.324 7.335 7.347 7.358 7.369 7.381 7.392 7.403
1.95 7.415 7.426 7.438 7.449 7.461 7.472 7.484 7.495 7.507 7.518 12
1.96 7.530 7.541 7.553 7.564 7.576 7.587 7.599 7.610 7.622 7.634
1.97 7.645 7.657 7.669 7.680 7.692 7.704 7.715 7.727 7.739 7.751
1.98 7.762 7.774 7.786 7.798 7.810 7.821 7.833 7.845 7.857 7.869
1.99 7.881 7.892 7.904 7.916 7.928 7.940 7.952 7.964 7.976 7.988
2.00 8.000 8.012 8.024 8.036 8.048 8.060 8.072 8.084 8.096 8.108
2.01 8.121 8.133 8.145 8.157 8.169 8.181 8.194 8.206 8.218 8.230
2.02 8.242 8.255 8.267 8.279 8.291 8.304 8.316 8.328 8.341 8.353
2.03 8.365 8.378 8.390 8.403 8.415 8.427 8.440 8.452 8.465 a.477
2.04 8.490 8.502 8.515 8.527 8.540 8.552 8.565 8.577 8.590 8.603
2.05 8.615 8.628 8.640 8.653 8.666 8.678 8.691 8.704 8.716 8.729 13
2.06 8.742 8.755 8.767 8.780 8.793 8.806 8.818 8.831 8.844 8.857
2.07 8.870 8.883 8.895 8.908 8.921 8.934 8.947 8.960 8.973 8.986
2.08 8.999 9.012 9.025 9.038 9.051 9.064 9.077 9.090 9.103 9.116
2.09 9.129 9.142 9.156 9.169 9.182 9.195 9.208 9.221 9.235 9.248
2.10 9.261 9.274 9.287 9.301 9.314 9.327 9.341 9.354 9.367 9.381
2.11 9.394 9.407 9.421 9.434 9.447 9.461 9.474 9.488 9.501 9.515
2.12 9.528 9.542 9.555 9.569 9.582 9.596 9.609 9.623 9.636 9.650 14
2.13 9.664 9.677 9.691 9.704 9.718 9.732 9.745 9.759 9.773 9.787
2.14 9.800 9.814 9.828 9.842 9.855 9.869 9.883 9.897 9.911 9.925
2.15 9.938 9.952 9.966 9.980 9.994 10.008 14
2.1 9.94 10.08 10.22 10.36 10.50 14
2.2 10.65 10.79 10.94 11.09 11.24 11.39 11.54 11.70 11.85 12.01 15
2.3 12.17 12.33 12.49 12.65 12.81 12.98 13.14 13.31 13.48 13.65 16
2.4 13.82 14.00 14.17 14.35 14.53 14.71 14.89 15.07 15.25 15.44 18

r3= 31.0063andl/n3 =0.0322515+


MATHEMATICALTABLES& UNITS& SYSTEMSOF WEIGHTS& MEASURES 1-9

TABLE1.2-CUEIESOF NUMBERS(continued)

Average
N 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 Difference
--
2.5 15.62 15.81 16.00 16.19 16.39 16.58 16.78 16.97 17.17 17.37 20
2.6 17.58 17.78 17.98 18.19 18.40 18.61 18.82 19.03 19.25 19.47 21
2.7 19.68 19.90 20.12 20.35 20.57 20.80 21.02 21.25 21.48 21.72 23
2.8 21.95 22.19 22.43 22.67 22.91 23.15 23.39 23.64 23.89 24.14 24
2.9 24.39 24.64 24.90 25.15 25.41 25.67 25.93 26.20 26.46 26.73 26
3.0 27.00 27.27 27.54 27.82 28.09 28.37 28.65 28.93 29.22 29.50 28
3.1 29.79 30.08 30.37 30.66 30.96 31.26 31.55 31.86 32.16 32.46 30
3.2 32.77 33.08 33.39 33.70 34.01 34.33 34.65 34.97 35.29 35.61 32
3.3 35.94 36.26 36.59 36.93 37.26 37.60 37.93 38.27 38.61 38.96 34
3.4 39.30 39.65 40.00 40.35 40.71 41.06 41.42 41.78 42.14 42.51 36
3.5 42.88 43.24 43.61 43.99 44.36 44.74 45.12 45.50 45.88 46.27 39
3.6 46.66 47.05 47.44 47.83 48.23 48.63 49.03 49.43 49.84 50.24 40
3.7 50.65 51.06 51.48 51.90 52.31 52.73 53.16 53.58 54.01 54.44 42
3.8 54.87 55.31 55.74 56.18 56.62 57.07 57.51 57.96 58.41 58.86 44
3.9 59.32 59.78 60.24 60.70 61.16 61.63 62.10 62.57 63.04 63.52 47
4.0 64.00 64.48 64.96 65.45 65.94 66.43 66.92 67.42 67.92 68.42 49
4.1 68.92 69.43 69.93 70.44 70.96 71.47 71.99 72.51 73.03 73.56 52
4.2 74.09 74.62 75.15 75.69 76.23 76.77 77.31 77.85 78.40 78.95 54
4.3 79.51 80.08 80.62 81.18 81.75 82.31 82.88 83.45 84.03 84.60 58
4.4 85.18 85.77 86.35 86.94 87.53 88.12 88.72 89.31 89.92 90.52 59
4.5 91.12 91.73 92.35 92.96 93.58 94.20 94.82 95.44 96.07 96.70 62
4.6 97.34 97.97 98.61 99.25 99.90 100.54 64
4.6 100.5 101.2 101.8 102.5 103.2 7
4.7 103.8 104.5 105.2 105.8 106.5 107.2 107.9 108.5 109.2 109.9 7
4.8 110.6 111.3 112.0 112.7 113.4 114.1 114.8 115.5 116.2 116.9 7
4.9 117.6 118.4 119.1 119.8 120.6 121.3 122.0 122.8 123.5 124.3 7
5.0 125.0 125.8 126.5 127.3 128.0 128.8 129.6 130.3 131.1 131.9 8
5.1 132.7 133.4 134.2 135.0 135.8 136.6 137.4 138.2 139.0 139.8
5.2 140.6 141.4 142.2 143.1 143.9 144.7 145.5 146.4 147.2 148.0
5.3 148.9 149.7 150.6 151.4 152.3 153.1 154.0 154.9 155.7 156.6 9
5.4 157.5 158.3 159.2 160.1 161.0 161.9 162.8 163.7 164.6 165.5
5.5 166.4 167.3 168.2 169.1 170.0 171.0 171.9 172.8 173.7 174.7
5.6 175.6 176.6 177.5 178.5 179.4 180.4 181.3 182.3 183.3 184.2 IO
5.7 185.2 186.2 187.1 188.1 189.1 190.1 191.1 192.1 193.1 194.1
5.8 195.1 196.1 197.1 198.2 199.2 200.2 201.2 202.3 203.3 204.3
5.9 205.4 206.4 207.5 208.5 209.6 210.6 211.7 212.8 213.8 214.9
6.0 216.0 217.1 218.2 219.3 220.3 221.4 222.5 223.6 224.8 225.9 11
6.1 227.0 228.1 229.2 230.3 231.5 232.6 233.7 234.9 236.0 237.2
6.2 238.3 239.5 240.6 241.8 243.0 244.1 245.3 246.5 247.7 248.9 12
6.3 250.0 251.2 252.4 253.6 254.8 256.0 257.3 258.5 259.7 260.9
6.4 262.1 263.4 264.6 265.8 267.1 268.3 269.6 270.8 272.1 273.4
6.5 274.6 275.9 277.2 278.4 279.7 281.0 282.3 283.6 284.9 286.2 13
6.6 287.5 288.8 290.1 291.4 292.8 294.1 295.4 298.7 298.1 299.4
6.7 300.8 302.1 303.5 304.8 306.2 307.5 308.9 310.3 311.7 313.0 14
6.8 314.4 315.8 317.2 318.6 320.0 321.4 322.8 324.2 325.7 327.1
6.9 328.5 329.9 331.4 332.8 334.3 335.7 337.2 338.6 340.1 341.5
7.0 343.0 344.5 345.9 347.4 348.9 350.4 351.9 353.4 354.9 356.4 15
7.1 357.9 359.4 360.9 362.5 364.0 365.5 367.1 368.6 370.1 371.7
7.2 373.2 374.8 376.4 377.9 379.5 381.1 382.7 384.2 385.8 387.4 18
7.3 389.0 390.6 392.2 393.8 395.4 397.1 398.7 400.3 401.9 403.6
7.4 405.2 406.9 408.5 410.2 411.8 413.5 415.2 416.8 418.5 420.2 17
7.5 421.9 423.8 425.3 427.0 428.7 430.4 432.1 433.8 435.5 437.2
7.6 439.0 440.7 442.5 444.2 445.9 447.7 449.5 451.2 453.0 454.8 18
7.7 456.5 458.3 460.1 461.9 463.7 465.5 467.3 469.1 470.9 472.7
7.8 474.6 476.4 478.2 480.0 481.9 483.7 485.6 487.4 489.3 491.2
7.9 493.0 494.9 496.8 498.7 500.6 502.5 504.4 506.3 508.2 510.1 19
8.0 512.0 513.9 515.8 517.8 519.7 521.7 523.6 525.6 527.5 529.5
8.1 531.4 533.4 535.4 535.4 539.4 541.3 543.3 545.3 547.3 549.4 20
8.2 551.4 553.4 555.4 557.4 559.5 561.5 583.6 565.6 567.7 569.7
8.3 571.8 573.9 575.9 578.0 580.1 582.2 584.3 586.4 588.5 590.6 21
8.4 592.7 594.8 596.9 599.1 601.2 603.4 605.5 607.6 609.8 612.0

3
r =310063and 1h3=O0322515+

(continuedon next page)


l-10 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING HANDBOOK

TABLE 1.2-CUBES OF NUMBERS (continued)

Average
N 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Difference

8.5 614.1 616.3 618.5 620.7 622.8 625.0 627.2 629.4 631.6 633.8 22
8.6 636.1 638.3 640.5 642.7 645.0 647.2 649.5 651.7 654.0 656.2
8.7 658.5 660.8 663.1 665.3 667.6 669.9 672.2 674.5 678.8 679.2 23
8.8 681.5 683.8 686.1 688.5 690.8 693.2 695.5 697.9 700.2 702.6 24
8.9 705.0 707.3 709.7 712.1 714.5 716.9 719.3 721.7 724.2 726.6
9.0 729.0 731.4 733.9 736.3 738.8 741.2 743.7 746.1 748.6 751.1 25
9.1 753.6 756.1 758.6 761 .O 763.6 766.1 768.6 771.1 773.6 776.2
9.2 778.7 781.2 783.8 786.3 788.9 791.5 794.0 796.6 799.2 801.8 26
9.3 804.4 807.0 809.6 812.2 814.8 817.4 820.0 822.7 825.3 827.9
9.4 830.6 833.2 835.9 838.6 841.2 043.9 846.6 849.3 852.0 854.7 27
9.5 857.4 860.1 862.8 865.5 868.3 871 .O 873.7 876.5 879.2 882.0
9.6 884.7 887.5 890.3 893.1 895.8 898.6 901.4 904.2 907.0 909.9 28
9.7 912.7 915.5 918.3 921.2 924.0 926.9 929.7 932.6 935.4 938.3
9.8 941.2 944.1 947.0 949.9 952.8 955.7 958.6 961.5 964.4 967.4 29
9.9 970.3 973.2 976.2 979.1 982.1 985.1 988.0 991 .o 994.0 997.0
10.0 1000.0

3
T =31 0063 and 1/x3 =00322515+
MATHEMATICALTABLES &UNITS &SYSTEMSOFWElGHTS&MEASURES 1-11

TABLE 1.3-SQUARE ROOTS OF NUMBERS

Average
N 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Difference
1.0 1.000 1.005 1.010 1.015 1.020 1.025 1.030 1.034 1.039 1.044 5
1.1 1.049 1.054 1.058 1.083 1.068 1.072 1.077 1.082 1.088 1.091
1.2 1.095 1.100 1.105 1.109 1.114 1.118 1.122 1.127 1.131 1.136 4
1.3 1.140 1.145 1.149 1.153 1.158 1.162 1.166 1.170 1.175 1.179
1.4 1.183 1.187 1.192 1.196 1.200 1.204 1.208 1.212 1.217 1.221
1.5 1.255 1.229 1.233 1.237 1.241 1.245 1.249 1.253 1.257 1.261
1.6 1.265 1.269 1.273 1.277 1.281 1.285 1.288 1.292 1.296 1.300
1.7 1.304 1.308 1.311 1.315 1.319 1.323 1.327 1.330 1.334 1.338
1.8 1.342 1.345 1.349 1.353 1.356 1.360 1.364 1.367 1.371 1.375
1.9 1.378 1.382 1.386 1.389 1.393 1.396 1.400 1.404 1.407 1.411
2.0 1.414 1.418 1.421 1.425 1.428 1.432 1.435 1.439 1.442 1.446
2.1 1.449 1.453 1.456 1.459 1.463 1.466 1.470 1.473 1.476 1.480 3
2.2 1.483 1.487 1.490 1.493 1.497 1.500 1.503 1.507 1.510 1.513
2.3 1.517 1.520 1.523 1.526 1.530 1.533 1.536 1.539 1.543 1.546
2.4 1.549 1.552 1.556 1.559 1.562 1.565 1.568 1.572 1.575 1.578
2.5 1.581 1.584 1.587 1.591 1.594 1.597 1.600 1.603 1.606 1.609
2.6 1.612 1.616 1.619 1.622 1.625 1.628 1.631 1.634 1.637 1.640
2.7 1.643 1.646 1.649 1.652 1.655 1.658 1.661 1.664 1.667 1.670
2.8 1.673 1.676 1.679 1.682 1.685 1.688 1.691 1.694 1.697 1.700
2.9 1.703 1.706 1.709 1.712 1.715 1.718 1.720 1.723 1.726 1.729
3.0 1.732 1.735 1.738 1.741 1.744 1.746 1.749 1.752 1.755 1.758
3.1 1.761 1.764 1.766 1.769 1.772 1.775 1.778 1.780 1.783 1.786
3.2 1.789 1.792 1.794 1.797 1.800 1.803 1.806 1.808 1.811 1.814
3.3 1.817 1.819 1.822 1.825 1.828 1.830 1.833 1.836 1.838 1.841
3.4 1.844 1.847 1.849 1.852 1.855 1.857 1.860 1.863 1.885 1.868
3.5 1.871 1.873 1.876 1.879 1.881 1.884 1.887 1.889 1.892 1.895
3.6 1.897 1.900 1.903 1905 1.908 1.910 1.913 1.916 1.918 1.921
3.7 1.924 1.926 1.929 1.931 1.934 1.936 1.939 1.942 1.944 1.947
3.8 1.949 1.952 1.954 1.957 1.960 1.962 1.965 1.967 1.970 1.972
3.9 1.975 1.977 1.980 1.982 1.985 1.987 1.990 1.992 1.995 1.997
4.0 2.000 2.002 2.005 2.007 2.010 2.012 2.015 2.017 2.020 2.022
4.1 2.025 2.027 2.030 2.032 2.035 2.037 2.040 2.042 2.045 2.047 2
4.2 2.049 2.052 2.054 2.057 2.059 2.062 2.064 2.066 2.069 2.071
4.3 2.074 2.076 2.078 2.081 2.083 2.086 2.088 2.090 2.093 2.095
4.4 2.098 2.100 2.102 2.105 2.107 2.110 2.112 2.114 2.117 2.119
4.5 2.121 2.124 2.126 2.128 2.131 2.133 2.135 2.138 2.140 2.142
4.6 2.145 2.147 2.149 2.152 2.154 2.156 2.159 2.161 2.163 2.166
4.7 2.168 2.170 2.173 2.175 2.177 2.179 2.182 2.184 2.186 2.189
4.8 2.191 2.193 2.195 2.198 2.200 2.202 2.205 2.207 2.209 2.211
4.9 2.214 2.216 2.218 2.220 2.223 2.225 2.227 2.229 2.232 2.234
5.0 2.236 2.238 2.241 2.243 2.245 2.247 2.249 2.252 2.254 2.256
5.1 2.258 2.261 2.263 2.265 2.267 2.269 2.272 2.274 2.276 2.278
5.2 2.280 2.283 2.285 2.287 2.289 2.291 2.293 2.296 2.298 2.300
5.3 2.302 2.304 2.307 2.309 2.311 2.313 2.315 2.317 2.319 2.322
5.4 2.324 2.326 2.328 2.330 2.332 2.335 2.337 2.339 2.341 2.343
5.5 2.345 2.347 2.349 2.352 2.354 2.356 2.358 2.360 2.382 2.364
5.6 2.366 2.369 2.371 2.373 2.375 2.377 2.379 2.381 2.383 2.385
5.7 2.387 2.390 2.392 2.394 2.398 2.398 2.400 2.402 2.404 2.406
5.8 2.408 2.410 2.412 2.415 2.417 2.419 2.421 2.423 2.425 2.427
5.9 2.429 2.431 2.433 2.435 2.437 2.439 2.441 2.443 2.445 2.447
6.0 2.449 2.452 2.454 2.456 2.458 2.460 2.462 2.464 2.466 2.468
6.1 2.470 2.472 2.474 2.476 2.478 2.480 2.482 2.484 2.486 2.488
6.2 2.490 2.492 2.494 2.496 2.498 2.500 2.502 2.504 2.506 2.508
6.3 2.510 2.512 2.514 2.516 2.518 2.520 2.522 2.524 2.526 2.528
6.4 2.530 2.532 2.534 2.536 2.538 2.540 2.542 2.544 2.546 2.548
6.5 2.550 2.551 2.553 2.555 2.557 2.559 2.561 2.563 2.565 2.567
6.6 2.569 2.571 2.573 2.575 2.577 2.579 2.581 2.583 2.585 2.587
6.7 2.588 2.590 2.592 2.594 2.596 2.598 2.600 2.602 2.604 2.606
6.8 2.608 2.610 2.612 2.613 2.615 2.617 2.619 2.621 2.623 2.625
6.9 2.627 2.629 2.631 2.632 2.634 2.636 2.638 2.640 2.642 2.644

Exolanation of Table of Sauare Roots

This table gives the value of fiforvaluesof Nfrom 1 to lOO,correcttofourfigures.(lnterpolatedvalues maybe inerror
by 1 in the fourthfigure).
To findthe square root of a number N outside the range from 1 to 100, dividethe digitsof the number intoblocks
oftwo(beginning with thedecimalpoint),and note thatmovingthedecimal ointtwo placesin N isequivalentto moving
itone lace in the square root of N. For example, &%-8=1.648, J--Y=
2718 5213, &%%=18.48, ~@%3=52.13,
+=00002718 001648, and Jo7oo2718=0.05213.
(continuedon next page)
l-12 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING HANDBOOK

TABLE 1.3-SQUARE ROOTS OF NUMBERS(continued)

Average
N 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Difference
7.0 2.646 2.648 2.650 2.651 2.653 2.655 2.657 2.659 2.661 2.663 2
7.1 2.665 2.666 2.668 2.670 2.672 2.674 2.676 2.678 2.680 2.681
7.2 2.683 2.685 2.687 2.689 2.691 2.693 2.694 2.696 2.698 2.700
7.3 2.702 2.704 2.706 2.707 2.709 2.711 2.713 2.715 2.717 2.718
7.4 2.720 2.722 2.724 2.728 2.728 2.729 2.731 2.733 2.735 2.737
7.5 2.739 2.740 2.742 2.744 2.746 2.748 2.750 2.751 2.753 2.755
7.6 2.757 2.759 2.760 2.762 2.764 2.766 2.768 2.769 2.771 2.773
7.7 2.775 2.777 2.778 2.780 2.782 2.784 2.786 2.787 2.789 2.791
7.8 2.793 2.795 2.796 2.798 2.800 2.802 2.804 2.805 2.807 2.809
7.9 2.811 2.812 2.814 2.816 2.818 2.820 2.821 2.823 2.825 2.827
8.0 2.828 2.830 2.832 2.834 2.835 2.837 2.839 2.841 2.843 2.844
8.1 2.846 2.848 2.850 2.851 2.853 2.855 2.857 2.858 2.860 2.862
8.2 2.864 2.865 2.867 2.869 2.871 2.872 2.874 2.876 2.877 2.879
8.3 2.881 2.883 2.884 2.886 2.888 2.890 2.891 2.893 2.895 2.897
8.4 2.898 2.900 2.902 2.903 2.905 2.907 2.909 2.910 2.912 2.914
8.5 2.915 2.917 2.919 2.921 2.922 2.924 2.926 2.927 2.929 2.931
8.6 2.933 2.934 2.936 2.938 2.939 2.941 2.943 2.944 2.946 2.948
8.7 2.950 2.951 2.953 2.955 2.956 2.958 2.960 2.961 2.963 2.965
8.6 2.966 2.968 2.970 2.972 2.973 2.975 2.977 2.978 2.980 2.982
8.9 2.983 2.985 2.987 2.988 2.990 2.992 2.993 2.995 2.997 2.998
9.0 3.000 3.002 3.003 3.005 3.007 3.008 3.010 3.012 3.013 3.015
9.1 3.017 3.018 3.020 3.022 3.023 3.025 3.027 3.028 3.030 3.032
9.2 3.033 3.035 3.036 3.038 3.040 3.041 3.043 3.045 3.046 3.048
9.3 3.050 3.051 3.053 3.055 3.056 3.058 3.059 3.061 3.063 3.064
9.4 3.066 3.068 3.069 3.071 3.072 3.074 3.076 3.077 3.079 3.081
9.5 3.082 3.084 3.085 3.087 3.089 3.090 3.092 3.094 3.095 3.097
9.6 3.098 3.100 3.102 3.103 3.105 3.106 3.108 3.110 3.111 3.113
9.7 3.114 3.116 3.118 3.119 3.121 3.122 3.124 3.126 3.127 3.129
9.8 3.130 3.132 3.134 3.135 3.137 3.138 3.140 3.142 3.143 3.145
9.9 3.146 3.148 3.150 3.151 3.153 3.154 3.156 3.158 3.159 3.161
10.0 3.162 3.178 3.194 3.209 3.225 3.240 3.256 3.271 3.286 3.302 16
11.0 3.317 3.332 3.347 3.362 3.376 3.391 3.406 3.421 3.435 3.450 15
12.0 3.464 3.479 3.493 3.507 3.521 3.536 3.550 3.564 3.578 3.592 14
13.0 3.606 3.619 3.633 3.647 3.661 3.674 3.688 3.701 3.715 3.728
14.0 3.742 3.755 3.768 3.782 3.795 3.808 3.821 3.834 3.847 3.860 13
15.0 3.873 3.886 3.899 3.912 3.924 3.937 3.950 3.962 3.975 3.987
16.0 4.000 4.012 4.025 4.037 4.050 4.062 4.074 4.087 4.099 4.111 12
17.0 4.123 4.135 4.147 4.159 4.171 4.183 4.195 4.207 4.219 4.231
18.0 4.243 4.254 4.266 4.278 4.290 4.301 4.313 4.324 4.336 4.347
19.0 4.359 4.370 4.382 4.393 4.405 4.416 4.427 4.438 4.450 4.461 11
20.0 4.472 4.483 4.494 4.506 4.517 4.528 4.539 4.550 4.561 4.572
21.0 4.583 4.593 4.604 4.615 4.626 4.637 4.648 4.658 4.669 4.680
22.0 4.690 4.701 4.712 4.722 4.733 4.743 4.754 4.764 4.775 4.785
23.0 4.796 4.806 4.817 4.827 4.837 4.848 4.858 4.868 4.879 4.889 10
24.0 4.899 4.909 4.919 4.930 4.940 4.950 4.960 4.970 4.980 4.990
25.0 5.000 5.010 5.020 5.030 5.040 5.050 5.060 5.070 5.079 5.089
26.0 5.099 5.109 5.119 5.128 5.138 5.148 5.158 5.167 5.177 5.187
27.0 5.196 5.206 5.215 5.225 5.235 5.244 5.254 5.263 5.273 5.282
28.0 5.292 5.301 5.310 5.320 5.329 5.339 5.348 5.357 5.367 5.376 9
29.0 5.385 5.394 5.404 5.413 5.422 5.431 5.441 5.450 5.459 5.468
30.0 5.477 5.486 5.495 5.505 5.514 5.523 5.532 5.541 5.550 5.559
31.0 5.568 5.577 5.586 5.595 5.604 5.612 5.621 5.630 5.639 5.648
32.0 5.657 5.666 5.675 5.683 5.692 5.701 5.710 5.718 5.727 5.736
33.0 5.745 5.753 5.762 5.771 5.779 5.788 5.797 5.805 5.814 5.822
34.0 5.831 5.840 5.848 5.857 5.865 5.874 5.882 5.891 5.899 5.908 8
35.0 5.916 5.925 5.933 5.941 5.950 5.958 5.967 5.975 5.983 5.992
36.0 6.000 6.008 6.017 6.025 6.033 6.042 6.050 6.058 6.066 6.075
37.0 6.083 6.091 6.099 6.107 6.116 6.124 6.132 6.140 6.148 6.156
38.0 6.164 6.173 6.181 6.189 6.197 6.205 6.213 6.221 6.229 6.237
39.0 6.245 6.253 6.281 6.269 6.277 6.285 6.293 6.301 6.309 6.317

Vr=i.77245+. l/V'*=O.56419, V,*/Z=l 25331, and ~e=,.64872


MATHEMATICALTABLES& UNITS& SYSTEMSOFWElGHTS& MEASURES 1-13

TABLE 1.3-SQUARE ROOTS OF NUMBERS(continued)

Average
N 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Difference
40.0 6.325 6.332 6.340 6.348 6.356 6.364 6.372 6.380 6.387 6.395 8
41 0 6.403 6.411 6.419 6.427 6.434 6.442 6.450 6.458 6.465 6.473
42.0 6.481 6.488 6.496 6.504 6.512 6.519 6.527 6.535 6.542 6.550
43.0 6.557 6.565 6.573 6.580 6.588 6.595 6.603 6.611 6.618 6.626
44.0 6.633 6.641 6.648 6.656 6.663 6.671 6.678 6.686 6.693 6.701
45.0 6.708 6.716 6.723 6.731 6.738 6.745 6.753 6.760 6.768 6.775 7
46.0 6.782 6.790 6.797 6.804 6.812 6.819 6.826 6.834 6.841 6.848
47.0 6.856 6.863 6.870 6.877 6.885 6.892 6.899 6.907 6.914 6.921
48.0 6.928 6.935 6.943 6.950 6.957 6.964 6.971 6.979 6.986 6.993
49.0 7.000 7.007 7.014 7.021 7.029 7.036 7.043 7.050 7.057 7.064
50.0 7.071 7.078 7.085 7.092 7.099 7.106 7.113 7.120 7.127 7.134 7
51.0 7.141 7.148 7.155 7.162 7.169 7.176 7.183 7.190 7.197 7.204
52.0 7.211 7.218 7.225 7.232 7.239 7.246 7.253 7.259 7.266 7.273
53.0 7.280 7.287 7.294 7.301 7.308 7.314 7.321 7.328 7.335 7.342
54.0 7.348 7.355 7.362 7.369 7.376 7.382 7.389 7.396 7.403 7.409
55.0 7.416 7.423 7.430 7.436 7.443 7.450 7.457 7.463 7.470 7.477
56.0 7.483 7.490 7.497 7.503 7.510 7.517 7.523 7.530 7.537 7.543
57.0 7.550 7.556 7.563 7.570 7.576 7.583 7.589 7.596 7.603 7.609
56.0 7.616 7.622 7.629 7.635 7.642 7.649 7.655 7.662 7.668 7.675
59.0 7.681 7.688 7.694 7.701 7.707 7.714 7.720 7.727 7.733 7.740 6
60.0 7.746 7.752 7.759 7.765 7.772 7.778 7.785 7.791 7.797 7.804
61.0 7.810 7.817 7.823 7.829 7.836 7.842 7.849 7.855 7.861 7.868
62.0 7.874 7.880 7.887 7.893 7.899 7.906 7.912 7.918 7.925 7.931
63.0 7.937 7.944 7.950 7.956 7.962 7.969 7.975 7.981 7.987 7.994
64.0 8.000 8.006 8.012 8.019 8.025 8.031 8.037 8.044 8.050 8.056
65.0 8.062 8.068 8.075 8.081 8.087 8.093 8.099 8.106 8.112 8.118
66.0 8.124 8.130 8.136 8.142 8.149 8.155 8.161 8.167 8.173 8.179
67.0 8.185 8.191 8.198 8.204 8.210 8.216 8.222 8.228 8.234 8.240
68.0 8.246 8.252 8.258 8.264 8.270 8.276 8.283 8.289 8.295 8.301
69.0 8.307 8.313 8.319 8.325 8.331 8.337 8.343 8.349 8.355 8.361
70.0 8.367 8.373 8.379 8.385 8.390 8.396 8.402 8.408 8.414 8.420
71.0 8.426 8.432 8.438 8.444 8.450 8.456 8.462 8.468 8.473 8.479
72.0 8.485 8.491 8.497 8.503 8.509 8.515 8.521 8.526 8.532 8.538
73.0 8.544 8.550 8.556 8.562 8.567 8.573 8.579 8.585 8.591 8.597
74.0 8.602 8.608 8.614 8.620 8.626 8.631 8.637 8.643 8.649 8.654
75.0 8.660 8.666 8.672 8.678 8.683 8.669 8.695 8.701 8.706 8.712
76.0 8.718 8.724 8.729 8.735 8.741 8.746 8.752 8.758 8.764 8.769
77.0 8.775 8.781 8.786 8.792 8.798 8.803 8.809 8.815 8.820 8.826
78.0 8.832 8.837 8.843 8.849 8.854 8.860 8.866 8.871 8.877 8.883
79.0 8.888 8.894 8.899 8.905 8.911 8.916 8.922 8.927 8.933 8.939
80.0 8.944 8.950 8.955 8.961 8.967 8.972 8.978 8.983 8.989 8.994
81.0 9.000 9.006 9.011 9.017 9.022 9.028 9.033 9.039 9.044 9.050
82.0 9.055 9.061 9.066 9.072 9.077 9.083 9.088 9.094 9.099 9.105 5
83.0 9.110 9.116 9.121 9.127 9.132 9.138 9.143 9.149 9.154 9.160
84.0 9.165 9.171 9.176 9.182 9.187 9.192 9.198 9.203 9.209 9.214
85.0 9.220 9.225 9.230 9.236 9.241 9.247 9.252 9.257 9.263 9.268
86.0 9.274 9.279 9.284 9.290 9.295 9.301 9.306 9.311 9.317 9.322
67.0 9.327 9.333 9.338 9.343 9.349 9.354 9.359 9.365 9.370 9.375
88.0 9.381 9.386 9.391 9.397 9.402 9.407 9.413 9.418 9.423 9.429
89.0 9.434 9.439 9.445 9.450 9.455 9.460 9.466 9.471 9.476 9.482
90.0 9.487 9.492 9.497 9.503 9.508 9.513 9.518 9.524 9.529 9.534
91.0 9.539 9.545 9.550 9.555 9.560 9.566 9.571 9.576 9.581 9.586
92.0 9.592 9.597 9.602 9.607 9.612 9.618 9.623 9.628 9.633 9.638
93.0 9.644 9.649 9.654 9.659 9.664 9.670 9.675 9.680 9.685 9.690
94.0 9.695 9.701 9.706 9.711 9.716 9.721 9.726 9.731 9.737 9.742
95.0 9.747 9.752 9.757 9.762 9.767 9.772 9.778 9.783 9.788 9.793
96.0 9.798 9.803 9.808 9.813 9.818 9.823 9.829 9.834 9.839 9.844
97.0 9.849 9.854 9.859 9.864 9.869 9.874 9.879 9.884 9.889 9.894
98.0 9.899 9.905 9.910 9.915 9.920 9.925 9.930 9.935 9.940 9.945
99.0 9.950 9.955 9.960 9.965 9.970 9.975 9.980 9.985 9.990 9.995
SQUAREROOTSOFCERTAlNFRACTlONS

N &i N Jii N v% N J- N fi N -J%


'/2 0.7071- % 0.7746 -% 0.7559
__ -'/9 0.3333 -0.64559/rs-
s/1* 0.7500
'/a 0.5774 a/5 0.8944 % 0.8452 2/ 0.4714 y,p 0.7638 "A6 0.8292
v3 0.8165 '/6 0.4082 % 0.9258 % 0.6667 1%~ 0.9574 '3/G 0.9014
'/4 0.5000 5/s 0.9129 '/A 0.3536 =/g 0.7454 'h6 0.2500 '5/e 0.9662
v4 0.8660 '/$ 0.3780 % 0.6124 '/g 0.8819 3/ls 0.4330 '/!32 0.1768
'/s 0.4472 2/7 0.5345 % 0.7906 8/s 0.9428 %s 0.5590 '/6* 0.1250
75 0.6325 3/7 0.6547 '/a 0.9354 '/'2 0.2887 ‘/,s 0.6614 'ho 0.1414
l-14 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING HANDBOOK

TABLEl.4-CUBEROOTSOFNUMBERS

Average
N 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Difference
- -
1.0 1.000 1.003 1.007 1.010 1.013 1.016 1.020 1.023 1.026 1.029 3
1.1 1.032 1.035 1.038 1.042 1.045 1.048 1.051 1.054 1.057 1.060
1.2 1.063 1.066 1.069 1.071 1.074 1.077 1.080 1.083 1.086 1.089
1.3 1.091 1.094 1.097 1.100 1.102 1.105 1.108 1.111 1.113 1.116
1.4 1.119 1.121 1.124 1.127 I.129 1.132 1.134 1.137 1.140 1.142
1.5 1.145 1.147 1.150 1.152 1.155 1.157 1.160 1.162 1.165 1.167 2
1.6 1.170 1.172 I.174 I.177 1.179 1.182 1.184 1.186 1.189 1.191
1.7 1.193 1.196 1.198 1.200 1.203 1.205 1.207 1.210 1.212 1.214
1.8 1.216 1.219 1.221 1.223 1.225 1.228 1.230 1.232 1.234 1.236
1.9 1.239 1.241 1.243 1.245 1.247 1.249 1.251 1.254 1.256 1.258
2.0 1.260 1.262 1.264 1.266 1268 1.270 1.272 1.274 1.277 1.279
2.1 1.281 1.283 1.285 1.287 1.289 1.291 1.293 1.295 1.297 1.299
2.2 1.301 1.303 1.305 1.306 1.308 1.310 1.312 1.314 1.316 1.318
2.3 1.320 1.322 1.324 1.326 1.328 1.330 1.331 1.333 1.335 1.337
2.4 1.339 1.341 1.343 1.344 1.346 1.348 1.350 1.352 1.354 1.355
2.5 1.357 1.359 1.361 1.363 1.364 1.366 1.368 1.370 1.372 1.373
2.6 1.375 1.377 1.379 1.380 1.382 1.384 1.386 1.387 1.389 1.391
2.7 1.392 1.394 1.396 1.398 1.399 1.401 1.403 1.404 1.406 1.408
2.8 1.409 1.411 1.413 1.414 1.416 1.418 1.419 1.421 1.423 1.424
2.9 1.426 1.428 1.429 1.431 1.433 1.434 1.436 1.437 1.439 1.441
3.0 1.442 1.444 1.445 1.447 1.449 1.450 1.452 1.453 1.455 1.457
3.1 1.458 1.460 1.461 1.463 1.464 1.466 1.467 1.469 I.471 1.472
3.2 1.474 1.475 1.477 1.478 1.480 1.481 1.483 1.484 1.486 1.487
3.3 1.489 1.490 1.492 1.493 1.495 1.496 1.498 1.499 1.501 1.502
3.4 1.504 1.505 1.507 1.508 1.510 1.511 1.512 1.514 1.515 1.517
3.5 1.518 1.520 1.521 1.523 1.524 1.525 1.527 1.528 1.530 1.531
3.6 1.533 1.534 1.535 1.537 1.538 1.540 1.541 I.542 1.544 1.545 1
3.7 1.547 1.548 1.549 1.551 1.552 1.554 1.555 1.556 1.558 I .559
3.8 1.560 1562 1.563 1.565 1.566 1.567 1.569 1.570 1.571 1.573
3.9 1.574 1.575 1.577 1.578 1.579 1.581 1.582 1.583 1.585 1.586
4.0 1.567 1.589 1.590 1.591 1.593 1.594 1.595 1.597 1.598 1.599
4.1 1.601 1.602 1.603 1.604 1.606 1.607 1.608 1.610 1.811 1.612
4.2 1.613 1.615 1.616 1.617 1.619 1.820 1.621 1.622 1.624 1.625
4.3 1.626 1627 1.629 1.630 1.631 1.632 1.634 1.635 1.636 1.637
4.4 1.639 1.640 1.641 1.642 1.644 1.645 1.646 1.647 1.649 1.650
4.5 1.651 1.652 1.653 1.655 1.656 1.657 1.658 1.659 1.681 1.662
4.6 1.663 1.664 1.666 1.667 1.668 1.669 1.670 1.671 1.673 1.674
4.7 1.675 1.676 1.677 1.679 1.680 1.681 1.682 1.683 1.685 1.686
4.8 1.687 1.688 1.689 1.690 1.692 1.693 1.694 1.695 1.696 1.697
4.9 1.698 1.700 1.701 1.702 1.703 1.704 1.705 1.707 1.708 1.709
5.0 1.710 1.711 1.712 1.713 1.715 1.716 1.717 1.718 1.719 1.720
5.1 1.721 1.722 1.724 1.725 1.726 1.727 1.728 1.729 1.730 1.731
5.2 1.732 1.734 1.735 1.736 1.737 1.738 1.739 I.740 1.741 1.742
5.3 1.744 1.745 1.746 1.747 1.748 1.749 1.750 1.751 1.752 1.753
5.4 1.754 1.755 1.757 1.758 1.759 1.760 1.761 1.762 1.763 1.764
5.5 1.765 1.766 1.767 1.768 1.769 I.771 1.772 1.773 1.774 1.775
5.6 1.776 1.777 1.778 1.779 1.780 1.781 1.782 1.783 1.784 1.785
5.7 1.786 1.787 1.788 1.789 1.790 1.792 1.793 1.794 1.795 1.796
5.8 1.797 1.798 1.799 1.800 1.801 1.802 1.803 1.804 1.805 1.806
5.9 1.807 1.808 1.809 1.810 1.811 1.812 1.813 1.814 1.815 1.816
6.0 1.817 1.818 1.819 1.820 1.821 1.822 1.823 1.824 1.825 1.826
6.1 1.827 1.828 1.829 1.830 1.831 1.832 1.833 1.834 1.835 1.836
6.2 1.837 1.838 1.839 1.840 1.841 1.842 1.843 1.844 1.845 1.846
6.3 1.847 1.848 1.849 1.850 1.851 1.852 1.853 1.854 1.855 1.856
6.4 1.857 1.858 1.859 1.860 1.860 1.861 1.862 1.883 1.864 1.865
6.5 1.866 1.867 1.868 1.869 1.870 1.871 1.872 1.873 1.874 1.875
6.6 1.876 1.877 1.878 1.879 1.880 1.881 1.881 1.882 1.883 1.884
6.7 1.885 1.886 1.887 1.888 1.889 1.890 1.891 1.892 1.893 1.894
6.8 1.895 1.895 1.896 1.897 1.898 1.899 1.900 1.901 1.902 1.903
6.9 1904 1.905 1.906 1.907 1.907 1.908 1.909 1.910 1.911 1.912
Explanation of Table of Cube Roots

This tablegives the value of fi for values of N from 1 to 1,000,correctto four figures.(interpolated
values may be in
errorby 1 in the fourthfigure).
To findthe square root of a number N outside the range from 1 to 1,000, dividethe digitsof the number intoblocks
of three (beginning with the decimal point),and note that moving the decimal point fhree laces in column N is
equivalentto moving itone lace in the cube root of N. For example, %%%? = 1.396, Kit = 3.007 ?/zix=
6.477 tb-?% =13.96 &iii6 =30.07, m =64.77, ?0.000002718 =0.01396, w =0.03007,
and m =0.06477.
MATHEMATlCALTABLES&UNlTS & SYSTEMSOFWElGHTS& MEASURES 1-15

TABLE 1.4-CUBE ROOTS OF NUMBERS (continued)

Average
N 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Difference

7.0 1.913 1.914 1.915 1.916 1.917 1.917 1.918 1.919 1.920 1.921 1
7.1 1.922 1.923 1.924 1.925 1.926 1.926 1.927 1.928 1.929 1.930
7.2 1.931 1.932 1.933 1.934 1.935 1.935 1.936 1.937 1.938 1.939
7.3 1.940 1.941 1.942 1.943 1.943 1.944 1.945 1.946 1.947 1.948
7.4 1.949 1.950 1.950 1.951 1.952 1.953 1.954 1.955 1.956 1.957
7.5 1.957 1.958 1.959 1.960 1.961 1.962 1.963 1.964 1.964 1.965
7.6 1.966 1.967 1.968 1.969 1.970 1.970 1.971 1.972 1.973 1.974
7.7 1.975 1.976 1.976 1.977 1.978 1.979 1.980 1.981 1.981 1.962
7.8 1.983 1.984 1.985 1.986 1.987 1.987 1.988 1.989 1.990 1.991
7.9 1.992 1.992 1.993 1.994 1.995 1.996 1.997 1.997 1.998 1.999
8.0 2.000 2.001 2.002 2.002 2.003 2.004 2.005 2.006 2.007 2.007
8.1 2.008 2.009 2.010 2.011 2.012 2.012 2.013 2.014 2.015 2.016
8.2 2.017 2.017 2.018 2.019 2.020 2.021 2.021 2.022 2.023 2.024
8.3 2.025 2.026 2.026 2027 2.028 2.029 2.030 2.030 2.031 2.032
8.4 2.033 2.034 2.034 2.035 2.036 2.037 2.038 2.038 2.039 2.040
8.5 2.041 2.042 2.042 2.043 2.044 2.045 2.046 2.046 2.047 2.046
8.6 2.049 2.050 2.050 2.051 2.052 2.053 2.054 2.054 2.055 2.056
8.7 2.057 2.057 2.058 2.059 2.060 2.061 2.061 2.062 2.063 2.064
8.8 2.065 2.065 2.066 2.067 2.068 2.068 2.069 2.070 2.071 2.072
8.9 2.072 2.073 2.074 2.075 2.075 2.076 2.077 2.078 2.079 2.079
9.0 2.080 2.081 2.082 2.082 2.083 2.084 2.085 2.085 2.086 2.087
9.1 2.088 2.089 2.089 2.090 2.091 2.092 2.092 2.093 2.094 2.095
9.2 2.095 2.096 2.097 2.098 2.098 2.099 2.100 2.101 2.101 2.102
9.3 2.103 2.104 2.104 2.105 2.106 2.107 2.107 2.108 2.109 2.110
9.4 2.110 2.111 2.112 2.113 2.113 2.114 2.115 2.116 2.116 2.117
9.5 2.118 2.119 2.119 2.120 2.121 2.122 2.122 2.123 2.124 2.125
9.6 2.125 2.126 2.127 2.128 2.128 2.129 2.130 2.130 2.131 2.132
9.7 2.133 2.133 2.134 2.135 2.136 2.136 2.137 2.138 2.139 2.139
9.8 2.140 2.141 2.141 2.142 2.143 2.144 2.144 2.145 2.146 2.147
9.9 2.147 2.148 2.149 2.149 2.150 2.151 2.152 2.152 2.153 2.154
10.0 2.154 2.162 2.169 2.176 2.183 2.190 2.197 2.204 2.210 2.217 7
11.0 2.224 2.231 2.237 2.244 2.251 2.257 2.264 2.270 2.277 2.263 6
12.0 2.289 2.296 2.302 2.308 2.315 2.321 2.327 2.333 2.339 2.345
13.0 2.351 2.357 2.363 2.369 2.375 2.381 2.387 2.393 2.399 2.404
14.0 2.410 2.416 2.422 2.427 2.433 2.438 2.444 2.450 2.455 2.461
15.0 2.466 2.472 2.477 2.483 2.488 2.493 2.499 2.504 2.509 2.515 5
16.0 2.520 2.525 2.530 2.535 2.541 2.546 2.551 2.556 2.561 2.566
17.0 2.571 2.576 2.581 2.586 2.591 2.596 2.601 2.606 2.611 2.616
18.0 2.621 2.626 2.630 2.635 2.640 2.645 2.650 2.654 2.659 2.664
19.0 2.668 2.673 2.678 2.682 2.687 2.692 2.696 2.701 2.705 2.710
20.0 2.714 2.719 2.723 2.728 2.732 2.737 2.741 2.746 2.750 2.755 4
21.0 2.759 2.763 2.768 2.772 2.776 2.781 2.785 2.789 2.794 2.798
22.0 2.802 2.806 2.811 2.815 2.819 2.823 2.827 2.831 2.836 2.840
23.0 2.844 2.648 2.852 2.856 2.860 2.864 2.868 2.872 2.876 2.880
24.0 2.884 2.888 2.892 2.896 2.900 2.904 2.908 2.912 2.916 2.920
25.0 2.924 2.928 2.932 2.936 2.940 2.943 2.947 2.951 2.955 2.959
26.0 2.962 2.966 2.970 2.974 2.978 2.981 2.985 2.989 2.993 2.996
27.0 3.000 3.004 3.007 3.011 3.015 3.018 3.022 3.026 3.029 3.033
28.0 3.037 3.040 3.044 3.047 3.051 3.055 3.058 3.062 3.065 3.069
29.0 3.072 3.076 3.079 3.083 3.086 3.090 3.093 3.097 3.100 3.104
30.0 3.107 3.111 3.114 3.118 3.121 3.124 3.128 3.131 3.135 3.138 3
31.0 3.141 3.145 3.148 3.151 3.155 3.158 3.162 3.165 3.168 3.171
32.0 3.175 3.178 3.181 3.185 3.188 3.191 3.195 3.198 3.201 3.204
33.0 3.208 3.211 3.214 3.217 3.220 3.224 3.227 3.230 3.233 3.236
34.0 3.240 3.243 3.246 3.249 3.252 3.255 3.259 3.262 3.265 3.268
35.0 3.271 3.274 3.277 3.280 3.283 3.287 3.290 3.293 3.296 3.299
36.0 3.302 3.305 3.308 3.311 3.314 3.317 3.320 3.323 3.326 3.329
37.0 3.332 3.335 3.338 3.341 3.344 3.347 3.350 3.353 3.356 3.359
38.0 3.362 3.365 3.368 3.371 3.374 3.377 3.380 3.382 3.385 3.388
39.0 3.391 3.394 3.397 3.400 3.403 3.406 3.409 3.411 3.414 3.417

-=14&%59aI nd I/ 3- x=0 592794

(continued on next page)


1-16 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING HANDBOOK

TABLE 1.4-CUBE ROOTS OF NUMBERS (continued)

Average
N 0 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 Difference
- - - -
40.0 3.420 3.423 3.426 3.428 3.431 3.434 3.437 3.440 3.443 3.445 3
41.0 3.448 3.451 3.454 3.457 3.459 3.462 3.465 3.468 3.471 3.473
42.0 3.476 3.479 3.482 3.484 3.487 3.490 3.493 3.495 3.498 3.501
43.0 3.503 3.506 3.509 3.512 3.514 3.517 3.520 3.522 3.525 3.528
44.0 3.530 3.533 3.536 3.538 3.541 3.544 3.546 3.549 3.552 3.554
45.0 3.557 3.560 3.562 3.565 3.567 3.570 3.573 3.575 3.578 3.580
46.0 3.583 3.586 3.566 3.591 3.593 3.596 3.599 3.601 3.604 3.606
47.0 3.609 3.611 3.614 3.616 3.619 3.622 3.624 3.627 3.629 3.632
48.0 3.634 3.637 3.639 3.642 3.644 3.647 3.649 3.652 3.654 3.657 2
49.0 3.659 3.662 3.664 3.867 3.669 3.672 3.674 3.677 3.679 3.682
50.0 3.684 3.686 3.689 3.691 3.694 3.696 3.699 3.701 3.704 3.706
51.0 3.708 3.711 3.713 3.716 3.718 3.721 3.723 3.725 3.728 3.730
52.0 3.733 3.735 3.737 3.740 3.742 3.744 3.747 3.749 3.752 3.754
53.0 3.756 3.759 3.761 3.763 3.766 3.768 3.770 3.773 3.775 3.777
54.0 3.780 3.782 3.784 3.787 3.789 3.791 3.794 3.796 3.798 3.801
55.0 3.803 3.805 3.808 3.810 3.812 3.814 3.817 3.819 3.821 3.824
56.0 3.826 3.828 3.630 3.833 3.835 3.837 3.839 3.842 3.844 3.846
57.0 3.849 3.851 3.853 3.855 3.857 3.860 3.862 3.864 3.866 3.869
58.0 3.871 3.873 3.875 3.878 3.880 3.882 3.884 3.886 3.889 3.891
59.0 3.893 3.895 3.897 3.900 3.902 3.904 3.906 3.908 3.911 3.913
60.0 3.915 3.917 3.919 3.921 3.924 3.926 3.928 3.930 3.932 3.934
61.0 3.936 3.939 3.941 3.943 3.945 3.947 3.949 3.951 3.954 3.956
62.0 3.958 3.960 3.962 3.964 3.966 3.968 3.971 3.973 3.975 3.977
63.0 3.979 3.981 3.983 3.985 3.987 3.990 3.992 3.994 3.996 3.998
64.0 4.000 4.002 4.004 4.006 4.008 4.010 4.012 4.015 4.017 4.019
65.0 4.021 4.023 4.025 4.027 4.029 4.031 4.033 4.035 4.037 4.039
66.0 4.041 4.043 4.045 4.047 4.049 4.051 4.053 4.055 4.058 4.060
67.0 4.062 4.064 4.066 4.068 4.070 4.072 4.074 4.076 4.078 4.080
68.0 4.082 4.084 4.086 4.088 4.090 4.092 4.094 4.096 4.098 4.100
69.0 4.102 4.104 4.106 4.108 4.109 4.111 4.113 4.115 4.117 4.119
70.0 4.121 4.123 4.125 4.127 4.129 4.131 4.133 4.135 4.137 4.139
71.0 4.141 4.143 4.145 4.147 4.149 4.151 4.152 4.154 4.156 4.158
72.0 4.160 4.162 4.164 4.166 4.168 4.170 4.172 4.174 4.176 4.177
73.0 4.179 4.181 4.183 4.185 4.187 4.189 4.191 4.193 4.195 4.196
74.0 4.198 4.200 4.202 4.204 4.206 4.208 4.210 4.212 4.213 4.215
75.0 4.217 4.219 4.221 4.223 4.225 4.227 4.228 4.230 4.232 4.234
76.0 4.236 4.238 4.240 4.241 4.243 4.245 4.247 4.249 4.251 4.252
77.0 4.254 4.256 4.258 4.260 4.262 4.264 4.265 4.267 4.269 4.271
78.0 4.273 4.274 4.278 4.278 4.280 4.282 4.284 4.285 4.287 4.289
79.0 4.291 4.293 4.294 4.296 4.298 4.300 4.302 4.303 4.305 4.307
80.0 4.309 4.311 4.312 4.314 4.316 4.318 4.320 4.321 4.323 4.325
81.0 4.327 4.329 4.330 4.332 4.334 4.336 4.337 4.339 4341 4.343
82.0 4.344 4.346 4.348 4.350 4.352 4.353 4.355 4.357 4.359 4.360
83.0 4.362 4.364 4.366 4.367 4.369 4.371 4.373 4.374 4.376 4.370
84.0 4.380 4.381 4.383 4.365 4.366 4.388 4.390 4.392 4.393 4.395
85.0 4.397 4.399 4.400 4.402 4.404 4.405 4.407 4.409 4.411 4.412
86.0 4.414 4.416 4.417 4.419 4.421 4.423 4.424 4.426 4.428 4.429
87.0 4.431 4.433 4.434 4.436 4.438 4.440 4.441 4.443 4.445 4.446
88.0 4.448 4.450 4.451 4.453 4.455 4.456 4.458 4.460 4.461 4.463
89.0 4.465 4.466 4.468 4.470 4.471 4.473 4.475 4.476 4.478 4.480
90.0 4.481 4.483 4.485 4.486 4.488 4.490 4.491 4.493 4.495 4.496
91.0 4.498 4.500 4.501 4.503 4.505 4.506 4.508 4.509 4.511 4.513
92.0 4.514 4.516 4.518 4.519 4.521 4.523 4.524 4.526 4.527 4.529
93.0 4.531 4.532 4.534 4.536 4.537 4.539 4.540 4.542 4.544 4.545
94.0 4.547 4.548 4.550 4.552 4.553 4.555 4.556 4.558 4.560 4.561
95.0 4.563 4.565 4.566 4.568 4.569 4.571 4.572 4.574 4.576 4.577
96.0 4.579 4.580 4.582 4.584 4.585 4.587 4.588 4.590 4.592 4.593
97.0 4.595 4.596 4.598 4.599 4.601 4.603 4.604 4.608 4.607 4.609
98.0 4.610 4.612 4.614 4.615 4.617 4.618 4.620 4.621 4.623 4.625
99.0 4.626 4.628 4.629 4.631 4.632 4.634 4.635 4.637 4.638 4.640

xc 1 46459 and II a- T = 0 682784


MATHEMATICAL TABLES & UNITS & SYSTEMS OF WEIGHTS & MEASURES 1-17

TABLE 1.4-CUBE ROOTS OF NUMBERS (continued)

Average
N 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Difference
-- - - - -
Cube roots of numbers from 100.0 to 499.0
10 4.642 4.657 4.672 4.688 4.703 4.718 4.733 4.747 4.762 4.777 15
11 4.791 4.806 4.820 4.835 4.849 4.863 4.877 4.891 4.905 4.919 14
12 4.932 4.946 4.960 4.973 4.987 5.000 5.013 5.027 5.040 5.053 13
13 5.066 5.079 5.092 5.104 5.117 5.130 5.143 5.155 5.168 5.180
14 5.192 5.205 5.217 5.229 5.241 5.254 5.266 5.278 5.290 5.301 12
15 5.313 5.325 5.337 5.346 5.360 5.372 5.363 5.395 5.406 5.418
16 5.429 5.440 5.451 5.463 5.474 5.485 5.496 5.507 5.518 5.529 11
17 5.540 5.550 5.561 5.572 5.583 5.593 5.604 5.815 5.625 5.636
18 5.646 5.657 5.667 5.677 5.888 5.698 5.708 5.718 5.729 5.739 10
19 5.749 5.759 5.769 5.779 5.789 5.799 5.809 5.819 5.82( 5.838
20 5.848 5.858 5.867 5.877 5.887 5.896 5.906 5.915 5.92! 5.934
21 5.944 5.953 5.963 5.972 5.981 5.991 6.000 6.009 6.Oli 8.028 9
22 6.037 6.046 8.055 6.064 6.073 6.082 6.091 6.100 6.109 6.118
23 6.127 6.136 6.145 6.153 6.162 6.171 6.180 6.188 6.197 6.206
24 6.214 6.223 8.232 6.240 6.249 8.257 6.266 6.274 6.283 6.291
25 6.300 6.308 6.316 6.325 6.333 6.341 6.350 6.358 6.366 6.374 8
26 6.383 6.391 6.399 6.407 6.415 6.423 8.431 6.439 6.447 6.455
6.463 6.471 6.479 6.487 6.495 6.503 6.511 6.519 6.527 6.534
;i 6.542 6.550 6.558 6.565 6.573 6.581 8.589 6.596 6.604 6.611
29 6.619 6.627 6.634 6.642 6.649 6.657 8.664 6.672 6.679 6.667
30 6.694 6.702 6.709 6.717 6.724 6.731 6.739 6.746 6.753 6.761 7
31 6.768 6.775 6.782 6.790 6.797 6.804 6.811 6.818 6.826 6.833
32 6.840 6.847 6.854 6.861 6.868 6.875 8.882 6.889 6.896 8.903
33 6.901 6.917 6.924 6.931 6.938 6.945 6.952 6.959 6.966 6.973
34 6.980 6.986 6.993 7.000 7.007 7.014 7.020 7.027 7.034 7.041
35 7.047 7.054 7.061 7.067 7.074 7.081 7.087 7.094 7.101 7.107
36 7.114 7.120 7.127 7.133 7.140 7.147 7.153 7.160 7.166 7.173 6
37 7.179 7.186 7.192 7.198 7.205 7.211 7.218 7.224 7.230 7.237
38 7.243 7.250 7.256 7.262 7.268 7.275 7.281 7.287 7.294 7.300
39 7.306 7.312 7.319 7.325 7.331 7.337 7.343 7.350 7.356 7.362
40 7.368 7.374 7.380 7.386 7.393 7.399 7.405 7.411 7.417 7.423
41 7.429 7.435 7.441 7.447 7.453 7.459 7.465 7.471 7.477 7.463
42 7.489 7.495 7.501 7.507 7.513 7.518 7.524 7.530 7.536 7.542
43 7.548 7.554 7.560 7.565 7.571 7.577 7.563 7.589 7.594 7.600
44 7.606 7.612 7.617 7.623 7.629 7.635 7.640 7.646 7.652 7.657
45 7.663 7.669 7.674 7.680 7.686 7.691 7.697 7.703 7.708 7.714
46 7.719 7.725 7.731 7.736 7.742 7.747 7.753 7.758 7.764 7.769
47 7.775 7.780 7.786 7.791 7.797 7.802 7.808 7.813 7.819 7.824
48 7.830 7.835 7.841 7.846 7.851 7.857 7.862 7.868 7.873 7.878
49 7.884 7.889 7.894 7.900 7.905 7.910 7.916 7.921 7.926 7.932

Cube roots of numbers from 500.0 to 1.000.0


50 7.937 7.942 7.948 7.953 7.958 7.963 7.969 7.974 7.979 7.984
51 7.990 7.995 8.000 8.005 8.010 8.016 8.021 8.026 8.031 8.036
52 8.041 8.047 8.052 8.057 8.062 8.067 8.072 8.077 8.082 8.088
53 8.093 8.098 8.103 8.108 8.113 8.118 8.123 8.128 8.133 8.138
54 8.143 8.148 8.153 8.158 8.163 8.168 8.173 8.178 8.183 8.188
55 8.193 8.198 8.203 8.208 8.213 8.218 8.223 8.228 8.233 8.238
56 8.243 8.247 8.252 8.257 8.262 8.267 8.272 8.277 8.282 8.286
57 8.291 8.296 8.301 8.306 8.311 8.316 8.320 8.325 8.330 8.335
58 8.340 8.344 a.349 8.354 8.359 8.363 8.368 8.373 8.378 8.382
59 8.387 8.392 8.397 8.401 8.406 8.411 8.416 8.420 8.425 8.430
60 8.434 8.439 8.444 8.448 8.453 8.458 8.462 8.487 8.472 8.476
61 8.481 8.486 8.490 8.495 6.499 8.504 8.509 8.513 6.518 8.522
62 8.527 8.532 8.536 8.541 8.545 8.550 8.554 8.559 8.564 8.568
8.573 6.577 8.582 8.586 8.591 8.595 8.600 8.604 8.609 8.613
6": 8.618 8.622 8.627 8.631 8.636 8.640 8.645 8.649 8.853 8.658
65 8.662 8.667 8.671 8.676 8.680 8.685 8.689 8.693 8.698 8.702
66 8.707 8.711 6.715 8.720 8.724 6.729 8.733 8.737 8.742 8.746
67 8.750 8.755 8.759 8.763 8.768 8.772 8.776 8.781 8.785 8.789
68 8.794 8.798 8.802 8.607 8.811 8.815 8.819 8.824 8.828 8.632
69 8.837 8.841 8.845 8.849 8.854 8.858 8.862 8.866 8.871 8.875

?-i= 1 46459 and l/x= 0.662764

(contmed on next page)


1-18 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING HANDBOOK

TABLE 1.4-CUBE ROOTS OF NUMBERS (continued)

Average
N a 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6 9 Difference

70 8.679 8.683 6.867 8.892 8.896 8.900 8.904 8.909 6.913 8.917 4
71 6.921 6.925 6.929 8.934 6.938 8.924 8.946 8.950 6.955 8.959
72 8.963 8.967 8.971 6.975 6.979 8.984 8.968 8.992 6.996 9.000
73 9.004 9.008 9.012 9.016 9.021 9.025 9.029 9.033 9.037 9.041
74 9.045 9.049 9.053 9.057 9.061 9.065 9.069 9.073 9.078 9.062
75 9.066 9.090 9.094 9.098 9.102 9.106 9.110 9.114 9.118 9.122
76 9.126 9.130 9.134 9.138 9.142 9.146 9.150 9.154 9.158 9.162
77 9.166 9.170 9.174 9.178 9.182 9.185 9.189 9.193 9.197 9.201
76 9.205 9.209 9.213 9.217 9.221 9.225 9.229 9.233 9.237 9.240
79 9.244 9.248 9.252 9.256 9.260 9.264 9.268 9.272 9.275 9.279
BO 9.283 9.267 9.291 9.295 9.299 9.302 9.306 9.310 9.314 9.318
81 9.322 9.326 9.329 9.333 9.337 9.341 9.345 9.348 9.352 9.356
82 9.360 9.364 9.366 9.371 9.375 9.379 9.383 9.366 9.390 9.394
83 9.396 9.402 9.405 9.409 9.413 9.417 9.420 9.424 9.428 9.432
64 9.435 9.439 9.443 9.447 9.450 9.454 9.456 9.462 9.465 9.469
85 9.473 9.476 9.480 9.484 9.486 9.491 9.495 9.499 9.502 9.506
86 9.510 9.513 9.517 9.521 9.524 9.528 9.532 9.535 9.539 9.543
87 9.546 9.550 9.554 9.557 9.561 9.565 9.568 9.572 9.576 9.579
88 9.583 9.586 9.590 9.594 9.597 9.601 9.605 9.608 9.612 9.615
69 9.619 9.623 9.626 9.630 9.633 9.637 9.641 9.644 9.646 9.651
90 9.655 9.656 9.662 9.666 9.669 9.673 9.676 9.680 9.683 9.687
91 9.691 9.694 9.698 9.701 9.705 9.706 9.712 9.715 9.719 9.722
92 9.726 9.729 9.733 9.736 9.740 9.743 9.747 9.750 9.754 9.758
93 9.761 9.764 9.766 9.771 9.775 9.776 9.762 9.765 9.789 9.792
94 9.796 9.799 9.803 9.806 9.810 9.813 9.617 9.620 9.824 9.627
95 9.630 9.634 9.637 9.841 9.844 9.846 9.651 9.655 9.858 9.861
96 9.865 9.868 9.872 9.875 9.879 9.882 9.885 9.669 9.892 9.696
97 9.899 9.902 9.906 9.909 9.913 9.916 9.919 9.923 9.926 9.930
96 9.933 9.936 9.940 9.943 9.946 9.950 9.953 9.956 9.960 9.963
99 9.967 9.970 9.973 9.977 9.980 9.983 9.987 9.990 9.993 9.997
100 10.00

CUBE ROOTS OF CERTAIN FRACTIONS

%N% N% N% N % N %
-- - - - - ~ - -
0.7937 3/5 0.8434 % 0.8296 '/9 0.4807 %2 0.7469 %6 0.8255
0.6934 % 0.9263 % 0.6939 2/9 0.6057 %? 0.6355 "/lj 0.6826
0.8736 '/, 0.5503 % 0.9499 4/ 0.7631 .'-
"A2 0.9714 '3/16 0.9331
0.6300 y6 0.9410 '/6 0.5000 79 0.6221 %6 0.3969 's6 0.9767
0.9086 '/, 0.5226 %6 0.7211 x3 0.9196 %6 0.5724 '/a2 0.3150
0.5648 +$ 0.6566 6/S 0.8550 Y9 0.9615 %6 0.6786 '164 0.2500
0.7368 % 0.7539 X8 0.9565 'A2 0.4368 %6 0.7591 %o 0.2714

K= 146459 and li r ~=0.682764


MATHEMATICAL TABLES & UNITS & SYSTEMS OF WEIGHTS & MEASURES l-19

TABLEl.5-THREE-HALVES POWERS OFNUMBERS

Average
N 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6 9 Difference
1.0 1.000 1.154 1.315 1.482 1.657 1.837 2.024 2.217 2.415 2.619 183
2.0 2.626 3.043 3.263 3.466 3.718 3.953 4.192 4.437 4.685 4.939 237
3.0 5.196 5.458 5.724 5.995 6.269 6.546 6.831 7.117 7.408 7.702 280
4.0 8.000 8.302 8.607 8.917 9.230 9.546 9.866 10.190 313
4.0 10.19 10.52 10.85 33
5.0 11.18 11.52 11.86 12.20 12.55 12.90 13.25 13.61 13.97 14.33 35
6.0 14.70 15.07 15.44 15.61 16.19 16.57 16.96 17.34 17.73 16.12 38
7.0 18.52 16.92 19.32 19.72 20.13 20.54 20.95 21.37 21.78 22.20 41
8.0 22.63 23.05 23.46 23.91 24.35 24.76 25.22 25.66 26.11 26.55 44
9.0 27.00 27.45 27.90 26.36 28.82 29.28 29.74 30.21 30.68 31.15 46
10.0 31.62 32.10 32.56 33.06 33.54 34.02 34.51 35.00 35.49 35.99 49
11.0 36.48 36.98 37.48 37.99 38.49 39.00 39.51 40.02 40.53 41.05 51
12.0 41.57 42.09 42.61 43.14 43.66 44.19 44.73 45.26 45.79 46.33 53
13.0 46.87 47.41 47.96 48.50 49.05 49.60 50.15 50.71 51.26 51.82 55
14.0 52.38 52.95 53.51 54.08 54.64 55.21 55.79 56.36 56.94 57.51 57
15.0 58.09 58.68 59.26 59.85 60.43 61.02 61.62 62.21 62.80 63.40 59
16.0 64.00 64.60 65.20 65.81 66.41 67.02 67.63 68.25 66.66 69.48
17.0 70.09 70.71 71.33 71.96 72.58 73.21 73.84 74.47 75.10 75.73 :A
18.0 76.37 77.00 77.64 78.26 76.93 79.57 60.22 60.87 81.51 82.17 65
19.0 82.82 83.47 84.13 84.79 85.45 86.11 66.77 87.44 88.10 68.77 66
20.0 89.44 90.11 90.79 91.46 92.14 92.82 93.50 94.18 94.86 95.55 66
21.0 96.23 96.92 97.61 98.30 99.00 99.69 100.38 69
21.0 100.4 101.1 101.8 102.5 7
22.0 103.2 103.9 104.6 105.3 106.0 106.7 107.4 108.2 108.9 109.6 7
23.0 110.3 111.0 111.7 112.5 113.2 113.9 114.6 115.4 116.1 116.8 7
24.0 117.6 118.3 119.0 119.8 120.5 121.3 122.0 122.8 123.5 124.3 7
25.0 125.0 125.8 126.5 127.3 128.0 128.8 129.5 130.3 131.0 131.8
26.0 132.6 133.3 134.1 134.9 135.6 136.4 137.2 138.0 138.7 139.5
27.0 140.3 141.1 141.9 142.6 143.4 144.2 145.0 145.8 146.6 147.4
28.0 148.2 149.0 149.8 150.5 151.3 152.1 153.0 153.8 154.6 155.4
29.0 156.2 157.0 157.8 158.6 159.4 160.2 161.9 161.9 162.7 163.5
30.0 164.3 165.1 166.0 166.8 167.6 168.4 169.3 170.1 170.9 171.8 6
31.0 172.6 173.4 174.3 175.1 176.0 176.8 177.6 178.5 179.3 180.2 0
32.0 181.0 181.9 182.7 183.6 184.4 185.3 186.1 187.0 187.9 188.7 9
33.0 189.6 190.4 191.3 192.2 193.0 193.9 194.8 195.6 196.5 197.4 9
34.0 198.3 199.1 200.0 200.9 201.8 202.6 203.5 204.4 205.3 206.2 9
35.0 207.1 208.0 208.8 209.7 210.6 211.5 212.4 213.3 214.2 215.1 9
36.0 216.0 216.9 217.8 218.7 219.6 220.5 221.4 222.3 223.2 224.2 9
37.0 225.1 226.0 226.9 227.6 226.7 229.6 230.6 231.5 232.4 233.3 9
38.0 234.2 235.2 236.1 237.0 238.0 238.9 239.8 240.8 241.7 242.6
39.0 243.6 244.5 245.4 246.4 247.3 246.3 249.2 250.1 251.1 252.0 i
40.0 253.0 253.9 254.9 255.6 256.8 257.7 258.7 259.7 260.6 261.6 10
41.0 262.5 263.5 264.5 265.4 266.4 267.3 266.3 269.3 270.2 271.2 IO
42.0 272.2 273.2 274.1 275.1 276.1 277.1 278.0 279.0 280.0 281.0 10
43.0 282.0 283.0 283.9 264.9 285.9 286.9 267.9 288.9 269.9 290.9 10
44.0 291.9 292.9 293.9 294.9 295.9 296.9 297.9 298.9 299.9 300.9 10
45.0 301.9 302.9 303.9 304.9 305.9 306.9 307.9 308.9 310.0 311 .o IO
46.0 312.0 313.0 314.0 315.0 316.1 317.1 318.1 319.1 320.2 321.2 10
47.0 322.2 323.2 324.3 325.3 326.3 327.4 326.4 329.4 330.5 331.5 10
48.0 332.6 333.6 334.6 335.7 336.7 337.8 336.6 339.9 340.9 342.0 10
49.0 343.0 344.0 345.1 346.2 347.2 348.3 349.3 350.4 351.4 352.5 11
50.0 353.6 354.6 355.7 356.7 357.8 358.9 359.9 361.0 362.1 363.1 11
51.0 364.2 365.3 366.4 367.4 366.5 369.6 370.7 371.7 372.6 373.9 11
52.0 375.0 376.1 377.1 376.2 379.3 380.4 381.5 362.6 383.7 384.6 11
53.0 365.6 386.9 388.0 389.1 390.2 391.3 392.4 393.5 394.6 395.7 11
54.0 396.8 397.9 399.0 400.1 401.2 402.3 403.4 404.6 405.7 406.8 11
55.0 407.9 409.0 410.1 411.2 412.3 413.5 414.6 415.7 416.8 418.0 11
56.0 419.1 420.2 421.3 422.4 423.6 424.7 425.8 426.9 428.1 429.2 11
57.0 430.3 431.5 432.6 433.7 434.9 436.0 437.1 436.3 439.4 440.6 11
58.0 441.7 442.9 444.0 445.1 446.3 447.4 446.6 449.7 450.9 452.0 11
59.0 453.2 454.3 455.5 456.6 457.8 459.0 460.1 461.3 462.4 463.6 12

Explanationof Table

This tablegives N3” from N= 1 to N= 100. Moving the decimal point two places in N requiresmoving itthree places in body of
table. For example, (7.23)3’” = 19.44, (723.)3”= 19,440, (0.0723)3’2
=0.01944, (72.3)3’2 =614.8, (7,230)3’ =614,800, and
(0.723)3'2
=0.6148.
Used inversely, thistable gwes M2’3 from M= 1 to M=l,OOO. For example, (0 6148)z3 =0.7230.

(conhnued on next page)


l-20 PETROLEUM ENGINEERINGHANDBOOK

TABLE 1.5-THREE-HALVES POWERS OF NUMEERS(continued)

Average
N 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Difference
--
66.0 464.8 465.9 467.1 468.2 469.4 470.6 471.7 472.9 474.1 475.3 12
61.0 476.4 477.6 478.7 479.9 481.1 482.3 483.5 484.6 485.8 487.0 12
62.0 488.2 489.4 490.6 491.7 492.9 494.1 495.3 496.5 497.7 498.9 12
63.0 500.0 501.2 502.4 503.6 504.8 506.0 507.2 508.4 569.6 510.8 12
64.0 512.0 513.2 514.4 515.6 516.8 518.0 519.2 520.4 521.6 522.8 12
65.0 524.0 525.3 526.5 527.7 528.9 530.1 531.3 532.5 533.8 535.0 12
66.0 536.2 537.4 538.6 539.8 541.1 542.3 543.5 544.7 546.0 547.2 12
67.0 548.4 549.6 550.9 552.1 553.3 554.6 555.8 557.0 558.3 559.5 12
68.0 560.7 562.0 563.2 564.5 565.7 566.9 568.2 569.4 570.7 571.9 12
69.0 573.2 574.4 575.7 576.9 578.1 579.4 580.8 581.9 583.2 584.4 13
70.0 585.7 586.9 588.2 589.4 590.7 591.9 593.2 594.5 595.7 597.0 13
71.0 598.3 599.5 600.8 602.1 603.3 604.6 605.9 607.1 608.4 609.7 13
72.0 610.9 612.2 613.5 614.8 616.0 617.3 618.6 619.9 621.2 622.4 13
73.0 623.7 625.0 626.3 627.6 628.8 630.1 631.4 632.7 634.0 635.3 13
74.0 636.6 637.9 639.2 640.4 641.7 643.0 644.3 645.6 646.9 648.2 13
75.0 649.5 650.8 652.1 653.4 654.7 656.0 657.3 658.6 659.9 661.2 13
76.0 662.6 663.9 665.2 686.5 867.8 669.1 670.4 671.7 673.0 674.4 13
77.0 6757 677.0 678.3 679.6 680.9 682.3 683.6 684.9 686.2 687.6 13
78.0 688.9 690.2 691.5 692.9 694.2 695.5 696.8 898.2 699.5 700.8 13
79.0 702.2 703.5 704.8 706.2 707.5 708.8 710.2 711.5 712.9 714.2 13
60.0 715.5 716.9 718.2 719.6 720.9 722.3 723.6 725.0 726.3 727.7 13
81.0 729.0 730.4 731.7 733.1 734.4 735.8 737.1 738.5 739.8 741.2 14
62.0 742.5 743.9 745.3 746.6 748.0 749.3 750.7 752.1 753.4 754.8 14
83.0 756.2 757.5 758.9 760.3 761.6 763.0 764.4 765.8 767.1 768.5 14
84.0 769.9 771.2 772.6 774.0 775.4 776.8 778.1 779.5 780.9 782.3 14
85.0 783.7 785.0 786.4 787.8 789.2 790.6 792.0 793.4 794.8 796.1 14
86.0 797.5 798.9 800.3 801.7 803.1 804.5 805.9 807.3 808.7 810.1 14
87.0 811.5 812.9 814.3 815.7 817.1 818.5 819.9 821.3 822.7 824.1 14
88.0 825.5 826.9 828.3 829.7 831.1 832.6 834.0 835.4 836.8 838.2 14
89.0 839.6 841.0 842.5 843.9 845.3 848.7 848.1 849.5 851.0 852.4 14
90.0 853.8 855.2 856.7 858.1 859.5 860.9 862.4 863.8 865.2 886.7 14
91.0 868.1 869.5 870.9 872.4 873.8 875.2 876.7 878.1 879.6 881.0 14
92.0 882.4 883.9 885.3 886.8 888.2 889.6 891.1 892.5 894.0 895.4 14
93.0 896.9 898.3 899.8 901.2 902.7 904.1 905.6 907.0 908.5 909.9 15
94.0 911.4 912.8 914.3 915.7 917.2 918.6 920.1 921.6 923.0 924.5 15
95.0 925.9 927.4 928.9 930.3 931.8 933.3 934.7 936.2 937.7 939.1
96.0 940.6 942.1 943.5 945.0 946.5 948.0 949.4 950.9 952.4 953.9 E
97.0 955.3 956.8 958.3 959.8 961.3 962.7 964.2 985.7 967.2 968.7 15
98.0 970.2 971.6 973.1 974.6 976.1 977.6 979.1 980.6 982.1 983.5 15
99.0 985.0 986.5 988.0 989.5 991.0 992.5 994.0 995.5 997.0 998.5 15
100.0 l,ooo.o

AUXILIARY TABLE OF TWO-THIRDS POWERS


AND THREE-HALVES POWERS
(to assist in locating the decimal point)

For complete table of three-halvespowers, see preceding. That


table,used inversely,
providesa completetableoftwc-thirdspowers.

N /‘J”( = G) N”(= d@)


0.0001 0.002154 0.000001
0.001 0.01 0.00003162
0.01 0.0464 0.001
0.1 0.2154 0.03162278
1.0 1.0 1.0
10.0 4.64 31.62278
100.0 21.54 l,ooo.o
l,ooo.o 100.0 31,622.78
10,000.0 464.16 1,000,000.0
MATHEMATICAL TABLES & UNITS 8 SYSTEMS OF WEIGHTS & MEASURES l-21

1 ‘ABLE 1.6--RECIPR IOCALS 0 IF NUMBE :RS

Average
N” 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Difference

1.00 0.9990 0.9980 0.9970 0.9960 0.9950 0.9940 0.9930 0.9921 0.9911 - 10
1 .Ol 0.9901 0.9891 0.9881 0.9872 0.9862 0.9852 0.9643 0.9833 0.9823 0.9814
1.02 0.9804 0.9794 0.9785 0.9775 0.9786 0.9756 0.9747 0.9737 0.9728 0.9718
1.03 0.9709 0.9699 0.9690 0.9681 0.9671 0.9662 0.9653 0.9643 0.9634 0.9625 -9
1.04 0.9615 0.9606 0.9597 0.9588 0.9579 0.9569 0.9560 0.9551 0.9542 0.9533
1.05 0.9524 0.9515 0.9506 0.9497 0.9488 0.9479 0.9470 0.9461 0.9452 0.9443
1.06 0.9434 0.9425 0.9416 0.9407 0.9398 0.9390 0.9381 0.9372 0.9363 0.9355
1.07 0.9346 0.9337 0.9328 0.9320 0.9311 0.9302 0.9294 0.9285 0.9276 0.9268
1.08 0.9259 0.9251 0.9242 0.9234 0.9225 0.9217 0.9208 0.9200 0.9191 0.9183 -8
1.09 0.9174 0.9186 0.9158 0.9149 0.9141 0.9132 0.9124 0.9116 0.9107 0.9099
1.10 0.9091 0.9083 0.9074 0.9066 0.9058 0.9050 0.9042 0.9033 0.9025 0.9017
1.11 0.9009 0.9001 0.8993 0.8985 0.8977 0.8969 0.8961 0.8953 0.8945 0.8937
1.12 0.8929 0.8921 0.8913 0.8905 0.8897 0.8889 0.8881 0.8873 0.8865 0.8857
1.13 0.8850 0.8842 0.8834 0.8826 0.8818 0.8811 0.8803 0.8795 0.8787 0.8780
1.14 0.8772 0.8784 0.8757 0.8749 0.8741 0.8734 0.8726 0.8718 0.8711 0.8703
1.15 0.8696 0.8688 0.8681 0.8673 0.8666 0.8658 0.8651 0.8643 0.8636 0.8628
1.16 0.8621 0.8613 0.8606 0.8598 0.8591 0.8584 0.8576 0.8569 0.8562 0.8554 -7
1.17 0.8547 0.8540 0.8532 0.8525 0.8518 0.8511 0.8503 0.8496 0.8489 0.6482
1.18 0.8475 0.8487 0.8460 0.8453 0.8446 0.8439 0.8432 0.8425 0.8418 0.8410
1.19 0.8403 0.8398 0.8389 0.8382 0.8375 0.8388 0.8361 0.8354 0.8347 0.8340
1.20 0.8333 0.8328 0.8319 0.8313 0.8306 0.8299 0.8292 0.8285 0.8278 0.8271
1.21 0.8264 0.8258 0.8251 0.8244 0.8237 0.8230 0.8224 0.8217 0.8210 0.8203
1.22 0.8197 0.8190 0.8183 0.8177 0.8170 0.8163 0.8157 0.8150 0.8143 0.8137
1.23 0.8130 0.8123 0.8117 0.81IO 0.8104 0.8097 0.8091 0.8084 0.8078 0.8071 -6
1.24 0.8065 0.8058 0.8052 0.8045 0.8039 0.8032 0.8026 0.8019 0.8013 0.8006
1.25 0.8000 0.7994 0.7987 0.7981 0.7974 0.7968 0.7962 0.7955 0.7949 0.7943
1.26 0.7937 0.7930 0.7924 0.7918 0.7911 0.7905 0.7899 0.7893 0.7886 0.7880
1.27 0.7874 0.7868 0.7862 0.7855 0.7849 0.7843 0.7837 0.7831 0.7825 0.7819
1.28 0.7812 0.7806 0.7806 0.7794 0.7788 0.7782 0.7776 0.7770 0.7764 0.7758
1.29 0.7752 0.7748 0.7740 0.7734 0.7728 0.7722 0.7716 0.7710 0.7704 0.7898
1.30 0.7692 0.7686 0.7680 0.7675 0.7669 0.7683 0.7657 0.7651 0.7645 0.7639
1.31 0.7634 0.7628 0.7822 0.7616 0.7610 0.7605 0.7599 0.7593 0.7587 0.7582
1.32 0.7576 0.7570 0.7564 0.7559 0.7553 0.7547 0.7541 0.7536 0.7530 0.7524
1.33 0.7519 0.7513 0.7508 0.7502 0.7496 0.7491 0.7485 0.7479 0.7474 0.7468
1.34 0.7463 0.7457 0.7452 0.7446 0.7440 0.7435 0.7429 0.7424 0.7418 0.7413
1.36 0.7407 0.7402 0.7396 0.7391 0.7386 0.7380 0.7375 0.7369 0.7364 0.7358 -5
1.36 0.7353 0.7348 0.7342 0.7337 0.7331 0.7326 0.7321 0.7315 0.7310 0.7305
1.37 0.7299 0.7294 0.7289 0.7283 0.7278 0.7273 0.7267 0.7262 0.7257 0.7252
1.38 0.7246 0.7241 0.7236 0.7231 0.7225 0.7220 0.7215 0.7210 0.7205 0.7199
1.39 0.7194 0.7189 0.7184 0.7179 0.7174 0.7168 0.7163 0.7158 0.7153 0.7148
1.40 0.7143 0.7138 0.7133 0.7128 0.7123 0.7117 0.7112 0.7107 0.7102 0.7097
1.41 0.7092 0.7087 0.7082 0.7077 0.7072 0.7067 0.7062 0.7057 0.7052 0.7047
1.42 0.7042 0.7037 0.7032 0.7027 0.7022 0.7018 0.7013 0.7008 0.7003 0.6998
1.43 0.6993 0.6988 0.6983 0.6978 0.6974 0.6969 0.6964 0.6959 0.6954 0.6949
1.44 0.6944 0.6940 0.6935 0.6930 0.6925 0.6920 0.6916 0.6911 0.6906 0.6901
1.45 0.6897 0.6892 0.6887 0.6882 0.6878 0.6873 0.6868 0.6863 0.6859 0.6854
1.48 0.6849 0.6845 0.8840 0.8835 0.8831 0.6826 0.6821 0.6817 0.6812 0.6807
1.47 0.6803 0.6798 0.6793 0.6789 0.6784 0.6780 0.6775 0.6770 0.6766 0.6761
1.48 0.6757 0.6752 0.6748 0.6743 0.8739 0.8734 0.6729 0.6725 0.8720 0.6718
1.49 0.6711 0.6707 0.6702 0.6698 0.6693 0.6689 0.6684 0.6680 0.6676 0.6671
1 so 0.6667 0.6662 0.6658 0.6653 0.6649 0.6645 0.6640 0.6636 0.6631 0.6627 -4
1.51 0.6623 0.6618 0.6614 0.6609 0.6805 0.8601 0.8596 0.6592 0.8588 0.6583
1.52 0.6579 0.6575 0.6570 0.6566 0.6562 0.6557 0.6553 0.6549 0.6545 0.6540
1.53 0.6536 0.6532 0.6527 0.6523 0.6519 0.6515 0.6510 0.6506 0.6502 0.6498
1.54 0.6494 0.6489 0.6485 0.6481 0.6477 0.6472 0.6468 0.6464 0.6460 0.6456

Explanation of Table of Reciprocals

This table gives the values of i/N forvalues of N from 1 to 10, correctto four figures.(Interpolated
values may be in
errorby 1 in the fourthfigure.)
To findthe reciprocalof a number N outside the range from 1 to 10, note that moving the decimal pointany number
of places in eitherdirectionin Column N isequivalentto moving itthe same number of places in the opposite direction
in the body of the table.For example, l/3.217=0.3109, 1/3,217=0.0003109, and 1/0.003217=310.9.

(continuedon next page)


1-22 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING HANDBOOK

TABLE 1.6--RECIPROCALS OF NUMBERS(continued)

Average
N 0 1 2
-- 3
4 5 6 7 8 9 Difference

1.55 0.6452 0.6447 0.6443 0.6439 0.6435 0.6431 0.6427 0.6423 0.6418 0.6414 -4
1.56 0.6410 0.6406 0.6402 0.6396 0.6394 0.6390 0.6366 0.6362 0.6376 0.6373
1.57 0.8369 0.6365 0.6361 0.6357 0.6353 0.6349 0.6345 0.6341 0.6337 0.6333
1.58 0.6329 0.6325 0.6321 0.6317 0.6313 0.6309 0.6305 0.6301 0.6297 0.6293
1.59 0.6289 0.6285 0.6281 0.6277 0.6274 0.6270 0.6266 0.6262 0.6258 0.6254
1.60 0.6250 0.6246 0.6242 0.6238 0.6234 0.6231 0.6227 0.6223 0.6219 0.6215
1.61 0.6211 0.6207 0.6203 0.6200 0.6196 0.6192 0.6168 0.6164 0.6180 0.6177
1.62 0.6173 0.6169 0.6165 0.6161 0.6158 0.6154 0.6150 0.6146 0.6143 0.6139
1.63 0.6135 0.6131 0.6127 0.6124 0.6120 0.6116 0.6112 0.6109 0.6105 0.6101
1.64 0.6098 0.6094 0.6090 0.6086 0.6083 0.6079 0.6075 0.6072 0.6068 0.6064
1.65 0.6061 0.6057 0.6053 0.6050 0.6046 0.6042 0.6039 0.6035 0.6031 0.6028
1.66 0.6024 0.6020 0.6017 0.6013 0.6010 0.6006 0.6002 0.5999 0.5995 0.5992
1.67 0.5988 0.5984 0.5981 0.5977 0.5974 0.5970 0.5967 0.5963 0.5959 0.5956
1.66 0.5952 0.5949 0.5945 0.5942 0.5938 0.5935 0.5931 0.5926 0.5924 0.5921
1.a9 0.5917 0.5914 0.5910 0.5907 0.5903 0.5900 0.5896 0.5893 0.5889 0.5886
1.70 0.5882 0.5879 0.5875 0.5872 0.5669 0.5865 0.5862 0.5858 0.5855 0.5851 -3
1.71 0.5848 0.5645 0.5841 0.5638 0.5634 0.5831 0.5628 0.5824 0.5621 0.5617
1.72 0.5814 0.5811 0.5807 0.5804 0.5800 0.5797 0.5794 0.5790 0.5787 0.5784
1.73 0.5780 0.5777 0.5774 0.5770 0.5767 0.5764 0.5760 0.5757 0.5754 0.5750
1.74 0.5747 0.5744 0.5741 0.5737 0.5734 0.5731 0.5727 0.5724 0.5721 0.5718
1.75 0.5714 0.5711 0.5708 0.5705 0.5701 0.5698 0.5695 0.5692 0.5688 0.5685
1.76 0.5682 0.5679 0.5675 0.5672 0.5669 0.5666 0.5663 0.5659 0.5656 0.5653
1.77 0.5650 0.5647 0.5643 0.5640 0.5637 0.5634 0.5631 0.5627 0.5624 0.5621
1.78 0.5618 0.5615 0.5612 0.5609 0.5605 0.5602 0.5599 0.5596 0.5593 0.5590
1.79 0.5587 05583 0.5580 0.5577 0.5574 05571 0.5568 0.5565 0.5562 0.5559
1.80 0.5556 0.5552 0.5549 0.5546 0.5543 0.5540 0.5537 0.5534 0.5531 0.5528
1.81 0.5525 0.5522 0.5519 0.5516 0.5513 0.5510 0.5507 0.5504 0.5501 0.5496
1.82 0.5495 0.5491 0.5488 0.5485 0.5482 0.5479 0.5476 0.5473 0.5470 0.5467
1.83 0.5464 0.5461 0.5459 0.5456 0.5453 0.5450 0.5447 0.5444 0.5441 0.5438
1.84 0.5435 0.5432 0.5429 0.5426 0.5423 0.5420 0.5417 0.5414 0.5411 0.5408
1.85 0.5405 0.5402 0.5400 0.5397 0.5394 0.5391 0.5388 0.5385 0.5382 0.5379
1.86 0.5376 0.5373 0.5371 0.5368 0.5365 0.5362 0.5359 0.5356 0.5353 0.5350
1.87 0.5348 0.5345 0.5342 0.5339 0.5336 0.5333 0.5330 0.5326 0.5325 0.5322
1.88 0.5319 0.5316 0.5313 0.5311 0.5308 0.5305 0.5302 0.5299 0.5297 0.5294
1.89 0.5291 0.5288 0.5285 0.5263 0.5280 0.5277 0.5274 0.5271 0.5269 0.5266
1.90 0.5263 0.5260 0.5256 0.5255 0.5252 0.5249 0.5247 0.5244 0.5241 0.5238
1.91 0.5236 0.5233 0.5230 0.5227 0.5225 0.5222 0.5219 0.5216 0.5214 0.5211
1.92 0.5206 0.5206 0.5203 0.5200 0.5198 0.5195 0.5192 0.5169 0.5167 0.5164
1.93 0.5181 0.5179 0.5176 0.5173 0.5171 0.5166 0.5165 0.5163 0.5160 0.5157
1.94 0.5155 0.5152 0.5149 0.5147 0.5144 0.5141 0.5139 0.5136 0.5133 0.5131
1.95 0.5128 0.5126 0.5123 0.5120 0.5118 0.5115 0.5112 0.5110 0.5107 0.5105
1.98 0.5102 0.5099 0.5097 0.5094 0.5092 0.5089 0.5086 0.5084 0.5081 0.5079
1.97 0.5076 0.5074 0.5071 0.5068 0.5066 0.5063 0.5061 0.5058 0.5056 0.5053 -2
1.98 0.5051 0.5048 0.5045 0.5043 0.5040 0.5038 0.5035 0.5033 0.5030 0.5028
1.99 0.5025 0.5023 0.5020 0.5018 0.5015 0.5013 0.5010 0.5006 0.5005 0.5003
2.0 0.5000 0.4975 0.4950 0.4926 0.4902 0.4878 0.4854 0.4831 0.4808 0.4785 -24
2.1 0.4762 0.4739 0.4717 0.4695 0.4673 0.4651 0.4630 0.4808 0.4587 0.4566 -21
2.2 0.4545 0.4525 0.4505 0.4484 0.4464 0.4444 0.4425 0.4405 0.4386 0.4367 -20
2.3 0.4348 0.4329 0.4310 0.4292 0.4274 0.4255 0.4237 0.4219 0.4202 0.4184 -16
2.4 0.4167 0.4149 0.4132 0.4115 0.4098 0.4082 0.4065 0.4049 0.4032 0.4016 -17
2.5 0.4000 0.3984 0.3966 0.3953 0.3937 0.3922 0.3906 0.3891 0.3676 0.3861 -15
2.6 0.3846 0.3831 0.3817 0.3802 0.3788 0.3774 0.3759 0.3745 0.3731 0.3717 -14
2.7 0.3704 0.3690 0.3676 0.3663 0.3650 0.3636 0.3623 0.3610 0.3597 0.3564 -13
2.8 0.3571 0.3559 0.3546 0.3534 0.3521 0.3509 0.3497 0.3484 0.3472 0.3460 -12
2.9 0.3448 0.3438 0.3425 0.3413 0.3401 0.3390 0.3378 0.3367 0.3356 0.3344 -12

3.0 0.3333 0.3322 0.3311 0.3300 0.3289 0.3279 0.3268 0.3257 0.3247 0.3236 -11
3.1 0.3226 0.3215 0.3205 0.3195 0.3185 0.3175 0.3165 0.3155 0.3145 0.3135 -10
3.2 0.3125 0.3115 0.3106 0.3096 0.3086 0.3077 0.3067 0.3058 0.3049 0.3040 -10
3.3 0.3030 0.3021 0.3012 0.3003 0.2994 0.2985 0.2976 0.2967 0.2959 0.2950 -9
3.4 0.2941 0.2933 0.2924 0.2915 0.2907 0.2899 0.2890 0.2882 0.2974 0.2865 -8

l,*=O 316310 and lk?=0.367679


MATHEMATlCALTABLES&UNlTS & SYSTEMS OF WEIGHTS & MEASURES 1-23

TABLE 1.6-REC :IPROCAI 3 OF NIUMBERS(< :ontinue4

Average
N 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 a 9 Difference

3.5 0.2857 0.2849 0.2841 0.2833 0.2825 0.2817 0.2809 0.2801 0.2793 0.2786 -8
3.6 0.2778 0.2770 0.2762 0.2755 0.2747 0.2740 0.2732 0.2725 0.2717 0.2710 -6
3.7 0.2703 0.2695 0.2688 0.2681 0.2674 0.2667 0.2660 0.2653 0.2646 0.2639 -7
3.6 0.2632 0.2625 0.2618 0.2611 0.2604 0.2597 0.2591 0.2584 0.2577 0.2571 -7
3.9 0.2564 0.2558 0.2551 0.2545 0.2538 0.2532 0.2525 0.2519 0.2513 0.2506 -6
4.0 0.2500 0.2494 0.2488 0.2461 0.2475 0.2469 0.2463 0.2457 0.2451 0.2445 -6
4.1 0.2439 0.2433 0.2427 0.2421 0.2415 0.2410 0.2404 0.2398 0.2392 0.2387 -6
4.2 0.2381 0.2375 0.2370 0.2364 0.2358 0.2353 0.2347 0.2342 0.2336 0.2331 -6
4.3 0.2326 0.2320 0.2315 0.2309 0.2304 0.2299 0.2294 0.2288 0.2283 0.2278 -5
4.4 0.2273 0.2268 0.2262 0.2257 0.2252 0.2247 0.2242 0.2237 0.2232 0.2227 -5
4.5 0.2222 0.2217 0.2212 0.2208 0.2203 0.2198 0.2193 0.2188 0.2183 0.2179 -5
4.6 0.2174 0.2169 0.2165 0.2160 0.2155 0.2151 0.2146 0.2141 0.2137 0.2132 -5
4.7 0.2128 0.2123 0.2119 0.2114 0.2110 0.2105 0.2101 0.2096 0.2092 0.2088 -4
4.8 0.2083 0.2079 0.2075 0.2070 0.2066 0.2062 0.2058 0.2053 0.2049 0.2045 -4
4.9 0.2041 0.2037 0.2033 0.2026 0.2024 0.2020 0.2016 0.2012 0.2008 0.2004 -4
5.0 0.2000 0.1996 0.1992 0.1986 0.1964 0.1980 0.1976 0.1972 0.1969 0.1965 -4
5.1 0.1961 0.1957 0.1953 0.1949 0.1946 0.1942 0.1938 0.1934 0.1931 0.1927
5.2 0.1923 0.1919 0.1916 0.1912 0.1906 0.1905 0.1901 0.1696 0.1894 0.1890
5.3 0.1887 0.1883 0.1880 0.1876 0.1873 0.1869 0.1866 0.1882 0.1859 0.1855
5.4 0.1652 0.1848 0.1645 0.1642 0.1638 0.1835 0.1632 0.1626 0.1825 0.1621 -3
5.5 0.1818 0.1815 a.1812 0.1808 0.1805 0.1802 0.1799 0.1795 0.1792 0.1769
5.6 0.1786 0.1783 0.1779 0.1776 0.1773 0.1770 0.1767 0.1764 0.1761 0.1757
5.7 0.1754 0.1751 0.1748 0.1745 0.1742 0.1739 0.1736 0.1733 0.1730 0.1727
5.8 0.1724 0.1721 0.1718 0.1715 0.1712 0.1709 0.1706 0.1704 0.1701 0.1698
5.9 0.1695 0.1692 0.1669 0.1686 0.1684 0.1681 0.1676 0.1675 0.1672 0.1669
6.0 0.1667 0.1664 0.1661 0.1656 0.1656 0.1653 0.1650 0.1647 0.1645 0.1642
6.1 0.1639 0.1637 0.1634 0.1631 0.1629 0.1626 0.1623 0.1621 0.1618 0.1616
6.2 0.1613 0.1610 0.1608 0.1605 0.1603 0.1600 0.1597 0.1595 0.1592 0.1590
6.3 0.1587 0.1585 0.1582 0.1580 0.1577 0.1575 0.1572 0.1570 0.1567 0.1565 -2
8.4 0.1563 0.1560 0.1558 0.1555 0.1553 0.1550 0.1548 0.1546 0.1543 0.1541
6.5 0.1538 0.1536 0.1534 0.1531 0.1529 0.1527 0.1524 0.1522 0.1520 0.1517
6.6 0.1515 0.1513 0.1511 0.1508 0.1506 0.1504 0.1502 0.1499 0.1497 0.1495
6.7 0.1493 0.1490 0.1488 0.1486 0.1484 0.1481 0.1479 0.1477 0.1475 0.1473
6.8 0.1471 0.1468 0.1466 0.1464 0.1462 0.1460 0.1458 0.1456 0.1453 0.1451
6.9 0.1449 0.1447 0.1445 0.1443 0.1441 0.1439 0.1437 0.1435 0.1433 0.1431
7.0 0.1429 0.1427 0.1425 0.1422 0.1420 0.1418 0.1416 0.1414 0.1412 0.1410
7.1 0.1408 0.1406 0.1404 0.1403 0.1401 0.1399 0.1397 0.1395 0.1393 0.1391
7.2 0.1389 0.1387 0.1385 0.1383 o.t38i 0.1379 0.1377 0.1376 0.1374 0.1372
7.3 0.1370 0.1368 0.1366 0.1364 0.1362 0.1361 0.1359 0.1357 0.1355 0.1353
7.4 0.1351 0.1350 0.1348 0.1346 0.1344 0.1342 0.1340 0.1339 0.1337 0.1335
7.5 0.1333 0.1332 0.1330 0.1328 0.1326 0.1325 0.1323 0.1321 0.1319 0.1318
7.6 0.1316 0.1314 0.1312 0.1311 0.1309 0.1307 0.1305 0.1304 0.1302 0.1300
7.7 0.1299 0.1297 0.1295 0.1294 0.1292 0.1290 0.1289 0.1287 0.1285 0.1284
7.6 0.1262 0.1260 0.1279 0.1277 0.1276 0.1274 0.1272 0.1271 0.1269 0.1267
7.9 0.1266 0.1264 0.1263 0.1261 0.1259 0.1258 0.1256 0.1255 0.1253 0.1252
8.0 0.1250 0.1248 0.1247 0.1245 0.1244 0.1242 0.1241 0.1239 0.1238 0.1236
6.1 0.1235 0.1233 0.1232 0.1230 0.1229 0.1227 0.1225 0.1224 0.1222 0.1221
a.2 0.1220 0.1216 0.1217 0.1215 0.1214 0.1212 0.1211 0.1209 0.1208 0.1206
6.3 0.1205 0.1203 0.1202 0.1200 0.1199 0.1196 0.1196 0.1195 0.1193 0.1192
8.4 0.1190 0.1189 0.1188 0.1186 0.1185 0.1183 0.1182 0.1181 0.1179 0.1176 -1
9.5 0.1176 0.1175 0.1174 0.1172 0.1171 0.1170 0.1168 0.1167 0.1166 0.1164
6.6 0.1163 0.1161 0.1160 0.1159 0.1157 0.1156 0.1155 0.1153 0.1152 0.1151
8.7 0.1149 0.1148 0.1147 0.1145 0.1144 Q.1143 0.1142 0.1140 0.1139 0.1136
8.8 0.1136 0.1135 0.1134 0.1133 0.1131 0.1130 0.1129 0.1127 0.1126 0.1125
8.9 0.1124 0.1122 0.1121 0.1120 0.1119 0.1117 0.1116 0.1115 0.1114 0.1112
9.0 0.1111 0.1110 0.1109 0.1107 0.1106 0.1105 0.1104 0.1103 0.1101 0.1100
9.1 0.1099 0.1098 0.1096 0.1095 0.1094 0.1093 0.1092 0.1091 0.1089 0.1088
9.2 0.1087 0.1086 0.1085 0.1083 0.1082 0.1081 0.1080 0.1079 0.1078 0.1076
9.3 0.1075 0.1074 0.1073 0.1072 0.1071 0.1070 0.1068 0.1067 0.1066 0.1065
9.4 0.1064 0.1063 0.1062 0.1060 0.1059 0.1058 0.1057 0.1056 0.1055 0.1054
9.5 0.1053 0.1052 0.1050 0.1049 0.1048 0.1047 0.1046 0.1045 0.1044 0.1043
9.6 0.1042 0.1041 0.1040 0.1038 0.1037 0.1036 0.1035 0.1034 0.1033 0.1032
9.7 0.1031 0.1030 0.1029 0.1028 0.1027 0.1026 0.1025 0.1024 0.1022 0.1021
9.8 0.1020 0.1019 0.1018 0.1017 0.1016 0.1015 0.1014 0.1013 0.1012 0.1011
9.9 0.1010 0.1009 0.1008 0.1007 0.1006 0.1005 0.1004 0.1003 0.1002 0.1001

r=031a310 an* lie=0 367879


1-24 PETROLEUM ENGINEERINGHANDBOOK

TABLEl.7-CIRCUMFERENCESOFCIRCLESSY HUNDREDTHS

Average
d 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Difference
1.0 3.142 3.173 3.204 3.236 3.267 3.299 3.330 3.362 3.393 3.424 31
1.1 3.456 3.487 3.519 3.550 3.581 3.613 3.644 3.676 3.707 3.738
1.2 3.770 3.801 3.633 3.864 3.696 3.927 3.958 3.990 4.021 4.053
1.3 4.084 4.115 4.147 4.178 4.210 4.241 4.273 4.304 4.335 4.367
1.4 4.398 4.430 4.461 4.492 4.524 4.555 4.587 4.618 4.650 4.681
1.5 4.712 4.744 4.775 4.807 4.838 4.869 4.901 4.932 4.964 4.995
1.6 5.027 5.058 5.069 5.121 5.152 5.184 5.215 5.246 5.278 5.309
1.7 5.341 5.372 5.484 5.435 5.466 5.498 5.529 5.561 5.592 5.623
1.8 5.655 5.686 5.718 5.749 5.781 5.812 5.843 5.875 5.906 5.938
1.9 5.969 6.000 6.032 6.063 6.095 6.126 6.158 6.189 6.220 6.252
2.0 6.283 6.315 6.346 6.377 6.409 6.440 6.472 6.503 6.535 6.566
2.1 6.597 6.629 6.680 6.692 6.723 6.754 6.786 6.817 6.849 6.660
2.2 6.912 6.943 6.974 7.006 7.037 7.069 7.100 7.131 7.163 7.194
2.3 7.226 7.257 7.288 7.320 7.351 7.383 7.414 7.446 7.477 7.508
2.4 7.540 7.571 7.683 7.634 7.665 7.697 7.728 7.760 7.791 7.823
2.5 7.854 7.685 7.917 7.948 7.980 8.011 8.042 8.074 8.105 8.137
2.6 8.168 8.200 6.231 8.262 6.294 8.325 8.357 8.388 8.419 8.451
2.7 6.462 8.514 8.545 6.577 8.606 6.639 8.671 8.702 6.734 8.765
2.6 6.796 8.828 8.859 8.891 8.922 8.954 8.985 9.016 9.048 9.079
2.9 9.111 9.142 9.173 9.205 9.236 9.266 9.299 9.331 9.362 9.393
3.0 9.425 9.456 9.466 9.519 9.550 9.562 9.613 9.645 9.676 9.708
3.1 9.739 9.770 9.602 9.833 9.865 9.896 9.927 9.959 9.990 10.022 31
3.1 10.02 3
3.2 10.05 10.08 10.12 10.15 lo.18 10.21 10.24 10.27 10.30 10.34
3.3 10.37 10.40 10.43 10.46 10.49 10.52 10.56 10.59 10.62 10.65
3.4 10.68 10.71 10.74 10.78 10.81 10.84 10.87 10.90 10.93 10.96
3.5 11.00 11.03 11.06 11.09 11.12 11.15 11.18 11.22 11.25 11.28
3.6 11.31 11.34 11.37 11.40 11.44 11.47 11.50 11.53 11.56 11.59
3.7 11.62 11.66 11.69 11.72 11.75 11.78 11.81 11.84 11.88 11.91
3.8 11.94 11.97 12.00 12.03 12.06 12.10 12.13 12.16 12.19 12.22
3.9 12.25 12.28 12.32 12.35 12.38 12.41 12.44 12.47 12.50 12.53
4.0 12.57 12.60 12.63 12.66 12.69 12.72 12.75 12.79 12.82 12.85
4.1 12.86 12.91 12.94 12.97 13.01 13.04 13.07 13.10 13.13 13.16
4.2 13.19 13.23 13.26 13.29 13.32 13.35 13.38 13.41 13.45 13.46
4.3 13.51 13.54 13.57 13.60 13.63 13.67 13.70 13.73 13.76 13.79
4.4 13.82 13.85 13.89 13.92 13.95 13.98 14.01 14.04 14.07 14.11
4.5 14.14 14.17 14.20 14.23 14.26 14.29 14.33 14.36 14.39 14.42
4.6 14.45 14.48 14.51 14.55 14.58 14.61 14.64 14.67 14.70 14.73
4.7 14.77 14.80 14.83 14.86 14.89 14.92 14.95 14.99 15.02 15.05
4.8 15.08 15.11 15.14 15.17 15.21 15.24 15.27 15.30 15.33 15.36
4.9 15.39 15.43 15.46 15.49 15.52 15.55 15.58 15.61 15.65 15.68
5.0 15.71 15.74 15.77 15.80 15.83 15.87 15.90 15.93 15.96 15.99 3
5.1 16.02 16.05 16.06 16.12 16.15 16.18 16.21 16.24 16.27 16.30
5.2 16.34 16.37 16.40 16.43 16.46 16.49 16.52 16.56 16.59 16.62
5.3 16.65 16.68 16.71 16.74 16.78 16.81 16.84 16.87 16.90 16.93
5.4 16.96 17.00 17.03 17.06 17.09 17.12 17.15 17.18 17.22 17.25

Exotanationof Table of Circumferences

This table gives the product of % times any number d (diameter)from 1 to 10; i.e.,
itis a table of multiples01 r.
Moving the decimal point one place in Column d is equivalentto moving itone place in the body of the table
Circumference=ax d= 3.141593xd. Conversely, d= 1/rrxcircumference=0.31831xcircumference.
MATHEMATICALTABLES& UNlTS&SYSTEMSOFWElGHTS&MEASURES 1-25

TABLE1.7-CIRCUMFERENCESOFCIRCLES BY HUNDREDTHS(continued)

Average
d 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6 9 Difference
5.5 -17.31
17.28 17.34 17.37 17.40 17.44- 17.47 17.50- 17.53 17.56 3
5.6 17.59 17.62 17.66 17.69 17.72 17.75 17.78 17.81 17.84 17.88
5.7 17.91 17.94 17.97 18.00 18.03 18.06 18.10 18.13 18.16 18.19
5.8 18.22 18.25 18.28 18.32 18.35 18.38 18.41 18.44 18.47 18.50
5.9 18.54 18.57 16.60 18.63 18.66 18.69 18.72 18.76 18.79 18.82
6.0 18.85 18.88 18.91 18.94 18.98 19.01 19.04 19.07 19.10 19.13
6.1 lg.16 19.20 19.23 19.26 19.29 19.32 19.35 19.38 19.42 19.45
6.2 19.48 19.51 19.54 19.57 19.60 19.63 19.67 19.70 19.73 19.76
6.3 19.79 19.82 19.85 19.89 19.92 19.95 19.98 20.01 20.04 20.07
6.4 20.11 20.14 20.17 20.20 20.23 20.26 20.29 20.33 20.36 20.39
6.5 20.42 20.45 20.48 20.51 20.55 20.50 20.61 20.64 20.67 20.70
6.6 20.73 20.77 20.80 20.83 20.86 20.89 20.92 20.95 20.99 21.02
6.7 21.05 21.08 21.11 21.14 21.17 21.21 21.24 21.27 21.30 21.33
6.8 21.36 21.39 21.43 21.46 21.49 21.52 21.55 21.58 21.61 21.65
6.9 21.68 21.71 21.74 21.77 21.80 21.83 21.87 21.90 21.93 21.96
7.0 21.99 22.02 22.05 22.09 22.12 22.15 22.18 22.21 22.24 22.27
7.1 22.31 22.34 22.37 22.40 22.43 22.46 22.49 22.53 22.56 22.59
7.2 22.62 22.65 22.68 22.71 22.75 22.78 22.81 22.84 22.87 22.90
7.3 22.93 22.97 23.00 23.03 23.06 23.09 23.12 23.15 23.18 23.22
7.4 23.25 23.28 23.31 23.34 23.37 23.40 23.44 23.47 23.50 23.53
7.5 23.56 23.59 23.62 23.66 23.69 23.72 23.75 23.78 23.81 23.84
7.6 23.88 23.91 23.94 23.97 24.00 24.03 24.06 24.10 24.13 24.16
7.7 24.19 24.22 24.25 24.28 24.32 24.35 24.38 24.41 24.44 24.47
7.8 24.50 24.54 24.57 24.60 24.63 24.66 24.69 24.72 24.76 24.79
7.9 24.82 24.85 24.88 24.91 24.94 24.98 25.01 25.04 25.07 25.10
0.0 25.13 25.16 25.20 25.23 25.26 25.29 25.32 25.35 25.38 25.42
8.1 25.45 25.48 25.51 25.54 25.57 25.60 25.64 25.67 25.70 25.73
8.2 25.76 25.79 25.82 25.86 25.89 25.92 25.95 25.98 26.01 26.04
8.3 26.08 26.11 26.14 26.17 26.20 26.23 26.26 26.30 26.33 26.36
8.4 26.39 26.42 26.45 26.48 26.52 26.55 26.58 26.61 26.64 26.67
a.5 26.70 26.73 26.77 26.80 26.83 26.86 26.89 26.92 26.95 26.99
8.6 27.02 27.05 27.08 27.11 27.14 27.17 27.21 27.24 27.27 27.30
8.7 27.33 27.36 27.39 27.43 27.46 27.49 27.52 27.55 27.58 27.61
8.8 27.65 27.68 27.71 27.74 27.77 27.80 27.83 27.87 27.90 27.93
8.9 27.96 27.99 28.02 28.05 28.09 28.12 28.15 28.18 28.21 28.24
9.0 28.27 28.31 28.34 28.37 28.40 28.43 28.46 28.49 28.53 28.56
9.1 28.59 28.62 28.65 28.68 28.71 28.75 28.78 28.81 28.84 28.87
9.2 28.90 28.93 28.97 29.00 29.03 29.06 29.09 29.12 29.15 29.19
9.3 29.22 29.25 29.28 29.31 29.34 29.37 29.41 29.44 29.47 29.50
9.4 29.53 29.56 29.59 29.63 29.66 29.69 29.72 29.75 29.78 29.81
9.5 29.85 29.88 29.91 29.94 29.97 30.00 30.03 30.07 30.10 30.13
9.6 30.16 30.19 30.22 30.25 30.28 30.32 30.35 30.38 30.41 30.44
9.7 30.47 30.50 30.54 30.57 30.60 30.63 30.66 30.69 30.72 30.76
9.8 30.79 30.82 30.85 30.88 30.91 30.94 30.98 31.01 31.04 31.07
9.9 31.10 31.13 31.16 31.20 31.23 31.26 31.29 31.32 31.35 31.38
10.0 31.42
l-26 PETROLEUM ENGINEERINGHANDBOOK

TABLEl.6-AREASOFCIRCLESBY HUNDREDTHS

Average
d 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Difference
- -
1.0 0.785 0.801 0.817 0.833 0.849 0.866 0.882 0.899 0.916 0.933 16
1.1 0.950 0.968 0.985 1.003 1.021 1.039 1.057 1.075 1.094 1.112 18
1.2 1.131 1.150 1.169 1.188 1.208 1.227 1.247 1.267 1.287 1.307 20
1.3 1.327 1.348 1.368 1.389 1.410 1.431 1.453 1.474 1.496 1.517 21
1.4 1.539 1.561 1.584 1.606 1.629 1.651 1.674 1.697 1.720 1.744 23
1.5 1.767 1.791 1.815 1.839 1.863 1.887 1.911 1.936 1.961 1.986 24
1.6 2.011 2.036 2.061 2.087 2.112 2.138 2.164 2.190 2.217 2.243 26
1.7 2.270 2.297 2.324 2.351 2.378 2.405 2.433 2.461 2.488 2.516 27
1.8 2.545 2.573 2.602 2.630 2.659 2.688 2.717 2.746 2.776 2.808 29
1.9 2.835 2.865 2.895 2.926 2.956 2.986 3.017 3.048 3.079 3.110 31
2.0 3.142 3.173 3.205 3.237 3.269 3.301 3.333 3.365 3.398 3.431 32
2.1 3.464 3.497 3.530 3.563 3.597 3.631 3.664 3.698 3.733 3.767 34
2.2 3.801 3.836 3.871 3.906 3.941 3.976 4.011 4.047 4.083 4.119 35
23 4.155 4.191 4.227 4.264 4.301 4.337 4.374 4.412 4.449 4.486 37
2.4 4.524 4.562 4.600 4.638 4.676 4.714 4.753 4.792 4.831 4.870 38
2.5 4.909 4.948 4.988 5.027 5.067 5.107 5.147 5.187 5.228 5.269 40
26 5.309 5.350 5.391 5.433 5.474 5.515 5.557 5.599 5.641 5.683 42
2.7 5.726 5.768 5.811 5.853 5.896 5.940 5.983 6.026 6.070 6.114 43
2.8 6.158 6.202 6.246 6.290 6.335 6.379 6.424 6.469 6.514 6.560 45
2.9 6.605 6.651 6.697 6.743 6.789 6.835 6.881 6.928 6.975 7.022 46
3.0 7.069 7.116 7.163 7.211 7.258 7.306 7.354 7.402 7.451 7.499 48
3.1 7.548 7.596 7.645 7.694 7.744 7.793 7.843 7.892 7.942 7.992 49
3.2 8.042 8.093 8.143 8.194 8.245 8.298 8.347 8.398 8.450 8.501 51
3.3 8.553 8.605 8.657 8.709 8.762 8.814 8.867 8.920 8.973 9.026 53
3.4 9.079 9.133 9.188 9.240 9.294 9.348 9.402 9.457 9.511 9.566 54
3.5 9.621 9.676 9.731 9.787 9.842 9.898 9.954 10.010 56
10.01 10.07 10.12
3.6 10.18 10.24 10.29 10.35 10.41 10.46 10.52 10.58 10.64 10.69 :
3.7 10.75 10.81 10.87 10.93 10.99 11.04 11.10 11.16 11.22 11.28
3.8 11.34 11.40 11.46 11.52 11.58 11.64 11.70 11.76 11.82 11.88
3.9 11.95 12.01 12.07 12.13 12.19 12.25 12.32 12.38 12.44 12.50
4.0 12.57 12.63 12.69 12.76 12.82 12.88 12.95 13.01 13.07 13.14 7
4.1 13.20 13.27 13.33 13.40 13.46 13.53 13.59 13.66 13.72 1379
4.2 13.85 13.92 13.99 14.05 14.12 14.19 14.25 14.32 14.39 14.45
4.3 14.52 14.59 14.66 14.73 14.79 14.86 14.93 15.00 15.07 15.14
4.4 15.21 15.27 15.34 15.41 15.48 15.55 15.62 15.89 15.76 15.83
4.5 15.90 15.98 16.05 16.12 16.19 16.26 16.33 16.40 16.47 16.55
4.6 16.62 16.69 16.76 16.84 16.91 16.98 17.06 17.13 17.20 17.28
4.7 17.35 17.42 17.50 17.57 17.65 17.72 17.80 17.87 17.95 18.02
4.8 18.10 18.17 18.25 18.32 18.40 18.47 18.55 18.63 18.70 18.78 8
4.9 18.86 18.93 19.01 19.09 19.17 19.24 19.32 19.40 19.48 19.56
5.0 19.63 19.71 19.79 19.87 19.95 20.03 20.11 20.19 20.27 20.35
5.1 20.43 20.51 20.59 20.67 20.75 20.83 20.91 20.99 21.07 21.16
5.2 21.24 21.32 21.40 21.48 21.57 21.65 21.73 21.81 21.90 21.98
5.3 22.06 22.15 22.23 22.31 22.40 22.48 22.56 22.65 22.73 22.82
5.4 22.90 22.99 23.07 23.16 23.24 23.33 23.41 23.50 23.59 23.67 9

Explanation of Table of Areas of Circles

Moving the decimal pointone place inColumn d (diameter)ISequivalentto moving ittwo places in the body of the table.
For example, area of circle=R/~XC? =0,785398x(d').
Conversely, diameter of circle=&x &=1.128379x 6.
MATHEMATICAL TABLES & UNITS 8 SYSTEMS OF WEIGHTS & MEASURES l-27

TABLE 1.8-AREAS OF CIRCLES BY HUNDREDTHS (continued)

Average
d 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Difference

5.5 23.76 23.84 23.93 24.02 24.11 24.19 24.28 24.37 24.45 24.54 9
5.6 24.63 24.72 24.81 24.89 24.98 25.07 25.16 25.25 25.34 25.43
5.7 25.52 25.61 25.70 25.79 25.88 25.97 26.06 26.15 26.24 26.33
5.8 26.42 26.51 26.60 26.69 26.79 28.88 26.97 27.06 27.15 27.25
5.9 27.34 27.43 27.53 27.62 27.71 27.81 27.90 27.99 28.09 28.18
6.0 28.27 28.37 28.46 28.56 28.65 28.75 28.84 28.94 29.03 29.13 10
6.1 29.22 29.32 29.42 29.51 29.61 29.71 29.80 29.90 30.00 30.09
6.2 30.19 30.29 30.39 30.48 30.58 30.68 30.78 30.88 30.97 31.07
6.3 31.17 31.27 31.37 31.47 31.57 31.67 31.77 31.07 31.97 32.07
6.4 32.17 32.27 32.37 32.47 32.57 32.67 32.78 32.88 32.98 33.08
6.5 33.18 33.29 33.39 33.49 33.59 33.70 33.80 33.90 34.00 34.11
6.6 34.21 34.32 34.42 34.52 34.63 34.73 34.84 34.94 35.05 34.15
8.7 35.26 35.36 35.47 35.57 35.68 35.78 35.89 36.00 36.10 36.21 11
6.8 36.32 36.42 36.53 36.64 36.75 36.85 36.96 37.07 37.18 37.28
6.9 37.39 37.50 37.61 37.72 37.83 37.94 38.05 38.16 38.26 38.37
7.0 38.48 38.59 38.70 38.82 38.93 39.04 39.15 39.26 39.37 39.48
7.1 39.59 39.70 39.82 39.93 40.04 40.15 40.26 40.38 40.49 40.60
7.2 40.72 40.83 40.94 41.06 41.17 41.28 41.40 41.51 41.62 41.74
7.3 41.85 41.97 42.08 42.20 42.31 42.43 42.54 42.66 42.78 42.89 12
7.4 43.01 43.12 43.24 43.36 43.47 43.59 43.71 43.83 43.94 44.06
7.5 44.18 44.30 44.41 44.53 44.65 44.77 44.89 45.01 45.13 45.25
7.6 45.36 45.48 45.60 45.72 45.84 45.96 46.08 46.20 46.32 46.45
7.7 46.57 46.69 46.81 46.93 47.05 47.17 47.29 47.42 47.54 47.66
7.8 47.78 47.91 48.03 48.15 48.27 48.40 48.52 48.65 48.77 48.89
7.9 49.02 49.14 49.27 49.39 49.51 49.64 49.76 49.89 50.01 50.14
8.0 50.27 50.39 50.52 50.64 50.77 50.90 51.02 51.15 51.28 51.40 13
8.1 51.53 51.66 51.78 51.91 52.04 52.17 52.30 52.42 52.55 52.68
8.2 52.81 52.94 53.07 53.20 53.33 53.46 53.59 53.72 53.85 53.98
8.3 54.11 54.24 54.37 54.50 54.63 54.76 54.89 55.02 55.15 55.29
8.4 55.42 55.55 55.68 55.81 55.95 56.08 56.21 56.35 56.48 56.61
8.5 56.75 56.88 57.01 57.15 57.28 57.41 57.55 57.68 57.82 57.95
8.6 58.09 58.22 58.36 58.49 58.63 58.77 58.90 59.04 59.17 59.31 14
8.7 59.45 59.58 59.72 59.86 59.99 60.13 60.27 60.41 60.55 60.68
8.8 60.82 60.96 61.10 61.24 61.38 61.51 61.65 61.79 61.93 62.07
8.9 62.21 62.35 62.49 62.63 62.77 82.91 63.05 63.19 63.33 63.48
9.0 63.62 63.76 63.90 64.04 64.18 64.33 64.47 64.61 64.75 64.90
9.1 65.04 65.18 65.33 65.47 65.61 65.76 65.90 66.04 66.19 66.33 15
9.2 66.48 68.62 66.77 66.91 67.06 67.20 67.35 67.49 67.64 67.78
9.3 67.93 68.08 68.22 68.37 68.51 68.66 68.81 88.96 69.10 69.25
9.4 69.40 69.55 69.69 69.84 69.99 70.14 70.29 70.44 70.58 70.73
9.5 70.88 71.03 71.18 71.33 71.48 71.63 71.78 71.93 72.08 72.23
9.6 72.38 72.53 72.68 72.84 72.99 73.14 73.29 73.44 73.59 73.75
9.7 73.90 74.05 74.20 74.36 74.51 74.66 74.82 74.97 75.12 75.28
9.8 75.43 75.58 75.74 75.89 76.05 76.20 76.36 76.51 76.67 76.82
9.9 76.98 77.13 77.29 77.44 77.60 77.76 77.91 78.07 78.23 78.38 16
l-28 PETROLEUM ENGINEERINGHANDBOOK

TABLE I.S-CIRCUMFERENCES AND AREAS OF CIRCLES BY EIGHTHS

Circumference Area Circumference Area Circumference Area


2.749 0.6013 12.57 12.57
0.04909 0.00019 2.798 0.6230 12.76 12.96
0.09817 0.00077 2.847 0.6450 12.96 13.36
0.1473 0.00173 2.896 0.6675 13.16 13.77
0.1963 0.00307 2.945 0.8903 13.35 14.19
0.2454 0.00479 2.994 0.7135 13.55 14.61
0.2945 0.00690 3.043 0.7371 13.74 15.03
0.3436 0.00940 3.093 0.7610 13.94 15.47
0.3927 0.01227 3.142 0.7854 14.14 15.90
0.4418 0.01553 3.338 0.8866 14.33 16.35
0.4909 0.01917 3.534 0.9940 14.53 16.80
0.5400 0.02320 3.731 1.108 14.73 17.26
0.5890 0.02761 3.927 1.227 14.92 17.72
0.6381 0.03241 4.123 1.353 15.12 18.19
0.6872 0.03758 4.320 1.485 15.32 18.67
0.7363 0.04314 4.516 1.623 15.51 19.15
0.7854 0.04909 4.712 1.767 15.71 19.63
0.8345 0.05542 4.909 1.917 15.90 20.13
0.8836 0.06213 5.105 2.074 16.10 20.63
0.9327 0.06922 5.301 2.237 16.30 21.14
0.9817 0.07670 5.498 2.405 16.49 21.65
1.031 0.08456 5.694 2.580 16.69 22.17
1.080 0.09281 5.890 2.761 16.89 22.69
1.129 0.1014 6.087 2.948 17.08 23.22
1.178 0.1104 6.283 3.142 17.28 23.76
1.227 0.1198 6.480 3.341 17.48 24.30
1.276 0.1296 6.676 3.547 17.67 24.85
1.325 0.1398 6.872 3.758 17.87 25.41
1.374 0.1503 7.069 3.976 18.06 25.97
1.424 0.1613 7.265 4.200 18.26 26.53
1.473 0.1726 7.461 4.430 18.46 27.11
1.522 0.1843 7.658 4.666 18.65 27.69
1.571 0.1963 7.854 4.909 18.85 28.27
1.620 0.2088 8.050 5.157 19.24 29.46
1.669 0.2217 8.247 5.412 19.63 30.68
1.718 0.2349 8.443 5.673 20.03 31.92
1.767 0.2485 6.639 5.940 20.42 33.18
1.816 0.2625 8.836 6.213 20.81 34.47
1.865 0.2769 9.032 6.492 21.21 35.78
1.914 0.2916 9.228 6.777 21.60 37.12
1.963 0.3068 9.425 7.069 21.99 38.48
2.013 0.3223 9.621 7.366 22.38 39.87
2.062 0.3382 9.817 7.870 22.78 41.28
2.111 0.3545 10.01 7.980 23.17 42.72
2.160 0.3712 10.21 8.296 23.56 44.18
2.209 0.3883 10.41 8.618 23.95 45.66
2.258 0.4057 10.60 8.946 24.35 47.17
2.307 0.4236 10.80 9.281 24.74 48.71
2.356 0.4418 11.00 9.621 25.13 50.27
2.405 0.4604 11.19 9.968 25.53 51.85
2.454 0.4794 11.39 10.32 25.92 53.46
2.503 0.4987 11.58 10.68 26.31 55.09
2.553 0.5185 il.78 11.04 26.70 56.75
2.602 0.5386 11.98 11.42 27.10 58.43
2.651 0.5591 12.17 11.79 27.49 60.13
2.700 0.5800 12.37 12.18 27.88 61.86
MATHEMATlCALTABLES& UNITS& SYSTEMS OF WEIGHTS & MEASURES 1-29

TABLE1.9-CIRCUMFERENCES AND AREAS OFCIRCLES BY ElGHTHS(continued)

Circumference Circumference Circumference Area


28.27 63.62 50.27 201.1 23 72.26 415.5
28.67 65.40 50.66 204.2 '/a 72.65 420.0
29.06 67.20 51.05 207.4 '/4 73.04 424.6
29.45 69.03 51.44 210.6 '/4 73.43 429.1
29.85 70.88 51.84 213.8 ‘12 7383 433.7
30.24 72.76 52.23 217.1 78 74.22 438.4
30.63 74.66 52.62 220.4 %l 74.61 443.0
31.02 76.59 53.01 223.7 % 75.01 447.7
31.42 78.54 53.41 227.0 24 75 40 452.4
31.81 80.52 53.80 230.3 '/4 76.18 461.9
32.20 82.52 54.19 233.7 '12 7697 471.4
32.59 84.54 54.59 237.1 VI 77.75 481.1
32.99 86.59 54.98 240.5 25 78.54 490.9
33.38 88.66 55.37 244.0 '/4 79.33 500.7
33.77 90.76 55.76 247.4 '12 80.11 510.7
34.16 92.89 56.16 250.9 %l 80.90 520.8
34.56 95.03 56.55 254.5 26 81.68 530.9
34.95 97.21 56.94 258.0 '12 82.47 541.2
35.34 99.40 57.33 261.6 ‘/2 83.25 551.5
35.74 101.6 57.73 285.2 3/i 84.04 562.0
36.13 103.9 58.12 268.8 27 84.82 572.6
36.52 106.1 58.51 272.4 'A 85.61 583.2
36.91 108.4 58.90 276.1 ‘12 86.39 594.0
37.31 110.8 59.30 279.8 3/k 87.18 604.8
37.70 113.1 59.69 283.5 28 87.96 615.8
38.09 115.5 60.08 287.3 'h 88.75 626.8
38.48 117.9 60.48 291.0 '/2 89.54 637.9
38.88 120.3 60.87 294.8 v4 90.32 649.2
39.27 122.7 61.26 298.6 29 91.11 660.5
39.66 125.2 61.65 302.5 '/a 91.89 672.0
40.06 127.7 62.05 306.4 '12 92.68 683.5
40.45 130.2 62.44 310.2 Y4 93.46 695.1
40.84 132.7 62.83 314.2 30 94.25 706.9
41.23 135.3 63.22 318.1 l/4 95.03 718.7
41.63 137.9 63.62 322.1 '/2 95.82 730.6
42.02 140.5 64.01 326.1 3/b 96.60 742.6
42.41 143.1 64.40 330.1 31 97.39 754.8
42.80 145.8 64.80 334.1 '/4 98.17 767.0
43.20 148.5 65.19 338.2 'I2 98.96 779.3
43.59 151.2 65.58 342.2 v4 99.75 791.7
43.98 153.9 65.97 346.4 32 100.5 804.2
44.37 156.7 66.37 350.5 '/4 101.3 816.9
44.77 159.5 66.76 354.7 ‘12 102.1 829.6
45.16 162.3 67.15 358.8 %I 102.9 842.4
45.55 165.1 67.54 363.1 33 103.7 855.3
45.95 168.0 67.94 367.3 '/4 104.5 868.3
46.34 170.9 68.33 371.5 '12 105.2 881.4
46.73 173.8 68.72 375.8 =/4 106.0 894.6
47.12 176.7 69.12 380.1 34 106.8 907.9
47.52 179.7 69.51 384.5 'I4 107.6 921.3
47.91 182.7 69.90 388.8 % 108.4 934.8
48.30 185.7 70.29 393.2 v4 109.2 948.4
48.69 188.7 70.69 397.6 35 110.0 962.1
49.09 191.7 71.08 402.0 '/4 110.7 975.9
49.48 194.8 71.47 406.5 '12 111.5 989.8
49.87 197.9 71.86 411.0 3/i 112.3 1003.8
l-30 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING HANDBOOK

TABLE l.lO-AREAS OF CIRCLES-DIAMETERS IN FEET AND INCHES, AREAS IN SQUARE FEET

Inches

Feet 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
0 0.0000 0.0055 0.0216 0.0491 0.0673 0.1364 0.1963 0.2673 0.3491 0.4416 0.5454 06600
07854 09216 1.069 1.227 1.396 1.576 1.767 1.969 2.182 2405 2.640 2885
3142 3.409 3687 3976 4276 4587 4909 5.241 5.585 5.940 6.305 6681
7.069 7 467 7676 8.296 8.727 9.168 9.621 10.08 10.56 11.04 11.54 1205
1257 13.10 13.64 14.19 14.75 1532 15.90 16.50 17.10 17.72 18.35 1899
19.63 20.29 20.97 21.65 2234 2304 23.76 24.48 25.22 25.97 26.73 2749
2627 29.07 29 67 30.66 31 50 32 34 33.18 34.04 3491 35.78 36.67 3757
3048 39.41 40.34 41.26 42 24 43.20 44.18 45.17 46.16 47.17 48.19 49 22
50 27 51 32 5236 5346 54 54 55.64 56.75 57.86 58.99 60.13 61.28 6244
6362 6460 66 00 67.20 6842 69.64 70.88 72.13 73.39 74.66 75.94 77 24
78 54 7985 81.16 82.52 83.66 85.22 8659 87.97 89.36 90.76 92.18 9360
95.03 96.48 97 93 99.40 100.9 1024 103.9 105.4 106.9 108.4 110.0 111 5
113.1 1147 1163 1179 119.5 121 1 122.7 124.4 1260 127.7 129.4 131 0
1327 134.4 1362 1379 139.6 1414 143.1 144.9 146.7 148.5 150.3 1521
153.9 1556 1576 159.5 161.4 163.2 165.1 167.0 168.9 170.9 172.8 1748

From Inches and Fractions of an Inch to Decimals of a Foot”


Inches 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6 9 10 11
Feet 0.0833 0.1667 0.2500 03333 0.4167 0.5000 0.5833 0.6667 0.7500 0.8333 09167
Inches '/a % % '12 % v4 %
Feet 0.0104 0.0208 0.0313 00417 00521 0.0625 0 0729
MATHEMATICALTABLES& UNlTS&SYSTEMSOFWElGHTS&MEASURES 1-31

TABLE 1 .l l-SEGMENTS OF CIRCLES, GIVEN h/c

Central
Angle, CY
hlc d/c Difference Arc/c Difference Arealhxc Difference (degrees) Difference hld Difference
0.00 1.000 0.6667 0.00 0.0000
458 4
0.01 25.010 1.000 0.6667 4.58 0.0004
12,490 458 12
0.02 12.520 1.001 0.6669 9.16 0.0016
4.157' 457 20
0.03 8.363 1.002 0.6671 13.73 0.0036
2,073' 457 28
0.04 6.290 1.004 0.6675 18.30 0.0064
1,240' 454 35
0.05 5.050 1.007 0.6680 22.84 0.0099
823' 3 6 453 43
0.06 4.227 1.010 0.6686 27.37 0.0142
586" 3 7 451 50
0.07 3.641 1.013 0.6693 31.88 0.0192
436. 4 8 448 58
0.08 3.205 1.017 0.6701 36.36 0.0250
337' 4 9 446 64
0.09 2.868 1.021 0.6710 40.82 0.0314
268' 5 10 442 71
0.10 2.600 1.026 0.6720 45.24 0.0385
217' 6 11 439 77
0.11 2.383 1.032 0.6731 49.63 0.0462
180' 6 12 435 83
0.12 2.203 1.038 0.6743 53.98 0.0545
150" 6 13 432 88
0.13 2.053 1.044 0.6756 58.30 0.0633
127" 7 14 427 94
0.14 1.926 1.051 0.6770 62.57 0.0727
109' 8 15 423 99
0.15 1.617 1.059 0.6785 66.80 0.0826
94" 8 16 418 103
0.16 1.723 1.067 0.6801 70.98 0.0929
82' 8 17 413 107
0.17 1.641 1.075 0.6818 75.11 0.1036
72' 9 18 409 111
0.18 1.569 1.084 0.6836 79.20 0.1147
63' 10 19 403 116
0.19 1.506 1.094 0.6855 83.23 0.1263
56 9 20 399 116
0.20 1.450 1.103 0.6875 87.21 0.1379
50 11 21 392 120
0.21 1.400 1.114 0.6896 91.13 0.1499
44 10 22 387 123
0.22 1.356 1.124 0.6918 95.00 0.1622
39 12 23 381 124
0.23 1.317 1.136 0.6941 98.81 0.1746
35 11 24 375 127
0.24 1.282 1.147 0.6965 102.56 0.1873
32 12 24 370 127
0.25 1.250 1.159 0.6989 106.26 0.2000
28 12 25 364 128
0.26 1.222 1.171 0.7014 109.90 0.2128
26 13 27 358 130
0.27 1.196 1.184 0.7041 113.48 0.2258
23 13 27 352 129
0.28 1.173 1.197 0.7088 117.00 0.2387
21 14 28 345 130
0.29 1152 1.211 0.7096 120.45 0.2517
19 14 29 341 130
0.30 1.133 1.225 0.7125 123.86 0.2647
17 14 29 334 130
0.31 1.116 1.239 0.7154 127.20 0.2777
15 15 31 328 129
0.32 1.101 1.254 0.7185 130.48 0.2906
13 15 31 322 128
0.33 1.088 1.269 0.7216 133.70 0.3034
13 15 32 316 128
0.34 1.075 1.284 0.7248 136.86 0.3162
11 16 32 311 127
0.35 1.064 1.300 0.7280 139.97 0.3289
10 16 34 305 125
0.36 1.054 1.316 0.7314 143.02 0.3414
8 16 34 299 124
0.37 1.046 1.332 0.7348 146.01 0.3538
8 17 35 293 123
0.38 1.038 1.349 0.7383 148.94 0.3661
7 17 36 288 122
0.39 1.031 1.366 0.7419 151.82 0.3783
6 17 36 282 119
0.40 1.025 1.383 0.7455 154.64 0.3902
5 18 37 277 119
0.41 1.020 1.401 0.7492 157.41 0.4021
5 18 38 271 116
0.42 1.015 1.419 0.7530 160.12 0.4137
4 18 38 266 115
0.43 1.011 1.437 0.7568 162.78 0.4252
3 18 39 261 112
0.44 1.008 1.455 0.7607 165.39 0.4364
2 19 40 256 111
0.45 1.006 1.474 0.7647 167.95 0.4475
3 19 40 251 109
0.46 1.003 1.493 0.7687 170.46 0.4584
1 19 41 245 107
0.47 1.002 1.512 0.7728 172.91 0.4691
1 19 41 241 105
0.48 1.001 1.531 0.7769 175.32 0.4796
1 20 42 237 103
0.49 1.000 1.551 0.7811 177.69 0.4899
0 20 43 231 101
0.50 1.000 1.571 0.7854 180.00 0.5000

Explanation of Table of Segments of Circles,Given h/c

Given: h= height of segment and c=chord, to findthe drameter,d, of the circle, the length of the arc, or the area of the
segment, form the ratioh/c, and findfrom the tablethe value of d/c, arc/c,or arealhc;then, by a simple multiplication,
d= cx (d/c), arc=c x (arc/c),and area= h x c x (arealhc).
The table also gives the angle subtended at the center,and the ratioof h to d.
1-32 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING HANDBOOK

TABLE 1.12-SEGMENTS OF CIRCLES, GIVEN h/d

Cf?ntL4
Angle, (v Arc Area
hid Arc/d Difference Area/d' D!fference (degrees) Difference c/d Difference Circumference Drfference Circle Difference
0.00 0.000 0.0000 0.00 0 0000 0.0000
2003 13 2296 1990 638‘ 17
0.01 0.2003 0.0013 22.96 0.1990 0.0638 0.0017
835' 24 956’ 810' 265' 31
0.02 0.2638 0.0037 32.52 0.2800 0.0903 0.0046
644' 32 738' 612' 205' 39
0.03 0.3482 0.0069 39.90 0.3412 0.1108 0.0087
545' 36 625' 507' 174' 47
0.04 0.4027 0.0105 46.15 0.3919 0.1282 0.0134
483' 42 553' 440' 154' 53
0.05 0.4510 0.0147 51.68 0.4359 0.1436 0.0187
439' 45 504' 391. 139. 58
0.06 0.4949 0.0192 56.72 0.4750 0.1575 0.0245
406' 50 465' 353' 130' 63
0.07 0.5355 0.0242 61.37 0.5103 0.1705 0.0308
380' 52 435' 323' 121 67
0.08 0.5735 0.0294 65.72 05426 0.1826 0.0375
359' 56 411' 298 * 114 71
0.09 0.6094 0.0350 69.83 0.5724 0.1940 0 0446
341' 59 391' 276' 108 74
0.10 0.6435 0 0409 7374 0 6000 0.2048 0.0520
326' 61 374, 258' 104 78
0.11 0.6761 00470 77 48 0.6258 0.2152 0.0598
314' 64 359 * 241' 100 82
0.12 0.7075 00534 81.07 0.6499 0.2252 0.0680
302' 66 347' 227' 96 84
0.13 0.7377 00600 8454 0.6726 0.2348 0.0764
293' 68 335' 214' 93 87
0.14 0.7670 00666 87 89 0.6940 0.2441 0.0851
284' 71 326' 201' 91 90
0.15 0.7954 0 0739 91.15 ,0.7141 0.2532 0.0941
276 72 316 191' 88 92
016 0.8230 00811 94.31 0.7332 0.2820 0.1033
270 74 309 181' 86 94
0.17 0.8500 00885 9740 0.7513 0.2706 0.1127
263 76 302 171' 83 97
0.18 0.8763 00961 10042 07684 0 2789 0.1224
256 76 295 162 82 99
0.19 0.9021 01039 103.37 0.7846 0.2871 0 1323
252 79 289 154 81 101
0.20 0.9273 01118 106.26 0.8000 0.2952 0.1424
248 81 284 146 79 103
0.21 0.9521 0 1199 109.10 0.8146 0.3031 0.1527
243 82 279 139 77 104
0.22 0.9764 01281 111 89 0.8285 0.3108 0.1631
240 84 274 132 76 107
0.23 1.0004 01365 114.63 0.8417 0.3184 0.1738
235 64 271 125 75 108
024 1.0239 0 1449 117.34 0.8542 0.3259 01846
233 86 266 118 74 109
0.25 1.0472 0 1535 120.00 0.8660 0.3333 01955
229 88 263 113 73 111
0.26 1.0701 01623 122.63 0.8773 0.3406 02066
277 88 260 106 72 112
0.27 1.0928 01711 125.23 0.8879 0.3478 02178
224 89 256 101 72 114
0.26 1.1152 01800 127.79 0 8980 0.3550 0 2292
222 90 254 95 70 115
0.29 1.1374 0.1890 130.33 0.9075 0.3820 02407
219 92 251 90 70 116
0.30 1.1593 0.1982 132.84 0.9165 0.3690 0.2523
217 92 249 85 69 117
0.31 1.1810 0.2074 135.33 0.9250 0.3759 0.2640
215 93 247 80 69 119
0.32 1.2025 02167 13780 0.9330 0.3828 0.2759
214 93 245 74 68 119
0.33 1.2239 0.2260 140.25 0.9404 0.3898 0.2878
212 95 242 70 67 120
0.34 1.2451 0.2355 14267 0.9474 0.3963 0 2998
210 95 241 65 67 121
0.35 1.2661 02450 14506 0.9539 0.4030 0.3119
209 96 240 61 67 122
036 12870 0.2546 147.46 0 9600 0.4097 03241
208 96 238 58 66 123
0.37 1.3078 0.2642 14986 0 9656 0.4163 0.3364
206 97 237 52 66 123
038 1.3284 0 2739 15223 0.9708 0.4229 0.3487
206 97 235 47 65 124
0.39 1.3490 02836 15458 0.9755 0.4294 0.3611
204 98 235 43 65 124
0.40 1.3694 0 2934 15693 0.9798 0.4359 0.3735
204 98 233 39 65 125
0.41 13898 03032 15926 0.9837 0.4424 0.3860
203 98 233 34 65 126
0.42 14101 03130 161 59 0.9871 0 4489 0.3986
202 99 231 31 64 126
043 1.4303 0 3229 16390 0 9902 0.4553 0.4112
202 99 232 26 64 126
044 1.4505 0 3328 16622 0 9928 0.4617 0.4236
201 100 230 22 64 126
0.45 14706 0.3428 16652 0.9950 0.4681 0.4364
201 99 230 18 64 127
046 1.4907 03527 17082 0 9968 04745 04491
201 100 230 14 64 127
047 1.5106 03627 17312 0.9982 0.4809 0.4618
200 100 229 10 64 127
0 48 1.5308 03727 17541 0 9992 04873 04745
200 100 230 6 63 128
049 1.5508 0.3627 17771 0 9998 0.4936 0.4873
200 100 229 2 64 127
0.50 15708 0.3927 18000 10000 0.5000 0.5000

Explanatcon of Table of Segments of Circles. Given h/d

Gwen: h=helght of segment and d= dtameter of circle,to find the chord, the length of arc, or the area of the segment, form the ratloh/d
and find from the table the value of (c/d), (arc/d), or (area/d*), then by a simple multipllcatlon.c=dx(cld), arc=dx(arc/d), and
area=d'x (area/d')
The table also gives the angle subtended at the center. the ratloof the arc of the segment to the whole circumference. and the ratloof
the area 01 the segment to the area of the whole cvcle
MATHEMATICAL TABLES & UNITS & SYSTEMS OF WEIGHTS & MEASURES l-33

TABLE 1.13~SEGMENTS OF SPHERES

Volume segment Volume segment


h/d d3 Difference Volume sphere Difference

0.00 0.0000 0.0000


2 3
0.01 0.0002 0.0003
4 9
0.02 0.0006 0.0012
8 14
0.03 0.0014 0.0026
10 21
0.04 0.0024 0.0047
14 26
0.05 0.0038 0.0073
16 31
0.06 0.0054 0.0104
19 36
0.07 0.0073 0.0140
22 42
0.08 0.0095 0.0182
25 46
0.09 0.0120 0.0228
27 52
0.10 0.0147 0.0260
29 56
0.11 0.0176 0.0336
32 61
0.12 0.0208 0.0397
34 66
0.13 0.0242 0.0463
37 70
0.14 0.0279 0.0533
39 74
0.15 0.0318 0.0607
41 79
0.16 0.0359 0.0686
44 83
0.17 0.0403 0.0769
45 86
0.18 0.0448 0.0855
47 91
0.19 0.0495 0.0946
50 94
0.20 0.0545 0.1040
51 98
0.21 0.0596 0.1138
53 101
0.22 0.0649 0.1239
55 105
0.23 0.0704 0.1344
56 108
0.24 0.0760 0.1452
58 110
0.25 0.0818 0.1562
60 114
0.26 0.0878 0.1676
61 117
0.27 0.0939 0.1793
63 120
0.28 0.1002 0.1913
64 122
0.29 0.1066 0.2035
65 125
0.30 0.1131 0.2160
67 127
0.31 0.1198 0.2287
67 130
0.32 0.1265 0.2417
69 131
0.33 0.1334 0.2548
70 134
0.34 0.1404 0.2682
71 135
0.35 0.1475 0.2817
72 138
0.36 0.1547 0.2955
73 139
0.37 0.1620 0.3094
74 141
0.38 0.1694 0.3235
74 142
0.39 0.1768 0.3377
75 143
0.40 0.1843 0.3520
76 145
0.41 0.1919 0.3665
76 145
0.42 0.1995 0.3810
77 147
0.43 0.2072 0.3957
77 147
0.44 0.2149 0.4104
78 148
0.45 0.2227 0.4252
78 149
0.46 0.2305 0.4401
78 150
0.47 0.2383 0.4551
78 149
0.48 0.2461 0.4700
78 150
0.49 0.2539 0.4850
79 150
0.50 0.2618 0.5000

‘Volume segment= 1/6rh2(3c-2h)

Explanation of Table of Segments of Spheres

Given: h = heightof segment and d = diameter of sphere,to findthe volume


of the segment, form the ratioh/d and find from the table the value of
(volume/d3): then. by a simple multiplication, volume segment=
d3 x (volume/d3).
The tablealso gives the ratioof the volume of the segment to the entire
volume of the sphere. Note that the area of zone= ?TX hx d.
1-34 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING HANDBOOK

TABLE 1.14-VOLUMES OF SPHERES BY HUNDREDTHS

d 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Difference
1.0
-0.5236 0.5395 0.5556 0.5722 0.5890 0.6061 0.6236 0.6414 0.6596 0.6781 173
1.1 0.6969 0.7161 0.7356 0.7555 0.7757 0.7963 0.8173 0.8386 0.8603 0.8823 208
1.2 0.9048 0.9276 0.9508 0.9743 0.9983 1.0227 236
1.2 1.023 1.047 1.073 1.098 1.124 25
1.3 1.150 1.177 1.204 1.232 1.260 1.288 1.317 1.346 1.376 1.406 29
1.4 1.437 1.468 1.499 1.531 1.563 1.596 1.630 1.663 1.697 1.732 33

1.5 1.767 1.803 1.839 1.875 1.912 1.950 1.988 2.026 2.065 2.105 38
1.6 2.145 2.185 2.226 2.268 2.310 2.352 2.395 2.439 2.483 2.527 43
1.7 2.572 2.618 2.664 2.711 2.758 2.806 2.855 2.903 2.953 3.003 48
1.8 3.054 3.105 3.157 3.209 3.262 3.315 3.369 3.424 3.479 3.535
1.9 3.591 3.648 3.706 3.764 3.823 3.882 3.942 4.003 4.064 4.126 :;

2.0 4.189 4.252 4.316 4.380 4.445 4.511 4.577 4.644 4.712 4.780 66
2.1 4.849 4.919 4.989 5.060 5.131 5.204 5.277 5.350 5.425 5.500 73
2.2 5.575 5.652 5.729 5.806 5.885 5.964 6.044 6.125 6.206 6.288 80
2.3 6.371 6.454 6.538 6.623 6.709 6.795 6.882 6.970 7.059 7.148 87
2.4 7.238 7.329 7.421 7.513 7.606 7.700 7.795 7.890 7.986 8.083 94

2.5 8.181 8.280 8.379 8.478 8.580 8.682 8.785 8.888 8.992 9.097 102
2.6 9.203 9.309 9.417 9.525 9.634 9.744 9.855 9.966 10.079 110
2.6 10.08 10.19 11
2.7 10.31 10.42 10.54 10.65 10.77 10.89 11.01 11.13 il.25 11.37 12
2.8 11.49 11.62 11.74 11.87 11.99 12.12 12.25 12.38 12.51 12.64 13
2.9 12.77 12.90 13.04 13.17 13.31 13.44 13.58 13.72 13.86 14.00 14

3.0 14.14 14.28 14.42 14.57 14.71 14.86 15.00 15.15 15.30 15.45 15
3.1 15.60 15.75 15.90 16.06 16.21 16.37 16.52 16.68 16.84 17.00 16
3.2 17.16 17.32 17.48 17.64 17.81 17.97 18.14 18.31 18.48 18.65 17
3.3 18.82 18.99 19.16 19.33 19.51 19.68 19.86 20.04 20.22 20.40 18
3.4 20.58 20.76 20.94 21.13 21.31 21.50 21.69 21.88 22.07 22.26 19

3.5 22.45 22.64 22.84 23.03 23.23 23.43 23.62 23.82 24.02 2423 20
3.6 24.43 24.63 24.84 25.04 25.25 25.46 25.67 25.88 26.09 26.31 21
3.7 26.52 26.74 26.95 27.17 27.39 27.61 27.83 28.06 28.28 2850 22
3.8 28.73 28.96 29.19 29.42 29.65 29.88 30.11 30.35 30.58 30.82 23
3.9 31.06 31.30 31.54 31.78 32.02 32.27 32.52 32.76 33.01 33.26 25

4.0 33.51 33.76 34.02 34.27 34.53 34.78 35.04 35.30 35.56 35.82 26
4.1 36.09 36.35 36.62 36.88 37.15 37.42 37.69 37.97 38.24 38.52 27
4.2 38.79 39.07 39.35 39.63 39.91 40.19 40.48 40.76 41.05 41.34 28
4.3 41.63 41.92 42.21 42.51 42.80 43.10 43.40 43.70 44.00 44.30 30
4.4 44.60 44.91 45.21 45.52 45.83 46.14 46.45 46.77 47.08 47.40 31

4.5 47.71 48.03 48.35 48.67 49.00 49.32 49.65 49.97 50.30 50.63 33
4.6 50.97 51.30 51.63 51.97 52.31 52.65 52.99 53.33 53.67 54.02 34
4.7 54.36 54.71 55.06 55.41 55.76 56.12 56.47 56.83 57.19 57.54 35
4.8 57.91 58.27 58.63 59.00 59.37 59.73 60.10 60.48 60.85 61.22 37
4.9 61.60 61.98 62.36 62.74 63.12 63.51 63.89 64.28 64.67 65.06 38

5.0 65.45 65.64 66.24 66.64 67.03 67.43 67.83 68.24 68.64 69.05 40
5.1 69.46 69.87 70.28 70.69 71.10 71.52 71.94 72.36 72.78 73.20 42
5.2 73.62 74.05 74.47 74.90 75.33 75.77 76.20 76.64 77.07 77.51 43
5.3 77.95 78.39 78.84 79.28 79.73 80.18 80.63 81.08 81.54 81.99 45
5.4 82.45 82.91 83.37 83.83 84.29 84.76 85.23 85.70 86.17 86.64 47

Explanationof Table of Volumes of Spheres

Moving the decimal point one place in Column d (diameter)is equivalentto moving itthree places in the body of the table.
For example, volume of sphere= ~/6x (d3)=0.523599x(d3). Conversely, d= ?/%x $k%%= 1.240701 x %%r%e.
MATHEMATICALTABLES & UNITS& SYSTEMSOFWEIGHTS & MEASURES 1-35

TABLE1.14-VOLUMESOF SPHERES BY HUNDREDTHS(continued)

d 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Difference
-~
5.5 87.11 87.59 88.07 88.55 89.03 89.51 90.00 90.48 90.97 91.49 48
5.6 91.95 92.45 92.94 93.44 93.94 94.44 94.94 95.44 95.95 96.46 50
5.7 96.97 97.48 97.99 98.51 99.02 99.54 100.06 52
5.7 100.1 100.6 101.1 101.6 5
5.8 102.2 102.7 103.2 103.8 104.3 104.8 105.4 105.9 106.4 107.0 5
5.9 107.5 108.1 108.6 109.2 109.7 110.3 110.9 111.4 112.0 112.5 6

6.0 113.1 113.7 114.2 114.8 115.4 115.9 116.5 117.7 117.1 118.3 6
6.1 118.8 119.4 120.0 120.6 121.2 121.8 122.4 123.6 123.0 124.2
6.2 124.8 125.4 126.0 126.6 127.2 127.8 128.4 129.1 129.7 130.3
6.3 130.9 131.5 132.2 132.8 133.4 134.1 134.7 135.3 136.0 136.6
6.4 137.3 137.9 138.5 139.2 139.8 140.5 141.2 141.8 142.5 143.1 7

6.5 143.8 144.5 145.1 145.8 146.5 147.1 147.8 148.5 149.2 149.6
6.6 150.5 151.2 151.9 152.6 153.3 154.0 154.7 155.4 156.1 156.8
8.7 157.5 158.2 158.9 159.6 160.3 161.0 161.7 162.5 163.2 163.9
6.8 164.6 165.4 166.1 166.8 167.6 168.3 169.0 169.8 170.5 171.3
6.9 172.0 172.8 173.5 174.3 175.0 175.8 176.5 177.3 178.1 178.8 8

7.0 179.6 180.4 181.1 181.9 182.7 183.5 184.3 185.0 185.8 186.6
7.1 187.4 188.2 189.0 189.8 190.6 191.4 192.2 193.0 193.8 194.6
7.2 195.4 196.2 197.1 197.9 198.7 199.5 200.4 201.2 202.0 202.9
7.3 203.7 204.5 205.4 206.2 207.1 207.9 208.8 209.6 210.5 211.3
7.4 212.2 213.0 213.9 214.8 215.6 216.5 217.4 218.3 219.1 220.0 9

7.5 220.9 221.8 222.7 223.6 224.4 225.3 226.2 227.1 228.0 228.9
7.6 229.8 230.8 231.7 232.6 233.5 234.4 235.3 236.3 237.2 238.1
7.7 239.0 240.0 240.9 241.8 242.8 243.7 244.7 245.6 246.6 247.5
7.8 248.5 249.4 250.4 251.4 252.3 253.3 254.3 255.2 256.2 257.2 10
7.9 258.2 259.1 260.1 261.1 262.1 263.1 264.1 265.1 266.1 267.1

8.0 268.1 269.1 270.1 271.1 272.1 273.1 274.2 275.2 276.2 277.2
8.1 278.3 279.3 280.3 281.4 282.4 283.4 284.5 285.5 286.6 287.6 11
8.2 288.7 289.8 290.8 291.9 292.9 294.0 295.1 296.2 2972 298.3
8.3 299.4 300.5 301.6 302.6 303.7 304.8 305.9 307.0 308.1 309.2
8.4 310.3 311.4 312.6 313.7 314.8 315.9 317.0 318.2 319.3 320.4

8.5 321.6 322.7 323.8 325.0 326.1 327.3 328.4 329.6 330.7 331.9
8.6 333.0 334.2 335.4 336.5 337.7 338.9 340.1 341.2 342.4 343.6 12
8.7 344.8 346.0 347.2 348.4 349.6 350.8 352.0 353.2 354.4 355.6
8.6 356.8 358.0 359.3 360.5 361.7 362.9 364.2 365.4 366.6 367.9
8.9 369.1 370.4 371.6 372.9 374.1 375.4 376.6 377.9 379.2 380.4 13

9.0 381.7 383.0 384.3 385.5 386.8 388.1 389.4 390.7 392.0 393.3
9.1 394.6 395.9 397.2 398.5 399.8 401.1 402.4 403.7 405.1 406.4
9.2 407.7 409.1 410.4 411.7 413.1 414.4 415.7 417.1 418.4 419.8 14
9.3 421.2 422.5 423.9 425.2 426.6 428.0 429.4 430.7 432.1 433.5
9.4 434.9 436.3 437.7 439.1 440.5 441.9 443.3 444.7 446.1 447.5

9.5 448.9 450.3 451.8 453.2 454.6 456.0 457.5 458.9 460.4 461.8
9.6 463.2 464.7 466.1 467.6 469.1 470.5 472.0 473.5 474.9 476.4 15
9.7 477.9 479.4 480.8 482.3 483.8 485.3 486.8 488.3 489.8 491.3
9.8 492.8 494.3 495.8 497.3 498.9 500.4 501.9 503.4 505.0 506.5 16
9.9 508.0 509.6 511.1 512.7 514.2 515.8 517.3 518.9 520.5 522.0

10.0 523.6
l-36 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING HANDBOOK

TABLE 1.15-REGULAR POLYGONS

Area Area Area R R L L r r


n DI L2 R2 r2 L r R r R L
3 1200 0.4330 1.299 5196 0.5774 2000 1.732 3.464 0.5000 0.2887
4 900 1.000 2.000 4.000 0.7071 1.414 1.414 2.000 0.7071 0.5000
5 72O 1.721 2.378 3633 0.8507 1.236 1.176 1 453 0.8090 0.6882
6 600 2.598 2.598 3464 1.000 1.155 1.000 1.155 0.8660 0.8660
7 510.43 3.634 2.736 3.371 1.152 1.110 0.8678 0.9631 0.9010 1.038
a 450 4.828 2.828 3314 1307 1.082 0.7654 0.8284 0.9239 1.207
9 400 6.182 2 a93 3276 1.462 1.064 0.6840 0.7279 0.9397 1.374
10 36" 7.694 2.939 3249 I.618 1.052 0.61a0 0.6498 0.9511 1.539
12 300 11.20 3.000 3215 1.932 1.035 0.5176 0.5359 0.9659 1.866
15 24' 17.64 3.051 3 188 2.405 1.022 0.4158 0.4251 0.9781 2.352
16 220.50 20.11 3.062 3 ia3 2.563 1.020 0.3902 0.3978 0.9808 2.514
20 la0 31.57 3.090 3.168 3196 1.013 0.3129 0.3168 0.9877 3.157
24 150 45.58 3.106 3160 3.831 1.009 0.2611 0.2633 0.9914 3.798
32 110.25 al.23 3.121 3152 5.101 1.005 0.1960 0.1970 0.9952 5.077
48 70.50 183.1 3.133 3146 7.645 1.002 0.1308 0.1311 0.9979 7.629
64 5O.625 325.7 3.137 3144 10.19 1.001 0.0981 0.0983 0.9968 10.18

n = number of sides,
N = 3600/n = angle subtended at the center by one side,
1 = length of one side= R (2 sin (~12)= r(2 tan a/2),
R = radius of circumscribed circle= L(% csc u/2) =r(sec a/2).
r = radius of inscribedcircle
= R (cos a/2)= L(% cot ~12).and
area = L* (l/4
n cot (u/2)
= R2 (% n sin (u)= r2 (n tan 0(/2).
MATHEMATICAL TABLES & UNITS & SYSTEMS OF WEIGHTS & MEASURES 1-37

TABLE 1.16-BINOMIAL COEFFICIENTS

(n), =I. (n), =R. (n)? =[n(n l)]/(lx 2). (r~)~=[n(n l)(n 2)]/(1x 2 x 3). etc., m general, (n), = n(n - l)(n - 2) [n - (r- l)]/(lx 2 x 3 xr) Other
notations nCr=(nir) = (nJr

” cm, (n). m, w, bid ml, Hi m 8

1 I 1
2 1 2
3 1 3 ; 1
4 1 4 6 4
5 1 5 10 10 5 1
6 1 6 15 20 15 6 1
7 1 7 21 35 35 21 7
8 1 a 28 56 70 56 28 21 1
9 1 9 36 a4 126 126 64 36 9
10 1 10 45 120 210 252 210 120 45
11 1 11 55 165 330 462 462 330 165 11 1
12 1 12 66 220 495 792 924 792 495 12 1
13 1 13 78 286 715 1,287 1.716 1.716 I ,287 2:: 78 13 1
14 1 14 91 364 1.001 2,002 3,003 3,432 3.003 1 001 364 91 14
I5 1 15 105 455 1.365 3.003 5.005 6,435 6,435 3.003 1.365 455 105
l-38 PETRC ILEUM E:NGINEERING HANDBOOK

TABLE 1.17-COMMON LOGARITHMS (1.OO TO 2.00)

Average
Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 Difference
1.00 0.0000 0.0004 0.0009 0.0013 o.0017 o.0022 0.0026 0.0030 0.0035 0.0039 4
1.01 0.0043 0.0048 0.0052 0.0056 0.0060 0.0065 0.0069 0.0073 0.0077 0.0082
1.02 0.0086 0.0090 0.0095 a0099 0.0103 0.0107 0.0111 0.0116 00120 0.0124
1.03 0.0128 0.0133 0.0137 6.0141 0.0145 0.0149 0.0154 0.0158 0.0162 0.0166
1.04 00170 00175 0.0179 0.0183 0.0187 0.0191 0.0195 0.0199 0.0204 0.0208
1.05 0.0212 0.0216 0.0220 0.0224 0.0228 0.0233 0.0237 0.0241 00245 0.0249
1 06 0.0253 0.0257 0.0261 0.0265 0.0269 0.0273 0.0278 0.0282 0.0286 0.0290
1.07 0.0294 0.0298 0.0302 0.0306 0.0310 0.0314 0.0318 0.0322 0.0326 0.0330
1.08 0.0334 0.0338 0.0342 0.0346 0.0350 0.0354 0.0358 0.0362 0.0366 0.0370
109 0.0374 0.0378 0.0382 0.0386 0.0390 0.0394 0.0398 0.0402 00406 0.0410
1.10 0.0414 0.0418 0.0422 00426 00430 0.0434 0.0438 0.0441 00445 0.0449
1.11 0.0453 0.0457 0.0461 00465 0 0469 0.0473 0.0477 0.0481 00484 0.0488
1.12 0.0492 0 0496 0 0500 00504 00508 0.0512 0.0515 0.0519 00523 0.0527
1.13 0.0531 0.0535 0.0538 0.0542 00546 0.0550 0.0554 0.0558 00561 0.0565
1 14 0.0569 00573 0.0577 00580 00584 00588 0.0592 0.0596 0 0599 0.0603
1.15 0.0607 0.0611 0.0615 0.0618 0.0622 0.0626 0.0630 0.0633 00637 0.0641
1.16 0.0645 0.0648 0.0652 00656 0.0660 0.0663 0.0667 0.0671 00674 0.0678
1.17 00682 0.0686 0.0689 0.0693 0 0697 0.0700 0.0704 0.0708 00711 0.0715
1.18 0.0719 0.0722 0.0726 0.0730 00734 0.0737 0.0741 0.0745 0.0748 0.0752
1.19 0.0755 0.0759 0.0763 0.0766 00770 0.0774 0.0777 0.0781 00785 0.0788
1.20 0.0792 0 0795 0.0799 0.0803 00806 0.0810 0.0813 0.0817 0.0821 0.0824
1 21 0.0828 0.0831 0.0835 0.0839 00842 0.0846 0.0849 0.0853 00856 0.0860
1.22 0.0864 0.0867 0.0871 0.0874 0.0878 0.0881 0.0885 0.0888 0 0892 0.0896
1.23 0.0899 0.0903 0.0906 0.0910 0.0913 0.0917 0.0920 0.0924 0 0927 0.0931
1.24 0.0934 0.0938 0.0941 0.0945 0.0948 0.0952 0.0955 0.0959 0 0962 0.0966
1.25 0.0969 0.0973 0.0976 0.0980 0 0983 0.0986 0.0990 0.0993 0.0997 0.1000 3
1.26 0.1004 0.1007 0.1011 0.1014 01017 0.1021 0.1024 0.1028 01031 0.1035
1.27 0.1038 0 1041 0.1045 0.1048 0.1052 0.1055 0.1059 0.1062 01065 0.1069
1.28 0.1072 01075 0.1079 0.1082 01086 0.1089 0.1092 0.1096 0.1099 0.1103
1.29 01106 0.1109 0.1113 0.1116 01119 0.1123 0.1126 0.1129 0.1133 0.1136
1.30 0.1139 0.1143 0.1146 0.1149 01153 0.1156 0.1159 0.1163 01166 0.1169
1.31 0.1173 01176 0.1179 0.1183 01186 0.1189 0.1193 0.1196 0.1199 0.1202
1.32 0.1206 0.1209 0.1212 0.1216 0.1219 0.1222 0.1225 0.1229 01232 0.1235
1.33 0.1239 0.1242 0.1245 0.1248 0 1252 0.1255 0.1258 0.1261 01265 0.1268
1.34 0.1271 0.1274 0.1278 0.1281 01284 0.1287 0.1290 0.1294 01297 0.1300
1.35 0.1303 0.1307 0.1310 01313 01316 0.1319 0.1323 0.1326 01329 0.1332
1.36 0.1335 0.1339 0.1342 0.1345 0 1348 0.1351 0.1355 0.1358 01361 0.1364
1.37 0.1367 0.1370 0.1374 0.1377 0.1380 0.1383 0.1386 0.1389 01392 0.1396
1.38 0.1399 0.1402 0 1405 0.1408 01411 0.1414 0.1418 0.1421 01424 0.1427
1.39 0.1430 0.1433 0.1436 0.1440 0 1443 0.1446 0.1449 0.1452 01455 0.1458
1.40 0.1461 0.1464 0.1467 0.1471 01474 0.1477 0.1480 0.1483 01486 0.1489
1.41 01492 0.1495 0.1498 01501 01504 01508 0.1511 0.1514 01517 0.1520
1.42 0.1523 0.1526 0.1529 01532 01535 0.1538 0.1541 0.1544 01547 0.1550
1.43 0.1553 0.1556 01559 0.1562 0.1565 0.1569 0.1572 0.1575 01578 01581
1.44 0.1584 0.1587 0.1590 0.1593 01596 0.1599 0.1602 0.1605 01608 0.1611
1.45 0.1614 0.1617 0.1620 0.1623 0.1626 0.1629 0.1632 0.1635 01638 0.1641
1.46 0 1644 0.1647 0.1649 0.1652 0 1655 0.1658 0.1661 0.1664 01667 0 1670
1.47 0.1673 0.1676 0.1679 0.1682 0.1685 0.1688 0.1691 0.1694 0.1697 01700
1.48 0.1703 0.1706 01708 01711 01714 01717 0.1720 0.1723 01726 0.1729
1.49 0.1732 0.1735 0.1738 0.1741 0.1744 0.1746 0.1749 0.1752 01755 0.1758

Moving the decimal polntn places to the right(orleft)


In the number requiresadding +n (or-n) in the body of the table
See Table 1.18.
MATHEMATICALTABLES & UNITS &SYSTEMSOFWElGHTS& MEASURES I-39

TABLE 1.17-COMMON LOGARITHMS (1.00 TO 2.00) (continued)

Average
Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Difference

1 so 0.1761 0.1764 0.1767 0.1770 0.1772 0.1775 0.1778 0.1781 01784 0.1787 3
1.51 0.1790 0.1793 0.1796 0.1798 0 1801 0.1804 0.1807 0.1810 0 1813 0.1816
1.52 0.1818 0.1821 0.1824 0.1827 0.1830 0.1833 0.1836 0.1838 0.1841 0.1844
1.53 0.1847 0.1850 0.1853 0.1855 0.1858 0.1861 0.1864 0.1867 0 1870 0 1872
1.54 0.1875 0.1878 0.1881 0.1884 0.1886 0.1889 0.1892 0.1895 0.1898 0.1901
1.55 0.1903 0.1906 0.1909 0.1912 0.1915 0.1917 0.1920 0.1923 01926 0.1928
1.56 01931 0.1934 0.1937 0.1940 0.1942 0.1945 0.1948 0.1951 01953 0.1956
1.57 0.1959 0.1962 0.1965 0.1967 0.1970 0.1973 0.1976 0.1978 0.1981 0.1984
1.58 0.1987 0.1989 0.1992 0.1995 0.1998 0.2000 0.2003 0.2006 0.2009 0.2011
1.59 02014 0.2017 0.2019 0.2022 0.2025 0.2028 0.2030 0.2033 0.2036 0.2038
1.60 02041 0.2044 0.2047 0.2049 0.2052 0.2055 0.2057 0.2060 0.2063 0.2066
1.61 0.2068 0.2071 0.2074 0.2076 0.2079 0.2082 0.2084 0.2087 0.2090 0.2092
1 62 0.2095 0.2098 0.2101 0.2103 0.2106 0.2109 0.2111 0.2114 0.2117 0.2119
1 63 02122 0.2125 0.2127 0.2130 0.2133 0.2135 0.2138 0.2140 0.2143 0.2146
1.64 02148 0.2151 0.2154 0.2156 0.2159 0.2162 0.2164 0.2167 0.2170 0.2172
1.65 02175 0.2177 0.2180 0.2183 0.2185 0.2188 0.2191 0.2193 0.2196 0.2198
1.66 0.2201 0.2204 0.2206 0.2209 0.2212 0.2214 0.2217 0.2219 0.2222 0.2225
167 02227 0.2230 0.2232 0.2235 0.2238 0.2240 0.2243 0.2245 02248 0.2251
1.68 02253 0.2256 0.2258 0.2261 0.2263 0.2266 0.2269 0.2271 02274 0.2276
1.69 0 2279 0.2281 0.2284 0.2287 0.2289 0.2292 0.2294 0.2297 0.2299 0.2302
1.70 02304 0.2307 0.2310 0.2312 0.2315 0.2317 0.2320 0.2322 02325 0.2327
1.71 02330 0.2333 0.2335 0.2338 0.2340 0.2343 0.2345 0.2348 0.2350 0.2353
1 72 0.2355 0.2358 0.2360 0.2363 0.2365 0.2368 0.2370 0.2373 02375 0.2378
1 73 0.2380 0.2383 0.2385 0.2388 0.2390 0.2393 0.2395 0.2398 02400 0.2403
1.74 0.2405 0.2408 0.2410 0.2413 0.2415 0.2418 0.2420 0.2423 0.2425 0.2428 2
1.75 02430 0.2433 0.2435 0.2438 0.2440 0.2443 0.2445 0.2448 0.2450 0.2453
176 0.2455 0.2458 0.2460 0.2463 0.2465 0.2467 0.2470 0.2472 0.2475 0.2477
1.77 0.2480 0.2482 0.2485 02487 0.2490 0.2492 0.2494 0.2497 0 2499 0.2502
1.78 0.2504 0.2507 0.2509 0.2512 0.2514 0.2516 0.2519 0.2521 02524 0.2526
1.79 0.2529 0.2531 0.2533 0.2536 0.2538 0.2541 0.2543 0.2545 0.2548 0.2550
1.80 0.2553 0.2555 0.2558 0.2560 0.2562 0.2565 0.2567 0.2570 0.2572 0.2574
1.81 0 2577 0.2579 0.2582 0.2584 0.2586 0.2589 0.2591 0.2594 0.2596 0.2598
1.82 0.2601 0.2603 0.2605 02608 0.2610 0.2613 0.2615 0.2617 0.2620 0.2622
1.83 0.2625 0.2627 0.2629 0.2632 0.2634 0.2636 0.2639 0.2641 02643 0.2646
1.84 0.2648 0.2651 0.2653 02655 0.2658 0.2660 0.2662 0.2665 0.2667 0.2669
1.85 0.2672 0.2674 0.2676 02679 0.2681 0.2683 0.2686 0.2688 0.2690 0.2693
1.86 0 2695 0.2697 0.2700 0.2702 0.2704 0.2707 0.2709 0.2711 0 2714 0.2716
1.87 0.2718 0.2721 0.2723 0.2725 0.2728 0.2730 0.2732 0.2735 0.2737 0.2739
1.88 0.2742 0.2744 0.2746 0 2749 0.2751 0.2753 0.2755 0.2758 0.2760 0.2762
1 89 0.2765 0.2767 0.2769 0.2772 0.2774 0.2776 0.2778 0.2781 0.2783 0.2785
1.90 0.2788 0.2790 0.2792 0.2794 0.2797 0.2799 0.2801 0.2804 02806 0.2808
1.91 0.2810 0.2813 0.2815 0.2817 0.2819 0.2822 0.2824 0.2826 0.2828 0 2831
1 92 0.2833 0.2835 0.2838 02840 0.2842 0.2844 0.2847 0.2849 0.2851 0.2853
1 93 0.2856 0.2858 0.2860 02862 0.2865 0.2867 0.2869 0.2871 0.2874 0.2876
194 0.2878 0.2880 0.2882 02885 0.2887 0.2889 0.2891 0.2894 0.2896 0.2898
195 0.2900 0.2903 0.2905 0 2907 0.2909 0.2911 0.2914 0.2916 0.2918 0.2920
196 0.2923 0.2925 0.2927 0 2929 0.2931 0.2934 0.2936 0.2938 0.2940 0.2942
197 0.2945 0.2947 0.2949 0.2951 0.2953 0.2956 0.2958 0.2960 0.2962 0.2964
1 98 0.2967 0.2969 0.2971 0.2973 0.2975 0.2978 0.2980 0.2982 0.2984 0.2986
1 99 0.2989 0.2991 0.2993 0.2995 0.2997 0.2999 0.3002 0.3004 0.3006 0.3008

Mowng the decimal pointn places 10 the right[orleft)in


the number requiresadding +n (or-r?)in the body of the table
See Table 1.18
I-40 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING HANDBOOK

TABLEl.lB-COMMON LOGARITHMS

Average
Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Difference
__ ~ ~
1.0 0.0000 0.0043 0.0086 0.0128 0 0170 0.0212 0.0253 0.0294 0.0334 0.0374 See Table 1.17
1.1 0.0414 0.0453 0.0492 0.0531 0.0569 0.0607 0.0645 0.0682 0.0719 0.0755 See Table 1.17
1.2 0.0792 0.0828 0.0864 0.0899 0 0934 0.0969 0.1004 0.1038 0.1072 0.1106 See Table 1.17
1.3 0.1139 0.1173 0.1206 0.1239 0.1271 0.1303 0.1335 0.1367 0.1399 0.1430 See Table 1.17
1.4 0.1461 0.1492 0.1523 0.1553 0.1584 0.1614 0.1644 0.1673 0.1703 0.1732 See Table 1.17
1.5 0.1761 0.1790 0.1818 0.1847 01875 0.1903 0.1931 0.1959 0.1987 0.2014 See Table 1.17
1.6 0.2041 0.2068 0.2095 0.2122 0.2148 0.2175 0.2201 0.2227 0.2253 0.2279 See Table 1.17
1.7 0.2304 0.2330 0.2355 0.2380 0.2405 0.2430 0.2455 0.2480 0.2504 0.2529 See Table 1.17
1.8 0.2553 0.2577 0.2601 0.2625 0.2648 0.2672 0.2695 0.2718 0.2742 0.2765 See Table 1.17
1.9 0.2788 0.2810 0.2833 0.2856 0.2878 0.2900 0.2923 0.2945 0.2967 0.2989 See Table 1.17
2.0 0.3010 0.3032 0.3054 0.3075 0.3096 0.3118 0.3139 0.3160 0.3181 0.3201 21
2.1 0.3222 0.3243 0.3263 0.3284 0.3304 0.3324 0.3345 0.3365 0.3385 0.3404 20
2.2 0.3424 0.3444 0.3464 0.3483 0.3502 0.3522 0.3541 0.3560 0.3579 0.3598 19
2.3 03617 0.3636 0.3655 0.3674 0.3692 0.3711 0.3729 0.3747 0.3766 0.3784 18
2.4 0.3802 0.3820 0.3838 0.3856 0.3874 0.3892 0.3909 0.3927 0.3945 0.3962 17
2.5 0.3979 0.3997 0.4014 0.4031 0.4048 0.4065 0.4082 0.4099 0.4116 0.4133 17
2.6 0.4150 0.4166 0.4183 04200 04216 0.4232 0.4249 0.4265 04281 0.4298 16
2.7 04314 0.4330 0.4346 0.4362 0.4378 0.4393 0.4409 0.4425 0.4440 0.4456 16
2.8 04472 04487 0.4502 04518 0.4533 0.4548 0.4564 0.4579 0.4594 0.4609 15
2.9 0.4624 0.4639 0.4654 0.4669 0.4683 0.4698 0.4713 0.4728 0.4742 0.4757 15
3.0 0.4771 0.4786 0.4800 0.4814 0.4829 0.4843 0.4857 0.4871 0.4886 0.4900 14
31 0 4914 0.4928 0.4942 0.4955 0.4969 0.4983 0.4997 0.5011 0.5024 0.5038 14
3.2 0.5051 0.5065 0.5079 0.5092 0.5105 0.5119 0.5132 0.5145 0.5159 0.5172 13
3.3 0.5185 0.5198 0.5211 0.5224 0.5237 0.5250 0.5263 0.5276 0.5289 0.5302 13
3.4 0.5315 0.5328 0.5340 0.5353 0.5366 0.5378 0.5391 0.5403 0.5416 0.5428 13
3.5 0.5441 0.5453 0.5465 0.5478 0.5490 0.5502 0.5514 0.5527 0.5539 0.5551 12
3.6 0.5563 0.5575 0.5587 0.5599 0.5611 0.5623 0.5635 0.5647 0.5658 0.5670 12
3.7 0.5682 0.5694 0.5705 0.5717 0.5729 0.5740 0.5752 0.5763 0.5775 0.5786 12
3.8 0.5798 0.5809 0.5821 0.5832 0.5843 0.5855 0.5866 0.5877 0.5888 0.5899 11
3.9 0.5911 0.5922 0.5933 0.5944 0.5955 0.5966 0.5977 0.5988 0.5999 0.6010 11
4.0 0.6021 0.6031 0.6042 0.6053 0.6064 0.6075 0.6085 0.6096 0.6107 0.6117 11
4.1 0.6128 0.6138 0.6149 0.6160 0.6170 0.6180 0.6191 0.6201 0.6212 0.6222 10
4.2 0.6232 0.6243 0.6253 0.6263 0.6274 0.6284 0.6294 0.6304 0.6314 0.6325 10
4.3 0.6335 0.6345 0.6355 0.6365 0.6375 0.6385 0.6395 0.6405 0.6415 0.6425 10
4.4 0.6435 0.6444 0.6454 0.6464 0.6474 0.6484 0.6493 0.6503 0.6513 0.6522 10
4.5 0.6532 0.6542 0.6551 0.6561 06571 0.6580 0.6590 0.6599 0.6609 0.6618 10
4.6 0.6628 0.6637 0.6646 0.6656 0.6665 0.6675 0.6684 0.6693 0.6702 0.6712 10
4.7 0.6721 0.6730 0.6739 0.6749 0.6758 0.6767 0.6776 0.6785 0.6794 0.6803 9
4.8 0.6812 0.6812 0.6830 0.6839 0.6848 0.6857 0.6866 0.6875 0.6884 0.6893 9
4.9 0.6902 0.6911 0.6920 0 6928 0.6937 0.6946 0.6955 0.6964 0.6972 0.6981 9
5.0 0.6990 0.6998 0.7007 0.7016 0.7024 0.7033 0.7042 0.7050 0.7059 0.7067 9
5.1 0.7076 0.7084 0.7093 0.7101 07110 0.7118 0.7126 0.7135 0.7143 0.7152 8'
52 0.7160 0.7168 0.7177 0.7185 0.7193 0.7202 0.7210 0.7218 0.7226 0.7235 8
5.3 0.7243 0.7251 0.7259 07267 0.7275 0.7284 0.7292 0.7300 0.7308 0.7316 8
5.4 0.7324 0.7332 0.7340 07348 07356 0.7364 0.7372 0.7380 0.7388 0.7396 8
5.5 0.7404 0.7412 0.7419 07427 0.7435 0.7443 0.7451 0.7459 0.7466 0.7474 8
5.6 0.7482 0 7490 0.7497 0.7505 0.7513 0.7520 0.7528 0.7536 0.7543 0.7551 8
5.7 0.7559 0.7566 0.7574 07582 0.7589 0.7597 0.7604 0.7612 0.7619 0.7627 8
5.8 0.7634 0.7642 0.7649 07657 0.7664 0.7672 0.7679 0.7686 0.7694 0.7701 7
59 0.7709 0.7716 0.7723 07731 0.7738 0.7745 0.7752 0.7760 07767 0.7774 7

This tablegivesthecommon logarithmsof numbers between 1 and 10,correcltofourplaces.Moving the decimalpointn places
to the right(or left)
in the number is equivalentto adding n (or -n) to the logarithm.Thus, log 0.017453=0.2419-2, which
may also be written2.2419 or 8.2419- 10.
For example, log(ab)=log a+log b, log (aN)=N log a, log(alb)=loga-log b, and log(?'a)=l/N log a.
MATHEMATlCALTABLES& UNlTS&SYSTEMSOFWElGHTS& MEASURES l-41

TABLE 1.18- -COMMON LOGARITHMS (continued)

Average
Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Difference
6.0 0.7782 0.7789 07796 0.7803 0.7810 0.7818 0.7825 0.7832 0.7839 0.7846
6.1 0.7853 0.7860 07868 0.7875 0.7882 0.7889 0.7896 0.7903 0.7910 0.7917
6.2 0.7924 0.7931 0.7938 0.7945 0.7952 0.7959 0.7966 0.7973 0.7980 0.7987
6.3 0.7993 0.8000 0.8007 0.8014 0.8021 0.8028 0.8035 0.8041 0.8048 0.8055
6.4 0.8062 0.8069 0.8075 0.8082 0.8089 0.8096 0.8102 0.8109 0.8116 0.8122
6.5 0.8129 0.8136 0.8142 0.8149 0.8156 0.8162 0.8169 0.8176 0.8182 0.8189
6.6 0.8195 0.8202 0.8209 0.8215 0.8222 0.8228 0.8235 0.8241 0.8248 0.8254
6.7 0.8261 0.8267 0.8274 0.8280 0.8287 0.8293 0.8299 0.8306 0.8312 0.8319 6
6.8 0.8325 0.8331 0.8338 0.8344 0.8351 0.8357 0.8363 0.8370 0.8376 0.8382 6
6.9 0.8388 0.8395 0.8401 0.8407 0.8414 0.8420 0.8426 0.8432 0.8439 0.8445 6
7.0 0.8451 0.8457 0.8463 0.8470 0.8476 0.8482 0.8488 0.8494 0.8500 0.8506 6
7.1 0.8513 0.8519 0.8525 0.8531 0.8537 0.8543 0.8549 0.8555 0.8561 0.8567 6
7.2 0.8573 0.8579 0.8585 0.8591 0.8597 0.8603 0.8609 0.8615 0.8621 0.8627 6
7.3 0.8633 0.8639 0.8645 0.8651 0.8657 0.8663 0.8669 0.8675 0.8681 0.8686 6
7.4 0.8692 0.8698 0.8704 0.8710 0.8716 0.8722 0.8727 0.8733 0.8739 0.8745 6
7.5 0.8751 0.8756 0.8762 0.8768 0.8774 0.8779 0.8785 0.8791 0.8797 0.8802 6
76 0.8808 0.8814 0.8820 0.8825 0.8831 0.8837 0.8842 0.8848 0.8854 0.8859 6
7.7 0.8865 0.8871 0.8876 0.8882 0.8887 0.8893 0.8899 0.8904 0.8910 0.8915 6
7.8 0.8921 0.8927 0.8932 0.8938 0.8943 0.8949 0.8954 0.8960 0.8965 0.8971 6
7.9 0.8976 0.8982 0.8987 0.8993 0.8998 0.9004 0.9009 0.9015 0.9020 0.9025 5
8.0 0.9031 0.9036 0.9042 0.9047 0 9053 0.9058 0.9063 0.9069 0.9074 0.9079 5
81 0.9085 0.9090 0.9096 0.9101 0.9106 0.9112 0.9117 0.9122 0.9128 0.9133 5
82 09138 09143 0.9149 0.9154 09159 0.9165 0.9170 0.9175 09180 0.9186 5
8.3 0.9191 0.9196 0.9201 0.9206 0.9212 0.9217 0.9222 0.9227 0.9232 0.9238 5
8.4 0 9243 0 9248 0.9253 0.9258 0.9263 0 9269 0.9274 0.9279 0.9284 0.9289 5
85 0 9294 0.9299 0.9304 0.9309 0.9315 0.9320 0.9325 0.9330 0.9335 0.9340 5
8.6 0.9345 0.9350 0.9355 0.9360 0.9365 0.9370 0.9375 0.9380 0.9385 0.9390 5
8.7 0.9395 0.9400 0.9405 0.9410 0.9415 0.9420 0.9425 0.9430 0.9435 0.9440 5
8.8 0.9445 0.9450 0.9455 0.9460 0.9465 0.9469 0.9474 0.9479 0.9484 0.9489 5
8.9 0.9494 0.9499 0.9504 0.9509 0.9513 0.9518 0.9523 0.9528 0.9533 0.9538 5
9.0 0.9542 0.9547 0.9552 0.9557 0.9562 0.9566 0.9571 0.9576 0.9581 0.9586 5
9.1 0.9590 0.9595 0.9600 0.9605 0.9609 0.9614 0.9619 0.9624 0.9628 0.9633 5
9.2 0.9638 0.9643 0.9647 0.9652 0.9657 0.9661 0.9666 0.9671 0.9675 0.9680 5
9.3 0.9685 0.9689 0.9694 0.9699 0.9703 0.9708 0.9713 0.9717 0.9722 0.9727 5
9.4 0.9731 0.9736 0.9741 0.9745 0.9750 0.9754 0.9759 0.9763 0.9768 0.9773 5
9.5 0.9777 0.9782 0.9786 0.9791 0.9795 0.9800 0.9805 0.9809 0.9814 0.9818 5
9.6 0.9823 0.9827 0.9832 0.9836 0.9841 0.9845 0.9850 0.9854 0.9859 0.9863 4
9.7 0.9868 0.9872 0.9877 0.9881 0.9886 0.9890 0.9894 0.9899 0.9903 0.9908 4
9.8 0.9912 0.9917 0.9921 0.9926 0.9930 0.9934 0.9939 0.9943 0.9948 0.9952 4
9.9 0.9956 0.9961 0.9965 0.9969 0.9974 0.9978 0.9983 0.9987 0.9991 0.9996 4

109 v=o 4971 log &2=0 1961, log $t2=09943 log \,<=02466. log e-04343, and log (04343)=06378- 1
1-42 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING HANDBOOK

TABLE 1.19-DEGREES AND MINUTES EXPRESSED IN RADIANS’

Degrees Hundredths Minutes

1 00175 61 1.0647 121 2.1118 O”.Ol 00002 OO.51 0.0089 1 0.0003


2 0.0349 62 1.0821 122 2.1293 00.02 00003 OO.52 0.0091 2 0.0006
3 0.0524 63 1.0996 123 2.1468 00 03 0.0005 00.53 0.0093 3 00009
4 0.0698 64 1.1170 124 21642 00.04 00007 00 54 0.0094 4 0.0012
5 0.0873 65 1.1345 125 2.1817 00.05 0.0009 00.55 0.0096 5 0.0015
6 0.1047 66 1.1519 126 21991 OO.06 0.0010 OO.56 0.0098 6 0.0017
0.1222 67 1.1694 127 2.2166 00.07 00012 00.57 0.0099 7 0.0020
L 0 1396 68 1.1868 128 22340 O" 08 00014 OO.58 0.0101 8 00023
9 01571 69 1.2043 129 2.2515 00.09 0.0016 00.59 0.0103 9 0.0026
10 0.1745 70 1.2217 130 22689 00.10 00017 OO.60 0.0105 10 0.0029
11 0.1920 71 1.2392 131 2.2864 00.11 0.0019 OO.61 0.0106 11 0.0032
12 0.2094 72 1.2566 132 23038 00 12 00021 OO.62 0.0108 12 0.0035
13 0.2269 73 1.2741 133 2.3213 00.13 0.0023 OO.63 0.0110 13 0.0038
14 02443 74 12915 134 2.3387 00.14 00024 OO.64 0.0112 14 0.0041
15 02618 75 1.3090 135 23562 00.15 00026 0".65 0.0113 15 0.0044
16 0 2793 76 1.3265 136 2.3736 OO.16 00028 00.66 0.0115 16 00047
17 0.2967 77 1.3439 137 2.3911 00.17 00030 OO.67 0.0117 17 0.0049
18 0.3142 78 1.3614 138 24086 OO.18 0.0031 00.68 0.0119 18 00052
19 0.3316 79 1.3788 139 24260 00.19 00033 OO.69 0.0120 19 0.0055
20 0.3491 80 1.3963 140 2.4435 00.20 00035 00.70 0.0122 20 0.0058
21 0.3665 81 1.4137 141 2.4609 00.21 00037 00.71 0.0124 21 0.0061
22 0.3840 82 1.4312 142 2.4784 00.22 0.0038 OO.72 0.0126 22 0.0064
23 0.4014 83 1.4486 143 2.4958 OO.23 0.0040 00.73 0.0127 23 0.0067
24 0.4189 84 1.4661 144 2.5133 OO.24 0.0042 00.74 0.0129 24 0.0070
25 0.4363 a5 1.4835 145 25307 OO.25 00044 00.75 0.0131 25 0.0073
26 0.4538 86 1.5010 146 25482 0".26 00045 OO.76 0.0133 26 0.0076
27 0.4712 87 1.5184 147 2.5656 00.27 00047 00.77 0.0134 27 0.0079
28 0.4887 88 1.5359 148 2.5831 OO.28 0.0049 00.78 0.0136 28 0.0081
29 0.5061 89 1.5533 149 2.6005 00 29 0.0051 00.79 0.0138 29 00084
30 0.5236 90 1.5708 150 2.6180 0".30 0.0052 00.80 0.0140 30 0.0087
31 0.5411 91 1.5882 151 2.6354 00.31 0.0054 OO.81 0.0141 31 0.0090
32 0.5585 92 1.6057 152 2.6529 0".32 00056 0".82 0.0143 32 0.0093
33 0.5760 93 1.6232 153 2.6704 00.33 0.0058 OO.83 0.0145 33 0.0096
34 0.5934 94 1.6406 154 2.6878 00.34 0.0059 0".84 0.0147 34 0.0099
35 0.6109 95 1.6581 155 27053 00.35 0.0061 OO.85 0.0148 35 0.0102
36 0.6283 96 1.6755 156 27227 OO.36 0.0063 00.86 0.0150 36 0.0105
37 0.6458 97 1.6930 157 2.7402 00.37 0.0065 OO.87 0.0152 37 00108
38 0.6632 98 1 7104 158 2.7576 0".38 0.0066 00.88 0.0154 38 0.0111
39 0.6807 99 1.7279 159 2.7751 00.39 0.0068 OO.89 0.0155 39 0.0113
40 0.6981 100 1.7453 160 2.7925 OO.40 0.0070 00.90 0.0157 40 0.0116
41 0.7156 101 1.7628 161 2.8100 00.41 0.0072 00.91 0.0159 41 0.0119
42 0.7330 102 1.7802 162 2.8274 OO.42 0.0073 00.92 0.0161 42 0.0122
43 0.7505 103 1.7977 163 28449 0043 0.0075 00.93 0.0162 43 0.0125
44 0.7679 104 1.8151 164 2.8623 00.44 0.0077 00.94 0.0164 44 0.0128
45 0.7854 105 18326 165 28798 00.45 0.0079 00.95 0.0166 45 0.0131
46 0.8029 106 18500 166 2.8972 OO.46 0.0080 OO.96 0.0168 46 00134
47 0.8203 107 1.8675 167 29147 00 47 00082 00.97 0.0169 47 0.0137
48 0.8378 108 1.8850 168 2.9322 OO.48 0.0084 0".98 0.0171 48 0.0140
49 0.8552 109 1.9024 169 2.9496 00.49 0.0086 00.99 0.0173 49 00143
50 0.8727 110 1.9199 170 2.9671 00.50 0.0087 10.00 0.0175 50 0.0145
51 0 8901 111 1.9373 171 2.9845 51 00148
52 0.9076 112 1.9548 172 3.0020 52 0.0151
53 0.9250 113 1.9722 173 3.0194 53 00154
54 0.9425 114 1.9897 174 3.0369 54 00157
55 0 9599 115 20071 175 3.0543 55 00160
56 0.9774 116 2.0246 176 3.0718 56 0.0163
57 0 9948 117 2.0420 177 3.0892 57 0.0166
58 1.0123 118 2.0595 178 3.1067 58 0.0169
59 1.0297 119 2.0769 179 3.1241 59 0.0172
60 1.0472 120 2.0944 180 3.1416 60 0.0175

Arc ,“=00,74533. Arc ,‘=0000290888,Arc 1~=000000484814 1 radnn = 57”0295780=57°17’07468=57017’44”0806


‘See aim Table 1 40
MATHEMATICALTABLE !S & UIVlTS& SYSTEMSOFWEIGHTS & MEASURES 1-43

TABLEl.PO-RADIANSEXPRESSED IN DEGREES
lnterpolatlon
0.01 00.57 0 64 36O 67 1.27 72O.77 1.90 108O.86 2.53 144O 96
0.02 10.15 0.65 37".24 1.28 730.34 1.91 1090.43 2.54 1450 53 0.0002 00.01
0.03 I" 72 066 37O.82 1.29 73" 91 1.92 110~.01 2.55 146O IO 0.0004 00.02
0.04 20.29 0 67 38O.39 1.30 74' 48 1.93 IlOO. 2.56 146O.68 0.0006 00.03
0.05 20.86 0.68 38O .96 1.31 75O.06 1.94 1110.15 2.57 147O 25 0.0008 00 05
0.06 30.44 0 69 39".53 1.32 75'63 1.95 1110.73 2.58 147'82 0.0010 0".06
0.07 40.01 0.70 400.11 1.33 76O.20 1.96 112O.30 2.59 148O.40 0.0012 00.07
0.08 4O.58 0.71 4OO.68 1.34 76".78 1.97 112O.87 2.60 148O.97 0.0014 0".08
0.09 5O.16 0.72 41O.25 1.35 770.35 1.98 1130.45 2.61 1490.54 0.0016 OO.09
0.10 50.73 0.73 41".83 1.36 770.92 1.99 114O.02 2.62 150~11 0.0018 00.10
0.11 6O.30 0.74 42O.40 1.37 780.50 2.00 1140.59 2.63 150°69 0.0020 00.11
0.12 60.88 0.75 42O.97 1.38 790.07 2.01 115".16 2.64 151° 26 0.0022 00.13
0.13 70.45 0.76 430.54 1.39 79O.64 2.02 1150.74 2.65 151O.83 0.0024 OO.14
0.14 8O.02 0.77 44O.12 1.40 8OO.21 2.03 116O.31 2.66 152O.41 0.0026 00.15
0.15 8O.59 0.78 44O.69 1.41 8OO.79 2.04 1160.88 2.67 152O.98 0.0028 OO.16
0.16 90.17 0.79 45O.26 1.42 81O.36 2.05 117O.46 2.68 1530.55 0.0030 00.17
0.17 90.74 0.80 45O.84 1.43 81O.93 2.06 118°.03 2.69 1540.13 0.0032 OO.18
0.18 100.31 081 46O.41 1.44 82O.51 2.07 1180.60 2.70 154O.70 0.0034 00.19
0.19 lo".89 0.82 46O.98 1.45 83O.08 2.08 119O.18 2.71 155O.27 0.0036 00.21
0.20 II='.46 0.83 47O.56 1.46 83O.65 2.09 1190.75 2.72 155O.84 0.0038 00.22
0.21 12O.03 0.84 480.13 1.47 84O.22 2.10 12OO.32 2.73 156O.42 0.0040 0".23
0.22 12O.61 0.85 48O.70 1.48 84O.80 2.11 12OO.89 2.74 156O .99 0.0042 OO.24
0.23 13O.18 0.86 49O.27 1.49 85".37 2.12 121O.47 2.75 157O.56 0.0044 OO.25
0.24 130.75 0.87 49O .85 1.50 85O.94 2.13 1220.04 2.76 158O.14 0.0046 OO.26
0.25 14O.32 0.88 5OO.42 1.51 86O.52 2.14 122O.61 2.77 158O.71 0.0048 00.28
0.26 140.90 0.89 500.99 1.52 87O.09 2.15 123O.19 2.78 159O.28 0.0050 00.29
0.27 150.47 0.90 510.57 1.53 87O.66 2.16 123O.76 2.79 1590.86 0.0052 00.30
0.28 16O.04 0.91 52O.14 1.54 88O.24 2.17 124O.33 2.80 16OO.43 0.0054 00.31
0.29 16O.62 0.92 52O.71 1.55 880.81 2.18 124O.90 2.81 161'.00 0.0056 OO.32
0.30 170.19 0.93 530.29 1.56 89O.38 2.19 125O.48 2.82 161O.57 0.0058 00.33
0.31 17".76 0.94 53O.86 1.57 89".95 2.20 126O.05 2.83 162O.15 0.0060 00.34
0.32 18O.33 0.95 540.43 1.58 900.53 2.21 126O.62 2.84 162O.72 0.0062 OO.36
0.33 18O.91 0.96 550.00 1.59 910.10 2.22 127O.20 2.85 163O.29 0.0064 00.37
0.34 IgO. 0.97 55O.58 1.60 91° 67 2.23 127O.77 2.86 163O87 0.0066 OO.38
0.35 2OO.05 0.98 56O.15 1.61 920.25 2.24 128O.34 2.87 164O.44 0.0068 00.39
0.36 2OO.63 0.99 56O.72 1.62 92O 82 2.25 128O.92 2.88 165O 01 00070 00.40
0.37 210.20 1.00 570.30 1.63 930.39 2.26 1290.49 2.89 165O.58 0.0072 00.41
0.38 210.77 1.01 57O.87 1.64 930 97 2.27 130a.06 2.90 166O16 0.0074 OO.42
0.39 22O.35 1.02 58".44 1.65 940.54 2.28 13OO.63 2.91 166O.73 0.0076 00.44
0.40 220.92 1.03 590.01 1.66 950.11 2.29 131O.21 2.92 167O.30 0.0078 OO.45
0.41 230.49 1.04 590.59 1.67 95O.68 2.30 131O.78 2.93 167O.88 0.0080 On.46
042 24O.06 1.05 600.16 1.68 96O.26 2.31 132O.35 2.94 168O.45 0.0082 00.47
0.43 24O.64 1.06 6OO.73 1.69 96O.83 2.32 132O.93 2.95 169O.02 0.0084 OO.48
0.44 25O.21 1.07 61O.31 1.70 97O.40 2.33 133O.50 2.96 169O.60 0.0086 00.49
0.45 25".78 1.08 610.88 171 97O.98 2.34 134O.07 2.97 170~.17 0.0088 00.50
0.46 26O.36 1.09 62O.45 172 98O.55 2.35 134O.65 2.98 1700.74 0.0090 OO.52
0.47 26O.93 1.10 63'=.03 173 99O.12 2.36 135O.22 2.99 1710.31 0.0092 00.53
0.48 27O.50 1.11 63O.60 1.74 99O.69 2.37 1350.79 3.00 71O.89 0.0094 00.54
0.49 28".07 1.12 64O.17 1.75 lOOO.27 2.38 136O.36 3.01 72O.46 0.0096 OO.55
0.50 28O.65 1.13 64O.74 1.76 loo='.84 2.39 136O.94 3.02 730.03 0.0098 OO.56
0.51 290.22 1.14 65O.32 1.77 1010.41 2.40 1370.51 3.03 73O.61
0.52 290.79 1.15 65O.89 1.78 1010.99 2.41 138O.08 3.04 74O.18 Multiplesof r
0.53 300.37 1.16 66'=.46 1.79 102O.56 2.42 138O.66 3.05 740.75
0.54 30".94 1.17 67O.04 1.80 1030.13 2.43 1390.23 3.06 750.33 1 3.1416 180°
0.55 310.51 1.18 67O.61 1.81 1030.71 2.44 139O.80 3.07 750.90 2 6.2832 360°
0.56 320.09 1.19 680.18 1.82 104O.28 2.45 1400.37 3.08 76O.47 3 9.4248 5400
0.57 32O.66 1.20 68O.75 1.83 104O.85 2.46 140".95 3.09 1770.04 4 12.5664 720°
0.58 33O.23 1.21 69".33 1.84 105O.42 2.47 141O.52 3.10 177O.62 5 15.7080 9000
0.59 33O.80 1.22 69".90 1.85 106°.00 2.48 142O.09 3.11 178O.19 6 18.8496 1,080°
0.60 34O.38 1.23 7OO.47 1.86 106O.57 2.49 142O.67 3.12 178O.76 7 21.9911 1,260"
0.61 34O.95 1.24 71O.05 1.87 107O.14 2.50 143O.24 3.13 1790.34 8 25.1327 1,4400
0.62 35O.52 1.25 71O.62 1.88 107O.72 2.51 144O.81 3.14 1790.91 9 28.2743 1,620"
0.63 36O.10 1.26 72O.19 1.89 108O.29 2.52 144O.39 3.15 18OO.48 IO 31.4159 1.800°
l-44 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING HANDBOOK

TABLE 1 .Pl-NATURAL SINES AND COSINES

Natural Stnes at Intervalsof O0 01 or 6"

0.9 01 0 Average
Degrees (498') 154'1 (60') Degrees Difference

0 0000 90
0.0000 0.0017 00035 00052 00070 00087 0.0105 0.0122 00140 00157 0.0175 89 17
0.0175 00192 00209 00227 0.0244 00262 0 0279 0 0297 00314 00332 0 0349 17
0.0349 00366 00384 0.0401 00419 00436 00454 0.0471 0.0488 00506 0.0523 E 17
0.0523 00541 0.0558 00576 0 0593 00610 0 0628 0.0645 00663 0.0680 0.0698 86 17
0.0698 0.0715 00732 00750 00767 00785 0 0802 00819 00837 00854 0.0872 a5 17

5 0.0872 0.0889 00906 0.0924 0.0941 0 0958 0 0976 0 0993 0.1011 0.1028 0.1045 84 17
6 0.1045 01063 0.1080 0.1097 01115 01132 01149 01167 0 1184 01201 0.1219 83 17
7 0.1219 01236 0.1253 0.1271 01288 01305 01323 0 1340 0.1357 01374 0.1392 82 17
8 01392 01409 0.1426 0.1444 01461 01478 01495 01513 0 1530 01547 0.1564 81 17
9 0.1564 01582 0.1599 0.1616 01633 01650 01668 01685 0 1702 01719 0.1736 80 17

10 0.1736 0.1754 0.1771 0.1788 01805 01822 0.1840 0.1857 0.1874 0.1891 0.1908 79 17
11 01908 0.1925 01942 01959 01977 0.1994 0.2011 02028 0.2045 0.2062 0.2079 78 17
12 02079 02096 02113 02130 02147 02164 0 2181 0 2198 0.2215 0.2233 0.2250 77 17
13 0 2250 0.2267 0.2284 0.2300 02317 0.2334 02351 0.2368 0.2385 0.2402 0.2419 76 17
14 02419 02436 02453 02470 02407 0.2504 0 2521 0 2538 0.2554 0.2571 0.2588 75 17

15 0.2588 02605 0.2622 0.2639 0.2656 0.2672 0.2689 0.2706 02723 0.2740 0.2756 74 17
16 02756 0.2773 0.2790 0.2807 02823 0.2840 02857 02074 0.2890 0.2907 0.2924 73 17
17 0 2924 0.2940 0 2957 0 2974 0 2990 0.3007 0.3024 0.3040 0 3057 0.3074 0.3090 72 17
18 03090 03107 0.3123 0.3140 03156 0.3173 03190 0.3206 0.3223 0.3239 0.3256 71 17
19 0.3256 03272 0.3289 03305 03322 0.3338 03355 0.3371 0.3387 0.3404 0.3420 70 16

20 0.3420 0.3437 0.3453 0 3469 03486 03502 0.3518 0.3535 03551 0.3567 0.3584 69 16
21 0 3584 0.3600 0.3616 0.3633 0.3649 0.3665 0.3681 0 3697 0.3714 0.3730 03746 68 16
22 03746 0.3762 0.3778 0 3795 03811 0.3827 03843 0.3859 0.3875 0.3891 0.3907 67 16
23 0.3907 0.3923 0.3939 0.3955 0.3971 0.3987 0.4003 04019 0 4035 0.4051 0.4067 66 16
24 0.4067 04083 04099 0.4115 04131 0.4147 04163 04179 04195 04210 0.4226 65 16

25 0.4226 04242 04258 04274 0 4289 04305 0.4321 04337 04352 0.4368 0.4384 64 16
26 04384 0.4399 0.4415 0.4431 0.4446 0.4462 04478 0.4493 0.4509 0.4524 0.4540 63 16
27 0 4540 04555 0.4571 0.4586 04602 0.4617 04633 04648 0.4664 0.4679 0 4695 62 16
28 04695 04710 0.4726 04741 04756 0.4772 04787 0.4802 0.4818 0.4833 0.4848 61 15
29 0 4848 0.4863 0.4879 0.4894 0.4909 0.4924 0 4939 0 4955 0.4970 0.4985 0.5000 60 15

30 05000 0.5015 0.5030 0.5045 0.5060 0.5075 0 5090 05105 0.5120 0.5135 0.5150 59 15
31 0.5150 0.5165 0.5180 0.5195 05210 0.5225 0.5240 0 5255 0.5270 0.5284 0.5299 58 15
32 05299 0.5314 0.5329 0.5344 05358 0.5373 0.5388 0.5402 0.5417 0.5432 0.5446 57 15
33 0 5446 0.5461 0.5476 0.5490 0.5505 0.5519 0.5534 0 5548 0.5563 0.5577 0 5592 56 15
34 05592 05606 05621 05635 05650 0.5664 0.5678 0 5693 0.5707 0.5721 05736 55 14

35 05736 05750 05764 0 5779 0 5793 0.5807 05821 0.5835 0.5850 0.5864 0.5878 54 14
36 0.5878 0.5892 0.5906 0.5920 0 5934 0.5948 0.5962 0.5976 0.5990 0.6004 06018 53 14
37 06018 06032 0.6046 0.6060 06074 06088 0.6101 0.6115 0.6129 0.6143 0.6157 52 14
38 06157 06170 06184 06198 06211 06225 0 6239 0.6252 0.6266 0.6280 0.6293 51 14
39 06293 06307 0.6320 0.6334 06347 0.6361 0.6374 0.6388 0.6401 0.6414 0.6428 50 13

40 06428 06441 0.6455 0.6468 06481 0.6494 0.6508 0.6521 0.6534 0.6547 0.6561 49 13
41 0.6561 0.6574 0.6587 0.6600 06613 06626 0.6639 0.8652 06665 0 6678 06691 48 13
42 0.6691 0.6704 06717 0.6730 06743 06756 0.6769 0.6782 0.6794 0 6807 0.6820 47 13
43 0 6820 0.6833 06845 06858 06871 06884 0.6896 0.6909 06921 0 6934 0.6947 46 13
44 0.6947 0.6959 06972 0 6984 0 6997 0 7009 0.7022 0.7034 0.7046 0.7059 07071 45 12

45 0 7071 07083 07096 07108 0 7120 0.7133 0.7145 0.7157 0.7169 0 7181 07193 44 12
46 07193 07206 07218 07230 07242 07254 0.7266 0 7278 0 7290 0 7302 07314 43 12
47 07314 0.7325 07337 0 7349 07361 07373 07385 0 7396 0 7408 0 7420 07431 42 12
48 0 7431 0.7443 07455 07466 07478 0 7490 0 7501 0.7513 0 7524 0 7536 07547 41 12
49 07547 0.7559 07570 07581 0 7593 07604 0.7615 0.7627 0 7638 0 7649 0 7660 40 11

“8 01 0.0
=;5: ) (46') (6’) (0')
Natural Comes

'For IO' mtervals.see Table 1 24


MATHEMATICAL TABLES & UNITS & SYSTEMS OF WEIGHTS & MEASURES l-45

TABLE 1.21-NATURAL SINES AND COSINES (continued)

Natural Smes at Intervals 01 O" 01 or 6"

04 "6 01.0 Average


Degrees (i3) (24’) (36') (2) (i88') Wl Degrees Difference

50 07660 0 7672 0.7683 0 7694 0.7705 07716 0.7727 07738 0 7749 0.7760 07771 39 11
51 07771 0 7782 07793 07804 0 7615 0 7826 07837 07848 0 7859 0.7869 0.7880 38 11
52 07880 0 7891 0.7902 07912 0 7923 0 7934 0 7944 0 7955 0 7965 0.7976 0.7986 11
53 0 7986 0 7997 0.8007 0 8018 0 8028 0 8039 0 8049 0 8059 08070 0.8080 0.8090 2 10
54 0 8090 08100 08111 0.8121 0.8131 0 8141 08151 08161 08171 0.8181 0.8192 35 10

55 0 8192 0 8202 0.8211 08221 0.8231 0 8241 08251 08261 0 8271 0.8281 0.8290 34 10
56 08290 08300 0.8310 0.8320 0 8329 08339 08348 0.8358 08368 08377 0.8387 33 10
57 0.8387 0.8396 0.8406 0.8415 0.8425 08434 08443 0.8453 08462 08471 0.8480 32 9
58 08480 0 8490 0.8499 0.8508 08517 0 8526 08536 08545 08554 08563 0.8572 31 9
59 08572 0.8581 0.8590 0.8599 0.8607 08616 08625 0.8634 08643 0.8652 0.8660 30 9

60 08660 0 8669 08678 08686 0 8695 0 8704 08712 08721 0 8729 08738 0.8746 29
61 0.8746 0.8755 08763 0.8771 0.8780 0.8788 0 8796 0.8805 08813 0.8821 0.8829 28
62 0.8829 0.8830 0.8846 0.8854 0.8862 0.8670 0.8678 0.8886 0 8894 0.8902 0.8910 27
63 08910 08918 08926 0 8934 0 8942 0 8949 0 8957 08965 0 8973 0.8980 0.8988 26
64 0 8988 0.8996 0.9003 0.9011 09018 0 9026 0 9033 0.9041 0 9048 0.9056 0.9063 25

65 0 9063 0.9070 0.9078 0 9085 0 9092 09100 0.9107 09114 09121 09128 0.9135 24 7
66 0.9135 0.9143 0.9150 0.9157 0.9164 0.9171 0.9178 0.9184 09191 0.9198 0.9205 23 7
67 0.9205 0.9212 0.9219 0.9225 0.9232 a.9239 0.9245 0 9252 0 9259 0.9265 0.9272 22 7
68 0.9272 0.9278 0.9285 0.9291 0.9298 0.9304 0.9311 0.9317 09323 0.9330 0.9336 21 6
69 0 9336 0.9342 0.9348 0.9354 0.9361 0 9367 0 9373 0.9379 0 9385 0.9391 0.9397 20 6

70 0.9397 0.9403 0.9409 0.9415 0.9421 0.9426 0.9432 0.9438 09444 0.9449 0.9455 19 6
71 0.9455 09461 0.9466 0.9472 0.9478 0.9483 0 9489 0.9494 0.9500 0.9505 0.9511 18 6
72 0.9511 09516 0.9521 0.9527 0.9532 0.9537 0.9542 0 9548 0 9553 0.9558 0.9563 17 5
73 0.9563 0.9568 0.9573 0.9578 0.9583 0.9588 0.9593 0.9598 09603 0.9608 0.9613 16 5
74 0.9613 0.9617 0.9622 0.9627 0.9632 0.9636 09641 0 9646 0 9650 0.9655 0.9659 15 5

75 0.9659 0.9664 0.9668 0.9673 0.9677 0 9681 0 9686 0 9690 0 9694 0.9699 0.9703 14 4
76 0.9703 0 9707 0.9711 09715 0 9720 0 9724 0.9728 0.9732 0.9736 0.9740 0.9744 13 4
77 0.9744 0 9748 09751 0.9755 0.9759 0.9763 09767 09770 0.9774 0.9778 0.9781 12 4
78 0.9781 0 9785 0.9789 0.9792 0.9796 0.9799 0.9803 0.9806 09810 0.9813 0.9816 11 3
79 0.9816 0.9820 0 9823 0.9826 0.9829 0.9833 0 9836 0.9839 0.9842 0.9845 0.9848 10 3
80 0.9848 0.9851 0.9854 0.9857 0.9860 0.9863 0 9866 0.9869 09871 0.9874 0.9877 3
81 0 9877 0 9880 0 9882 0 9885 0.9888 0 9890 0.9893 0.9895 0.9898 0.9900 0 9903 3
82 0.9903 0 9905 0 9907 0.9910 09912 09914 0.9917 0.9919 09921 0.9923 0.9925 2
83 0 9925 0 9928 0 9930 0 9932 0 9934 0 9936 0.9938 0.9940 0.9942 0.9943 0.9945 2
84 0.9945 0 9947 0 9949 09951 0.9952 0.9954 0.9956 0.9957 0.9959 0.9960 0 9962 2
85 0.9962 0 9963 0 9965 0.9966 0.9968 0.9969 0.9971 0.9972 0.9973 0.9974 0.9976 4 1
86 0 9976 0 9977 0 9978 0 9979 0 9980 09981 0 9982 0.9983 0 9984 0 9985 0 9986 3 1
87 0 9986 0 9987 0 9988 0.9989 0 9990 0 9990 0.9991 0.9992 0 9993 0.9993 0 9994 2
88 0.9994 0 9995 0 9995 0 9996 0 9996 0 9997 0 9997 0.9997 0.9998 0.9998 0.9998 1 :,
89 0 9998 0 9999 0 9999 0 9999 0 9999 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 0 0

90 1.0000

09 03 01
=(54 ) (18') ,,"%, (6 )
Natural

'For IO intervals
see Table 1 24
l-46 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING HANDBOOK

TABLE 1.22-NATURAL TANGENTS AND COTANGENTS

Natural Tangents at Intervalsof On.1 or 6"

0.0 ".6 0.7 0.9 "1 0 Average


Degrees =(O') (;8') (36’1 (42') (54') 6301 Degrees Difference

0.0000 90
0 0000 0.0017 00035 0.0052 0.0070 0.0087 00105 0.0122 0 0140 0.0157 00175 89 17
00175 0.0192 0.0209 0.0227 00244 00262 0.0279 0.0297 0.0314 0.0332 0 0349 88 17
0 0349 00367 0.0384 0.0402 0.0419 0.0437 00454 0.0472 0.0489 0.0507 0.0524 07 17
00524 0.0542 0 0559 0.0577 0.0594 00612 00629 0.0647 0.0664 0.0682 0 0699 86 18
0 0699 0.0717 0 0734 0.0752 0.0769 00787 00805 0.0822 0 0840 00857 0.0675 65 18

5 00875 0.0892 00910 0.0928 0.0945 00963 00981 0.0998 0.1016 0.1033 01051 64 18
6 0 1051 01069 0 1086 0.1104 0.1122 0.1139 0.1157 0.1175 0.1192 0.1210 01228 63 18
7 0 1228 0.1246 01263 0.1281 0.1299 0.1317 01334 0.1352 0.1370 0.1388 0.1405 82 18
a 01405 0.1423 01441 01459 0.1477 01495 01512 0.1530 01548 0 1566 0.1584 81 18
9 0 1584 0.1602 0.1620 01638 0.1655 01673 0 1691 0.1709 0.1727 01745 01763 80 18

10 01763 0.1761 01799 01817 0.1835 01853 0.1871 01690 0.1908 0.1926 01944 79 18
11 01944 0.1962 01980 0.1996 0.2016 02035 02053 0.2071 0.2089 0.2107 0.2126 78 18
12 02126 02144 02162 0.2180 0.2199 0.2217 02235 0.2254 0.2272 0.2290 02309 77 18
13 0 2309 02327 02345 0.2364 0.2382 02401 02419 0.2438 0.2456 0.2475 0 2493 76 19
14 0 2493 02512 0.2530 0 2549 02566 02586 0.2605 02623 0.2642 0.2661 0 2679 75 19

15 0 2679 0 2698 0.2717 02736 0.2754 02773 0 2792 0.2811 0.2630 0.2849 0.2867 74 19
16 02867 0.2886 0 2905 0 2924 0.2943 0 2962 0.2981 0 3000 0.3019 0.3038 03057 73 19
17 03057 0.3076 0.3096 03115 0.3134 03153 03172 0 3191 0.3211 0.3230 03249 72 19
18 0 3249 0.3269 03268 0 3307 03327 03346 0.3365 03385 0.3404 0.3424 0.3443 71 19
19 03443 0.3463 0.3462 0 3502 03522 03541 0.3561 0.3561 03600 03620 0.3640 70 20

20 03640 0 3659 0 3679 0 3699 0.3719 03739 0.3759 0 3779 0.3799 0.3819 0 3839 69 20
21 0 3839 0.3859 0 3879 0 3099 0.3919 0 3939 0.3959 0.3979 0.4000 0.4020 0.4040 68 20
22 04040 0.4061 04061 04101 0.4122 04142 0.4163 0.4163 0.4204 0.4224 04245 67 21
23 04245 04265 0.4266 04307 04327 04348 0.4369 0.4390 0.4411 0.4431 04452 66 21
24 04452 04473 0.4494 04515 04536 04557 0.4578 0.4599 0.4621 0.4642 04663 65 21

25 04663 04664 04706 0.4727 0.4746 04770 04791 0.4813 0.4834 04856 0.4877 64 21
26 04877 0 4899 04921 0 4942 0 4964 0 4986 05008 0.5029 0.5051 05073 0 5095 63 22
27 0 5095 05117 0.5139 0.5161 05184 05206 0.5228 0.5250 0.5272 0.5295 05317 62 22
28 0.5317 05340 0.5362 0 5364 05407 05430 05452 0.5475 0.5498 05520 05543 61 23
29 0.5543 05566 0.5589 0 5612 05635 05658 05681 0.5704 0.5727 05750 05774 60 23

30 0.5774 05797 0.5820 0.5844 0.5067 0 5890 05914 0.5938 0.5961 05985 06009 59 24
31 0.6009 06032 06056 0 6080 06104 06128 06152 0.6176 0.6200 06224 06249 58 24
32 0.6249 06273 0.6297 0 6322 06346 06371 0.6395 0.6420 0.6445 0 6469 0.6494 57 25
33 0.6494 0.6519 06544 0 6569 0 6594 06619 0 6644 0.6669 0.6694 06720 06745 56 25
34 0.6745 06771 0.6796 0.6822 0.6847 06873 0 6899 0.6924 0.6950 06976 07002 55 26

35 0.7002 07028 07054 07080 0.7107 07133 07159 0.7186 0.7212 0.7239 07265 54 26
36 0.7265 07292 07319 0 7346 0.7373 0 7400 0.7427 0.7454 0.7481 0.7508 07536 53 27
37 0.7536 07563 0 7590 07618 0.7646 07673 07701 0.7729 0.7757 07785 07813 52 28
38 0.7813 07841 0 7869 0.7898 0 7926 0 7954 0.7983 08012 0.8040 0.8069 0 8098 51 28
39 0 8098 08127 08156 0.8185 08214 08243 08273 0.8302 0.8332 08361 06391 50 29

40 06391 08421 08451 0.8481 08511 08541 0.8571 0.8601 08632 0.8662 0.8693 49 30
41 0.6693 08724 08754 08785 08816 08847 0.8678 0 8910 0.8941 08972 0 9004 46 31
42 0 9004 0 9036 0.9067 0.9099 09131 09163 0.9195 0.9228 0.9260 0.9293 0 9325 47 32
43 0 9325 0.9358 09391 0.9424 0 9457 0.9490 09523 0 9556 0.9590 0 9623 0 9657 46 33
44 0 9657 09691 0 9725 0.9759 0 9793 0 9827 0.9661 0.9896 0.9930 0 9965 10000 45 34

".8 07 '.6 0.4 0.3


(48') 142') 136’) (2, (24') (18’) (6’)
NaturalCotangents

'For 10 intervals see Table I 24


MATHEMATICAL TABLES & UNITS & SYSTEMS OF WEIGHTS & MEASURES I-47

TABLE 1.22-NATURAL TANGENTS AND COTANGENTS (continued)

Natural Tanaenls al Intervalsof 0" 1 0' 6 '

00 02 "3 07 “8 “9 01 0 Average
16 I I12 / (181 (42 I (48 ) (54 ) (60) Degrees Difference
=(O 1
45 10000 10035 1.0070 10105 1.0141 10176 10212 1.0247 1.0283 1.0319 1.0355 44 35
46 10355 10392 1.0428 10464 1.0501 10538 10575 10612 10649 10686 1.0724 43 37
47 10724 10761 1.0799 10837 10875 10913 10951 1.0990 11028 1 1067 1.1106 42 38
40 11106 1 1145 1.1184 1 1224 1 1263 1 1303 1 1343 1.1383 1 1423 I 1463 1 1504 41 40
49 11504 1 1544 1.1585 11626 11667 1 1708 11750 1.1792 11833 1 1875 1.1918 40 41

50 11918 1.1960 1.2002 12045 1.208R 1.2131 12174 1.2218 1.2261 12305 1.2349 39 43
51 12349 12393 12437 12482 1.2527 12572 12617 1.2662 12708 12753 12799 38 45
52 1.2799 1.2846 1.2892 1.2938 12985 13032 13079 1.3127 13175 1.3222 13270 37 47
53 1.3270 1.3319 1.3367 13416 13465 1.3514 13564 1.3613 13663 13713 1.3764 36 49
54 1.3764 13814 1.3865 13916 13968 14019 14071 1.4124 14176 14229 1.4281 35 52

55 14281 14335 1.4388 14442 1.4496 14550 1.4605 1.4659 14715 14770 1.4826 34 55
56 14826 14882 14938 14994 1.5051 1.5108 1.5166 15224 15282 1.5340 15399 33 57
57 1.5399 15458 1.5517 1.5577 15637 15697 1.5757 15818 15880 15941 16003 32 60
58 1.6003 16066 1.6128 16191 16255 16319 1.6383 1.6447 16512 1.6577 16643 31 64
59 1.6643 16709 1.6775 16842 1.6909 16977 1.7045 1.7113 17182 17251 17321 30 67

60 1732 1739 1746 1753 1.760 1767 1775 1.782 1789 1797 1804 29 7
61 1804 1811 1819 1827 1.834 1842 1.849 1.857 1865 1873 1.881 28 a
62 1881 1889 1.897 1905 1.913 1.921 1.929 1937 1946 1.954 1.963 27 8
63 1 963 1 971 1980 1988 1.997 2006 2.014 2023 2 032 2.041 2.050 26 9
64 2.050 2.059 2069 2078 2.087 2097 2.106 2.116 2 125 2.135 2.145 25 9

65 2.145 2.154 2 164 2174 2.184 2194 2204 2.215 2225 2236 2.246 24 10
66 2 246 2.257 2267 2278 2.289 2.300 2.311 2.322 2 333 2.344 2356 23 11
ti7 2.356 2.367 2379 2391 2.402 2414 2.426 2.438 2450 2.463 2475 22 12
68 2 475 2.488 2.500 2513 2.526 2.539 2.552 2.565 2578 2592 2605 21 13
69 2 605 2.619 2 633 2646 2.660 2.675 2.689 2.703 2 718 2 733 2747 20 14

70 2747 2 762 2 778 2793 2808 2.824 2.840 2.856 2.872 2.888 2.904 19 16
71 2.904 2921 2937 2.954 2.971 2.989 3.006 3.024 3 042 3.060 3.078 16 17
72 3078 3.096 3.115 3133 3152 3.172 3.191 3.211 3 230 3.251 3 271 17 19
73 3271 3.291 3312 3333 3354 3.376 3 398 3420 3 442 3465 3487 16 22
74 3.487 3.511 3534 3558 3582 3606 3.630 3.655 3 681 3 706 3.732 15 24

75 3.732 3.758 3.785 3.812 3839 3.867 3.895 3.923 3952 3.981 4.011 14 28
76 4.011 4.041 4.071 4102 4 134 4 165 4.198 4.230 4 264 4.297 4.331 13 32
77 4331 4.366 4402 4.437 4.474 4.511 4.548 4586 4 625 4.665 4.705 12 37
78 4705 4.745 4.787 4.829 4.872 4915 4959 5.005 5050 5.097 5.145 11 44
79 5.145 5.193 5.242 5292 5.343 5396 5.449 5.503 5 558 5.614 5 671 10 53

80 5 671 5.730 5 789 5.850 5 912 5 976 6.041 6.107 6174 6.243 6.314 9
81 6.314 6.386 6.460 6.535 6612 6 691 6.772 6.855 6 940 7.026 7115 a
82 7.115 7.207 7300 7396 7495 7 596 7.700 7806 7916 8.028 8.144 7
83 8.144 8.264 8386 a513 8.643 8777 8.915 9.058 9205 9.357 9.514 6
84 9 514 9.677 9 845 1002 10.20 10.39 10.58 1078 1099 11.20 11.43 5

85 11.43 11.66 11.91 12.16 1243 12 71 13.00 13.30 1362 13.95 1430
86 1430 14.67 1506 15.46 15.90 1635 16.83 17.34 1789 18.46 1908
87 19 0.3 19.74 2045 21 20 22 02 2290 2386 2490 2603 2727 2864
88 2864 30.14 31 82 33.69 3580 38.19 40.92 4407 4774 52.08 5729
89 57.29 63.66 71 62 81 a5 95 49 1146 143.2 191.0 2865 573.0 m

90 oc

0.9 0.8 0.2 01 0.0


=(54') (48') (2, (12’) (6’) (0’)
NaturalCotanoents
l-48 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING HANDBOOK

TABLE 1.23-NATURAL SECANTS AND COSECANTS

0.0 0.2 ".6 0.7 ".8 “9 01 0 Average


Degrees =(O’) (61, (12’) (36’1 (42') (48') (54') (60I Degrees Difference

10000 90
10000 1 0000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10001 1.0001 10001 10001 10002 89
10002 10002 1.0002 1.0003 1.0003 1.0003 10004 10004 1.0005 1.0006 10006 88
10006 10007 10007 1.0008 10009 10010 10010 10011 1.0012 1.0013 10014 87
10014 1.0015 1.0016 1.0017 1.0018 10019 10020 10021 1.0022 10023 10024 86
10024 10026 10027 1.0028 10030 10031 10032 10034 10035 10037 10038 85

10038 1.0040 10041 1.0043 10045 10046 10048 10050 10051 10053 10055 04
1.0055 10057 10059 1.0061 10063 10065 10067 10069 1.0071 10073 10075 83
1.0075 10077 10079 1.0082 10084 10086 10089 1.0091 10093 10096 10098 82
1 0098 10101 10103 1.0106 1.0108 10111 10114 1.0116 1.0119 10122 10125 81
1.0125 10127 10130 10133 1.0136 10139 10142 1.0145 1.0148 10151 10154 80

10 1.0154 1.0157 1.0161 1.0164 10167 1.0170 10174 10177 10180 10184 10187 79
11 1.0187 1.0191 1.0194 1.0198 10201 1.0205 10209 1.0212 10216 10220 10223 78
12 1.0223 1.0227 1.0231 1.0235 10239 1.0243 10247 10251 10255 1.0259 10263 77
13 1.0263 1.0267 10271 10276 1.0280 1.0284 10288 10293 1.0297 10302 10306 76
14 10306 1.0311 10315 10320 10324 1.0329 10334 1.0338 10343 10348 10353 75

15 10353 10358 10363 1.0367 10372 10377 10382 1.0388 1.0393 10398 10403 74 5
16 10403 1.0408 10413 1.0419 10424 1.0429 1.0435 1.0440 1.0446 1.0451 10457 73 5
17 10457 1.0463 1.0468 1.0474 10480 1.0485 10491 1.0497 1.0503 10509 10515 72 6
18 10515 10521 10527 1.0533 10539 1.0545 10551 1.0557 1.0564 1.0570 10576 71 6
19 10576 1.0583 10589 1.0595 10602 10608 10615 1.0622 1.0628 1.0635 10642 70 7

20 10642 1.0649 10655 1.0662 10669 10676 10683 1.0690 1.0697 1.0704 10711 69 7
21 10711 10719 1 0726 1.0733 10740 1.0748 1.0755 1.0763 1.0770 1.0778 10785 68 7
22 t 0785 10793 10801 10808 10816 10824 10832 10840 1.0848 1.0856 10864 67 8
23 10864 1.0872 1 0880 1.0888 10896 10904 10913 1.0921 1.0929 1.0938 10946 66 8
24 10946 1.0955 1.0963 10972 10981 1.0989 10998 1.1007 1.1016 1.1025 1 1034 65 9

25 1 1034 1.1043 1.1052 1.1061 1 1070 1.1079 1 1089 1.1098 1.1107 1.1117 1 1126 64 9
26 1 1126 11136 1.1145 1.1155 1 1164 1.1174 11184 1 1194 .1203 1 .1213 1 1223 63 10
27 11223 11233 1.1243 1.1253 11264 1 1274 1 1284 1.1294 .I305 1 .I315 1 1326 62 10
28 1 1326 1 1336 1.1347 1.1357 1.1368 11379 1 1390 1.1401 .1412 1 .1423 1 1434 61 11
29 1 1434 1 1445 1.1456 1 1467 1.1478 1 1490 1 1501 1.1512 1524 1 1535 11547 60 11

30 11547 11559 1.1570 1.1582 11594 11606 1 1618 1.1630 1 1642 1 1654 1 1666 59 12
31 1.1666 1 1679 1.1691 11703 1.1716 1 1728 1.1741 1.1753 1766 1 1779 1 1792 58 13
32 1.1792 11805 1.1818 11831 1.1844 1 1857 1 1870 1.1883 1897 1 .1910 1 1924 57 13
33 1.1924 1 1937 1.1951 1 1964 1.1978 1 1992 12006 12020 .2034 1 2048 12062 56 14
34 1.2062 12076 1.2091 12105 1.2120 12134 12149 1.2163 2178 1 2193 12208 55 15

35 1.2208 12223 12238 1.2253 12268 1.2283 12299 1.2314 1.2329 12345 12361 54 15
36 1.2361 1.2376 12392 1.2408 12424 12440 12456 12472 12489 12505 12521 53 16
37 12521 1.2538 12554 12571 12588 12605 12622 1.2639 1.2656 12673 1 2690 52 17
38 12690 12708 1.2725 1.2742 12760 12778 12796 1.2813 1.2831 1.2849 12868 51 18
39 1.2868 1.2886 1.2904 12923 1.2941 1.2960 1.2978 12997 13016 13035 13054 50 19

40 1.3054 1.3073 1.3093 13112 1.3131 1.3151 1.3171 1.3190 1.3210 1.3230 13250 49 20
41 13250 13270 13291 13311 13331 1.3352 13373 13393 1.3414 13435 13456 48 21
42 13456 1.3478 1.3499 13520 13542 1.3563 1.3585 13607 13629 13651 1.3673 47 22
43 13673 13696 1.3718 13741 13763 1.3786 13809 13832 13855 13878 13902 46 23
44 1 3902 13925 13949 13972 13996 14020 14044 1.4069 1.4093 14118 14142 45 24

0.9 a.0 07 06 a.5 04 03 02 00


=(54 ) (48') (42’) (36 I (30') (24') (18') (12’) (0')
Natural Cotanoents
MATHEMATICAL TABLES & UNITS & SYSTEMS OF WEIGHTS & MEASURES I-49

TABLE 1.23-NATURAL SECANTS AND COSECANTS (continued)

Natural Secants at Intervalsof OO.1 or 6"

"0 0 1 02 "3 04 05 “6 07 00 09 "10 Average


Deqrees =10 ) (6 ) I12 1 (181 (24 I (30 I (36 J (42 ) (48 1 (54 I (601 Deqrees Difference

45 14142 1.4167 14192 14217 14242 14267 1.4293 1.4318 14344 1.4370 1 4396 44 25
46 1.4396 1.4422 1.4440 1.4474 14501 14527 1.4554 1.4561 1.4608 14635 1.4663 43 27
47 14663 1.4690 1.4718 1.4746 14774 1.4802 1.4830 14659 1.4867 14916 1.4945 42 28
48 14945 1.4974 15003 1.5032 15062 15092 15121 1.5151 1.5182 1.5212 1.5243 41 30
49 15243 1.5273 1.5304 1.5335 15366 15398 1.5429 1.5461 15493 1.5525 15557 40 31

50 15557 1.5590 1.5622 1.5655 1.5686 15721 1.5755 1.5788 1.5822 15856 1.5890 39 33
51 15890 1.5925 1.5959 1.5994 1.6029 16064 1.6099 1.6135 1.6171 1.6207 1.6243 38 35
52 16243 16279 16316 16353 16390 16427 1.6464 1.6502 1.6540 1.6578 16616 37 37
53 16616 16655 16694 1.6733 1.6772 1.6812 16852 16892 1.6932 1.6972 1.7013 36 40
54 17013 17054 1 7095 1.7137 1.7179 17221 17263 17305 1.7348 1.7391 1.7434 35 42

55 17434 1.7476 1.7522 1.7566 17610 17655 1.7700 1.7745 17791 1.7637 17863 34 45
56 17883 1.7929 1.7976 1.8023 18070 18118 18166 1.6214 18263 1.8312 1.6361 33 48
57 18361 18410 1.9460 1.8510 1.8561 1.8612 18663 18714 18766 18618 18871 32 51
58 18871 1.8924 18977 1.9031 19064 19139 1.9194 19249 19304 1.9360 1.9416 31 54
59 19416 1.9473 1 9530 19587 19645 19703 1.9762 1.9821 19880 1.9940 20000 30 58

60 2 000 2006 2.012 2016 2025 2031 2037 2.043 2.050 2.056 2.063 29 6
61 2063 2069 2.076 2082 2089 2096 2.103 2 109 2.116 2 123 2.130 28 7
62 2 130 2.137 2.144 2.151 2 158 2166 2.173 2.180 2.188 2 195 2.203 27 7
63 2 203 2.210 2.218 2.226 2233 2.241 2249 2.257 2.265 2 273 2.261 26 8
64 2.261 2.289 2.298 2306 2314 2323 2331 2.340 2.349 2.357 2.366 25 8

65 2366 2375 2.364 2 393 2402 2.411 2.421 2.430 2439 2.449 2.459 24 9
66 2459 2468 2.478 2488 2498 2.508 2 518 2 528 2.536 2 549 2.559 23 10
67 2 559 2570 2.581 2591 2602 2.613 2.624 2.635 2.647 2.658 2.669 22 11
68 2669 2661 2693 2 705 2716 2.729 2.741 2 753 2.765 2.778 2.790 21 12
69 2 790 2.603 2.816 2.829 2842 2.855 2669 2.682 2.896 2.910 2.924 20 13

70 2924 2938 2.952 2967 2 981 2.996 3.011 3.026 3.041 3.056 3.072 19 15
71 3072 3087 3.103 3 119 3135 3152 3.168 3.185 3.202 3.219 3.236 18 16
72 3 236 3.254 3.271 3.289 3307 3.326 3.344 3.363 3.382 3.401 3.420 17 16
73 3420 3.440 3.460 3.480 3500 3521 3542 3.563 3.564 3.606 3.628 16 21
74 3 628 3650 3 673 3 695 3 719 3742 3.766 3.790 3.814 3.839 3.864 15 24

75 3.864 3.889 3.915 3.941 3967 3994 4.021 4.049 4.077 4.105 '4.134 14 27
76 4134 4163 4 192 4222 4253 4284 4315 4347 4.379 4.412 4.445 13 31
77 4445 4.479 4.514 4549 4584 4.620 4.657 4.694 4.732 4.771 4.610 12 36
78 4 810 4.850 4 890 4931 4973 5016 5059 5.103 5.148 5.194 5.241 11 43
79 5 241 5.288 5337 5386 5436 5487 5540 5.593 5647 5.702 5.759 10 52

80 5759 5.816 5875 5935 5996 6.059 6.123 6.188 6255 6.323 6.392
81 6 392 6.464 6.537 6611 6687 6765 6.845 6.927 7.011 7.097 7.185
7 185 7.276 7 368 7.463 7561 7661 7 764 7670 7.979 8091 8.206
:: 8 206 a.324 8 446 8571 8 700 8.834 8.971 9.113 9 259 9.411 9.567
84 9567 9.728 9 895 1007 1025 1043 10.63 10.83 11 03 11.25 1147

85 11.47 11.71 11 95 12.20 1247 1275 13.03 13.34 1365 1399 1434
66 14.34 14.70 15.09 1550 1593 1636 16.86 17.37 1791 18.49 19.11
a7 1911 19.77 20 47 21 23 22 04 2293 2368 24.92 26.05 2729 28.65
88 2865 30.16 31 84 33 71 35 81 3820 4093 4408 47.75 5209 57.30
89 5730 6366 71 62 81 85 95 49 114 6 143.2 191.0 2865 573.0 m

90 m

09 04 02
=154') 124'1 112'1

Natural Cotangents

'For 10' intervals


see Table 1 24
I-50 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING HANDBOOK

TABLE 1.24-TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS(ATINTERVALS OF 10')'

Sines Cosines Tangents Cotangents


Degrees Radians Natural Log" Natural Log'* Natural Log" Natural Log'*
~_____
00 00' 0.0000 0.0000 03 1 .oooo 0.0000 0.0000 1.5708 900 00’
00 10' 0.0029 0.0029 7.4637 1.0000 0.0000 0.0029 7.400637 343po77 2.5:63 1.5679 900 50’
00 20' 0.0058 0.0058 7.7648 1 .oooo 0.0000 0.0058 7.7648 171.89 2.2352 1.5650 900 40'
00 30' 0.0087 0.0087 7.9408 1.0000 0.0000 0.0087 7.9409 114.59 2.0591 1.5621 90" 30'
00 40' 0.0116 0.0116 8.0658 0.9999 0.0000 0.0116 8.0658 85.940 1.9342 1.5592 900 20'
00 50' 0.0145 0.0145 8.1627 0.9999 0.0000 0.0145 8.1627 68.750 1.8373 1.5563 90" 10'
10 00' 0.0175 0.0175 8.2419 0.9998 9.9999 0.0175 8.2419 57.290 1.7581 1.5533 89" 00'
10 10' 0.0204 0.0204 8.3088 0.9998 9.9999 0.0204 8.3089 49.104 1.6911 1.5504 89O 50'
10 20' 0.0233 0.0233 8.3668 0.9997 9.9999 0.0233 8.3669 42.964 1.6331 1.5475 89" 40'
10 30' 0.0262 0.0262 8.4179 0.9997 9.9999 0.0262 8.4181 38.188 1.5819 1.5446 890 30'
1" 40' 0.0291 0.0291 8.4637 0.9996 9.9998 0.0291 8.4638 34.368 1.5362 1.5417 890 20'
IO 50' 0.0320 0.0320 8.5050 0.9995 9.9998 0.0320 8.5053 31.242 1.4947 1.5388 89O 10'
20 00' 0.0349 0.0349 8.5428 0.9994 9.9997 0.0349 8.5431 28.636 1.4569 1.5359 880 00'
20 10' 0.0378 0.0378 8.5776 0.9993 9.9997 0.0378 8.5779 26.432 1.4221 1.5330 880 50'
20 20' 0.0407 0.0407 8.6097 0.9992 9.9996 0.0407 8.6101 24.542 13899 1.5301 88O 40'
29 30' 0.0436 0.0436 8.6397 0.9990 9.9996 0.0437 8.6401 22.904 1.3599 1.5272 880 30'
20 40' 0.0465 0.0465 8.6677 0.9989 9.9995 0.0466 8.6682 21.470 1.3318 1.5243 880 20'
2" 50' 0.0495 0.0494 8.6940 0.9988 9.9995 0.0495 8.6945 20.206 1.3055 1.5213 880 IO'
3" 00' 0.0524 0.0523 8.7188 0.9986 9.9994 0.0524 8.7194 19.081 1.2806 1.5184 87" 00'
30 10' 0.0553 0.0552 8.7423 0.9985 9 9993 0.0553 8.7429 18075 12571 1.5155 870 50'
3" 20' 0.0582 0.0581 8.7645 0.9983 9.9993 0.0582 8.7652 17.169 1.2348 1.5126 870 40'
30 30' 0.0611 0.0610 8.7857 09981 9 9992 0.0612 8.7865 16350 12135 1.5097 870 30'
3" 40' 0.0640 0.0640 8.8059 0.9980 9.9991 0.0641 8.8067 15.605 1.1933 1.5068 870 20'
3" 50' 0.0669 0.0669 8.8251 0.9978 9.9990 0.0670 8.8261 14.924 1.1739 1.5039 87O 10'
40 00' 0.0698 0.0698 8.8436 0.9976 9.9989 0.0699 8.8446 14.301 1.1554 1.5010 860 00'
40 10' 0.0727 0.0727 8.8613 0.9974 9.9989 0.0729 8.8624 13.727 1.1376 1.4981 86" 50'
40 20' 0.0756 0.0756 8.8783 0.9971 9.9988 0.0758 8.8795 13.197 1.1205 1.4952 860 40'
40 30' 0.0785 0.0785 8.8946 0.9969 9.9987 0.0787 8.8960 12.706 1.1040 1.4923 86O 30'
40 40' 0.0814 0.0814 8.9104 0.9967 9.9986 0.0816 8.9118 12251 1.0882 1.4893 860 20'
40 50' 0.0844 0.0843 8.9256 0.9964 9.9985 0.0846 8.9272 11.826 1.0728 1.4864 860 10'
50 00' 0.0873 0.0872 8.9403 0.9962 9.9983 0.0875 8.9420 11.430 1.0580 1.4835 850 00'
5" 10' 0.0902 0.0901 8.9545 0.9959 9.9982 0.0904 8.9563 11.059 1.0437 1.4806 85O 50'
50 20' 0.0931 0.0929 8.9682 0.9957 9.9981 0.0934 8.9701 10.712 1.0299 1.4777 850 40'
50 30' 0.0960 0.0958 8.9816 0.9954 9.9980 0.0963 8.9836 10.385 1.0164 1.4748 85' 30'
50 40' 0.0989 0.0987 8.9945 0.9951 9.9979 0.0992 8.9966 10078 1.0034 1.4719 85O 20'
50 50' 0.1018 0.1016 9.0070 0.9948 9.9977 0.1022 9.0093 9.7882 0.9907 1.4690 850 10'
6O 00' 0.1047 0.1045 9.0192 0.9945 9.9976 0.1051 9.0216 9.5144 0.9784 1.4661 840 00'
6O IO' 0.1076 0.1074 9.0311 0.9942 9.9975 0.1080 9.0336 9.2553 0.9664 1.4632 84O 50'
6" 20' 0.1105 0.1103 9.0426 0.9939 9.9973 0.1110 9.0453 9.0098 0.9547 1.4603 84" 40'
6' 30' 0.1134 0.1132 9.0539 0.9936 9.9972 0.1139 9.0567 8.7769 0 9433 1.4574 840 30'
6" 40' 0.1164 0.1161 9.0648 0.9932 9.9971 0.1169 9.0678 8.5555 0.9322 1.4544 840 20'
6O 50' 0.1193 0.1190 9.0755 0.9929 9.9969 0.1198 9.0786 8.3450 0.9214 1.4515 84' IO'
70 00' 0.1222 0.1219 9.0859 0.9925 9.9968 0.1228 9.0891 8.1443 0.9109 1.4486 83O 00'
70 10' 0.1251 0.1248 9.0961 0.9922 9.9966 0.1257 9.0995 7.9530 0.9005 1.4457 83O 50'
70 20' 0.1280 0.1276 9.1060 0.9918 9.9964 0.1287 9.1096 7.7704 0.8904 1.4428 830 40'
70 30' 0.1309 0.1305 9.1157 0.9914 9.9963 0.1317 9.1194 7.5958 0.8806 1.4399 83" 30'
70 40' 0.1338 0.1334 9.1252 0.9911 9.9961 0.1346 9.1291 7.4287 08709 1.4370 83O 20'
70 50' 0.1367 0.1363 9 1345 0.9907 9.9959 0.1376 9.1385 7.2687 0.8615 1.4341 830 10'
8" 00' 0.1396 0.1392 9.1436 0 9903 9.9958 0.1405 9.1478 7.1154 0.8522 1.4312 820 00'
8O IO' 0.1425 0.1421 9.1525 0.9899 9.9956 0.1435 9.1569 6.9682 08431 1.4283 82O 50'
8" 20' 0.1454 0.1449 9.1612 0.9894 9.9954 0.1465 9.1658 6.8269 08342 1.4254 82" 40'
8O 30' 01484 0.1478 9.1697 0.9890 9.9952 0.1495 9.1745 66912 08255 1.4224 82O 30'
80 40' 0.1513 0.1507 9.1781 0.9886 9.9950 0.1524 9.1831 6.5606 0.8169 1.4195 820 20'
8O 50' 0.1542 0.1536 91863 09881 9 9948 0.1554 9.1915 64348 08085 1.4166 820 10'
90 00' 01571 0.1564 91943 0 9877 9.9946 0.1584 9.1997 63138 08003 14137 810 00'
9" 10' 0.1600 0.1593 9.2022 0.9872 9.9944 0.1614 9.2078 6.1970 0.7922 1.4108 81' 50'
9'120' 0.1629 0.1622 9.2100 0.9868 9.9942 0.1644 9.2158 60844 07842 14079 810 40'
90 30' 0.1658 0.1650 92176 0 9863 9.9940 0.1673 9.2236 5.9758 0.7764 1.4050 810 30'
90 40' 0.1687 0.1679 9.2251 0.9858 9.9938 0.1703 9.2313 5.8708 0.7687 1.4021 81° 20'
90 50' 0.1716 0.1708 9.2324 0.9853 9.9936 0.1733 9.2389 5.7694 07611 1.3992 810 10'

Natural Log" Natural Log" Natural Loo** Natural Loa"


Cosines Sines Cotangents Tangents Radians Degrees

'Far OD 1 mtervals, see Tables 1 21. 1 22. and 1 23


'Add 10 I" ,h?se columns
MATHEMATICALTABLES& UNlTS&SYSTEMSOFWElGHTS &MEASURES I-51

TABLE 1.24-TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS (AT INTERVALS OF 10’)’ (continued)

Sil
nes Tange nts Cotangents
Degrees Radians Natural Loo" Natural Natural Log" Natural Log"
~~
100 00' 0.1745 0.1736 9.2397 0.9848 0.1763 9.2463 5.6713 0.7537 1.3963 80" 00'
100 10' 0.1774 0.1765 92468 0.9843 0.1793 92536 5.5764 0.7464 1.3934 80° 50'
IO" 20' 0.1804 0.1794 9.2538 0.9838 0.1823 9.2609 5.4845 0.7391 1.3904 80' 40'
100 30' 0.1833 0.1822 92606 0.9833 0.1853 92680 5.3955 0.7320 1.3875 80° 30'
10" 40' 0.1862 0.1851 9.2674 0.9827 0.1883 9.2750 5.3093 0.7250 1.3846 80' 20'
100 50' 0.1891 0.1880 92740 0.9822 0.1914 92819 5.2257 0.7181 1.3817 80° 10'
11~00' 0.1920 0.1908 92806 09816 99919 0.1944 9.2887 5.1446 0.7113 1.3788 790 00’
110 IO' 0.1949 0.1937 92870 0.9811 9.9917 0.1974 9.2953 5.0658 0.7047 1.3759 790 50'
110 20' 0.1978 0.1965 9.2934 0.9805 9.9914 0.2004 9.3020 4.9894 0.6980 1.3730 790 40'
110 30' 0.2007 0.1994 9.2997 0.9799 9.9912 0.2035 9.3085 4.9152 0.6915 1.3701 790 30'
11" 40' 0.2036 0.2022 93058 0.9793 9.9909 0.2065 9.3149 4.8430 0.6851 1.3672 790 20'
110 50' 0.2065 0.2051 93119 0.9787 9.9907 0.2095 9.3212 4.7729 0.6788 1.3643 790 IO'
120 00' 0.2094 0.2079 9.3179 0.9781 9.9904 0.2126 9.3275 4.7046 0.6725 1.3614 78O 00'
120 10' 02123 0.2108 9.3238 0.9775 9.9901 0.2156 9.3336 4.6382 0.6664 1.3584 78' 50'
120 20' 0.2153 0.2136 0 3296 0.9769 9.9899 0.2186 9.3397 4.5736 0.6603 1.3555 78O 40'
120 30' 0.2182 0.2164 93353 0.9763 9.9896 0.2217 9.3458 4.5107 0.6542 1.3526 7%" 30'
120 40' 0.2211 0.2193 9.3410 0.9757 9.9893 0.2247 9.3517 4.4494 0.6483 1.3497 78O 20'
120 50' 0.2240 0.2221 9.3466 0.9750 9.9890 0.2278 9.3576 4.3897 0.6424 1.3468 78" 10'
130 00' 0.2269 0.2250 93521 0.9744 9.9887 0.2309 9.3634 4.3315 0.6366 1.3439 770 00'
130 IO' 0.2298 0.2278 93575 0.9737 9.9884 0.2339 9.3691 4.2747 0.6309 1.3410 770 50'
130 20' 0.2327 0.2306 9.3629 0.9730 9.9881 0.2370 9.3748 4.2193 0.6252 1.3381 77" 40'
130 30' 0.2356 0.2334 9.3682 0.9724 9.9878 0.2401 9.3804 4.1653 0.6196 1.3352 770 30'
130 40' 0.2385 0.2363 9.3734 0.9717 9.9875 0.2432 9.3859 4.1126 0.6141 1.3323 770 20'
130 50' 0.2414 0.2391 93786 0.9710 9.9872 0.2462 9.3914 4.0611 0.6086 1.3294 770 IO'
140 00’ 0.2443 0.2419 9.3837 0.9703 9.9869 0.2493 9.3968 4.0108 0.6032 1.3265 76O 00'
140 10' 0.2473 0.2447 9.3887 0.9696 9.9866 0.2524 9.4021 3.9617 0.5979 1.3235 76" 50'
140 20' 0.2502 0.2476 9.3937 0.9689 9.9863 0.2555 9.4074 3.9136 0.5926 1.3206 76O 40'
140 30' 0.2531 0.2504 9.3986 0.9681 9.9859 0.2586 9.4127 3.8667 0.5873 1.3177 76' 30'
140 40' 0.2560 0.2532 94035 0.9674 9.9856 0.2617 9.4178 3.8208 0.5822 1.3148 76O 20'
140 50' 0.2589 0.2560 9.4083 0.9667 9.9853 0.2648 9.4230 3.7760 0.5770 1.3119 76" IO'
150 00' 0.2618 0.2588 9.4130 0.9659 9.9849 0.2679 9.4281 3.7321 0.5719 1.3090 75" 00'
150 10' 0.2647 0.2616 9.4177 0.9652 9.9846 0.2711 9.4331 3.6891 0.5669 1.3061 750 50'
150 20' 0.2676 0.2644 9.4223 0.9644 9.9843 0.2742 9.4381 3.6470 0.5619 1.3032 75" 40'
150 30' 0.2705 0.2672 9 4269 0.9636 9.9839 0.2773 9.4430 3.6059 0.5570 1.3003 750 30'
150 40' 0.2734 0.2700 9.4314 0.9628 9.9836 0.2805 9.4479 3.5656 0.5521 1.2974 75" 20'
150 50' 0.2763 0.2728 9 4359 0.9621 9.9832 0.2836 9.4527 3.5261 0.5473 1.2945 750 IO'
16O 00' 0.2793 0.2756 94403 0.9613 9.9828 0.2867 9.4575 3.4874 0.5425 1.2915 740 00'
16" IO' 0.2822 0.2784 9.4447 0.9605 9.9825 0.2899 9.4622 3.4495 0.5378 1.2886 740 50'
16O 20' 0.2851 0.2812 94491 0.9596 9.9821 0 2931 9.4669 3.4124 0.5331 1.2857 740 40'
16' 30' 0.2880 0.2840 94533 0.9588 9.9817 0.2962 9.4716 3.3759 0.5284 1.2828 740 30'
16O 40' 0.2909 0.2868 94576 0.9580 9.9814 0 2994 9.4762 3.3402 0.5238 1.2799 740 20'
16O 50' 0.2938 0.2896 9.4618 0.9572 9.9810 0.3026 9.4808 3.3052 0.5192 1.2770 74" IO'
170 00' 0.2967 0.2924 9.4659 0.9563 9.9806 0.3057 9.4853 3.2709 0.5147 1.2741 730 00'
170 IO' 0.2996 0.2952 9.4700 0.9555 9.9802 0.3089 9.4898 3.2371 0.5102 1.2712 730 50'
170 20' 0.3025 0.2979 9.4741 0.9546 9.9798 0.3121 9.4943 3.2041 0.5057 1.2683 730 40'
170 30' 0.3054 0.3007 9.4781 0.9537 9.9794 0.3153 9.4987 3.1716 0.5013 1.2654 730 30'
170 40' 0.3083 0.3035 9.4821 0.9528 9.9790 0.3185 9.5031 3.1397 0.4969 1.2625 730 20'
170 50' 0.3113 0.3062 9.4861 0.9520 9.9786 0.3217 9.5075 3.1084 0.4925 1.2595 730 IO'
18O 00' 0.3142 0.3090 9.4900 0.9511 9.9782 0.3249 9.5118 3.0777 0.4882 1.2566 72' 00'
18' 10' 0.3171 0.3118 9.4939 0.9502 9.9778 0.3281 9.5161 3.0475 0.4839 1.2537 72' 50'
18O 20' 0.3200 0.3145 9.4977 0.9492 9.9774 0.3314 9.5203 3.0178 0.4797 1.2508 72O 40'
18' 30' 0.3229 0.3173 9.5015 0.9483 9.9770 0.3346 9.5245 2.9887 0.4755 1.2479 72O 30'
la0 40' 0.3258 0.3201 9.5052 0.9474 9.9765 0.3378 9.5287 2.9600 0.4713 1.2450 72O 20'
18O 50' 0.3287 0.3228 9.5090 0.9465 9.9761 03411 9.5329 2.9319 0.4671 1.2421 72O IO'
190 00' 0.3316 0.3256 9.5126 0.9455 9.9757 0.3443 9.5370 2.9042 0.4630 1.2392 710 00'
190 IO' 0.3345 0.3283 9.5163 0.9446 9.9752 0.3476 9.5411 2.8770 0.4589 1.2363 710 50'
190 20' 0.3374 0.3311 9.5199 0.9436 9.9748 0.3508 9.5451 2.8502 0.4549 1.2334 710 40'
19" 30' 0.3403 0.3338 9.5235 0.9426 9.9743 0.3541 9.5491 2.8239 0.4509 1.2305 710 30'
190 40' 0.3432 0.3365 9.5270 0.9417 9.9739 0.3574 9.5531 2.7980 0.4469 1.2275 710 20'
19" 50' 0.3462 0.3393 9.5306 0.9407 9.9734 0.3607 9.5571 2.7725 0.4429 1.2246 710 10'

Natural Log" Natural Log" Natural Log'* Natural Log**


Cosines Sines Cotangents Tangents Radians Degrees

'For0' 1 ~nlervals.
see Tables 1 21. 1 22. and 1 23
"Add 10 I" these columns

(continuedon next page)


1-52 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING HANDBOOK

TABLE 1.24--TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS (AT INTERVALS OF 10’)’ (continued)

Sines Cow ies Tang{fnts CotangE!rlts


Natural Log'* Natural Log" Natural Log"
Dearees Radians ~Natural ~Log"
200 00' 0.3491 0.3420 9.5341 0.9397 9.9730 0.3640 9.5611 2.7475 0.4389 1.2217 700 00'
200 10' 0.3520 0.3448 9.5375 0.9387 9.9725 0.3673 9.5650 2.7228 0.4350 1.2188 70" 50'
200 20' 0.3549 0.3475 9.5409 0.9377 9.9721 0.3706 9.5689 2.6985 0.4311 12159 700 40'
20" 30' 0.3578 0.3502 9.5443 0.9367 9.9716 0.3739 9.5727 2.6746 0.4273 1.2130 7o" 30'
200 40' 0.3607 0.3529 9.5477 0.9356 9.9711 0.3772 9.5766 2.6511 0.4234 12101 700 20'
200 50' 0.3636 0.3557 9.5510 0.9346 9.9706 0.3805 9.5804 2.6279 0.4196 1.2072 700 10'
210 00' 0.3665 0.3584 9.5543 0.9336 9.9702 0.3839 9.5842 2.6051 0.4158 1.2043 69" 00'
210 10' 0.3694 0.3611 9.5576 0.9325 9.9697 0.3872 9.5879 2.5826 0.4121 12014 69O 50'
21" 20' 0.3723 0.3638 9.5609 0.9315 9.9692 0.3906 9.5917 2.5605 0.4083 1.1985 69O 40'
210 30' 0.3752 0.3665 9.5641 0.9304 9.9687 0.3939 9.5954 2.5386 0.4046 1.1956 69O 30'
210 40' 0.3782 0.3692 9.5673 0.9293 9.9682 0.3973 9.5991 2.5172 0.4009 1 1926 69O 20'
21" 50' 0.3811 0.3719 9.5704 0.9283 9.9677 0.4006 9.6028 2.4960 0.3972 1.1897 69O 10'
220 00' 0.3840 0.3746 9.5736 0.9272 9.9672 0.4040 9.6064 2.4751 0.3936 1.1868 680 00'
220 IO' 0.3869 0.3773 9.5767 0.9261 9.9667 0.4074 9.6100 2.4545 0.3900 1.1839 680 50'
220 20' 0.3898 0.3800 9.5798 0.9250 9.9661 0.4108 9.6136 2.4342 0.3864 1.1810 68O 40'
220 30' 0.3927 0.3827 9.5828 0.9239 9.9656 0.4142 9.6172 2.4142 0.3828 1 1781 680 30'
220 40' 0.3956 0.3854 9.5859 0.9228 9.9651 0.4176 9.6208 2.3945 0.3792 1 1752 680 20'
220 50' 0.3985 0.3881 9.5889 0.9216 9.9646 0.4210 9.6243 2.3750 0.3757 1.1723 680 10'
23O 00' 0.4014 0.3907 9.5919 0.9205 9.9640 0.4245 9.6279 2.3559 0.3721 1.1694 67O 00'
23O IO' 0.4043 0.3934 9.5948 0.9194 9.9635 0.4279 9.6314 2.3369 0.3686 1.1665 67" 50'
23O 20' 0.4072 0.3961 9.5978 0.9182 9.9629 0.4314 9.6348 2.3183 0.3652 1 1636 67O 40'
23' 30' 0.4102 0.3987 9.6007 0.9171 9.9624 0.4348 9.6383 2.2998 0.3617 1 1606 67O 30'
23O 40' 0.4131 0.4014 9.6036 0.9159 9.9618 0.4383 9.6417 2.2817 0.3583 1.1577 67'=20'
23" 50' 0.4160 0.4041 9.6065 0.9147 9.9613 0.4417 9.6452 2.2637 0.3548 1.1548 67O 10'
24" 00' 0.4189 0.4067 9.6093 0.9135 9.9607 0.4452 9.6486 2.2460 0.3514 1.1519 660 00'
24O 10' 0.4218 0.4094 9.6121 0.9124 9.9602 0.4487 9.6520 2.2286 0.3480 1 1490 660 50'
24O 20' 0.4247 0.4120 9.6149 0.9112 9.9596 0.4522 9.6553 2.2113 0.3447 1 1461 66" 40'
24' 30' 0.4276 0.4147 9.6177 0.9100 9.9590 0.4557 9.6587 2.1943 0.3413 1 1432 66" 30'
24" 40' 0.4305 0.4173 9.6205 0.9088 9.9584 0.4592 9.6620 2.1775 0.3380 1.1403 66" 20'
24' 50' 0.4334 0.4200 9.6232 0.9075 9.9579 0.4628 9.6654 2.1609 0.3346 1.1374 660 IO'
250 00' 0.4363 0.4226 9.6259 0.9063 9.9573 0.4663 9.6687 2.1445 0.3313 1.1345 65O 00'
25' 10' 0.4392 0.4253 9.6286 0.9051 9.9567 0.4699 9.6720 2.1283 0.3280 1 1316 65O 50'
25O 20' 0.4422 0.4279 9.6313 0.9038 9.9561 0.4734 9.6752 2.1123 0.3248 1.1286 65O 40'
25' 30' 0.4451 04305 9.6340 0.9026 9.9555 0.4770 9.6785 2.0965 0.3215 1.1257 65O 30'
25O 40' 0.4480 0.4331 9.6366 0.9013 9.9549 04806 9.6817 2.0809 0.3183 1.1228 65O 20'
25' 50' 0.4509 0.4358 9.6392 0.9001 9.9543 04841 9.6850 2.0655 0.3150 1.1199 65O IO'
26' 00' 0.4538 0.4384 9.6418 0.8988 9.9537 04877 9.6882 2.0503 0.3118 1.1170 64O 00'
26O IO' 04567 04410 9.6444 0.8975 9.9530 0.4913 9.6914 2.0353 0.3086 1.1141 64O 50'
26' 20' 0.4596 0.4436 9.6470 0.8962 9.9524 0.4950 9.6946 2.0204 0.3054 1.1112 64" 40'
26O 30' 04625 04462 9.6495 0 8949 9.9518 0 4986 9.6977 2.0057 0.3023 1.1083 64O 30'
260 40' 0.4654 04488 9.6521 0.8936 9.9512 0.5022 9.7009 1.9912 0.2991 1.1054 64O 20'
26O 50' 04683 04514 9.6546 0.8923 9.9505 0 5059 9.7040 1.9768 0.2960 1.1025 64O 10'
270 00' 0.4712 04540 9.6570 0.8910 0.9499 0 5095 9.7072 1.9626 0.2928 1.0996 63O 00'
27' 10' 0.4741 04566 9.6595 0.8897 9.9492 0.5132 9.7103 1.9486 0.2897 1.0966 63O 50'
270 20' 0.4771 0 4592 9.6620 0.8884 9.9486 05169 9.7134 1.9347 0.2866 1.0937 63O 40'
27" 30' 0.4800 0.4617 9.6644 0.8870 9.9479 05206 9.7165 1.9210 0.2835 1.0908 63O 30'
27O 40' 0.4829 0.4643 9.6668 0.8857 9.9473 0.5243 9.7196 1.9074 0.2804 1.0879 63'=20'
27O 50' 0.4858 0 4669 9.6692 0.8843 9.9466 0.5280 9.7226 1.8940 0.2774 1.0850 63O IO'
280 00' 04887 0 4695 9.6716 0.8829 9.9459 0.5317 9.7257 1.8807 0.2743 1.0821 62O 00'
280 10' 0.4916 04720 9.6740 0.8816 9.9453 0.5354 9.7287 1.8676 0.2713 1.0792 62'=50'
28" 20' 0.4945 04746 9.6763 0.8802 9.9446 0.5392 9.7317 1.8546 0.2683 1.0763 62O 40'
28O 30' 0.4974 0.4772 9.6787 0.8788 9.9439 0 5430 9.7348 1.8418 0.2652 1.0734 62O 30'
28O 40' 0.5003 0 4797 9.6810 0.8774 9.9432 0.5467 9.7378 1.8291 0.2622 1.0705 62O 20'
28O 50' 05032 0.4823 9.6833 0.8760 9 9425 0.5505 9.7408 1.8165 0.2592 1.0676 62O 10'
290 00' 05061 04848 9.6856 0.8746 9.9418 0.5543 9.7438 1.8040 0.2562 1.0647 61° 00'
290 10' 0.5091 04874 9.6878 0 8732 9.9411 0.5581 9.7467 1.7917 0.2533 1.0617 61° 50'
290 20' 0.5120 0.4899 9.6901 0.8718 9.9404 0.5619 9.7497 1.7796 0.2503 1.0588 61' 40'
290 30' 05149 0.4924 9.6923 0.8704 9.9397 0.5658 9.7526 1.7675 0.2474 1.0559 61° 30'
290 40' 0.5178 0.4950 9.6946 0.8689 9.9390 0.5696 9.7556 1.7556 0.2444 1.0530 61'=20'
290 50' 0.5207 0.4975 9.6968 0.8675 9.9383 0.5735 9.7585 1.7437 0.2415 1.0501 61° 10'

Natural Log" Natural Log'* Natural Log* * Natural Log"


Cosines Sines Cotangents Tangents Radians Degrees

‘For 0” 1 intervals. see Tables 1 21 1.22. and I 23


“Add 10 I” these columns
MATHEMATlCALTABLES& UNlTS&SYSTEMSOFWElGHTS & MEASURES 1-53

TABLE 1.24-TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS (AT INTERVALS OF 10')' (continued)

Sines Comes Tangents Cotangents


Degrees Radians Natural Log" Natural Log" Natural Log*' Natural Log"

300 00' 0.5236 0.5000 9.6990 0.8660 9.9375 0.5774 9.7614 1.7321 0.2386 1.0472 60a 00'
30" 10' 0.5265 0.5025 9.7012 0.8646 9.9368 0.5812 9.7644 1.7205 0.2356 1.0443 60° 50'
300 20' 0.5294 0.5050 9.7033 0.8631 9.9361 0.5851 9.7673 1.7090 0.2327 1.0414 60° 40'
30" 30' 0.5323 0.5075 9.7055 0.8616 9.9353 0.5890 9.7701 1.6977 0.2299 1.0385 60° 30'
300 40' 0.5352 0.5100 9.7076 0.8601 9.9346 0.5930 9.7730 1.6864 0.2270 1.0356 60° 20'
300 50' 0.5381 0.5125 9.7097 0.8587 9.9338 0.5969 9.7759 1.6753 0.2241 1.0327 60' 10'
310 00' 0.5411 0.5150 9.7118 08572 9.9331 0.6009 9.7788 1.6643 0.2212 1.0297 590 00'
310 IO' 0.5440 0.5175 9.7139 0.8557 9.9323 0.6048 9.7816 1.6534 0.2184 1.0268 590 50'
31" 20' 0.5469 0.5200 9.7160 0.8542 9.9315 0.6088 9.7845 1.6426 0.2155 1.0239 59" 40'
31'130' 0.5498 0.5225 9.7181 0.8526 9.9308 0.6128 9.7873 1.6319 0.2127 1.0210 590 30'
31" 40' 0.5527 0.5250 9.7201 0.8511 9.9300 0.6168 9.7902 1.6212 0.2098 1.0181 590 20'
310 50' 0.5556 0.5275 9.7222 0.8496 9.9292 0.6208 9.7930 1.6107 0.2070 1.0152 590 10'
32O 00' 0.5585 0.5299 9.7742 0.8480 9.9284 0.6249 9.7958 1.6003 0.2042 1.0123 58O 00'
32" 10' 0.5614 0.5324 9.7262 0.8465 9.9276 0.6289 9.7986 1.5900 0.2014 .I.0094 58" 50'
32O 20' 0.5643 0.5348 9.7282 0 8450 9.9268 0.6330 9.8014 1.5798 0.1986 1.0065 58O 40'
32" 30' 0.5672 0.5373 9.7302 0.8434 9.9260 0.6371 9.8042 1.5697 0.1958 1.0036 58' 30'
32O 40' 0.5701 0.5398 9.7322 0 8418 9.9252 0.6412 9.8070 1.5597 0.1930 1.0007 58O 20'
32' 50' 0.5730 0.5422 9.7342 0.8403 9.9244 0.6453 9.8097 1.5497 0.1903 0.9977 58' IO'
330 00' 0.5760 0.5446 9.7361 0.8387 9.9236 0.6494 9.8125 1.5399 0.1875 0.9948 57" 00'
330 10' 0.5789 0.5471 9.7380 0.8371 9.9228 0.6536 9.8153 1.5301 0.1847 0.9919 570 50'
33" 20' 0.5818 0.5495 9.7400 0.8355 9.9219 0.6577 9.8180 1.5204 0.1820 0.9890 570 40'
339 30' 0.5847 0.5519 9.7419 0.8339 9.9211 0.6619 9.8208 1.5108 0.1792 0.9861 570 30'
330 40' 0.5876 0.5544 9.7438 0.8323 9.9203 0.6661 9.8235 1.5013 0.1765 0.9832 570 20'
330 50' 0.5905 0.5568 9.7457 0.8307 9.9194 0.6703 9.8263 1.4919 0.1737 0.9803 570 IO'
340 00' 0.5934 0.5592 9.7476 0.8290 9.9186 0.6745 9.8290 1.4826 0.1710 0.9774 56O 00'
34" 10' 0.5963 0.5616 9.7494 0.8274 9.9177 0.6787 9.8317 1.4733 0.1683 0.9745 56O 50'
340 20' 0.5992 0.5640 9.7513 0.8258 9.9169 0.6830 9.8344 1.4641 0.1656 0.9716 56'=40'
340 30' 0.6021 0.5664 9.7531 0.8241 9.9160 0.6873 9.8371 1.4550 0.1629 0.9687 56O 30'
340 40' 0.6050 0.5688 9.7550 0.8225 9.9151 0.6916 9.8398 1.4460 0.1602 0.9657 56" 20'
340 50' 0.6080 0.5712 9.7568 0.8208 9.9142 0.6959 9.8425 1.4370 0.1575 0.9628 56O IO'
350 00' 0.6109 0.5736 9.7586 0.8192 9.9134 0.7002 9.8452 1.4281 0.1548 0.9599 559 00'
350 IO' 0.6138 0.5760 9.7604 0.8175 9.9125 0.7046 9.8479 1.4193 0.1521 0.9570 550 50'
350 20' 0.6167 0.5783 9.7622 0.8158 9.9116 0.7089 9.8506 1.4106 0.1494 0.9541 550 40'
350 30' 0.6196 0.5807 9.7640 0.8141 9.9107 0.7133 0.8533 1.4019 0.1467 0.9512 550 30'
350 40' 0.6225 0.5831 9.7657 0.8124 9.9098 0.7177 9.8559 1.3934 0.1441 0.9483 550 20'
35" 50' 0.6254 0.5854 9.7675 0.8107 9.9089 0.7221 9.8586 1.3848 0.1414 0.9454 550 10'
36" 00' 0.6283 0.5878 9.7692 0.8090 9.9080 0.7265 9.8613 1.3764 0.1387 0.9425 540 00'
36O IO' 0.6312 0.5901 9.7710 0.8073 9.9070 0.7310 9.8639 1.3680 0.1361 0.9396 540 50'
36' 20' 0.6341 0.5925 9.7727 0.8056 9.9061 0.7355 9.8666 1.3597 0.1334 0.9367 540 40'
36O 30' 0.6370 0.5948 9.7744 0.8039 9.9052 0.7400 9.8692 1.3514 0.1308 0.9338 540 30'
36" 40' 0.6400 0.5972 9.7761 0.8021 9.9042 0.7445 9.8718 1.3432 0.1282 0.9308 54" 20'
36O 50' 0.6429 0.5995 9.7778 0.8004 9.9033 0.7490 9.8745 1.3351 0.1255 0.9279 540 10'
370 00' 0.6458 0.6018 9.7795 0.7986 9.9023 0.7536 9.8771 1.3270 0.1229 0.9250 530 00'
37" 10' 0.6487 0.6041 9.7811 0.7969 9.9014 0.7581 9.8797 1.3190 0.1203 0.9221 530 50'
370 20' 0.6516 0.6065 9.7828 0.7951 9.9004 0.7627 9.8824 1.3111 0.1176 0.9192 530 40'
370 30' 0.6545 0.6088 9.7844 0.7934 9.8995 0.7673 9.8850 1.3032 0.1150 0.9163 53" 30'
370 40' 0.6574 0.6111 9.7861 0.7916 9.8985 0.7720 9.8876 1.2954 0.1124 0.9134 530 20'
370 50' 0.6603 0.6134 9.7877 0.7898 9.8975 0.7766 9.8902 1.2876 0.1098 0.9105 53" 10'
38O 00' 0.6632 0.6157 9.7893 0.7880 9.8965 0.7813 9.8928 1.2799 0.1072 0.9076 52O 00'
38O IO' 0.6661 0.6180 9.7910 0.7862 9.8955 0.7860 9.8954 1.2723 0.1046 0.9047 52O 50'
38O 20' 0.6690 0.6202 9.7926 0.7844 9.8945 0.7907 9.8980 1.2647 0.1020 0.9018 52' 40'
38O 30' 0.6720 0.6225 9.7941 0.7826 9.8935 0.7954 9.9006 1.2572 0.0994 0.8988 52O 30'
38O 40' 0.6749 0.6248 9.7957 0.7808 9.8925 0.8002 9.9032 1.2497 0.0968 0.8959 52" 20'
38O 50' 0.6778 0.6271 9.7973 0.7790 9.8915 0.8050 9.9058 1.2423 0.0942 0.8930 52O 10'
390 00’ 0.6807 0.6293 9.7989 0.7771 9.8905 0.8098 9.9084 1.2349 0.0916 0.8901 510 00'
390 10' 0.6836 0.6316 9.8004 0.7753 9.8895 0.8146 9.9110 1.2276 0.0890 0.8872 51" 50'
39" 20' 0.6865 0.6338 9.8020 0.7735 9.8884 0.8195 9.9135 1.2203 0.0865 0.8843 510 40'
390 30' 0.6894 0.6361 9.8035 0.7716 9.8874 0.8243 9.9161 1.2131 0.0839 0.8814 510 30'
390 40' 0.6923 0.6383 9.8050 0.7698 9.8864 0.8292 9.9187 1.2059 0.0813 0.8785 51" 20'
390 50' 0.6952 0.6406 9.8066 0.7679 9.8853 0.8342 9.9212 1.1988 0.0788 0.8756 510 IO'

Natural Log*' Natural Log** Natural Log"' Natural Log"'


Cosines Smes Cotangents Tangents Radians Degrees

(contmued on next page)


l-54 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING HANDBOOK

TABLE 1.24-TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS(AT INTERVALS OF 10')' (continued)

Sines Tangents Cotangents


Degrees Radtans Natural Log** Natural Log" Natural Log** Natural Log*'

400 00' 0.6981 0.6428 9.8081 0.7660 9.8843 0.8391 9.9238 1.1918 0.0762 0.8727 500 00'
400 10' 0.7010 0.6450 9.8096 07642 9.8832 0.8441 9.9264 1.1847 0.0736 0.8698 50" 50'
400 20' 0.7039 0.6472 9.8111 0.7623 9.8821 0.8491 9.9289 1.1778 00711 0.8668 500 40'
400 30' 0.7069 0.6494 9.8125 0.7604 9.8810 0.8541 9.9315 1.1708 0.0685 0.8639 50" 30'
400 40' 0.7098 0.6517 9.8140 0.7585 9.8800 0.8591 9.9341 1.1640 0.0659 0.8610 500 20'
400 50' 0.7127 0.6539 9.8155 0.7566 9.8789 0.8642 9.9366 1.1571 0.0634 0.8581 500 10'
410 00' 0.7156 0.6561 9.8169 0.7547 9.8778 0.8693 9.9392 1.1504 0.0608 0.8552 490 00'
410 10' 0.7185 0.6583 9.8184 07528 9.8767 0.8744 9.9417 1.1436 0.0583 0.8523 490 50'
41" 20' 0.7214 0.6604 9.8198 0.7509 9.8756 0.8796 9.9443 1.1369 0.0557 0.8494 49" 40'
410 30' 0.7243 0.6626 9.8213 0 7490 9.8745 0.8847 9.9468 1.1303 0.0532 0.8465 490 30'
410 40' 0.7272 0.6648 9.8227 0.7470 9.8733 0.8899 9.9494 1.1237 0.0506 0.8436 49" 20'
410 50' 0.7301 0.6670 9.8241 074.51 9.8722 0 8952 9.9519 1.1171 0.0481 0.8407 490 10'
42O 00' 0.7330 0.6691 9.8255 0 7431 9.8711 0.9004 9.9544 1.1106 00456 0.8378 48O 00'
42' IO' 0.7359 0.6713 9.8269 07412 9.8699 0.9057 9.9570 1.1041 0.0430 0.8348 48" 50'
42O 20' 0.7389 0.6734 9.8283 0.7392 9.8688 0.9110 9.9595 1.0977 00405 0.8319 48O 40'
42O 30' 0.7418 0.6756 9.8297 0.7373 9.8676 0.9163 9.9621 1.0913 0.0379 0.8290 480 30'
42O 40' 0.7447 0.6777 9.8311 0.7353 9.8665 0.9217 9.9646 1.0850 0.0354 0.8261 48O 20'
420 50' 0.7476 0.6799 9.8324 0.7333 9.8653 0.9271 9.9671 1.0786 0.0329 0.8232 48" IO'
430 00' 0.7505 0.6820 9.8338 0.7314 9.8641 0.9325 9.9697 1.0724 0.0303 0.8203 47" 00'
430 10' 0.7534 0.6841 9.8351 0.7294 9.8629 0.9380 9.9722 1.0661 0.0278 0.8174 470 50'
430 20' 0.7563 0.6862 9.8365 0.7274 9.8618 0.9435 9.9747 1.0599 0.0253 0.8145 470 40'
430 30' 0.7592 0.6884 9.8378 0.7254 9.8606 0.9490 9.9772 1.0538 0.0228 0.8116 470 30'
430 40' 0.7621 0.6905 9.8391 0.7234 9.8594 0.9545 9.9798 1.0477 0.0202 0.8087 470 20'
43" 50' 0.7650 0.6926 9.8405 07214 9.8582 0.9601 9.9823 1.0416 0.0177 0.8058 470 IO'
44" DO' 0.7679 0.6947 9.8418 0.7193 9.8569 0.9657 9.9848 1.0355 0.0152 0.8029 46O 00'
440 IO' 0.7709 0.6967 9.8431 0.7173 9.8557 0.9713 9.9874 1.0295 0.0126 0.7999 46O 50'
44" 20' 0.7738 0.6988 9.8444 0.7153 9.8545 0.9770 9.9899 1.0235 0.0101 0.7970 46' 40'
440 30' 0.7767 0.7009 9.8457 0.7133 9.8532 0.9827 9.9924 1.0176 0.0076 0.7941 46O 30'
44" 40' 0.7796 0.7030 9.8469 0.7112 9.8520 0.9884 9.9949 1.0117 0.0051 0.7912 46' 20'
440 50' 0.7825 0.7050 9.8482 0.7092 9.8507 0.9942 9.9975 1.0058 0.0025 0.7883 46O IO'
450 00' 0.7854 0.7071 9.8495 0.7071 9.8495 1.0000 0.0000 1 .oooo 0.0000 0.7854 450 00'
Natural Loq" Natural LOCI" Natural Log'* Natural Log"
Sines Cotangents Tangents Radians Degrees
MATHEMATICAL TABLES & UNITS & SYSTEMS OF WEIGHTS & MEASURES I-55

TABLE 1.25-EXPONENTIALS (e” and em”)’

” e’ Dlllerence n e’ Otfferenc~ ” e ” e D~iierence r> e n e

* 0.00 1000 0.50 1649


16
1.0 2 718' 0.00 1000 _n 0.50 0 607 1.0 0368"
10 - I”
0 01 1010 051 1 665
17
11 3 004 0 01 0 990 -10 051 0600 11 0333
10
0.02 1020 0 52 1682 12 3 320 002 0980 -10 052 0595 12 0301
10 17
003 1030 0 53 1699 13 3669 003 0970 053 0 589 13 0213
11 17 9
0 04 1041 0 54 1716 14 4055 0 04 0 961 -10 054 0583 14 0247
10 17
005 1051 0 55 1733 15 4 482 005 0951 055 0577 15 0223
11 18 0
J
0 06 1062 0 56 1751 16 4 953 0 06 0.942 -10 0 56 0 571 16 0202
11 17
007 1073 0 57 1 768 1 7 5 474 007 0932 n 057 0566 17 0183
10 18
0 08 1083
11
0 58 1786
18
18 6050 0 08 0 923 I ; 058 0560 18 0165
0 09 1094 0 59 1804 19 6 686 009 0914 059 0554 19 0150
11 18 - 9
0.10 1 105 0.60 1822 2.0 7389 0.10 0 905 0.60 0 549 2.0 0135
11 18 - 9
0 11 1116 061 1840 21 8 166 0 11 0 896 n 061 0543 21 0122
11 19 - 3
0 12 1127 0 62 1859 22 9025 012 0887 062 0538 22 0111
12 19 - 9
0 13 1139 0 63 i a78 23 9 974 013 0878 063 0533 23 0100
11 18 - 9
014 1150 064 1896 24 11 02 014 0869 064 0 527 24 00907
12 20 - 8
0 15 1 162 0 65 1916 25 1218 015 0861 25 00821
12 19
0 16 1 174 066 1935 26 1346 016 0852 26 00743
11 19
017 i 185 067 1954 27 1488 017 0844 27 00672
12 20
0 18 1197 0 68 1974 28 1644 018 0835 28 00608
12 20
0 19 1209 0 69 1994 29 1817 019 0827 29 00550
12 20
0.20 1221 0.70 2 014 3.0 20 09 0.20 0 819 3.0 0 0498
13 20
0 21 1234 0 71 2034 31 2220 0 21 0 811 31 00450
12 20
0 22 1 246 0 72 2054 32 24 53 022 0803 32 00408
13 21
023 1259 0 73 2 075 21
33 27 11 023 0795 33 0 0369
12
0 24 1.271 0 74 2 096 34 2996 0 24 0 787 34 00334
13 21
025 1284 0 75 2 117 35 3312 025 0779 35 00302
13 21
0 26 1 297 0 76 2 138 36 3660 026 0771 36 00273
13 22
027 1310 0 77 2 160 37 4045 027 0763 37 00247
13 21
028 1323 0 78 2181 38 44 70 028 0756 38 00224
13 22
0 29 1 336 0 79 2203 39 4940 029 0748 39 00202
14 23
0.30 1.350 0.80 2226 4.0 5460 0.30 0 741 -8 0.80 0 449 4.0 00183
13 22
0 31 1.363 081 2248 41 60 34 0 31 0 733 081 0445 4 1 00166
14 22 - 7
032 1377 082 2 270 42 6669 032 0726 082 0440 42 00150
14 23 - 7
0 33 1391 0 83 2 293 43 7370 033 0719 083 0436 4.3 00136
14 23 - 7
034 1405 0 64 2 316 44 81 45 034 0712 -7 084 0432 44 00123
14 24
035 1419 085 2340 45 9002 035 0705 -7 085 0427 45 00111
14 23
0 36 1433 0 86 2363 036 0698 086 0423
15 24 7
0 37 i 448 087 2 387 5.0 1484 037 0691 -7 087 0419 5.0 000674
14 24
0.38 1 462 088 2411 60 4034 038 0684 088 0415 60 000248
15 24 - 7
0 39 1477 0 89 2 435 70 1097 0 39 0 677 089 0411 70 0000912
14 25 - 7
0.40 1492 0.90 2460 80 2.981 0.40 0 670 0.90 0 407 8 0 0000335
15 24 - 6
0 41 1 507 091 2484 90 8 103 0 41 0 664 _ 091 0403 90 0.000123
15 25 I
042 1522 0 92 2 509 10.0 22 026 042 0657 092 0399 10.0 0000045
15 26 - 6
043 1537 0 93 2535 043 0651 093 0 395
16 25 - 7
044 1553 0 94 2560 ;I2 4 810 044 0644 094 0391 r;/2 0 208
15 26 6
2si2 23 14 2712 00432
0 45 1 568 0 95 2 586 3r/2 111 3 045 0638 095 0387 3~12 000898
16 26 - 7
0 46 i 584 0 96 2612 4ri2 5355 046 0631 096 0383 4~12 000187
16 26 - 6
047 1600 0 97 2638 5ii2 2.576 0 047 0625 ^ 097 0379 5~12 0000388
26
048 1616
16
16
0 98 2664
27
6ri2 12.392 0 048 0619 1; 098 0375 6ni2 0000081
049 1632 0 99 2691 7~12 59.610 0 049 0613 ^ 099 0372 7~12 0000017
17 27 b
7112 286.751 0 l.oo 0368 8~12 0000003
0.50 1649 1.00 2718 0.50 0 607

*e=pjy828, I,~=o.s~~Ts, lag,,e=04343. l/(04343)=2.3026.log,,(O4343)=1.6378. log,,e"=n(O4343). For tablesof multiples


of 0.4343,see Table 1 30
"Do not ~nterpcdate
m thiscolumn
l-56 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING HANDBOOK

TABLE 1.26-NATUI RALLOGARITHMS'

" n(2 3026) n(0.6974-3)


1 2.3026 0 6974-3
2 4.6052 0 3948-5
3 6.9078 0.0922 -7
4 9.2103 0.7897-10
5 11.5129 0.4871-12
6 13.8155 0.1845-14
7 16.1181 0.8819-17
8 18.4207 0.5793-19
9 20.7233 0 2767-21

Average
Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Difference
1.0 0.0000 0.0100 0.0198 0.0296 0.0392 0.0488 0.0583 0.0677 0.0770 0.0862 95
1.1 0.0953 01044 0.1133 01222 01310 01398 0.1484 0.1570 0.1655 0.1740 87
1.2 0.1823 0.1906 0.1989 0.2070 0.2151 0.2231 0.2311 0.2390 0.2469 0.2546 80
1.3 0.2624 02700 0.2776 0.2852 0.2927 0.3001 0.3075 0.3148 0.3221 0.3293 74
1.4 0.3365 0.3436 0.3507 0.3577 0.3646 0.3716 0.3784 0.3853 0.3920 0.3988 69
1.5 0.4055 0.4121 0.4187 0.4253 0.4318 0.4383 0.4447 0.4511 0.4574 0.4637 65
1.6 0.4700 0.4762 0.4824 0.4886 0.4947 0.5008 0.5068 0.5128 0.5188 0.5247 61
1.7 0.5306 0.5365 0.5423 0.5481 0.5539 0.5596 0.5653 0.5710 0.5766 0.5822 57
1.8 0.5878 0.5933 0.5988 0.6043 0.6098 0.6152 0.6206 0.6259 0.6313 0.6366 54
1.9 0.6419 0.6471 0.6523 06575 0.6627 0.6678 0.6729 0.6780 0.6831 0.6881 51
2.0 0.6931 0.6981 0.7031 07080 0.7129 0.7178 0.7227 0.7275 0.7324 0.7372 49
2.1 0.7419 0.7467 0.7514 0.7561 0.7608 07655 0.7701 0.7747 0.7793 0 7839 47
2.2 0.7885 0.7930 0.7975 0.8020 0.8065 0.8109 0.8154 0.8198 0.8242 0.8286 44
2.3 0.8329 0.8372 0.8416 0.8459 0.8502 0.8544 0.8587 0.8629 0.8671 0.8713 43
2.4 0.8755 0.8796 0.8838 0.8879 0.8920 0.8961 0.9002 0.9042 0.9083 0.9123 41
2.5 0.9163 0.9203 0.9243 0.9282 0.9322 0.9361 0.9400 0.9439 0.9478 09517 39
2.6 0.9555 0.9594 0.9632 0.9670 0.9708 0.9746 0.9783 0.9821 0.9858 0 9895 38
2.7 0.9933 0.9969 1.0006 1.0043 1.0080 1.0116 1.0152 1.0188 1.0225 1.0260 36
2.8 1.0296 1.0332 1.0367 1.0403 1.0438 1.0473 1.0508 1.0543 1.0578 10613 35
2.9 1.0647 1.0682 1.0716 1.0750 1.0784 1.0818 1.0852 1.0886 1.0919 1.0953 34
3.0 1.0986 1.1019 1.1053 1.1086 1.1119 1.1151 1.1184 1.1217 1 .I249 1.1282 33
3.1 1.1314 1.1346 1.1378 1.1410 1.1442 1.1474 1.1506 1.1537 1.1569 1 1600 32
3.2 1.1632 1.1663 1.1694 1.1725 1.1756 1.1787 1.1817 1.1848 1.1878 1.1909 31
3.3 1.1939 1 .I969 1.2000 1.2030 1.2060 1.2090 1.2119 1.2149 1.2179 1.2208 30
3.4 1.2238 1.2267 1.2296 1.2326 1.2355 1.2384 1.2413 1.2442 1.2470 1.2499 29
3.5 1.2528 1.2556 1.2585 1.2613 1.2641 1.2669 1.2698 1.2726 1.2754 1.2782 28
3.6 1.2809 1.2837 1.2865 1.2892 1.2920 1.2947 1.2975 1.3002 1.3029 1.3056 27
3.7 1.3083 13110 1.3137 13164 1.3191 13218 1.3244 1.3271 1.3297 1.3324 27
3.8 1.3350 1.3376 1.3403 1.3429 1.3455 1.3481 1.3507 1.3533 1.3558 1.3584 26
3.9 13610 13635 1.3661 13686 1.3712 13737 1.3762 1.3788 1.3813 1.3838 25
4.0 1.3863 1.3888 1.3913 13938 1.3962 13987 1.4012 1.4036 1.4061 1.4085 25
4.1 1.4110 1.4134 1.4159 1.4183 1.4207 1.4231 1.4255 1.4279 1.4303 1.4327 24
4.2 1.4351 1.4375 1.4398 1.4422 1.4446 1.4469 1.4493 1.4516 1.4540 14563 23
4.3 1.4586 1.4609 1.4633 1.4656 1.4679 1.4702 1.4725 1.4748 1.4770 1.4793 23
4.4 1.4816 1.4839 1.4861 1.4884 1.4907 1.4929 1.4951 1.4974 1.4996 15019 22
4.5 1.5041 1.5063 1.5085 1.5107 1.5129 1.5151 1.5173 1.5195 1.5217 15239 22
4.6 1.5261 1.5282 1.5304 1.5326 1.5347 1.5369 1.5390 1.5412 1.5433 1.5454
4.7 1.5476 1.5497 1.5518 1.5539 1.5560 1.5581 1.5602 1.5623 1.5644 1.5665 ;1
4.8 1.5686 1.5707 1.5728 1.5748 1.5769 1.5790 1.5810 1.5831 1.5851 1.5872 20
4.9 1.5892 1.5913 1.5933 15953 1.5974 1.5994 1.6014 1.6034 1.6054 1.6074 20
5.0 1.6094 1.6114 1.6134 1.6154 1.6174 1.6194 1.6214 1.6233 1.6253 1.6273 20
5.1 1.6292 1.6312 1.6332 1.6351 1.6371 1.6390 1.6409 1.6429 1.6448 1.6467 19
5.2 1.6487 1.6506 1.6525 1.6544 1.6563 1.6582 1.6601 1.6620 1.6639 1.6658 19
5.3 1.6677 1.6696 1.6715 1.6734 1.6752 1.6771 1.6790 1.6808 1.6827 1.6845 18
5.4 1.6864 1.6882 1.6901 1.6919 1.6938 1.6956 1.6974 1.6993 1.7011 1.7029 18

This table gives the naturalor Napierian logarithms(In)of numbers between 1 and 10, correctto four places. Moving
the decimal pointn places to the right(or left)
in the number isequivalentto adding R times 2 3026 (orn times 3.6974)
to the logarithm.Base e=2.71828+.

‘,nw=(2.3026,,og,,x, ,og,,x=(O4343),nx, whete23026=ln 10 andO4343=log,:e


MATHEMATlCALTABLES&UNlTS& SYSTEMSOFWElGHTS&MEASURES 1-57

TABLE 1.26 -NATURAL LOGARITHMS' (continued)

n nf2.30261 n(0.6974-31

2.3026 0.6974-3
4.6052 0.3948-5
6.9078 0.0922- 7
9.2103 0.7897-10
11.5129 0.4871-12
13.8155 0.1845-14
16.1181 0.8819-17
18.4207 0.5793-19
20.7233 0.2767-21

Average
Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Difference
____
5.5 1.7047 1.7066 1.7084 1.7102 1.7120 1.7138 1.7156 1.7174 1.7192 1.7210 18
5.6 1.7228 1.7246 1.7263 1.7281 1.7299 1.7317 1.7334 1.7352 1.7370 1.7387 18
5.7 1.7405 1.7422 1.7440 1.7457 1.7475 1.7492 1.7509 1.7527 1.7544 1.7561 17
5.8 1.7579 1.7596 1.7613 1.7630 1.7647 1.7664 1.7681 1.7699 1.7716 1.7733 17
5.9 1.7750 1.7766 1.7783 1.7800 1.7817 1.7834 1.7851 1.7867 1.7884 1.7901 17
6.0 1.7918 1.7934 1.7951 1.7967 1.7984 1.8001 1.8017 1.8034 1.8050 1.8066 16
6.1 1.8083 1.8099 1.8116 1.8132 1.8148 1.8165 1.8181 1.8197 1.8213 1.8229 16
6.2 1.8245 1.8262 1.8278 1.8294 1.8310 1.8326 1.8342 1.8358 1.8374 1.8390 16
6.3 1.8405 1.8421 1.8437 1.8453 1.8469 1.8485 1.8500 1.8516 1.8532 1.8547 16
6.4 1.8563 1.8579 1.8594 1.8610 1.8625 1.8641 1.8656 1.8672 1.8687 1.8703 15
6.5 1.8718 1.8733 1.8749 1.8764 1.8779 1.8795 1.8810 1.8825 1.8840 1.8856 15
6.6 1.8871 1.8886 1.8901 1.8916 1.8931 1.8946 1.8961 1.8976 1.8991 1.9006 15
6.7 1.9021 1.9036 1.9051 1.9066 1.9081 1.9095 1.9110 1.9125 1.9140 1.9155 15
6.8 1.9169 1.9184 1.9199 1.9213 1.9228 1.9242 1.9257 1.9272 1.9286 1.9301 15
6.9 1.9315 1.9330 1.9344 1.9359 1.9373 1.9387 1.9402 1.9416 1.9430 1.9445 14
7.0 1.9459 1.9473 1.9488 1.9502 1.9516 1.9530 1.9544 1.9559 1.9573 1.9587 14
7.1 1.9601 1.9615 1.9629 1.9643 1.9657 1.9671 1.9685 1.9699 1.9713 1.9727 14
7.2 1.9741 1.9755 1.9769 1.9782 1.9796 1.9810 1.9824 19838 1.9851 1 9865 14
7.3 1.9879 1.9892 1.9906 1.9920 1.9933 1.9947 1.9961 1.9974 1.9988 2.0001 13
7.4 2.0015 2.0028 2.0042 20055 2.0069 2.0082 2.0096 20109 2.0122 2.0136 13
7.5 2.0149 2.0162 2.0176 2.0189 2.0202 2.0215 2.0229 20242 2.0255 2.0268 13
7.6 2.0281 2.0295 2.0308 2.0321 2.0334 2.0347 2.0360 2.0373 2.0386 2.0399 13
77 2.0412 2.0425 2.0438 2.0451 2.0464 2.0477 2.0490 2.0503 2.0516 2.0528 13
78 2.0541 2.0554 2.0567 2.0580 2.0592 2.0605 2.0618 2.0631 2.0643 2.0656 13
79 2.0669 2.0681 2.0694 2.0707 2.0719 2.0732 2.0744 2.0757 2.0769 2.0782 12
8.0 2.0794 2.0807 2.0819 2.0832 2.0844 2.0857 2.0869 2.0882 2.0894 2.0906 12
8.1 2.0919 2.0931 2.0943 2.0956 2.0966 2.0980 2.0992 2.1005 2.1017 2.1029 12
8.2 2.1041 2.1054 2.1066 2.1078 2.1090 2.1102 2.1114 2.1126 2.1138 2.1150 12
8.3 2.1163 2.1175 2.1187 2.1199 2.1211 2.1223 2.1235 2.1247 2.1258 2.1270 12
8.4 2.1282 2.1294 2.1306 2.1318 2.1330 2.1342 2.1353 2.1365 2.1377 2.1389 12
8.5 2.1401 2.1412 2.1424 2.1436 2.1448 2.1459 2.1471 2.1483 2.1494 2.1506 12
8.6 2.1518 2.1529 2.1541 2.1552 2.1564 2.1576 2.1587 2.1599 2.1610 2.1622 12
8.7 2.1633 2.1645 2.1656 2.1668 2.1679 2.1691 2.1702 2.1713 2.1725 2.1736 11
8.8 2.1748 2.1759 2.1770 2.1782 2.1793 2.1804 2.1815 2.1827 2.1838 2.1849 11
8.9 2.1861 2.1872 2.1883 2.1894 2.1905 2.1917 2.1928 2.1939 2.1950 2.1961 11
9.0 2.1972 2.1983 2.1994 2.2006 2.2017 2.2028 2.2039 2.2050 2.2061 2.2072 II
9.1 2.2083 2.2094 2.2105 2.2116 2.2127 2.2138 2.2148 2.2159 2.2170 2.2181 11
9.2 2.2192 2.2203 2.2214 2.2225 2.2235 2.2246 2.2257 2.2268 2.2279 2.2289 11
9.3 2.2300 2.2311 2.2322 2.2332 2.2343 2.2354 2.2364 2.2375 2.2386 2.2396 11
9.4 2.2407 2.2418 2.2428 2.2439 2.2450 2.2460 2.2471 2.2481 2.2492 2.2502 11
9.5 2.2513 2.2523 2.2534 2.2544 2.2555 2.2565 2.2576 2.2586 2.2597 2.2607 IO
9.6 2.2618 2.2628 2.2638 2.2649 2.2659 2.2670 2.2680 2.2690 2.2701 2.2711 IO
9.7 2.2721 2.2732 2.2742 2.2752 2.2762 2.2773 2.2783 2.2793 2.2803 2.2814 10
9.8 2.2824 2.2834 2.2844 2.2854 2.2865 2.2875 2.2885 2.2895 2.2905 2.2915 IO
9.9 2.2925 2.2935 2.2946 2.2956 2.2966 2.2976 2.2986 2.2996 2.3006 2.3016 10
10.0 2.3026

Thts table gives the naturalor Naprerian logarithms(In)of numbers between 1 and 10, correctto four places. Moving
the decimal porntn places to the right(or left)
In the number isequivalentto adding n times 2.3026 (orn times 3.6974)
to the logarithm.Base e=2 71828+

-In x=/2 3026) log .>x bg ,,x=(O 4343)ln x. where 2 3026=In 10 and 0 4343=log,,e
1-58 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING HANDBOOK

TABLE 1.27-HYPERBOLIC SINES [sinh x = Xte” -e -“)I’

Average
x 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Difference
0.0 0.0000 0.0100 0.0200 0.0300 0.0400 0.0500 0.0600 0.0701 0.0801 0.0901 100
0.1 0 1002 0.1102 0.1203 0.1304 0.1405 0.1506 0.1607 0.1708 0.1810 0.1911 101
0.2 0.2013 0.2115 0.2218 0.2320 0.2423 0.2526 0.2629 0.2733 0.2837 0.2941 103
0.3 0.3045 0.3150 0.3255 0.3360 0.3466 0.3572 0.3678 0.3785 0.3892 0.4000 106
04 0.4108 0.4216 0.4325 0.4434 0.4543 0.4653 0.4764 0.4875 0.4986 0.5098 110
0.5 0.5211 0.5324 05438 0.5552 0.5666 0.5782 0.5897 0.6014 0.6131 0.6248 116
0.6 0.6367 0.6485 0.6605 0.6725 0.6846 0.6967 0.7090 0.7213 0.7336 0.7461 122
0.7 0.7586 0.7712 0.7838 0.7966 0.8094 0.8223 0.8353 0.8484 0.8615 0.8748 130
0.8 0.8881 0.9015 0.9150 0.9286 0.9423 0.9561 0.9700 0.9840 0.9981 1.012 138
0.9 1.027 1.041 1055 1.070 1.085 1.099 1.114 1.129 1.145 1.160 15
1 .o 1.175 1.191 1206 1.222 1.238 1.254 1.270 1.286 1.303 1.319 16
1.1 1.336 1.352 1369 1.386 1.403 1.421 1.438 1.456 1.474 1.491 17
1.2 1.509 1.528 1546 1.564 1.583 1.602 1.621 1.640 1.659 1.679 19
1.3 1.698 1.718 1.738 1.758 1.779 1.799 1.820 1.841 1.862 1.883 21
1.4 1.904 1.926 1948 1.970 1992 2.014 2.037 2.060 2.083 2.106 22
1.5 2.129 2.153 2 177 2.201 2.225 2.250 2.274 2.299 2.324 2.350 25
1.6 2.376 2401 2428 2.454 2.481 2.507 2.535 2.562 2.590 2.617 27
1.7 2 646 2.674 2 703 2 732 2 761 2.790 2820 2.850 2.881 2.911 30
1.8 2 942 2973 3.005 3.037 3069 3.101 3.134 3.167 3.200 3.234 33
1.9 3 268 3303 3 337 3372 3.408 3.443 3479 3.516 3.552 3.589 36
2.0 3 627 3665 3 703 3741 3.780 3.820 3.859 3.899 3.940 3.981 39
2.1 4.022 4.064 4.106 4.148 4 191 4.234 4.278 4.322 4.367 4.412 44
2.2 4457 4.503 4549 4.596 4643 4.691 4739 4.780 4.837 4.887 48
2.3 4.937 4.988 5.039 5.090 5.142 5.195 5.248 5.302 5.356 5.411 53
2.4 5.466 5.522 5 578 5.635 5.693 5.751 5810 5.869 5.929 5.989 58
2.5 6.050 6.112 6.174 6.237 6.300 6.365 6.429 6.495 6.561 6.627 64
2.6 6.695 6.763 6.831 6.901 6.971 7.042 7.113 7.185 7.258 7.332 71
2.7 7.406 7.481 7.557 7.634 7.711 7.789 7.868 7.940 8.028 8.110 79
2.8 8.192 8.275 8.359 8.443 8.529 8.615 8.702 8.790 8.879 8.969 87
2.9 9.060 9.151 9.244 9.337 9 431 9.527 9623 9.720 9.819 9.918 96
3.0 10.02 10.12 10.22 10.32 10.43 10.53 1064 10.75 10.86 10.97 11
3.1 11.08 11.19 11.30 11.42 11.53 1165 11 76 11.88 12.00 12.12 12
3.2 12.25 12.37 12.49 12.62 12.75 12.88 13.01 13.14 13.27 13.40 13
3.3 13.54 13.67 13 81 13.95 14.09 14.23 14.38 14.52 14.67 14.82 14
3 4 14.97 15.12 15.27 15.42 15.58 15.73 15.89 16.05 16.21 1638 16
3.5 16.54 16.71 16.88 17.05 17.22 17.39 17.57 17.74 17.92 18.10 17
3.6 18.29 18.47 18.66 18.84 19.03 19.22 19.42 19.61 19.81 20.01 19
3.7 20.21 20.41 20.62 20.83 21.04 21 25 21 46 21.68 21.90 22.12 21
3 8 22.34 22.56 22.79 2302 23.25 23.49 2372 23.96 24.20 24.45 24
3.9 24.69 24.94 2519 25.44 25.70 25.96 26.22 26.48 26.75 27.02 26
4.0 27.29 27.56 27.64 28.12 28.40 28.69 28.98 29.27 29.56 29.86 29
4.1 30.16 30.47 30.77 31.08 31.39 31.71 32.03 32.35 32.68 33.00 32
42 33.34 33.67 34.01 34.35 34.70 35.05 3540 35.75 36.11 36.48 35
43 36.84 37.21 3759 37.97 38.35 38.73 39.12 39.52 39.91 4031 39
4.4 40.72 41 13 41.54 41.96 42 30 42.81 43.24 43.67 44.11 44.56 43
4.5 45.00 45.46 45.91 4637 46.84 47.31 47.79 48.27 40.75 49.24 47
4 6 49.74 50.24 50.74 51.25 51.77 52.29 52.81 53.34 53.88 54.42 52
4.7 54.97 55.52 5608 56.64 57.21 57.79 58.37 58.96 59.55 60.15 58
4.8 60.75 61.36 61 98 62.60 63.23 63.87 64 51 65.16 65.81 67.47 64
4.9 67.14 67.82 68.50 69.19 69.88 70.58 71 29 72.01 72.73 73.46 71
5.0 74.20
MATHEMATIC :AL TAB1 -ES&UNlTS&SYSTEMSOFWElGHTS& MEASURES I-59

TABLE 1.28-HYPERBOLIC COSINES [cash x,=M(e* +e-“)I’

Average
x 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Difference
0.0 1.000 1.000 1 .ooo 1.000 1.001- 1.001 1.002 1.002 1.003 1.004
01 1.005 1.006 1.007 1.008 1.010 1.011 1.013 1.014 1.016 1.018
0.2 1.020 1.022 1.024 1.027 1.029 1.031 1.034 1.037 1.039 1.042
0.3 1.045 1.048 1.052 1.055 1.058 1.062 1.066 1.069 1.073 1.077
0.4 1.081 1.085 1.090 1 094 1.098 1.103 1.108 1.112 1.117 1.122
0.5 1.128 1.133 1.138 1.144 1.149 1.155 1.161 1.167 1.173 1.179 6
0.6 1.185 1.192 1.198 1.205 1.212 1.219 1.226 1.233 1.240 1.248
0.7 1.255 1.263 1.271 1.278 1.287 1.295 1.303 1.311 1.320 1.329 ;
0.8 1.337 1.346 1.355 1.365 1.374 1.384 1.393 1.403 1.413 1.423 10
0.9 1.433 1.443 1.454 1.465 1.475 1.486 1.497 1.509 1.520 1.531 11
1 .o 1.543 1.555 1.567 1.579 1.591 1.604 1.616 1.629 1.642 1.655 13
1.1 1.669 1.682 1.696 1.709 1.723 1.737 1.752 1.766 1.781 1.796 14
1.2 1.811 1.826 1.841 1.857 1.872 1.888 1.905 1.921 1.937 1.954 16
1.3 1.971 1.988 2.005 2.023 2.040 2.058 2.076 2.095 2.113 2.132 18
1.4 2.151 2.170 2.189 2.209 2.229 2.249 2.269 2.290 2.310 2.331 20
1.5 2.352 2 374 2.395 2.417 2.439 2.462 2.484 2.507 2.530 2.554 23
1.6 2.577 2.601 2.625 2.650 2.675 2.700 2.725 2.750 2.776 2.802 25
1.7 2.828 2.855 2.882 2.909 2.936 2.964 2.992 3.021 3.049 3.078 28
1.8 3.107 3.137 3.167 3.197 3.228 3.259 3.290 3.321 3.353 3.385 31
1.9 3.418 3.451 3.484 3.517 3.551 3.585 3.620 3.655 3.690 3.726 34
2.0 3.762 3.799 3.835 3.873 3.910 3.948 3.987 4.026 4.065 4.104 38
2.1 4.144 4.185 4.226 4.267 4.309 4.351 4.393 4.436 4.480 4.524 42
2.2 4.568 4.613 4.658 4.704 4.750 4.797 4.844 4.891 4.939 4.988 47
2.3 5.037 5.087 5.137 5.188 5.239 5.290 5.343 5.395 5.449 5.503 52
2.4 5.557 5.612 5.667 5.723 5.780 5.837 5.895 5.954 6.013 6.072 58
2.5 6.132 6.193 6.255 6.317 6.379 6.443 6.507 6.571 6.636 6.702 64
2.6 6.769 6.836 6.904 6.973 7.042 7.112 7.183 7.255 7.327 7.400 70
2.7 7.473 7.548 7.623 7.699 7.776 7.853 7.932 8.011 a.091 a.171 78
2.8 8.253 8.335 8.418 8.502 8.587 8.673 8.759 8.847 8.935 9.024 86
2.9 9.115 9.206 9.298 9.391 9.484 9.579 9.675 9.772 9.869 9.968 95
3.0 10.07 10.17 10.27 10.37 10.48 10.58 10.69 10.79 10.90 11.01 11
3.1 11.12 11.23 11.35 11.46 11.57 11.69 11.81 11.92 12.04 12.16 12
3.2 12.29 12.41 12.53 12.66 12.79 12.91 13.04 13.17 13.31 13.44 13
3.3 13.57 13.71 13.85 13.99 14.13 14.27 14.41 14.56 14.70 14.85 14
3.4 15.00 15.15 15.30 15.45 15.61 15.77 15.92 16.08 16.25 16.41 16
3.5 16.57 16.74 16.91 17.08 17.25 17.42 17.60 17.77 17.95 la.13 17
3.6 18.31 18.50 18.68 18.87 19.06 19.25 19.44 19.64 19.84 20.03 19
3.7 20.24 20.44 2064 20.85 21.06 21.27 21.49 21.70 21.92 22.14 21
3.8 22.36 22.59 22.81 23.04 23.27 23.51 23.74 23.98 24.22 24.47 23
3.9 24.71 24.96 2521 25.46 25.72 25.98 26.24 26.50 26.77 27.04 26
4.0 27.31 27.58 27.86 28.14 28.42 28.71 29.00 29.29 29.58 29.88 29
4.1 30.18 30.48 30.79 31.10 31 41 31.72 3204 32.37 32.69 33.02 32
4.2 33.35 33.69 3402 34.37 34 71 35.06 3541 35.77 36.13 36.49 35
4.3 36.86 37.23 3760 3798 3836 38.75 39.13 39.53 39.93 40.33 39
4.4 40.73 41.14 41 55 41.97 4239 42.82 4325 43.68 44.12 44.57 43
4.5 45.01 45.47 4592 46.38 46.85 47.32 4780 48.28 48.76 49.25 47
4.6 49.75 50.25 5075 51.26 51 78 52.30 5282 57.35 57.89 54.43 52
4.7 54.98 55.53 56.09 56.65 57.22 57.80 58.38 58.96 59.56 60.15 58
4.8 60 76 61 37 61 99 62.61 63.24 63.87 64.52 65.16 65.82 66.48 64
4.9 67.15 67.82 68.50 69.19 69 a9 70.59 71.30 72.02 72.74 73.47 71
5.0 74.21
I-60 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING HANDBOOK

TABLE 1.29-HYPERBOLIC TANGENTS [tanh x = (e” - e -“)/(e”+ e -“) = sinh xkosh x]

Average
x 0 2 3 4 5 6 a 9 Difference
0.0 0.0000 0.0100 0.0200 0.0300 0.0400 0.0500 0.0599 0.0699 0.0798 0.0898 100
0.1 0.0997 0.1096 0.1194 0.1293 0.1391 0.1489 0.1587 0.1684 01781 0.1878 98
0 2 0.1974 0.2070 0.2165 0.2260 0.2355 0.2449 0.2543 0.2636 0.2729 0.2821 94
0.3 0.2913 0.3004 0.3095 0.3185 03275 0.3364 0.3452 0.3540 0.3827 0.3714 89
0.4 0.3800 0.3885 0.3969 0.4053 04137 0.4219 0.4301 0.4382 0.4462 0.4542 82
0.5 0.4621 0.4700 0.4777 0.4854 0 4930 0.5005 0.5080 0.5154 05227 0.5299 75
0.6 0.5370 0.5441 0.5511 0.5581 0.5649 0.5717 0.5784 0.5850 0.5915 0.5980 67
0.7 0.6044 0.6107 0.6169 0.6231 0.6291 0.6352 0.6411 0.6469 0.6527 0.6584 60
0.8 0.6640 0.6696 0.6751 0.6805 0.6858 0.6911 0.6963 0.7014 0.7064 0.7114 52
0 9 0.7163 0.7211 0 7259 0.7306 0.7352 0.7398 0.7443 0.7487 0.7531 0.7574 45
1.0 07616 0.7658 0.7699 0.7739 0.7779 0.7818 0.7857 0.7895 0.7932 0.7969 39
1.1 0.8005 0.8041 0.8076 0.8110 0.8144 0.8178 0.8210 0.8243 0.8275 0.8306 33
1.2 0.8337 0.8367 0.8397 0.8426 0.8455 0.8483 0.8511 0.8538 0.8565 0.8591 28
1.3 0.8617 0.8643 0.8668 0.8693 0.8717 0.8741 0.8764 0.8787 0.8810 0.8832 24
1.4 0.8854 0.8875 0.8896 0.8917 0.8937 0.8957 0.8977 0.8996 0.9015 0.9033 20
1.5 0.9052 0.9069 0.9087 0.9104 0.9121 0.9138 0.9154 0.9170 0.9186 0.9202 17
1.6 0.9217 0.9232 0.9246 0.9261 0 9275 0.9289 0.9302 0.9316 0.9329 0.9342 14
1.7 0.9354 0.9367 0.9379 0.9391 0.9402 0.9414 0.9425 0.9436 0.9447 0.9458 11
1.8 0.9468 0.9478 0.9488 0.9498 0.9508 0.9518 0.9527 0.9536 0.9545 0.9554 9
1.9 09562 0.9571 0.9579 0.9587 0.9595 0.9603 0.9611 0.9619 0.9626 0.9633 8
2.0 0.9640 0.9647 0.9654 0.9661 0 9668 0.9674 0.9680 0.9687 0.9693 0.9699
2.1 0.9705 0.9710 0.9716 0.9722 0.9727 0.9732 0.9738 0.9743 0.9748 0.9753
2.2 0 9757 0.9762 0.9767 0.9771 0.9776 0.9780 0.9785 0.9789 0.9793 0.9797
2.3 0 9801 0.9805 0.9809 0.9812 0.9816 0.9820 0.9823 0.9827 0.9830 0.9834
2.4 0 9837 0.9840 0.9843 0.9846 0 9849 0.9852 0.9855 0.9858 0.9861 0.9863
2.5 0 9866 0.9869 0.9871 0.9874 09876 0.9879 0.9881 0.9884 0.9886 0.9888
2.6 0 9890 0.9892 0.9895 0.9897 09899 0.9901 0.9903 0.9905 0.9906 0.9908
2.7 0 9910 0.9912 0.9914 0.9915 0.9917 0.9919 0.9920 0.9922 0.9923 0.9925
28 09926 0.9928 0.9929 0.9931 0.9932 0.9933 0.9935 0.9936 0.9937 0.9938
2.9 0.9940 0.9941 0.9942 0.9943 0.9944 0.9945 0.9946 0.9947 0.9949 0.9950
3.0 0.9951 0.9959 0.9967 0.9973 0.9978 0.9982 0.9985 0.9988 0.9990 0.9992
4.0 0.9993 0.9995 0.9996 0.9996 0.9997 0.9998 0.9998 0.9998 0.9999 0.9999
5.0 0.9999

TABLE 1 JO-MULTIPLES OF 0.4343 (0.43429448 = 109roe)


2 3 4 5 6 8 9
0.0 0.0000 0.0434 0.0869 0.1303 0.1737 0.2171 0.2606 0.3040 0.3474 0.3909
1 .o 0.4343 0.4777 0.5212 0.5646 0.6080 0.6514 0.6949 0.7383 0.7817 0.8252
2.0 0.8686 0.9120 0.9554 0.9989 1.0423 1.0857 1.1292 1.1726 1.2160 1.2595
3.0 1.3029 1.3463 1.3897 14332 1.4766 1.5200 1.5635 1.6069 1.6503 1.6937
4.0 1.7372 1.7806 1.8240 1.8675 1.9109 1.9543 1.9978 2.0412 2.0846 2.1280
5.0 2.1715 2.2149 2.2583 2.3018 2.3452 2.3886 2.4320 2.4755 2.51a9 2.5623
6.0 2.6058 2.6492 2.6926 2.7361 2.7795 2.8229 2.8663 2.9098 2.9532 2.9966
70 3.0401 3.0835 3.1269 3.1703 3.2138 3.2572 3.3006 33441 3.3875 3.4309
80 3.4744 3.5178 3.5612 3.6046 3.6481 3.6915 3.7349 3.7784 3.8218 3.8652
9.0 3.9087 3.9521 3.9955 40389 4.0824 4.1258 4.1692 4.2127 4.2561 4.2995

TABLE 1.31-MULTIPLES OF 2.3026 (2.3025851 =In,, = 110.4343)

Y 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0.0 0.0000 0.2303 0.4605 0.6908 0.9210 1.1513 1.3816 1.6118 1.8421 2.0723
1.0 23026 2.5328 2.7631 2.9934 3.2236 3.4539 3.6841 3.9144 4.1447 4.3749
2.0 4.6052 4.8354 5.0657 5.2959 5.5262 5.7565 59867 6.2170 6.4472 6.6775
3.0 6.9078 7.1380 7.3683 75985 7.8288 8.0590 8.2893 8.5196 8.7498 8.9801
4.0 9.2103 9.4406 9.6709 9 9011 10.131 10.362 10.592 10.822 11.052 11 283
5.0 11 513 11.743 11.973 12.204 12.434 12.664 12.894 13.125 13.355 13585
6.0 13.816 14046 14.276 14.506 14.737 14967 15.197 15.427 15.658 15.888
7.0 16.118 16.348 16.579 16 809 17039 17269 17.500 17.730 17.960 18.190
8.0 18421 18651 la.881 19111 19342 19572 19.802 20.032 20.263 20.493
90 20.723 20.954 21.184 21 414 21.644 21 875 22.105 22.335 22.565 22.796
I-61
MATHEMATlCALTABLES& UNlTS&SYSTEMSOFWElGHTS& MEASURES

TABLE 1.32-STANDARD DISTRIBUTION TABLE1.33-FACTORS FORCOMPUTING


OFRESIDUALS PROBABLEERROR

a/r Difference Bessel Peters


yin
0.0 0.000 0.6745 0.6745 0.8453 0.8453
54
0.1 0.054
0.2 0.107
53
53
n/2
- W) \l;r(n-1) ~~) nm
0.3 0.160 2 0.6745 0.4769 0.5978 04227
53
0.4 0.213 3 0.4769 0.2754 0.3451 01993
51
4 0.3894 0.1947 0.2440 0.1220
0.5 0264
50 0.1890 0.0845
0.6 0.314 5 0.3372 0.1508
49
0.7 0 363 6 0.3016 0.1231 0.1543 00630
48
0.8 0.411 7 0.2754 0.1041 0.1304 0 0493
45
0.9 0 456 a 0.2549 0.0901 0.1130 0 0399
44
9 0.2385 0.0795 0.0996 00332
1.0 0.500
42 IO 0.2248 0.0711 0.0891 00282
1.1 0.542
40 0.0643 0.0806 00243
1.2 0.582 11 0.2133
37 12 0.2034 0.0587 0.0736 0.0212
1.3 0.619
36 0.0540 0.0677 00188
1.4 0.655 13 0.1947
33 14 o.la7l 0.0500 0.0627 00167
1.5 0.688 31 15 0.1803 0.0465 0.0583 00151
1.6 0.719 29 16 0.1742 0.0435 0.0546 00136
1.7 0748 27 17 0.1686 0.0409 0.0513 00124
1.8 0.775
25 ia 0.1636 0.0386 0.0483 00114
1.9 0.800
23 19 0.1590 0.0365 0.0457 00105
2.0 0823
20 20 0.1547 0.0346 0.0434 0 0097
2.1 0.843
19 21 0.1508 0.0329 0.0412 0 0090
2.2 0 862 17 22 0.1472 0.0314 0.0393 00084
2.3 0.879
16 23 0.1438 0.0300 0.0376 00078
2.4 0.895 13 24 0.1406 0.0287 0.0360 0.0073
2.5 0.908 13 0.0275 0.0345 0 0069
25 0.1377
2.6 0 921 10 0.0265 0.0332 00065
26 0.1349
2.7 0.931 0.0319 00061
IO 27 0.1323 0.0255
2.8 0.941 0.0245 0.0307 00058
9 28 0.1298
2.9 0.950 0.0297 00055
7 29 0.1275 0.0237
3.0 0.957 30 0.1252 0.0229 0.0287 00052
3.1 0.963 31 0.1231 0.0221 0.0277 00050
3.2 0 969 32 0.1211 0.0214 0.0268 00047
3.3 0.974 0.1192 0.0208 0.0260 00045
3.4 0 978 z: 0.1174 0.0201 0.0252 0.0043
3.5 0 982 35 01157 0.0196 0.0245 00041
36 0985 36 0.1140 0.0190 0.0238 00040
3.7 0 987 37 0.1124 0.0185 0.0232 00038
38 0990 38 0.1109 0.0180 0.0225 00037
3.9 0991 39 0.1094 0.0175 0.0220 00035
4.0 0993 40 0.1080 0.0171 0.0214 00034
6
45 0.1017 0.0152 0.0190 00028
5.0 0.999
50 0.0964 0.0136 0.0171 0.0024
a = any positivequantity, 55 0.0918 0.0124 0.0155 0.0021
y = number of residualsthat are 0.0142 00018
60 0.0878 0.0113
numericallysmaller than 1, 65 0.0843 0.0105 0.0131 0.0016
r = probable errorof a single
70 0.0812 0.0097 0.0122 00015
observation.and 0.0113 0.0013
75 0.0784 0.0091
n = number of observations.
a0 0.0759 0.0085 0.0106 0.0012
a5 0.0736 0.0080 0.0100 0.0011

90 0.0715 0.0075 0.0094 0.0010


95 0.0696 0.0071 0.0089 0.0009

100 0.0678 0.0068 0.0085 0.0008


1-62 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING HANDBOOK

TABLE1.34-COMPOUND INTEREST-AMOUNTOFAGIVEN PRINCIPAL

The amount A at the end of n years of a given principalP placed at compound Interesttoday
isA = Px xor A = Px yorA = P xz,according asiheinterest(attherateofipercentperannum)
iscompounded annually,semtannually,or quarterly; the factorx or yorz being taken from the
followingtables.

Values of x-Interest Compounded Annually:A=Pxx’

Years 2'/2 3 3'12 4 4'12 5 6 7


1.0200 1.0250 1.0300 1.0350 1.0400 10450 1.0500 1.0600 1.0700
1.0404 1.0506 1.0609 1.0712 1.0816 1.0920 1.1025 1.1236 1.1449
1.0612 1.0769 1.0927 1.1087 1.1249 1.1412 1.1576 1.1910 12250
1.0824 1.1038 11255 1.1475 1.1699 1.1925 1.2155 1.2625 1.3108
1.1041 1.1314 1.1593 1.1877 1.2167 1.2462 1.2763 1.3382 1.4026
1.1262 1.1597 1.1941 1.2293 1.2653 1.3023 1.3401 1.4185 1.5007
1.1487 1.1887 1.2299 1.2723 1.3159 1.3609 1.4071 1.5036 1.6058
8 1.1717 1.2184 12668 1.3168 1.3686 1.4221 1.4775 1.5938 1.7182
9 11951 1.2489 13048 1.3629 1.4233 14861 1.5513 1.6895 1.8385
10 1.2190 1.2801 13439 1.4106 1.4802 1.5530 1.6289 1.7908 1.9672
11 1.2434 1.3121 1.3842 1.4600 1.5395 1.6229 1.7103 1.8983 2.1049
12 1.2682 1.3449 14258 1.5111 1.6010 1.6959 1.7959 2.0122 22522
13 1.2936 1.3785 14685 1.5640 1.6651 1.7722 1.8856 2.1329 2.4098
14 1.3195 1.4130 15126 1.6187 1.7317 1.8519 1.9799 2.2609 2.5785
15 1.3459 1.4483 15580 1.6753 1.8009 1.9353 2.0789 2.3966 2.7590
16 1.3728 1.4845 1.6047 1.7340 1.8730 2.0224 2.1829 2.5404 2.9522
17 1.4002 1.5216 1.6528 1.7947 1.9479 2.1134 2.2920 2.6928 3.1588
18 1.4282 1.5597 1.7024 18575 2.0258 2.2085 2.4066 2.8543 3.3799
19 1.4568 1.5987 1.7535 1.9225 2.1068 2.3079 2.5270 3.0256 3.6165
20 1.4859 1.6386 1.8061 1.9898 2.1911 2.4117 2.6533 3.2071 3.8697
25 1.6406 1.8539 20938 2.3632 2.6658 3.0054 3.3864 4.2919 5.4274
30 1.8114 2.0976 2.4273 2.8068 3.2434 3.7453 4.3219 5.7435 7.6123
40 2.2080 2.6851 32620 3.9593 4.8010 5.8164 7.0400 10.286 14.974
50 2.6916 3.4371 43839 5.5849 7.1067 9.0326 11.467 18.420 29.457
60 3.2810 4.3998 5.8916 7.8781 10.520 14.027 18.679 32.988 57.946

‘This table IS computed from the formula Y= 1 +(!/lClO)”

Values of y-interest Compounded Semiannually: A = Pxy’

Years i=2 2'/2 3 3% 4 4% 5 6 7


~ 1 1.0201 1.0252 1.0302 1.0353 1.0404 1.0455 1.0506 1.0609 1.0712
2 1.0406 1.0509 1.0614 1.0719 1.0824 1.0931 1.1038 I.1255 1.1475
3 1.0615 1.0774 1.0934 1.1097 1.1282 1.1428 1.1597 1.1941 1.2293
4 1.0829 1.1045 1.1265 1.1489 1.1717 1.1948 12184 1.2668 1.3168
5 1.1046 1.1323 1.1605 1.1894 1.2190 1.2492 1.2801 1.3439 1.4106
6 1.1268 1.1608 1.1956 1.2314 1.2682 1.3060 1.3449 1.4258 1.5111
7 1.1495 1.1900 1.2318 1.2749 1.3195 1.3655 1.4130 1.5126 1.6187
8 1.1728 1.2199 1.2690 1.3199 1.3728 1.4276 1.4845 1.6047 1.7340
9 1.1961 1.2506 1.3073 1.3665 1.4282 1.4926 1.5597 17024 1.8575
IO 1.2202 1.2820 1.3469 1.4148 1.4859 1.5605 16386 1.8061 1.9898
11 1.2447 1.3143 1.3876 1.4647 1.5480 1.6315 1.7216 1.9161 2.1315
12 2.2697 1.3474 1.4295 1.5164 1.6084 1.7058 18087 2.0328 2.2833
13 1.2953 1.3812 1.4727 1.5700 1.6734 1.7834 1.9003 2.1566 2.4460
14 1.3213 1.4160 1.5172 1.6254 1.7410 1.8645 1.9965 2.2879 2.6202
15 1.3478 1.4516 1.5631 1.6828 1.8114 1.9494 2.0976 2.4273 2.8068
16 1.3749 1.4881 1.6103 1.7422 1.8845 2.0381 2.2038 2.5751 3.0067
17 1.4026 1.5256 1.6590 1.8037 1.9607 2.1308 2.3153 2.7319 3.2209
18 1.4308 1.5639 1.7091 1.8674 2.0399 2.2278 2.4325 2.8983 3.4503
19 1.4595 1.6033 1.7608 1.9333 2.1223 2.3292 2.5557 3.0748 3.6960
20 1.4889 1.6436 1.8140 2.0016 2.2080 2.4352 2.6851 3.2620 3.9593
25 1.6446 1.8610 2.1052 2.3808 2.6916 3.0420 3.4371 4.3839 5.5849
30 1.8167 2.1072 2.4432 2.8318 3.2810 3.8001 4.3998 5.8916 7.8781
40 2.2167 2.7015 3.2907 4.0064 4.8754 5.9301 7.2096 10.641 15.676
50 2.7048 3.4634 4.4320 5.6682 7.2446 9.2540 11.814 19.219 31.191
60 3.3004 4.4402 5.9693 8.0192 10.765 14.441 19.358 34.711 62.064

‘This table IS computed from the formula y = t + (W’OO)“’


MATHEMATlCALTABLES8, UNITS& SYSTEMSOF WEIGHTS & MEASURES 1-63

TABLE 1.34-COMPOUND INTEREST-AMOUNT OF A GIVEN PRINCIPAL (continued)

Values of z--InterestCompounded Quarterly:A=Pxz'

Years 1=2 2112 3 3% 4 4% 5 6 7


1.0202 1.0252 10303 1.0355 1.0406 1.0458 1.0509 1.0614 1.0719
2 1.0407 1.0511 1.0616 1.0722 1.0829 1.0936 1.1045 1.1265 1.1489
1.0617 1.0776 10938 1.1102 1.1268 1.1437 1.1608 1.1956 1.2314
4 1.0831 1.1048 1 1270 1.1496 1.1726 1.1960 1.2199 1.2690 1.3199
5 1.1049 1.1327 1.1612 1.1903 12202 1.2508 1.2820 1.3469 1.4146
6 1.1272 1 1613 11964 12326 1.2697 1.3080 1.3474 1.4295 1.5164
1.1499 1.1906 1.2327 1.2763 1.3213 1.3679 1.4160 1.5172 1.6254
8 1 1730 12206 12701 1.3215 1.3749 14305 1.4881 1.6103 1.7422
9 1.1967 12514 1.3086 1.3684 1.4308 1.4959 1.5639 1.7091 1.8674
10 1.2208 1.2830 1.3483 1.4169 1.4889 1.5644 1.6436 1.8140 2.0016
11 1.2454 13154 13893 14672 1.5493 1.6360 1.7274 1.9253 2.1454
12 1.2705 1.3486 14314 1.5192 1.6122 1.7108 1.8154 2.0435 2.2996
13 1.2961 1.3826 14748 1.5731 16777 1.7891 1.9078 2.1689 2.4648
14 1.3222 14175 1.5196 1.6288 1.7458 1.8710 2.0050 2.3020 2.6420
15 1.3489 1.4533 1.5657 1.6866 1.8167 1.9566 2.1072 2.4432 2.8318
16 1.3760 1.4900 1.6132 1.7464 1.8905 2.0462 22145 2.5931 3.0353
17 1.4038 1.5276 1.6621 1.8063 1.9672 2.1398 2.3274 2.7523 3.2534
18 1.4320 1.5661 17126 1.8725 2.0471 22378 2.4459 2.9212 3.4872
19 1.4609 1.6056 17645 1.9389 2.1302 2.3402 2.5705 3.1004 3.7378
20 1.4903 1.6462 1 8180 2.0076 2.2167 2.4473 2.7015 3.2907 4.0064
25 1.6467 1.8646 2.1111 23898 2.7048 3.0609 3 4634 4.4320 5.6682
30 18194 2.1121 2.4514 28446 3.3004 3.8285 4.4402 5.9693 8.0192
40 2.2211 2.7098 3.3053 4.0306 49138 5.9892 7.2980 10.828 16051
50 27115 3.4768 4.4567 5.7110 7.3160 9.3693 11.995 19.643 32.128
60 3.3102 44608 6.0092 8.0919 10893 14.657 19.715 35.633 64.307

'Th,s table IS compuled from ,he formula z= 1 +(,,400)111

TABLE 1.35-AMOUNT OF AN ANNUITY

The amount S accumulated at the end of n years by a given annual payment Y set aside at the end of
each year is S= Yx v. where the factor\Iis taken from the followingtable.(Interest
at i percent per
annum, compounded annually)

Values of V*

Years r=2 2% 3 3% 4 4'h 5 A 7.


10000 10000 1.0000 1.0000 10000 10000 1 0000 1.0000 1.0000
20200 20250 2.0300 2.0350 2 0400 20450 20500 2.0600 2.0700
30604 3.0756 3.0909 3 1062 3.1216 3.1370 3.1525 3.1836 3.2149
41216 4.1525 41836 4.2149 4.2465 4.2782 4.3101 4.3746 4.4399
52040 5.2563 5.3091 53625 5.4163 5.4707 55256 5.6371 5.7507
63081 6.3877 64684 65502 66330 6.7169 6.8019 6.9753 7.1533
74343 7.5474 7.6625 7.7794 7.8983 8.0192 8.1420 8.3938 8.6540
85830 87361 8.8923 90517 9.2142 9.3800 9.5491 9 8975 10260
9.7546 9 9545 10.159 10368 10.583 10.802 11.027 11.491 11.978
10 10.950 11.203 11.464 11 731 12006 12.288 12.578 13.181 13.816
11 12169 12.483 12808 13.142 13.486 13.841 14.207 14972 15784
12 13.412 13.796 14192 14602 15026 15.464 15.917 16870 17888
13 14.680 15.140 15.618 16113 16627 17.160 17.713 18882 20.141
14 15974 16519 17086 17677 18 292 18.932 19.599 21 015 22550
15 17293 17.932 18599 19296 20024 20.784 21 579 23276 25129
16 18639 19.380 20157 20971 21.825 22.719 23.657 25673 27.668
17 20012 20.865 21 762 22705 23 698 24.742 25840 28213 30840
18 21 412 22386 23.414 24500 25.645 26.855 28.132 30906 33.999
19 22.841 23.946 25.117 26357 27.671 29.064 30.539 33 760 37.379
20 24297 25545 26 870 28280 29.778 31 371 33.066 36786 40.995
25 32030 34.158 36.459 38950 41.646 44.565 47.727 54865 63249
30 40568 43.903 47.575 51 623 56.085 61.007 66.439 79058 94461
40 60.402 67403 75.401 84.550 95.026 107.03 120.80 154.76 19964
50 84.579 97484 112.80 131 00 152.67 17850 209.35 290.34 406.53
60 11405 135.99 163.05 19652 237.99 289 50 353.58 533.13 81352
1-64 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING HANDBOOK

TABLE 1.36-PRINCIPAL AMOUNTING TO A GIVEN SUM

The pnncipal P whrch. tfplaced at compound interesttoday, willamount to a given sum A at the
end ofn years ISP=A xx'or P=A xy'or P= A xz', according as the interest(atthe rateof i percent
per annum)is compounded annually,semiannually,orquarterly; thefactorx'or y'orz'beingtaken
from the followingtables.

Values of x,-InterestCompounded Annually:P=A xx”

Years i=2 2% 3 3% 4 4% 5 6 7
0.98039 0.97561 0 97087 0.96618 0.96154 0.95694 0.95238 0.94340 0.93458
0.96117 0.95181 0 94260 0.93351 0.92456 0.91573 0.90703 0.89000 0.87344
0 94232 0.92860 091514 0.90194 0.88900 0.87630 0.86384 0.83962 0.81630
0.92385 0.90595 0 88849 0.87144 0.85480 0.83856 0.82270 0.79209 0.76290
0 90573 0.88385 0.86261 0.84197 0.82193 0.80245 0.78353 0.74726 0.71299
0.88797 0.86230 083748 0.81350 0.79031 0.76790 074622 0.70496 0.66634
0.87056 0.84127 0 81309 0.78599 0.75992 0.73483 0.71068 0.66506 0.62275
0.85349 0.82075 0.78941 0.75941 0.73069 0.70319 067684 0.62741 0.58201
9 0.83676 0.80073 0.76642 0.73373 0.70259 0.67290 0.64461 0.59190 0.54393
10 0.82035 0.78120 0.74409 0.70892 0.67556 0.64393 0.61391 0.55839 0.50835
11 0.80426 076214 0.72242 068495 0.64958 0.61620 0.58468 0.52679 0.47509
12 0.78849 0.74356 0.70138 0.66178 0.62460 0.58966 0.55684 0.49697 0.44401
13 0.77303 0.72542 0.68095 0.63940 0.60057 0.56427 0.53032 0.46884 0.41496
14 0.75788 0.70773 0.66112 0.61778 0.57748 0.53997 0.50507 0.44230 0.38783
15 0.74301 0.69047 0.64186 0.59689 0.55526 0.51672 0.48102 0.41727 0.36245
16 0.72845 0.67362 0.62317 0.57671 0.53391 0.49447 0.45811 0.39365 0.33873
17 0.71416 0.65720 0.60502 0.55720 0.51337 0.47318 0.43630 0.37136 0.31657
18 0.70016 0.64117 0.58739 0.53839 0.49363 0.45280 0.41552 0.35034 0.29586
19 0.68643 0.62553 0.57029 0.52016 0.47464 0.43330 0.39573 0.33051 0.27651
20 0.67297 0 61027 0.55368 0.50257 0.45639 0.41464 0.37689 0.31180 0.25842
25 0.60953 0.53939 0.47761 0.42315 0.37512 0.33273 0 29530 0.23300 0.18425
30 0.55207 0.47674 0.41199 0.35628 0.30832 0.26700 0.23138 0.17411 0.13137
40 0.45289 0.37243 0.30656 0.25257 0.20829 0.17193 0.14205 0.09722 0.06678
50 0.37153 0.29094 0.22811 0.17905 0.14071 0.11071 0.08720 0.05429 0.03395
60 0 30478 0.22728 0.16973 0.12693 0.09506 0.07129 0.05354 0.03031 0.01726

Values of y'-InterestCompounded Semiannually: P=Axy’

Years i=2 2% 3 3% 4 4% 5 6 7
1 0.98030 0.97546 097066 0.96590 0.96117 0.95647 0.95181 0.94260 0.93351
2 0.96098 0.95152 094218 0.93296 0.92385 0.91484 0.90595 0.88849 0.87144
3 0.94205 0.92817 0.91454 0 90114 0.88797 0.87502 0.86230 0.83748 0.81350
4 0.92348 0.90540 0.88771 0 87041 0.85349 0.83694 0.82075 0.78941 0.75941
5 0.90529 0.88318 0.86167 0 84073 0.82035 0.80051 0.78120 0.74409 0.70892
6 0.88745 0.86151 0.83639 0 81206 0.77849 0.76567 0.74356 0.70138 0.66178
7 0.86996 0.84037 0.81185 0 78436 0.75788 0.73234 0.70773 0.66112 0.61778
8 0.85282 0.81975 0.78803 0.75762 0.72845 0.70047 0.67362 062317 0.57671
9 0.83602 0.79963 0.76491 0 73178 0.70016 0.66998 0.64117 0 58739 0.53836
10 0.81954 0.78001 0.74247 0.70682 0.67297 0.64082 0.61027 055368 0.50257
11 0.80340 0.76087 0.72069 0.68272 0.64684 0.61292 0.58086 052189 0.46915
12 0.78757 0.74220 0.69954 0.65944 0.62172 0.58625 0.55288 049193 0.43796
13 077205 0.72398 0.67902 0 63695 0.59758 0.56073 0.52623 0 46369 0.40884
14 0.75684 0.70622 0.65910 061523 0.57437 0.53632 0.50088 043708 0.38165
15 0.74192 0.68889 0.63976 0 59425 0.55207 0.51298 0.47674 041199 0.35628
16 0.72730 0.67198 0.62099 0 57398 0.53063 0.49065 045377 038834 0 33259
17 0.71297 0.65549 0.60277 0 55441 0.51003 0.46930 0.43191 0.36604 0.31048
18 069892 0.63941 058509 0.53550 0.49022 0.44887 0.41109 0.34503 0.28983
19 0.68515 0.62372 056792 051724 0.47119 0.42933 0.39128 0.32523 0.27056
20 0.67165 0.60841 0 55126 0.49960 0.45289 0.41065 0.37243 0.30656 0.25257
25 060804 0.53734 047500 042003 0.37153 032873 0.29094 0.22811 0.17905
30 055045 0.47457 040930 035313 030478 0.26315 0.22728 0.16973 0.12693
40 0.45112 0.37017 0 30389 0.24960 0.20511 0.16863 0.13870 0.09398 0.06379
50 0.36971 0.28873 0 22563 0.17642 0.13803 0.10806 0.08465 0.05203 0.03206
60 0.30299 0.22521 016752 0.12470 0.09289 0.06925 005166 002881 001611
MATHEMATICALTABLES & UNITS &SYSTEMS OF WEIGHTS & MEASURES 1-65

TABLE 1.36-PRINCIPAL AMOUNTING TO A GIVEN SUM (continued)

Values of z’-InterestComoounded Quarterlv:P=A xz’*

Years i=2 2% 3 3% 4 4% 5 6 7
1 0.98025 0.97539 0.97055 0.96575 0.96098 0.95624 0.95152 0.94218 0.93296
2 0.96089 0.95138 0.94198 0.93266 0.92348 0.91439 0.90540 0.88771 0.87041
3 0.94191 0.92796 0.91424 0.90074 0.88745 0.87437 0.86151 0.83639 0.81206
4 0.92330 0.90512 0.88732 0.86989 0.85282 0.83611 0.81975 0.78803 0.75762
5 0.90506 0.88284 086119 0.84010 0.81954 0.79952 0.78001 074247 0.70682
6 0.88719 0.86111 0.83583 0.81132 0.78757 0.78453 0.74220 0.69954 0.65944
7 0.86966 0.83991 0.81122 0 78354 0.75684 0.73107 0.70622 0.65910 0.61523
8 0.85248 0.81924 0.78733 0 75670 0.72730 0.89908 0.87198 0.62099 0.57390
9 0.83564 0.79908 0.76415 0 73079 0.69892 0.66849 0.63941 0.58509 0.53550
IO 0.81914 0.77941 0.74165 070576 0.67165 0.63923 0.60841 0.55126 0.49960
11 0.80296 0.76022 0.71981 068159 0.64545 0.61126 0.57892 0.51939 0.46611
12 0.78710 0.74151 0.69861 065825 0.62026 0.58451 0.55086 0 48936 0.43486
13 0.77155 0.72326 0.67804 0.63570 0.59606 0.55893 0.52415 046107 0.40570
14 0.75631 0.70546 0.65808 0.61393 0.57280 0.53447 0.49874 0.43441 0.37851
15 0.74137 0.68809 0.63870 0.59291 0.55045 0.51108 0.47457 0.40930 0.35313
16 0.72673 0.67115 0.61989 0.57260 0.52897 0.48871 0.45156 0.38563 0.32946
17 0.71237 0.65464 0.60164 0 55299 0.50833 0.46733 0.42967 0.36334 0.30737
18 0.69830 0.63852 0.58392 0.53405 0.48850 0.44687 0.40884 0.34233 0.28676
19 0.68451 0.62281 0.56673 0.51576 0.46944 0.42732 0.38903 032254 0.26754
20 0.67099 0.60748 0.55004 0.49810 0.45112 0.40862 0.37017 0.30389 0.24960
25 0.60729 0.53630 0.47369 041845 0.36971 0.32670 0.28873 0.22563 0.17642
30 0.54963 0.47347 0.40794 035154 0.30299 0.26120 0.22521 0.16752 0.12470
40 0.45023 0.36903 0.30255 0.24810 0.20351 0.16697 0.13702 0.09235 0.06230
50 0.36880 0.28762 0.22438 0.17510 0.13669 0.10673 0.08337 0.05091 0.03113
60 0.30210 0.22417 0.16641 012358 0.09181 0.06823 0.05072 0.02806 0.01555

'The formula used for this lable IS L'= [l +(1/100)] = l/z

TABLE 1.37-ANNUITY AMOUNTING TO A GIVEN SUM (SINKING FUND)

The annual payment, V, which, ifset aside at the end of each year, willamount with accumulated
interesttoagivensum Sattheendofnyearsis Y=Sxv', wherethefactorv'isgiven below. Interest
is i percent per annum, compounded annually.)

Values of v"

Years i=2 2% 3 3% 4 4% 5 6 7
2 0.49505 0.49383 0.49261 0.49140 0.49020 0.48900 0.48780 0.48544 0 48309
3 0.32675 0.32514 0.32353 0.32193 0.32035 0.31877 0.31721 0.31411 031105
4 024262 0.24082 0.23903 0.23725 0.23549 0.23374 0.23201 0.22859 022523
5 019216 0.19025 0.18835 0.18648 0 18463 0.18279 0.18097 0.17740 017389
6 015853 0.15655 0.15460 0.15267 0.15076 0.14888 0.14702 0.14336 0 13980
013451 013250 013051 0.12854 012661 0.12470 0.12282 011914 011555
8 0.11651 0.11447 0.11246 0.11048 0.10853 0.10661 0.10472 0.10104 0 09747
9 010252 0.10046 0.09843 0.09645 0.09449 0.09257 0.09069 0.08702 0 08349
10 009133 0.08926 0.08723 0.08524 008329 0.08138 0.07950 0.07587 007238
11 0.08218 0.08011 0.07808 0.07609 0.07415 0.07225 0.07039 0.06679 0.06336
12 0 07456 0.07249 0.07046 0.06848 0.06655 0.06467 0.06283 0.05928 0.05590
13 006812 0.06605 0.06403 0.06206 0.06014 0.05828 0.05646 0.05296 004965
14 0.06260 0.06054 0.05853 0.05657 005467 0.05282 0.05102 0.04758 0.04434
15 0.05783 0.05577 0.05377 0.05183 0.04994 0.04811 0.04634 0.04296 0.03979
16 0.05365 0.05160 0.04961 0.04768 0.04582 0.04402 0.04227 0.03895 0.03586
17 0 04997 0.04793 0.04595 0.04404 0.04220 0.04042 0.03870 0.03544 003243
18 0.04670 0.04467 0.04271 0.04082 0.03899 0.03724 0.03555 0.03236 0.02941
19 0.04378 0.04176 0.03981 0.03794 003614 0.03441 0.03275 0.02962 0.02675
20 0.04116 0.03915 0.03722 0.03536 003358 0.03188 0.03024 0.02718 0.02439
25 003122 0.02928 0.02743 0.02567 002401 0.02244 0.02095 0.01823 0.01581
30 0.02465 0.02278 0.02102 0.01937 001783 0.01639 0.01505 0.01265 0.01059
40 0.01656 0.01484 0.01326 0.01183 0.01052 0.00934 0.00828 0.00646 0.00467
50 0.01182 0.01026 0.00887 0.00763 000655 0.00560 0.00478 0.00344 000238
60 0.00877 0.00735 0.00613 0.00509 0.00420 0.00345 0.00283 0.00188 0.00121

'The fctmula used for this table IS v'=(1/100111~[1 +(r/IOOJ] - 1 I = II"


l-66 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING HANDBOOK

TABLE 1.38-PRESENT WORTHOFAN ANNUITY

Thecaprtal C, which. tfplaced al interesttoday,wrllprovide


fora given annual payment Yfor a term
of "years before itISexhausted isC= YX w,wherethefactor w ISgiven below (Interestatipercent
per annum, compounded annually.)

Values of w*

Years /=2 2% 3 3% 4 4% 5 6 7
1 0.9804 0.9756 0.9709 0.9662 0.9615 0.9569 0.9524 0.9434 0.9346
2 1.9416 1.9274 1.9135 1.8997 1.8861 1.8727 1.8594 1.8334 1.8080
3 2.8839 2.8560 2.8286 2.8016 2.7751 2.7490 2.7232 2.6730 2.6243
4 3.8077 3.7620 3.7171 3.6731 3.6299 3.5875 3.5460 3.4651 3.3872
5 4.7135 4.6458 4.5797 4.5151 4.4518 4.3900 4.3295 4.2124 4.1002
6 5.6014 5.5081 5.4172 5.3286 5.2421 5.1579 5.0757 4.9173 4.7665
6.4720 6.3494 6.2303 6.1145 6.0021 5.8927 5.7864 5.5824 5.3893
i 7.3255 7.1701 7.0197 6.8740 6.7327 6.5959 6.4632 6.2098 5.9713
9 8.1622 7.9709 7.7861 7.6077 7.4353 7.2688 7.1078 6.8017 6.5152
10 8.9826 8.7521 8.5302 8.3166 8.1109 7.9127 7.7217 7.3601 7.0236
11 9.7868 9.5142 9.2526 9.0016 8.7605 8.5289 8.3064 7.8869 7.4987
12 10.575 10.258 9.9540 9 6633 9 3851 9.1186 8.8633 8.383% 7.9427
13 11.348 10983 10.635 10303 9.9856 9.6829 9.3936 8.8527 8.3577
14 12.106 11.691 11.296 10921 10.563 10.223 9.8986 9.2950 8.7455
15 12.849 12.381 11.938 11.517 11.118 10.740 10.380 9.7122 9 1079
16 13.578 13.055 12.561 12.094 11.652 11.234 10.838 10 106 9.4466
17 14.292 13.712 13.166 12.651 12.166 11.707 il.274 10.477 9.7632
18 14992 14.353 13.754 13190 12.659 12.160 11.690 10.828 10.059
19 15.678 14.979 14.324 13.710 13.134 12.593 12065 11.158 10.336
20 16.351 15.589 14.877 14.212 13.590 13.008 12.462 11.470 10.594
25 19.523 18.424 17.413 16.482 1562'2 14.828 14093 12.783 11.654
30 22.396 20.930 19.600 18.392 17.292 16.289 15.372 13.765 12.409
40 27.355 25.103 23.115 21 355 19.793 18.402 17.159 15.046 13.332
50 31.424 28.362 25.730 23.456 21.482 19.762 18.256 15.762 13 801
60 34.761 30.909 27.676 24.945 22.623 20.638 18.929 16.161 14.039

‘The formula used lor thls table IS w = :1 -[1 + (l/l


OO)] I/(r/loo,= "ix

TABLEl.39-ANNUITY PROVIDED FOR BYAGIVENCAPITAL

The annual payment Yprovided forfora term ofn years by agiven capitalcplaced atinteresttoday
is Y=Cx w'. Interestat i percent per annum, compounded annually;the fund is supposed lo be
exhausted at the end of the term.

Values of w"

Years i=2 2% 3 3% 4 4% 5 6 7
~ 2 0.51505 0.51883 0.52261 0.52640 0.53020 0.53400 0.53780 0.54544 0.55309
3 0.34675 0.35014 0.35353 035693 0.36035 0.36377 0.36721 0.37411 0.38105
4 0.26262 0.26582 0.26903 0.27225 0.27549 0.27874 0.28201 0.28859 0.29523

E 0.21216
0.17853 0.21525
0.18155 021835
018460 0.22148
0.18767 0.22463
0.19076 0.22779
0.19388 0.23097
019702 0.23740
0.20336 0.24389
0.20980
7 0.15451 0.15750 0 16051 0.16354 0.16661 0.16970 0.17282 0.17914 0.18555
8 0.13651 0.13947 0.14246 0.14548 0.14853 0.15161 0 15472 0.16104 0.16747
9 0.12252 0.12546 0.12843 0.13145 0.13449 0.13757 0.14069 0.14702 0.15349
10 0.11133 0.11426 0.11723 0.12024 0.12329 0.12638 0.12950 0.13587 0.14238
11 0.10218 0.10511 0.10808 0.11109 0.11415 0.11725 0.12039 0.12679 0.13336
12 0.09456 0.09749 0.10046 0.10348 0.10655 0.10967 0.11283 0.11928 0.12590
13 0.08812 0.09105 0.09403 0.09706 0.10014 0.10328 0.10646 0.11296 0.11965
14 0.08260 0.08554 0.08853 0.09157 0.09467 0.09782 0.10102 0.10758 0.11434
15 0.07783 0.08077 0.08377 0.08683 0.08994 0.09311 0.09634 0.10296 0.10979
16 0.07365 0.07660 0.07961 0.08268 0.08582 0.08902 0.09227 0.09895 0.10586
17 0.06997 0.07293 0.07595 0.07904 0.08220 0.08542 008870 0.09544 0.10243
18 0.06670 0.06967 0.07271 0.07582 0.07899 0.08224 0.08555 0.09236 0.09941
19 0.06378 0.06676 0.06981 0.07294 0.07614 0 07941 0.08275 0.08962 0.09675
20 0.06116 0.06415 0.06722 0.07036 0.07358 0.07688 0.08024 0.08718 0.09439
25 0.05122 0.05428 0.05743 0.06067 0.06401 0.06744 0.07095 0.07823 0.08581
30 0.04465 0.04778 0.05102 0.05437 0.05783 0.06139 0.06505 0.07265 0.08059
40 0.03656 0.03984 0.04326 0.04683 0.05052 0.05434 0.05828 0.06646 0.07467
50 0.03182 0.03526 0.03887 0.04263 0.04655 0.05060 0.05478 0.06344 0.07238
60 0.02877 0.03235 0.03613 0.04009 0.04420 0.04845 0.05283 0.06188 0.07121
MATHEMATlCALTABLES&UNlTS&SYSTEMSOFWElGHTS& MEASURES 1-67

TABLE 1.40-DECIMAL EQUIVALENTS

Common Fractrons
From Mrnutes and From Decrmal Parts of Exact
Seconds intoDecimal a Degree intoMinutes Decrmal
Parts of a Degree and Seconds (exact valuesi 16ths 32nds 64ths Values
0’ 0~.0000 0' 00 .oooo 30.00 0’ 00.50 30 1 0.01 5625
0~0167 1" 0?0003 IO.01 0' 36" 00 51 30' 36" 1 2 0.03 125
2' 00.0333 2" 0°.0006 IO.02 1' 12" OO.52 31' 12" 3 0.04 6875
3' 00.05 3" 0" 0008 IO.03 1' 48" 00.53 31' 48" 1 2 4 0.06 25
4' 00.0667 4" 0~.0011 IO.04 2' 24" 00.54 32' 24" 5 0.07 8125
5' 00.0833 5" 0~.0014 IO.05 3' 00.55 33' 3 6 009 375
6' 00.10 6" 0~.0017 IO.06 3' 36" O" 56 33' 36" 7 0.10 9375
7' O".1167 7" 0".0019 30.07 4' 12" 00.57 34' 12" 2 4 8 0.12 5
8' 00.1333 8" 000022 IO.08 4' 48" OO.58 34' 48" 9 0.14 0625
9' 0".15 9" 0".0025 Y.09 5' 24" 00.59 35' 24" 5 10 0.15 625
IO' 00 1667 10" 0" 0028 30.10 6' OO.60 36' 11 017 1875
11' OO.1833 11" 0~.0031 IO.11 6' 36" OO.61 36' 36" 3 6 12 0.18 75
12' 00 20 12" 000033 30.12 7' 12" 00 62 37' 12" 13 0.20 3125
13' OO.2167 13" On.0036 Y.13 7' 48" OO.63 37' 48" 7 14 0.21 875
14' OO.2333 14" 00.0039 IO.14 8' 24" OO.64 38' 24" 15 0.23 4375
15' OO.25 15" 0'.0042 IO.15 9' 0".65 39' 4 8 16 0.25
16' OO.2667 16" 00.0044 IO.16 9' 36" 00 66 39' 36" 17 026 5625
17' O" 2833 17" 00 0047 IO.17 IO' 12" OO.67 40' 12" 9 18 0.28 125
18' 00.30 18" 00.005 IO.18 10' 48" 00.68 40' 48" 19 0.29 6875
19' 00.3167 19" 00.0053 IO.19 11' 24" O" 69 41' 24" 5 10 20 031 25
20' 00.3333 20" 0'.0056 IO.20 12' OO.70 42' 21 0.32 8125
21' 00.35 21" O".0058 10 21 12' 36" 00.71 42' 36" 11 22 0.34 375
22' 0".3667 22" 0".0061 IO.22 13' 12" O" 72 43' 12" 23 035 9375
23' OO.3833 23" 0?0064 IO.23 13' 48" 00 73 43' 48" 6 12 24 0.37 5
24' 00.40 24" 0".0067 I" 24 14' 24" 0" 74 44' 24" 25 0.39 0625
25' 0°.4167 25" 0~.0069 IO.25 15' 00.75 45' 13 26 0.40 625
26' OO.4333 26" 0".0072 IO.26 15' 36" 0" 76 45' 36" 27 0.42 1875
27' 00.45 27" 00.0075 IO.27 16' 12" 00 77 46' 12" 7 14 28 0.43 75
20' OO.4667 28" 0'.0078 IO.28 16' 48" 0".78 46' 48" 29 0.45 3125
29' OO.4833 29" 0°0081 10 29 17' 24" 00.79 47' 24" 15 30 0.46 875
30' 00.50 30" O".0083 IO.30 18' 00.80 48' 31 0.48 4375
31' OO.5167 31" OO.0086 IO.31 18' 36" OO.81 48' 36" 8 16 32 0.50
32' OO.5333 32" 0" 0089 I" 32 19' 12" 0".82 49' 12" 33 051 5625
33' 00.55 33" 00 0092 IO.83 19' 48" OO.83 49' 48" 17 34 0.53 125
34' OO.5667 34" 0" 0094 IO.34 20' 24" 0".84 50' 24" 35 0.54 6875
35' OO.5833 35" 0?0097 IO.35 21' OO.85 51' 9 18 36 0.56 25
36' OO.60 36" O".Ol IO.36 21' 36" 00.86 51' 36" 37 0.57 8125
37' OO.6167 37" 0?0103 IO.37 22' 12" 0' 87 52' 12" 19 38 059 375
30' OO.6333 38" 0".0106 IO.38 22' 48" 00 88 52' 48" 39 060 9375
39' OO.65 39" O".0108 IO.39 23' 24" O" 89 53' 24" 10 20 40 0.62 5
40' OO.6667 40" O?Olll 30.40 24' 00.9c 54' 41 0.64 0625
41' OO.6833 41" 0~.0114 IF.41 24' 36" 00 91 54' 36" 21 42 0.65 625
42' 00.70 42 " 00.0117 IO.42 25' 12" 00.92 55' 12" 43 0.67 1875
43' OO.7167 43" 0?0119 IO.43 25' 48" 00 93 55' 48" 11 22 44 068 75
44' 00.7333 44" 00.0122 IO.44 26' 24" 00.94 56' 24" 45 0.70 3125
45' 00.75 45 I' OO.0125 IO.45 27' 00 95 57' 23 46 0.71 a75
46' OO.7667 46" OO.0128 IO.46 27' 36" 0".96 57' 36" 47 0.73 4375
47' O" 7833 47" 0?0131 IO.47 28' 12" 00.97 58' 12" 12 24 48 0.75
40' O".l30 48" 00.0133 IO.48 28' 48" 0".98 58' 48" 49 0.76 5625
49' 0'=.8167 49 " 0?0136 30 49 29' 24" 00.99 59' 24" 25 50 0.78 125
50' OO.8333 50" 0".0139 I".50 30' I".00 60' 51 0.79 6875
51' OO.85 51 " 0°.0142 13 26 52 0.81 25
52' OO.8667 52" oa.0144 0”.000 0” .o 53 0.82 8125
53' OO.8833 53" 000147 O%OOl 3" 6 27 54 0.84 375
54' 0".90 54 VI 0".015 0".002 7" 2 55 0.85 9375
55' OO.9167 55 'I 00.0153 00.003 10" .8 14 28 56 0.87 5
56' 00 9333 56" OO.0156 00.004 14" .4 57 0.89 0625
57' 00 95 57" 0'.0158 0?005 18" 29 58 0.90 625
58' OO.9667 58" O".0161 O".006 21" .6 59 0.92 1875
59' OO.9833 59" OYO164 00.007 25" .2 15 30 60 0.93 75
60' 10.00 60" 00.0167 0“.008 28" 8 61 0.95 3125
00.009 32" 4 31 62 0.96 875
O".OIO 36" 63 0.98 4375
Units and Systems of Weights
and Measures
L.E. Barbrow. U.S. N,itl Bureau of Standards

The U.S. Natl. Bureau of Standards was established by A unit is a value, quantity, or magnitude in terms of
act of congress in 1901 to serve as a national scientific which other values, quantities, or magnitudes are ex-
laboratory in the physical sciences and to provide fun- pressed. In general, a unit is fixed by definition and is
damental measurement standards for science and indus- independent of such physical conditions as temperature.
try. In carrying out these related functions the bureau Examples include the yard. the pound. the gallon, the
conducts research and development in many fields of meter, the liter, the gram.
physics, mathemstics, chemistry, and engineering. At the A .stumlurd is a physical embodiment of a unit. In gener-
time of its founding, the bureau had custody of two al it is not independent of physical conditions, and it is
primary standards-the meter bar for length and the kilo- a true embodiment of the unit only under specified con-
gram cylinder for mass (or weight). With the phenome- ditions. For example, a yard standard has a length of one
nal growth of science and technology over the past half yard when at some definite temperature and supported in
century, the bureau has become a major research institu- a certain manner. If supported in a different manner, it
tion concerned not only with everyday weights and meas- might have to be at a different temperature in order to
ures but also with hundreds of other scientific and have a length of I yard.
engineering standards that have become necessary to the
industrial progress of the U.S. Nevertheless, the U.S. The Metric System
still looks to the bureau for information on the units of Definition, Origin, and Development
weights and measures. particularly their definitions and
The metric system* is the international system of weights
equivalents.
and measures based on the meter and the kilogram. The
The subject of weights and measures can be treated from
essential features of the system were embodied in a report
several different standpoints. Scientists and engineers are
made to the French Natl. Assembly by the Paris Acade-
interested in the methods by which precision meas-
my of Sciences in 1791. The definitive action taken in
urements are made. general knowledge of weights and
1791 was the outgrowth of recommendations along simi-
measures, the present status of units and standards, and
lar lines dating back to 1670. The adoption of the system
miscellaneous facts that will be useful in their everyday
in France was slow, but its desirability as an internation-
professional life.
al system was recognized by geodesists and others. On
The expression “weights and measures” is used here
May 20, 1875. an international treaty known as the Intl,
in its basic sense of referring to measurements of length,
Metric Convention was signed providing for an Intl.
mass, and capacity, thus excluding such topics as electri-
Bureau of Weights and Measures, thus ensuring “the in-
cal and time measurements and thermometry. This sec-
ternational unification and improvement of the metric sys-
tion on units and systems of weights and measures presents
tem.” The metric system is now either obligatory or
some fundamental information to clarify thinking on this
permissible throughout the world.
subject and to eliminate erroneous and misleading use of
Although the metric system is a decimal system, the
terms.
words ‘*metric” and “decimal” are not synonymous, and
Unit and Standard Definitions care should be taken not to confuse the two terms.

It is essential that there be established and kept in mind


the distinction between the terms “units” and “standards”
of weights and measures. ‘See also Chap 58
MATHEMATICAL TABLES & UNITS & SYSTEMS OF WEIGHTS & MEASURES l-69

Units and Standards of the Metric System From 1893 until 1959. the yard was defined as being
In the metric system, the fundumcntai units of length and equal exactly to 360013937 111. In 1959 a small change
mass arc the tneter and the kilogram. The other units of was tnade in the definition of the yard to resolve discrepan-
length and mass. as well as all units ofarea. volume. and cies both in the U.S. and abroad. Since 1959. the yard
compound units such as density. are derived from thcxc is defined as being equal exactly to 0.9144 m; the new
two fundamental units. yard is shorter than the old vard by exactly two parts in
From I960 to 1983. the meter was defined as the length a million. At the same time,*it was decided that anv data
equal to I 650 763.73 vvavelengths in vacuum of the radi- expressed in feet derived from geodetic survey within
ation corresponding to the transition between the levels the U.S. would continue to bear the relationship as dc-
21?tn and 5d5 of the krypton 86 atom. Since 1983. the fined in 1893 (I ft equals 1200/3937 m). This foot is called
meter has been defined as the length of the path travelled the U.S. survey foot, while the foot defined in 1959 is
by light in a vacuum during a time interval of called the international foot. Measurements expressed in
I1299 792 458 of a second. The kilogram previously dc- statute miles, survey feet, rods, chains, links. or the
fined as the mass of I cubic decimeter of water at the tem- squares thereof, and also acres should therefore be con-
pcraturc of maximum density was known as the Kilogram vcrted to the corresponding metric values by using
of the Archives. It was replaced after the Intl. Metric Con- pre-1959 conversion factors whet-c more than tivc-
vention in 1875 by the Intl. Prototype Kilogram. which significant-figure accuracy is involved.
became the unit of mass vvithout reference to the mass In 1971 the Natl. Bureau of Standards completed a
of a cubic decimeter of water or to the Kilogram of the 3-year study of the impact of increasing worldwide met-
Archives. ric use on the U.S. The study ended with a report to the
The liter is a unit of capacity. In 1964 the 12th General Congress entitled A MmYc Auwrictr-A Dwi.sio~t W/MN
Conference on Weights and Measures redefined the liter Ti/irc Hus Cornc. In the last few years metric USChas been
as being I cubic decimeter. By its previous definition- increasing rapidly in the U.S., principally in the tnanu-
the volume occupied. under standard conditions. by a facturing and educational sectors. Public Law 93-380.
quantity of pure water having a mass of I kilogram-the enacted Aug. 2 I, 1974, states that It IS the policy of the
liter was larger than the cubic decimeter by 28 parts in U.S. to encourage educational agencies and institutions
I 000 000; except for determinations of high precision, to prepare students to use the tnetric system of mcasure-
this difference is so small as to be of no consequence. tnent with ease and facility as a part ofthe regular educa-
The tnodernized metric system includes “base” units tion program. On Dec. 23. 1975. President Gerald Ford
such as units of temperature and time. as well as many signed Public Law 94-168. the Metric Conversion Act
“derived” units such as units of force and work. For de- of 1975. This act declares a national policy of coordinat-
tails, see Chap. 58. ing the increasing use of the metric system in the U.S.
It established a U.S. Metric Board. whose functions as

of Oct. I. 1982 were transferred to the Dept. of Con-


The Intl. Bureau of Weights and Measures mercc, Office of Metric Progratns, to coordinate the
The lntl. Bureau of Weights and Measures was established voluntary conversion to the tnetric system.
at Scvres, a suburb of Paris, in accordance with the Intl.
Metric Convention of May 20. 1875. At the bureau are
kept the Intl. Prototype kilogram, many secondary stan-
British and U.S. Systems
dards of all sorts. and equipment for comparing standards The implication is sometimes made that the inch/pound
and making precision measurements. The Bureau, main- system of weights and measures in the British Common-
tained by assessed contributions of the signatory govcrn- wealth countries and the U.S. system are identical. It is
merits, is truly international. true that the U.S. and the British inch are defined identi-
In recent years the scope of the work at the Intl. Bureau cally for scientific work. that they are practically identi-
has been considerably broadened. It now carries on re- cal in commercial usage, that a similar situation exists for
starch in the fields of electricity and photometry in addi- the U.S. and the British pound, and that many tables. such
tion to its former work in weights and measures, which as 12 in. = I ft, 3 ft= I yd, and 1,760 yd= I international
included such allied fields as thermometry and the meas- mile, arc the same in both countries; but there are some
urement of barometric pressures. very important differences.
First. the U.S. bushel. the U.S. gallon. and their sub-
divisions differ from the corresponding British units. Also.
Present Status of the Metric System in the U.S. the British ton is 2,240 Ibm. whereas the ton generally
The use of the metric system in this country was legal- used in the U.S. is the short ton of 2,000 Ibm. The Ameri-
ized by act of congress in 1866. but was not made ob- can colonists adopted the English wine gallon of 23 I cu
ligatory. in. The English of that period used this wine gallon. but
The speed of light in a vacuum and U.S. Prototype Kilo- they also had another gallon. the ale gallon of 282 cu in.
gram No. 20 are recognized as the primary standards of In 1824 these two gallons were abandoned by the British
length and mass for both the metric and the inch-pound when they adopted the British imperial gallon. which is
(customary) systems of measurement in this country be- defined as the volume of IO Ibtn of water. at a tempera-
cause these standards are the most precise and reliable ture of 62°F. which, by calculation, is equivalent to
standards available. Since I893 in the U.S. the yard has 277.42 cu in. At the same time, the bushel was rcdcfined
been defined in terms of the meter and the pound in tertns as 8 gal, In the British system. the units of dry mcasurc
of the kilogram. There is in the U.S. no primary stan- are the sdtne as those of liquid muasurc. In the U.S. these
dard either of length or mass in the inch-pound system. two are not the same. the gallon and its subdivisions being
I-70 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING HANDBOOK

used in the measurement of liquids, while the hushcl, with One yard is defined as 0.9144 m. The inch is thcrcfore
its subdivisions. is used in the measurement of certain dry exactly equal to 25.4 mm.
commodities. The U.S. gallon is divided into 4 liquid
quarts and the U.S. bushel into 32 dry quarts. All the units Mass
of capacity mentioned thus far are larger in the British The primary standard of mass for this country is U.S.
system than in the U.S. system. But the British fluid ounce Prototype Kilogram 20, which is a platinum-iridium cyl-
is smaller than the U.S. fluid ounce. because the British inder kept at the Natl. Bureau of Standards. The value
quart is divided into 40 fluid ounces. whereas the the U.S. of this mass standard is known in terms of the Intl.
quart is dlvlded into 32 fluid ounces. Prototype Kilogram, a platinum-iridium standard, which
From the foregoing it is seen that in the British system is kept at the Intl. Bureau of Weights and Measures.
an avoirdupois ounce of water at 62°F has a volume of The avoirdupois pound is defined in terms of the kilo-
I fluid oz. because 10 Ibm is equivalent to I60 avoirdupois gram by the relation I avoirdupois lbm=0.453 592 37 kg.
oz. and I gal is equivalent to 4 quarts, or 160 fluid oz.
This convenient relation does not exist in the U.S. sys-
tem because a U.S. gallon of water at 62°F weighs about Mass vs. Weight. The mass of a body is a measure of
8% Ibm, or 133% avoirdupois oz, and the U.S. gallon its inertial property. The ,t~i#r of a body has in the past
is cquivalcnt to 4 X 32, or 128 fluid oz. In comparison. been used at times to designate its mass and at other times
I U.S. fluid oz=1.041 British fluid oz; I British fluid to designate a force that is related to gravitational attrac-
oz=O.961 U.S. fluid oz; 1 U.S. gal=0.833 British in- tion. Because these two concepts of weight are incorn-
pcrial gal: and I British imperial gal= I.201 U.S. gal. patible, and have therefore resulted in confusion, the term
“weight” should be avoided in technical practice except
under circumstances in which its meaning is completely
Subdivision of Units clear. When the term is used, it is important to know
In general, units are subdivided by one of three systems: whether mx~ orfbrw is intended and to use SI units prop-
(I) decimal, i.e., into tenths; (2) duodecimal, into erly by using kilograms for mass and newtons for force.
twelfths; or (3) binary, into halves. Usually the subdivi- See also Chapter 58.
sion is continued by use of the same system. Each method As weighing and measuring are important factors in our
has advantages for certain purposes, and it cannot prop- everyday lives, it is quite natural that questions arise about
erly be said that any one method is “best” unless the use the use of various units and terms and about the magni-
to which the unit and its subdivisions are to be put is tude of quantities involved.
known. The ton is used as a unit of measure in two distinct
For example, if we are concerned only with measure- senses: (I) as a unit of weight. and (2) as a unit of capac-
ments of length to moderate precision, it is convenient ity or volume.
to measure and to express these lengths in feet, inches, In the weight sense the term means: (I) the shorr. or
and binary fractions of an inch, thus 9 ft 4% in. If, how- rzet ton of 2,000 Ibm; (2) the long, ~KLKY, or .shipprr’.r
ever. these measured lengths are to be used subsequently ton of 2240 Ibm; (3) the n?~vic ton of 1000 kg, or 2204.6
in calculations of area or volume, that method of subdi- Ibm. In the capacity sense “ton ” is restricted to uses re-
vision at once becomes extremely inconvenient. For that lated to ships.
reason, engineers, instead of dividing the foot into inches In the U.S. and Canada the ton (weight) most commonly
and binary subdivisions of the inch, divide it decimally: used is the shortton, in Great Britain it is the /orzg ton,
that is. into tenths, hundredths, and thousandths of a foot. and in countries using the metric system it is the metric,
The method of subdivision of a unit is thus made largely ton.
on the basis of convenience to the user. The fact that units
have commonly been subdivided into certain subunits for
Effect of Air Buoyancy. Another point to consider in the
centuries does not preclude their also having another mode calibration and use of standards of mass is the buoyancy
of subdivision in some frequently used cases where con-
or lifting effect of the air. A body immersed in any fluid
venience indicates the value of such other method. Thus
is buoyed up by a force equal to the force of gravity on
the gallon is usually subdivided into quarts and pints, but the displaced fluid. Two bodies of equal mass. if placed
the majority of gasoline-measuring pumps of the price- one on each pan of an equal-arm balance. will balance
computing type are graduated to show tenths of a gallon. each other in a vacuum. A comparison in a vacuum against
Although the mile has for centuries been divided into rods, a known mass standard gives “true mass.” If compared
yards, feet, and inches. the odometer part of an automo- in air, however, they will not balance each other unless
bile speedometer indicates tenths of a mile. Although our they are of equal volume. If of unequal volume, the larg-
dollar is divided into 100 parts, we habitually use and er body will displace the greater volume of air and will
speak of halves and quarters. be buoyed up by a greater force than will than will the
smaller body, and the larger body will appear to be of
less mass than the smaller body. The greater the differ-
Standards ence in volume, and the greater the density of the air in
Length which the comparison weighing is made, the greater will
A specified spectral line emitted by krypton 86 is the be the apparent difference in mass. For that reason. in
international standard on which all length measurements assigning a precise numerical value of mass to a standard,
are based. To obtain a constant and uniform wavelength, it is necessary to base this value on definite values for
krypton lamps are operated at the temperature of the triple the air density and the density of the mass standard of
point of nitrogen. reference.
MATHEMATICAL TABLES & UNITS & SYSTEMS OF WEIGHTS & MEASURES 1-71

TABLE 1.41-LENGTH EGUIVALENTS

Meters Centimeters Inches Feet Yards Chains Kilometers Miles


1 100 39.37 3.261 1.0936 0.04971 0.001 0.0,6214
2.00000 i.59517 0.51598 0.03886 2.69644 3.00000 6.79335

0.01 1 0.3937 0.03281 0.01094 0.0,4971 10-5 0.0,6214


2.00000 1.59517 2.51598 2.03886 4.69644 5.00000 4.79335

0.0254 2.540 1 0.08333 0.02770 0.001263 0.0,254 0.0,1578


2.40483 0.40483 2.92082 2.44370 3.10127 5.40483 5.19818

0.3048 30.46 12 (1.3333 6.01515 Q.Q,3048 0.0,1894


1.48402 1.48402 1.07918 1.52288 2.18046 4.48402 4.27736

0.9144 91.44 36 3 1 0.04545 0.0,9144 0.0,5682


1.96114 1.96114 1.55630 0.47712 2.65758 4.96114 4.75449

20.12 2012 792 66 22 0.02012 0.0125


1.30356 3.30356 2.89873 1.81954 1.34242 2.30356 2.09691

1000 100 000 39,370 3,281 1,093.6 49.71 1 0.6214


3.00000 5.00000 4.59517 3.51598 3.03886 1.69644 i.79335

1609 160 935 63,360 5,280 1,760 80 1.609


3.20665 5.20665 4.80182 3.72263 3.24551 1.90309 0.20665

The equivalents are given in the bold-faced type. Logarithms of the equivalents are given
immediatelybelow withthe characteristic
of the logarithm(i.e.,
1.59517 = 0.59517).Insome cases,
theequivalentshave been rounded off,whtlethe logarithmcorresponds to the equivalentcarried
to a greater number of decimal places. Subscripts afterany figure-O,, 9,-mean that that
figureIS to be repeated the indicatednumber of times.

TABLE 1.42-CONVERSION OF LENGTHS’

Inches Millimeters Feet Meters Yards Meters Miles Kilometers


to to to to to to to to
Millimeters Inches Meters Feet Meters Yards Kilometers Miles
1 25.40 0.03937 0.3048 3.281 0.9144 1.094 1.609 0.6214
2 50.80 0.07874 0.6096 6.562 1.829 2.187 3.219 1.243
3 76.20 0.1181 0.9144 9.842 2.743 3.281 4.828 1.864
4 101.60 0.1575 1.219 13.12 3.658 4.374 6.437 2.485
5 127.00 0.1968 1.524 16.40 4.572 5.468 8.047 3.107
6 152.40 0.2362 1.829 19.68 5.486 6.562 9.656 3.728
7 177.80 0.2756 2.134 22.97 6.401 7.655 11.27 4.350
8 203.20 0.3150 2.438 26.25 7.315 8.749 12.87 4.971
9 228.60 0.3543 2.743 29.53 8.230 9.842 14.48 5.592

‘For ewample, 1 I” = 25 40 mm

The corrections furnished by the U.S. Natl. Bureau of A full discussion of this topic is given in NBS Mono-
Standards (NBS) for the more precise mass standards are graph 133, Mass and Mass Values, by Paul E. Pontius
given on two bases: comparison in vacuum and compari- (Nat]. Technical Information Service, 528.5 Port Royal
son against normal brass standards in air under standard Road, Springfield, VA 22161; COM 7450309).
conditions. with no correction applied for the buoyant ef-
fect of the air. By definition, brass standards have a Capacity
density of 8400 kg per m3 at 0°C and a coefficient of Units of capacity. being derived units, are defined in the
cubical thermal expansion of 0.000 054 per “C. Standard U.S. in terms of linear units and are not represented by
conditions are defined as air of I .2 kg per m3 and tem- fundamental standards. Laboratory standards have been
perature of 20°C. The corrections to be used with pre- constructed and are maintained at NBS. These have va-
cise analytical weights are ordinarily given only in terms lidity only by calibration with reference either directly
of apparent mass against normal brass standards. or indirectly to the linear standards.
l-72 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING HANDBOOK

TABLE 1.43-COMMON FRACTIONS OF AN INCH TO MILLIMETERS (FROM ye4 to 1 in.)

64ths Millimeters 64ths Millimeters 64ths Millimeters 64ths Millimeters 64ths Millimeters 64ths Millimeters
1 0.397 13 5.159 25 9.922 37 14.684 49 19.447 57 22.622
2 0.794 14 5.556 26 10.319 38 15.081 50 19.844 58 23.019
3 1.191 15 5.953 27 10.716 39 15.478 51 20.241 59 23.416
4 1.588 16 6.350 28 11.113 40 i5.875 52 20.638 60 23.813
5 I ,984 17 6.747 29 11.509 41 16.272 53 21.034 61 24.209
6 2.381 18 7.144 30 11.906 42 16.669 54 21.431 62 24.606
7 2.770 19 7.541 31 12.303 43 17.066 55 21.828 63 25.003
a 3.175 20 7.938 32 12.700 44 17.463 56 22.225 64 25.400
9 3.572 21 8.334 33 13.097 45 17.859
10 3.969 22 8.731 34 13.494 46 18.256
11 4.366 23 9.I28 35 13.891 47 18.653
12 4.763 24 9.525 36 14.288 48 19.050

TABLE 1.44-DECIMALS OF AN INCH TO MILLIMETERS (FROM 0.01 in. TO 0.99 in.)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0.0 0.254 0.508 0.762 1.016 1.270 1.524 i ,778 2.032 2.286
0.1 2.540 2.794 3.048 3.302 3.556 3.810 4.064 4.318 4.572 4.626
0.2 5.080 5.334 5.588 5.842 6.096 6.350 6.604 6.858 7.112 7.366
0.3 7.620 7.874 8.128 8.382 8.636 a.890 9.144 9.398 9.652 9.906
0.4 10.160 10.414 10.668 10.922 11.176 11.430 11.684 ii ,938 12.192 12.446
0.5 12.700 12.954 13.208 13.462 13.716 13.970 14.224 14.478 14.732 14.986
0.6 15.240 15.494 15.748 16.002 16.256 16.510 16.764 17.018 17.272 17.526
0.7 17.780 18.034 18.288 18.542 18.796 19.050 19.304 19.558 19.812 20.066
0.8 20.320 20.574 20.828 21.082 21.336 21.590 21 .a44 22.098 22.352 22.606
0.9 22.860 23.114 23.368 23.622 23.876 24.130 24.384 24.638 24.892 25.146

TABLE 1.4% -MILLIMETERS TO DECIMALS OF AN INCH (FROM 1 TO 99 mm)

0. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
0 0.0394 0.0787 0.1181 0.1575 0.1968 0.2362 0.2756 0.3150 0.3543
1 0.3937 0.4331 0.4724 0.5118 0.5512 0.5906 0.6299 0.6693 0.7087 0.7480
2 0.7874 0.8268 0.8661 0.9055 0.9449 0.9842 1.0236 1.0630 1.1024 1.1417
3 l.tatt 1.2205 1.2598 1.2992 1.3386 1.3780 1.4173 1.4567 1.4961 1.5354
4 1.5748 1.6142 1.6535 1.6929 1.7323 1.7716 1.8110 1.8504 1.8898 1.9291
5 1.9685 2.0079 2.0472 2.0866 2.1260 2.1654 2.2047 2.2441 2.2835 2.3228
6 2.3622 24016 2.4409 2.4803 2.5197 2.5590 2.5984 2.6378 2.6772 2.7165
7 2.7559 2.7953 2.8346 2.8740 2.9134 2.9528 2.9921 3.0315 3.0709 3.1102
a 3.1496 3 la90 3.2283 3.2677 3.3071 3.3464 3.3858 3.4252 3.4646 3.5039
9 3.5433 3 5827 3.6220 3.6614 3.7008 3.7402 3.7795 3.8189 3.8583 3.8976
MATHEMATICAL TABLES & UNITS & SYSTEMS OF WEIGHTS & MEASURES l-73

TABLE1.46-AREAEQUIVALENTS'

Square
Square Square Square Square Square Square Mrles or
Meters Inches Feet Yards Rods Chains Roods Acres Sections
1 1,550 10.76 1.196 0.0395 0.002471 0.0,9884 0.0,2471 0.0,3861
3.19033 1.03197 0.07773 2.59699 3.39288 4.99494 4.39288 7.58670

0.0,6452 1 0.006944 0.0,7716 0.0,2551 0.0,1594 0.0,6377 0.0,1594 0.0,2491


4.80967 3.84164 4.88740 5.40667 6.20255 7.80461 7.20255 10.39637

g.09290 144 1 0.1111 0.003673 0.0,2296 0:0,9184 0.0,2296 0.0,3587


2.96803 2.15836 1.04576 3.56503 4.36091 5.96297 5.36091 8.55473

0.8361 1,296 9 1 0.03306 0.002066 0.0,8264 0.0002066 0.0,3228


1.92227 3.11260 0.95424 2.51927 3.31515 4.91721 4.31515 7.50898

25.29 39,204 272.25 30.25 1 0.0625 g.02500 0.00625 0.0,9766


1.40300 4.59333 2.43497 1.48072 2.79588 2.39794 3.79588 6.98970

404.7 627,264 4,356 484 16 1 0.4 0.1 0.0001562


2.60712 5.79745 3.63909 2.68484 1.20412 1.60206 1 .ooooo 4.19382

1012 1,568,160 10,890 1,210 40 2.5 1 0.25 0.0,3906


3.00506 6.19539 4.03703 3.08278 1.60206 0.39794 1.39794 4.59176

4047 6,272,640 43,560 4,840 160 IO 4 1 0.001562


3.60712 6.79745 4.63909 3.68484 2.20412 1 .ooooo 0.60206 3.19382

2 589 998 27,878,400 3,097,600 102,400 6,400 2,560 640 1


6.41330 7.44527 6.49102 5.01030 3.80618 3.40824 2.80618

The equivalentsare given in the bold-facedtype Logarithms of the equivalentsare given immediately below with the
characteristicof the logarithm(i.e.,
2.59699 = 0.059699). In some cases, the equivalentshave been rounded off,whrfe
the logarithmcorresponds to the equivalentcarriedto a greaternumber of decimal places.Subscriptsafterany figure-O,,
9,, etc.-mean that the figureis to be repeated the Indicatednumber of times.

'1 heclare= 100 acres=10 000 mp

TABLEl.47-VOLUME AND CAPACITY EQUIVALENTS

U.S.
Apothecary
U.S. Quarts
Cubic Cubic Cubic Fluid U.S. u.s
Liters Inches Feet Yards Ounces Liquid Drv Gallons Bushels
1 61.03 0.03532 0.001308 33.81 1.057 0.9081 0.2642 0.02838
1.78551 2.54796 3.11659 1.52909 0.02394 i .95812 1.42188 2.45297

0.01639 0.0,5787 0.0,2143 0.5541 0.01732 0.01488 0.0 24329 0.0,4650


2.21450 4.76246 5.33109 1.74360 2.23845 2.17263 3.63639 4.66746

28.32 1728 1 0.03704 957.5 29.92 25.71 7.481 0.8036


1.45205 3.23754 2.56864 2.98114 1.47599 1.41017 0.87393 1.90502

764.5 46656 27 1 25853 807.9 694.3 202.2 21.70


2.88340 4.66891 1.43136 4.41251 2.90736 2.84153 2.30530 1.33638

0.02957 1.805 0.001044 0.0,3868 1 0.03125 6.02686 0.007812 0.0,8392


2.47091 0.25640 3.01886 5.58749 2.49485 2.42903 3.89279 4.92388

0.9463 67.75 0.03342 0.001238 32 1 0.8594 0.25 0.02686


1.97604 1.76155 2.52401 3.09264 1.50515 i .9341a 1.39794 2.42903

1.101 67.20 0.03889 0.001440 37.24 1.164 0.2909 0.03125


0.04188 1.82737 2.58983 3.15847 1.57097 0.06582 1.46376 2.49485

3.785 231 0.1337 0.004951 128 4 3.437 0.1074


0.57812 2.36361 1.12607 3.69470 2.10721 0.60206 0.53624 1.03109

35.24 2150 1.244 0.04609 1192 37.24 32 9.309


1.54703 3.33252 0.09498 2.66362 3.07612 1.57097 1.50515 0.96891

The equivalentsare given in the bold-faced type. Logarithms of the equivalentsare given immediately below with the
characteristic
of the logarithm(i.e.,
2.54796 =0.054796). In some cases, the equivalentshave been rounded off,while the
logarithmcorresponds to the equivalentcarriedto a greater number of decimal places, Subscriptsafterany figure-O,,
9,, etc.-mean that the figureis to be repeated the indicatednumber of times.
l-74 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING HANDBOOK

TABLE 1.48-CONVERSION OF AREAS*

sq In. cm’ sq ft mL sq Yd m’ acres hectares sq miles km’


t0 t0 to to to to to to
j.yz 3
cm2 so tn. sa ft sq yd hectares acres km’ sq miles
6.452 0.1550 0.0929 10.76 0.8361 1.196 0.4047 2.471 2.590 0.3861
12.90 0.3100 0.1858 21.53 1.672 2.392 0.8094 4.942 5.180 0.7722
19.35 0.4650 0.2787 32.29 2.508 3.588 1.214 7.413 7.770 1.158
25.81 0.6200 0.3716 43.06 3.345 4.784 1.619 9.884 10.360 1.544
32.26 0.7750 0.4645 53.82 4 181 5.980 2.023 12.355 12.950 1.931
38.71 0.9300 0.5574 64.58 5.017 7.176 2.428 14.826 15.540 2.317
45.16 1.085 0.6503 75.35 5.853 8.372 2.833 17.297 18.130 2.703
51.61 1.240 0.7432 86.11 6 689 9.568 3.237 19.768 20.720 3.089
58.06 1.395 0.8361 96.87 7 525 10.764 3.642 22.239 23.310 3.475

‘For example. 1 sq in =6 452 cm2

TABLE 1.49-CONVERSION OF VOLUMES OR CUBIC MEASURES

C” I”. cm3 cu ft m3 cu yd m3 gal cu ft


to to to to to to
;a ;3
cm3 cu tn. cu ft cu vd cu ft gal
1 16.39 0.06102 0.02832 35 31 0.7646 1.308 0.1337 7.481
2 32.77 0.1220 0.05663 70.63 1.529 2.616 0 2674 14.96
3 49.16 0.1831 0.08495 105.9 2.294 3.924 0.4010 22.44
4 65.55 0.2441 0.1133 141.3 3.058 5.232 0 5347 29.92
5 81.94 0.3051 0.1416 176.6 3.823 6.540 0.6684 37.40
6 98.32 0.3661 0 1699 211.9 4.587 7.848 0.8021 44 88
7 114.7 0.4272 0 1982 247.2 5.352 9.156 0.9358 52.36
8 131.1 0.4882 0 2265 282.5 6.116 10.46 1.069 59.84
9 147.5 0.5492 0.2549 317.8 6.881 11.77 1.203 67.32

TABLE 1.50-CONVERSION OF VOLUMES OR CAPACITIES

cm3 liquid liters lrqurd liters


Fluid oz to pints to quarts to gal liters bushels hectoliters
to fluid to liqurd to liquid to to to to
cm3 oz liters pints liters quarts liters gal hectoliters bushels
29.57 0.03381 0.4732 2.113 0 9463 1.057- 3.785 0.2642 0.3524 2.838
59.15 0.06763 0.9463 4.227 1.893 2.113 7.571 0.5284 0.7048 5.676
88.72 0.1014 1.420 6.340 2.839 3.170 11.36 0.7925 1.057 8.513
118.3 0.1353 1.893 8.454 3.785 4.227 15.14 1.057 1.410 11.35
147.9 0.1691 2.366 10.57 4.732 5.284 la93 1.321 1.762 14.19
177.4 0.2092 2.839 12.68 5.678 6.340 22.71 1.585 2.114 17.03
207.0 0.2367 3.312 14.79 6.624 7.397 26.50 i .a49 2.467 19.86
236.6 0.2705 3.765 16.91 7.571 8.454 30.28 2.113 2.819 22.70
266.2 0.3043 4.259 19.02 8.517 9.510 34.07 2.378 3.171 25.54
MATHEMATICAL TABLES 8 UNITS 8 SYSTEMS OF WEIGHTS & MEASURES I-75

TABLE 1.51--MASS EQUIVALENTS

OZ Ibm tons
troy and troy and
ka grains apothecary avoirdupois apothecary avoirdupots long metric
1 15,432 32.15 35.27 2.6792 2.205 0.0,1102 0.0,9842 0.001
4.18843 1.50719 1.54745 0.42801 0.34333 3.04230 4.99309 3.00000

0.0,6480 0.0,2083 0.0,2286 0.0,1736 0.0,1429 0.0,7143 0.0,6378 0.0,6480


581157 3.31876 3.35902 4.23958 4.15490 a.85387 8.80465 8.81157

0.03110 480 1 1.09714 0.08333 0.06857 0.0,3429 0.0,3061 0.0,3110


2.49281 2.68124 0.04026 2.92082 2.83614 5.53511 5.48590 5.49281

0.02835 437.5 0.9115 1 0.07595 0.0625 0.0,3125 0.0,2790 0.0,2835


2.45255 2.64098 1.95974 2.88056 2.79588 5.49485 5 44563 5.45255

0.3732 5,760 12 13.17 1 0.8229 0.0,4114 0.0,3673 0.0,3732


1.57199 3.76042 1 07918 1.11944 1.91532 4.61429 4.56508 4.57199

0.4536 7,000 14.58 16 1.215 1 0.0005 0.0,4464 0.0,4536


1.65667 3.84510 1 .I6386 1.20412 0.08468 4.69897 4.64975 4.65667

907.2 140, 29,167 320, 2431 2,000 1 0.8929 0.9072


2.95770 7.14613 4.46489 4.50515 3.38571 3.30103 1.95078 1.95770

1016 15680, 32,667 35,840 2722 2,240 1.12 1.016


3.00691 7.19535 4.51411 4.55437 3.43492 3.35025 0.04922 0.00691

1000 15,432,356 32,151 35,274 2679 2,205 1.102 0.9842 1


3.00000 7.18843 4.50719 4.54745 3.42801 3.34333 0.04230 1.99309

The equivalentsare given in the bold-facedtype. Logarithms of the equivalentsare given immediately below with the
characteristicof the logarithm(i.e.,
3.04230 =0.0004230). In some cases, the equivalentshave been rounded off,while
the logarithmcorresponds to the equivalentcarriedto a greaternumber of decimal places.Subscriptsafterany figure-O,,
9,, etc.-mean that the figureis to be repeated the indicatednumber of times.

TABLE 1.52-CONVERSION OF MASSES

short metric ionq


tons tons tons
Ibm kg oz grams (2.000lbn1) (1000 kg) (2 240lbm)
(avordupots) 10 gmns grams lavorrdupois) IO to t0 to
to lbm 10 to to oz metric short metric long
kg (avo~rdupo!sj grams gram grams (avoirdupois) tons tons tons tons
04536 2 205 0 06480 1543 28 35 003527 0 907 1 102 1 016 0 984
0 9072 4409 0 1296 3086 5670 007055 1 a14 2 205 2032 1968
1361 6614 0 1944 4630 a5 05 0 1058 2 722 3 307 3 048 2 953
1814 8818 0 2592 61 73 11340 01411 3629 4409 4 064 3937
2 268 11 02 0 3240 77 16 141 75 0 1764 4536 5 512 5 080 4921
2 722 1323 0 3888 92 59 17010 02116 5443 6614 6 096 5 905
3 175 1533 04536 10803 19845 0 2469 6350 7 716 7 112 6889
3 629 1764 0 5184 12346 22680 0 2822 7257 8 818 8 128 7874
a 082 19 84 0 5832 13889 255 15 0 3175 8 165 9921 9 144 8858
l-76 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING HANDBOOK

TABLEl.53-VELOCITY EQUIVALENTS

mimin kmlhr cm/set ft/sec ftlmin mph knots


60 3.6 100 3.281 196.85 2.237 1.943
1.77815 0.55630 2.00000 0.51598 2.29414 0.34965 0.28836

0.01667 I 0.06 1.667 0.05468 3.281 0.03728 0.03238


2.22104 2.77815 0.22184 2.73783 0.51598 2.57150 2.51022

0.2778 16.67 1 27.78 0.9113 54.68 0.6214 0.53959


1.44370 1.22184 1.44370 I .95908 1.73783 1.79335 1.73205

0.01 0.6 0.036 1 0.03281 1.9685 0.02237 0.01943


1.77815 2.55630 2.51598 0.29414 2.34965 2.28836

0.3048 18.29 1.097 30.48 I 60 0.8818 0.59209


1.46402 1.26217 0.04032 1.48402 1.77815 1.63367 1.77238

0.005080 0.3048 0.01629 0.5080 0.01887 1 0.01136 0.00987


3.70586 1.48402 2.26217 1.70586 2.22185 2.05553 3.99423

0.4470 26.82 1.609 44.70 1.467 88 1 0.86839


1.65035 1.42850 0.20670 1.65035 0.16633 1.94446 1.93871

0.51479 30.887 1.8532 51.479 1.68894 101.337 1.15155 1


1.71163 1.48978 0.26793 1.71163 0.22761 2.00577 0.06128

TABLE1.54-CONVERSIONOFLlNEARANDANGULARVELOClTlES

revimin rads/sec cm/s ftlmin cmls mph ftls mph


to t0 10 to to t0 to to
radslsec revlmin ftlmin cm/s mph cm/s mph ft/s
0.1047 9.55 1.97 0.508 0.0224 44.70 0.682 1.47
0.2094 19.10 3.94 1.016 0.0447 89.41 1.364 2.93
0.3142 28.65 5.91 1.524 0.0671 134.1 2.045 4.40
0.4189 38.20 7.87 2.032 0.0895 178.8 2.727 5.87
0.5236 47.75 9.84 2.540 0.1118 223.5 3.409 7.33
0.6283 57.30 II.81 3.048 0.1342 268.2 4.091 8.80
0.7330 66.84 13.78 3.556 0.1566 312.9 4.773 10.27
0.8378 76.39 15.75 4.064 0.1790 357.6 5.455 11.73
0.9425 85.94 17.72 4.572 0.2013 402.3 6.136 13.20

TABLEl.55-CONVERSION OF PRESSURES'

Ibm per kilopascals atmospheres Ibm per atmospheres kilopascals


sq in to to Ibm to Ibm sq in.to to IO
kilopascals oer sa in. oer sa in. atmospheres kilopascals atmospheres
1 6.8948 0.1450 14.70 0.0680 101.3 0.00987
2 13789 0.2901 29.39 0.1361 202.6 0.01974
3 20684 0.4351 44.09 0.2041 304.0 0.02961
4 27.579 0.5802 58.78 0.2722 405.3 0.03947
5 34.474 0.7252 73.48 0.3402 506.6 0.04935
6 41.369 0.8702 88.18 0.4083 608.0 0.05922
7 48.263 1.0153 102.9 0.4763 709.3 0.06908
8 55.158 1.1603 117.6 0.5444 810.6 0.07895
9 62.053 1.3053 132.3 0.6124 911.9 0.08882
MATHEMATICAL TABLES & UNITS & SYSTEMS OF WEIGHTS & MEASURES 1-77

TABLE1.56-PRESSURE EQUIVALENTS

columns of
mercury at columns of water at
short temperature 0% temperature 15%
kg/cm’ tons and and
(metric g=9.80665 m/s2 g = 9.80665 m/s*
per
kilopascals atmospheres) lbmlsq in. sq ft atmospheres (in.) (fU
1 0.010197 0.14504 0.010443 0.009869 OOb:'sOl
i.99427 o(lndl3
1.47025
. 1.00886
(m)
0.1021 0.60402
4.018 0.3349
2.00848 1.16148 2.01882 3.87510 1.52485

98.066 1 14.22 1.024 0.9678 0.7356 28.96 10.01 394.1 32.84


1.99152 1.15300 0.01034 1.98579 1.86662 1.46177 1.00038 2.59556 1.51636

6.8948 0.07031 1 0.072 0.06805 0.05171 2.036 0.7037 27.70 2.309


0.83852 2.84700 2.85733 2.83280 2.71360 0.30876 1.84738 1.44254 0.36336

95.760 0.9765 13.89 1 0.9451 0.7183 28.28 9.774 384.8 32.07


1.98119 1.98966 1.14267 1.97547 1.85628 1.45143 0.99006 2.58521 1.50604

101.325 1.0332 14.70 1.058 1 0.76 29.92 10.34 407.1 33.93


2.00573 0.01420 1.16722 0.02453 1.88081 1.47598 1.01459 2.60975 1.53058

133.322 1.3595 19.34 1.392 1.316 39.37 13.61 535.7 44.64


2.12490 0.13338 1.28640 0.14373 0.11919 1.59517 113378 2 72894 1.64976

3.386 0.03453 0.4912 0.03536 0.03342 0.02540 0.3456 13.61 1.134


0.52975 2.53823 1.69124 2.51857 2.52402 2.40484 1.53861 1.13378 0.05460

9.798 0.09991 1.421 0.1023 0.09670 0.07349 2.893 39.37 3.281


0.99114 2.99962 0.15262 1.00996 2.98541 2.86622 0.46139 1.59517 0.51598

0.2489 0.002538 0.03609 0.002599 0.002456 0.001867 0.07349 0.02540 0.08333


1.39598 3.40446 2.55745 3.41479 3.39024 3.27106 2.86622 2.40484 2.92082

2.926 0.03045 0.4331 0.03119 0.02947 0.02240 0.8819 0.3048 12 1


0.47516 2.48364 1.63663 2.49397 2.46942 2.35024 1.94540 1.48402 1.07918

TABLE 1.57-ENERGY OR WORK EQUIVALENTS

metric
kW hp hp
J kg-m ft-lbf hours hours hours L-atm kilocalories Btu's
1 0.10197 0.7376 0.0,2778 0.0,3777 0.0,3725 0.009869 0.0,2388 0.0,9478
1.00848 1.86760 7.44370 7.57711 7.57113 3.99427 4.37809 4.97670

9.80665 1 7.233 0.0,2724 0.0,37037 0.0,3653 0.09678 0.002342 0.009295


0.9915207 0.85932 6.43521 6.56863 6.56265 2.98579 3.36961 3.96825

1.356 0.1383 1 0.0,3766 0.0,51208 0.0,50505 0.01338 0.0,3238 0.001285


0.13220 1.14068 7.57590 7.70932 7.70333 2.12647 4.51029 3.10890

3.600~10~ 3.671 x lo5 2.655~10' 1.3598 1.341 35 526 859.9 3,412


6.55630 5.56478 6.42410 0.13342 0.12743 4.55057 2.93443 3.53303

2.648x lo6 270 000 1.9529x10~ 0.7355 0.9863 26 131 632.4 2,510
6.42288 5.43136 6.29068 1.86658 1.99401 4.41715 2.80098 3.39961

2.8845~ lo6 2.7375~10~ 1.98x106 0.7457 1.0139 1 26 493 641.2 2,544


6.42887 5.43735 6.29667 1 87356 0.00598 4.42314 2.80699 3.40557

101.33 10.333 74.74 0.0,2815 0.0,3827 0.0,3775 1 0.02420 0.09604


2.00573 1 .01421 1.87353 5.44952 5.58284 5.57686 2.38382 2.98246

4187 426.9 3,088 0.001163 0.001581 0.001560 41.32 1 3.988


3 62191 2.63036 3.48971 3.06558 3.19902 3.19304 1.61618 0.59861

1055 107.6 778.2 0.0,2931 0.0,3985 0.0,3930 10.41 0.25200 1


3.02360 2.03178 2.89110 446697 4.60042 4.59444 1.01757 1.40139

The equivalentsare given in bold-facedtype.Logarrthms of the equivalentsare given immediately below with the characteristrc
of the logarithm(1.e, 1.00848 = 0.00848).In some cases,the equivalentshave been rounded off,althoughthe logarithmcorresponds
to the equivalentcarriedto a greaternumber of dectmal places.Subscriptsafterany figure-O 3, 9,, etc.-mean thatthe figure
IS to be repeated the Indicatednumber of times.
l-70 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING HANDBOOK

TABLE 1.58-CONVERSION OF ENERGY, WORK, HEAT

calories ft-lbf kg-m ft-lbf Btu kg-m kilocalorles


to to to IO to to to IO
calories kg-m ft-lbf Btu ft-lbf kilocalories kg-m
- ~
4.187 0.2388 0.1383 7.233 0.001285 778.2 0.002342 4269
: 6.374 0.4777 0.2765 14.47 0.002570 1,556. 0.004685 8539
3 12.56 0.7165 0.4148 21.70 0.003855 2,334. 0.007027 1,281.
4 16.75 0.9554 0.5530 26.93 0.005140 3,113. 0.009369 1,708.
5 20.93 1.194 06913 36.16 0.006425 3,891. 0.01172 2,135.
6 25.12 1.433 0.8295 43.40 0.007710 4,669. 0.01405 2,562.
7 29.31 1.672 09678 50.63 0.008995 5,447. 0.01640 2,989.
8 33.49 1.911 1.106 57.86 0.01028 6,225. 0.01874 3,415.
9 37.68 2.150 1.244 65.10 0.01156 7,003. 0.02108 3,642.

TABLE 1.59-POWER EQUIVALENTS’

kW hD metric hp poncelets kg-m/s ft-lbflsec kilocalories/s Btulsec


1 1.341 1.360 1.020 102.0 737.6 0.2388 0.9478
0.12743 0.13343 0.00848 2.00848 2.86780 1.37813 1.97673

0.7457 1 1.014 0.7604 76.04 550 0.1781 0.7068


1.87256 0.00599 1.88105 188105 2.74036 1.25066 1.84936

0.7355 0.9863 1 0.75 75 542.5 0.1757 0.6971


1.86658 1.99402 1.87506 1.87506 2.73438 1.24467 1.84328

0.9807 1.315 1.333 100 723.3 0.2342 0.9295


1.99152 0.11896 0.12493 2.00000 2.85932 1.36961 1.96825

0.009807 0.01315 0.01333 0.01 7.233 0.002342 0.009295


3.99152 2.11896 2.12493 2.00000 0.85932 3.36961 3.96825

0.001356 0.00182 0.00164 0.00136 0.1383 0.0,3238 0.001285


3.13220 3.25946 3.26562 3.14067 1.14067 4.51029 3.10890

4.187 5.615 5.692 4.269 426.9 3,088 3.968


0.62187 0.74934 0.75530 0.63036 2.63036 3.48971 0.59861

1.055 1.415 1.434 1.076 107.6 778.2 0.2520 1


0.02320 0.15074 0.15668 0.03178 2.03178 2.89110 1.40138

‘For example 1 hp=07457 k\ni

TABLE 1.60-CONVERSION OF POWER

kW hp
hp kW metric hp to to metric hp
to to to metw metric to
kW hp kW b hp hp
1.341 0.7355 1360 1.014 0.9863
1.491 2.682 1.471 2.719 2.028 1.973
2.237 4.023 2.206 4.079 3.042 2.959
4 2.983 5.384 2.942 5.438 4.055 3.945
5 3.729 6.705 3.677 6.798 5.069 4.932
6 4.474 8.046 4.412 8.158 6.083 5.918
7 5.220 9.387 5.147 9.520 7.097 6.904
8 5.966 10.73 5.883 10.88 8.111 7.891
9 6711 12.07 6.618 12.24 9.125 8.877
MATHEMATICAL TABLES & UNITS & SYSTEMS OF WEIGHTS & MEASURES 1-79

TABLE 1.61-DENSITY EQUIVALENTS AND CONVERSION FACTORS’

Equivalents Conversion Factors

Ibm/cu ft kg/m 3 g/cm 3 kg/m 3


to to to to
kg/m 3 g/cm3 lbmlcu in. lbmlcu ft IbmilJS. gal kg/m 3 Ibm/cu 11 kg/m 3 g/cm 3
1 0.001 0.0,3613 0.0624 0.00835 16.019 0.0624 1000 0.001
5.55787 2.79539 3.92143 2 32.037 0.1249 2000 0.002

1000 1 0.03613 62.43 8.345 3 48.055 0.1873 3000 0.003


2.55787 1.79539 0.92143 4 64.074 0.2497 4000 0.004

27680 27.60 1 1,728 231 5 80.092 0.3121 5000 0.005


4.44217 1.44217 3.23754 2.36361 6 96.111 0.3746 6000 0.006

16.019 0.01602 0.0,5787 1 0.1337 7 112.129 0.4370 7000 0.007


1.20466 2.20466 4.76245 1.12613 8 128.148 0.4994 8000 0.008

119.83 0.1198 0.004329 7.481 1 9 144.166 0.5619 9000 0.009


2.07855 1.07055 3.63639 0.87396 10 160.185 0.6243 10 000 0.010

‘For example, 1 kg/m’ = 0 0624 Ibmlcu ft.

TABLE 1.62-THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY

W/m.% Cal/[s(cm’/cm)°C] Wl[(cm’lcm)“C] Call[h(cm2/cm)aC] Btu/[hr(sqft/ft)OF]


1 0.002388 0 0100 8.598 0.5778
418.7 1 4.187 3600. 241.9
100.0 0.2388 1 860 57.78
0 1163 0.0002778 0001163 1 0 0672
1.731 0.004134 0.01731 14.88 1

TABLE 1.63-THERMAL CONDUCTANCE

W/m’.% Cal/(s.cm*~” C) W/cm’.% Cal/(h.cm2.%) Btu(hr-sqft-OF)


1 0.0,2388 0.0001 0.08598 0.1761
41868 1 4.187 3600 7373
10000 0.2388 1 860 1761
11.63 0.0,2778 0.001163 1 2.048
5.678 0.0,1355 0.0,5678 0.4882 1

TABLE 1.64-HEAT FLOW

Wlm’ Cal/s.cm* Wlcm 2 Cal/h cm ’ Btulhr-sqft


1 0.0,2388 0.0001 0.08598 0.3170
41868 1 4 187 3600 13272
10000 0.2388 1 860 3170
11.63 0.0,2778 0 001163 1 3.687
3.155 0.0,7535 0.0,3154 0.2712 1
I-80 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING HANDBOOK

TABLE 1.65~-RELATIVE DENSITIES CORRESPONDING TO OAPI AND WEIGHTS PER U.S.


GALLON

Relative Relative Relative Relative


OAPI Density Ibm1U.S. gal OAPI Densitv Ibm/U.S. gal OAPI Density Ibm0J.S. gal ='APl Density 1bmlU.S. gal
10 1.0000 8.328 33 0.8602 7.163 56 0.7547 6.283 79 0.6722 5.595
11 0.9930 8.270 34 0.8550 7119 57 0.7507 6.249 80 0.6690 5.568
12 0.9861 8.212 35 0.8498 7076 58 0.7467 6.216 81 0.6659 5.542
13 0.9792 8.155 36 0.8448 7.034 59 0.7428 6.184 82 0.6628 5.516
14 0.9725 8.099 37 0.8398 6.993 60 0.7389 6.151 83 0.6597 5.491
15 0.9659 8.044 38 0.8348 6.951 61 0.7351 6.119 84 0.6566 5.465
16 0.9593 7.989 39 0.8299 6.910 62 0.7313 6.087 85 0.6536 5.440
17 0.9529 7.935 40 0.8251 6.870 63 0.7275 6.056 86 0.6506 5.415
18 0.9465 7.882 41 0.8203 6.830 64 0.7238 6.025 87 0.6476 5.390
19 0.9402 7.830 42 0.8155 6.790 65 0.7201 5.994 88 0.6446 5.365
20 0.9340 7.778 43 0.8109 6752 66 0.7165 5.964 89 0.6417 5.341
21 0.9279 7.727 44 0.8063 6.713 67 0.7128 5.934 90 0.6388 5.316
22 0.9218 7.676 45 0.8017 6.675 68 0.7093 5.904 91 06360 5.293
23 0.9159 7.627 46 0.7972 6.637 69 0.7057 5.874 92 0.6331 5.269
24 0.9100 7.578 47 0.7927 6 600 70 0.7022 5.845 93 0.6303 5.246
25 0.9042 7.529 48 0.7883 6.563 71 0.6988 5.817 94 0.6275 5.222
26 0 8984 7.481 49 0.7839 6526 72 0.6953 5.788 95 0.6247 5.199
27 0.8927 7.434 50 0.7796 6.490 73 0.6919 5.759 96 0.6220 5.176
28 0.8871 7.387 51 0.7753 6.455 74 0.6886 5.731 97 0.6193 5.154
29 0.8816 7.341 52 0.7711 6.420 75 0.6852 5.703 98 0.6166 5.131
30 0.8762 7.296 53 0.7669 6.385 76 0.6819 5.676 99 0.6139 5.109
31 0.8708 7.251 54 0.7628 6.350 77 0.6787 5.649 100 0.6112 5.086
32 0.8654 7.206 55 0.7587 6.316 78 0.6754 5.622

*Calculated from the formula relatw densely= (141 5)/(131 5+ -, hp,) The wghls I” this table are wghts I” air at 60°F wth humldtty
50% and pressure 760 mm fig

Relative Density and Density


The relative density of a solid or liquid is the ratio of the scales are used in various trades and industries. The most
mass of the body to the mass of an equal volume of water common of these are the API and BaumC. The API scale
at some standard temperature. At the present time, a tem- is approved by the American Petroleum Inst., the ASTM,
perature of4”C [39”F] is commonly used by physicists, the U.S. Bureau of Mines, and the Natl. Bureau of Stan-
but the engineer uses 60°F. The relative density of gases dards and is recommended for exclusive use in the U.S.
is usually expressed in terms of hydrogen or air. petroleum industry, superseding the Baume scale for liq-
The density of a body is its mass per unit volume. If uids lighter than water. The relation between API degrees
the gram is used as the unit of mass and the millimeter and relative density is expressed by the followmg
as the unit of volume, or if the kilogram is used as the equation.
unit of mass and the liter as the unit of volume, the figures
representing the density are the same as the relative den-
sity of the body. The inch-pound unit is pounds per cubic
foot.
The relative density of liquids is usually measured by The relative densities corresponding to “API and
a hydrometer, and different special arbitrary hydrometer weights per U.S. gallon are given in Table 1.65.