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Evaluating an Accelerated Nursing Program: A Dashboard for Diversity

Bonnie J. Schmidt MSN, RN, CNE, Brent R. MacWilliams PhD, RN,


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PII: S8755-7223(14)00154-9
DOI: doi: 10.1016/j.profnurs.2014.09.001
Reference: YJPNU 855

To appear in: Journal of Professional Nursing

Please cite this article as: Schmidt, B.J. & MacWilliams, B.R., Evaluating an Accelerated
Nursing Program: A Dashboard for Diversity, Journal of Professional Nursing (2014), doi:
10.1016/j.profnurs.2014.09.001

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Evaluating an Accelerated Nursing Program: A Dashboard for Diversity

Bonnie J. Schmidt, MSN, RN, CNE

Brent R. MacWilliams, PhD, RN, ANP

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Authors’ Affiliations: University of Wisconsin Oshkosh College of Nursing

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Corresponding Author: Bonnie Schmidt, University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh College of Nursing,

800 Algoma Blvd., Oshkosh, Wisconsin 54901

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Phone: 920-209-3361; Email: schmidtb@uwosh.edu

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Abstract

Diversity is a topic of increasing attention in higher education and the nursing workforce.

Experts have called for a nursing workforce that mirrors the population it serves. Students in

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nursing programs in the United States do not reflect our country’s diverse population; therefore,

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much work is needed before that goal can be reached. Diversity cannot be successfully achieved

in nursing education without inclusion and attention to quality. The Inclusive Excellence (IE)

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framework can be used by nurse educators to promote inclusion, diversity, and excellence. In

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this framework, excellence and diversity are linked in an intentional metric-driven process.

Accelerated programs offer a possible venue to promote diversity and one accelerated program is
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examined, using a set of metrics and a dashboard approach commonly used in business settings.

Several recommendations were made for future assessment, interventions, and monitoring. Nurse
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educators are called to examine and adopt a diversity dashboard in all nursing programs.
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Keywords: diversity, nursing, nursing education, nursing programs, Inclusive Excellence,

inclusion, quality
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Evaluating an Accelerated Nursing Program: A Dashboard for Diversity

Accelerated programs are an effective and efficient way to produce competent nurses

(Aktan et al., 2009; Caldwell, Tenof, & Nugent, 2010; Lindsey, 2009; Masters, 2009). What is

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not widely recognized is that accelerated programs may offer a venue to increase diversity in the

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nursing workforce, including men as an underrepresented population. Nurse educators have been

charged with creating a nursing workforce that reflects the population being served (Institute of

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Medicine [IOM], 2010). There are opportunities for improvement in the University of

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Wisconsin Oshkosh’s Online Accelerated Bachelors to BSN (ACCEL) program. The challenge

for leaders in this and other programs is to increase diversity and inclusion while maintaining
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quality. The purpose of this paper is to present a case study of an accelerated nursing program

and apply a diversity dashboard that can be used to promote diversity and inclusion in all nursing
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programs. This dashboard is based on the Association of American Colleges and Universities’
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(AAC & U) Inclusive Excellence (IE) framework.

Diversity in Nursing Programs: A Review of Literature


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Diversity is the “range of human variation, including age, race, gender, disability,
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ethnicity, nationality, religious and spiritual beliefs, sexual orientation, political beliefs,

economic status, native language, and geographical background.” (American Association of

Colleges of Nursing [AACN], 2008, p. 37). Marvasti and McKinney (2011) explained diversity

as acknowledging, accepting, and celebrating human differences.

Diversity has been studied in nursing education programs. Wink (2005) reported greater

cultural, racial, and gender diversity in accelerated students, compared to traditional

baccalaureate nursing students. A recent study revealed that 17.5% of students in accelerated

nursing programs are men, higher than the BSN average (Siler & DeBasio, 2008). This is in
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sharp contrast to the 49% of men in the general US population (United States Census Bureau,

2014). AACN (2014) reported that 11% of students enrolled in baccalaureate nursing programs

in 2012-2013 were male, yet only 7% of nurses in the workforce are men (United States

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Department of Health [USDHHS], 2010). The USSDHHS further reported that 83.2% of

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registered nurses are non-Hispanic white. When combined with the fact that 93.3% of registered

nurses are women (USDHHS, 2010), it confirms that the nursing profession is predominantly

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white and female.

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Nursing is challenged to function in a global society. “The United States is rapidly

becoming more diverse and will become more so into the 21st century. Experts have called for a
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healthcare workforce that reflects the diversity of the population being served (IOM, 2004; IOM,

2010; Sullivan Commission, 2004). AACN believes that leadership in nursing can best respond
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to these issues by finding ways to accelerate the inclusion of groups, cultures, and ideas that
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traditionally have been underrepresented in higher education.” (American Association of

Colleges of Nursing, 1997, para. 2).


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Inclusion offers a means to enhance diversity. Inclusion is defined as mutuality,


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belongingness, and equality related to an individual, group, or culture’s role within a social

group. Similarly, inclusion is viewed as oneness, liberty, and social justice (Marvasti &

McKinney, 2011; Prasad & Eylon, 2001). AAC & U has expanded the definition to help

integrate educational quality and diversity and defined inclusion as “The active, intentional and

ongoing engagement with diversity – in people, in the curriculum, in the co-curriculum, and in

communities (intellectual, social, cultural, geographical) with which individuals might connect -

in ways that increase awareness, content knowledge, cognitive sophistication, and emphatic

understanding of the complex ways individuals interact within systems and institutions.” (AAC
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& U, 2014a, para. 7). Inclusion appears to be well-aligned with the holistic nature of the nursing

profession.

Inclusion and Exclusion in Nursing Education

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Nursing programs and the nursing workforce are not inclusive. Duffy (1995) described

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horizontal violence as aggressive, hostile, and destructive behaviors within a group. Decades of

infighting, horizontal violence, and oppression have been documented in the nursing profession

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and directly impact the quality of patient care (Duffy, 1995; Lim, 2014; Vessey, DeMarco, &

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DiFazio, 2011). Researchers documented isolation and exclusionary treatment of

underrepresented nursing students (Gardner, 2005; O’Lynn, 2004).


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At the same time, experts supported the benefits of inclusion and diversity in nursing

education and the nursing workforce. Levett-Jones and Lathlean (2008) concluded that a
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supportive and welcoming clinical environment enhanced learning in nursing students. Less
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horizontal workplace violence in nursing has been linked to improved job satisfaction, more

cohesive outcomes, and effective staff communication which, in turn, leads to staff retention and
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enhanced patient care (Coursey, Rodriguez, Dieckmann, and Austin, 2013).


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The goal for nursing students in an inclusionary nursing education environment is to

create a community of quality-focused and competent scholars to bring a diversity of

perspectives to the workforce. The profession and patient care can be transformed through a

renewed focus on professional values and behaviors, embracing a diversity of perspectives and a

unified commitment to cultural humility, and inclusion. Nurse educators can promote inclusion

and diversity, using the IE framework.


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Inclusive Excellence in Higher Education

IE is an evidence-based framework designed to help integrate diversity and quality into

the core functions of an educational institution. Application of IE can lead to the integration of

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diversity into the recruitment, admissions, hiring, curriculum, and administrative practices. IE

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has been embraced by higher education institutions across the country including the University

of Wisconsin System, University of Oregon, Texas Tech, and Virginia Tech (AAC & U, 2014b;

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Williams, Berger, & McLendon, 2005). The expected outcome measure of the IE framework is

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the cohesive and collaboration integration of diversity and inclusion into the core educational

enterprise (Virginia Polytechnic, 2010). This framework is based on four dimensions: diversity,
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equity, inclusion, and excellence and is focused on quality, building diversity, and improving the

organizational culture, using a top-down and bottom-up approach. The dimensions provide a
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matrix of integrated initiatives to promote diversity and inclusion that are measurable,
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intentional, and centered on the core mission of the university. Quality benchmarks are

established and integrated into a strategic plan that ensures that institutional excellence, diversity,
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and inclusion are measurable and sustainable. IE is focused on a shift in perspective from a
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deficit-minded mental model that blames the students for unequal outcomes to embracing an

equity-minded mental model that is focused on shared (faculty/student) responsibilities for data-

driven educational outcomes. The expectation of the university is that goals, objectives,

strategies and outcomes of IE serve to guide the actions of the university units, including

colleges of nursing. Thus, integrated systems approaches to sustainable change are created. IE

appears to be a perfect match for visionary nurse educators who seek to prepare students to

function as part of a healthcare team in a global society.


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Quality in Nursing Education

Little has been written about the use of the IE framework in nursing education.

Because the IE framework is integrated, evidence-based, holistic and views diversity and

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excellence as inseparable (Williams, Berger, & McLendon, 2005), it appears to be the ideal

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framework to create inclusive educational environments for nursing education programs. Based

on the IE framework, a diversity dashboard has been developed for use by nurse educators (see

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Table 1). The application of the diversity dashboard is demonstrated through the use of a case

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study.

Case Study: University of Wisconsin Oshkosh ACCEL Program


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The IE framework recommends assessment, intervention, and monitoring in four

dimensions: Access and Equity, Campus Climate, Diversity in Formal and Informal Curriculum,
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and Learning and Development. The University of Wisconsin Oshkosh’s ACCEL program in
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will be examined in each of those areas.

Access and Equity


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Williams et al. (2005) defined access and equity as “The compositional number and
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success levels of historically underrepresented students, faculty, and staff in higher education.”

From 2003 to present, 7.5 % of students in the University of Wisconsin Oshkosh’s ACCEL

program belonged to a racial or ethnic minority. Men averaged about 18.5% of the ACCEL

student body over the past 10 years. When men are included as an underrepresented population,

the ACCEL student population does not mirror the patient population in the surrounding area, as

identified by the Wisconsin Center for Nursing (2013). The ACCEL faculty includes only one

man and no faculty members belong to racial and ethnic minority groups.
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Historically, men and racial/ethnic minorities are at greater risk for attrition in nursing

programs (Gilchrist & Rector, 2007; Mulholland, Anionwu, Atkins, Tappern, & Franks, 2008;

Pryjmachuk, Easton, and Littlewood, 2009). However, in the ACCEL program, few students

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from underrepresented groups have voluntarily or involuntarily withdrawn since its inception in

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2003. The program appears to be successful in retaining diverse students from the admission

decision through graduation but a formal analysis of attrition in underrepresented groups is

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lacking.

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A holistic admission process appears to enhance recruitment and retention of

diverse students. The ACCEL admission process bases admission decisions on many factors, not
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just grade point average and preadmission testing. Trice and Foster (2008) found the addition of

an interview component to the admission process allowed increased minority admissions without
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adversely affecting their attrition in their nursing program. Attention is paid to providing a level
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playing field and selecting students based on a wide range of criteria (Schmidt & MacWilliams,

2011). For example, online and phone interviews are used to determine candidates who are most
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likely to succeed. Questions are asked to elicit information about the applicant’s values,
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motivation, and emotional intelligence. Phone interviews, performed because applicants live in

multiple locations, lessen the chance of exclusion due to appearance. Faculty may not be aware

of students who belong to underrepresented groups.

There are opportunities for improvement in the dimension of Access & Equity.

Admission processes are not examined for concerns about exclusion of underrepresented groups.

Recruitment efforts are not targeted to students belonging to groups that have been identified as

underrepresented when the student body is compared to the population in the surrounding area.
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Another opportunity is to recruit faculty to better reflect the diversity of the students and patients

they serve.

Campus Climate

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Williams et al. (2005) emphasized the importance of a supportive psychological and

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behavioral campus climate; therefore, this is addressed in the diversity dashboard. A recent

climate survey at the University of Wisconsin, Oshkosh (2008), revealed that 82% of

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respondents were “very comfortable” or “comfortable” with the climate at UW Oshkosh.

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However, members of minority groups were more likely to report offensive, hostile, or

intimidating conduct. This survey included all students on campus and offered insight into the
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general campus climate. Because data were not available specific to nursing students, the ability

to draw conclusions about the nursing program climate is limited.


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A supportive educational climate involves transparency, mutual respect and trust (AACN,
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1997; Williams et al., 2005). “The responsibility of AACN is to use diversity as a strategy to

facilitate the education of future professionals by infusing mutual respect and trust into the
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learning experience.” (AACN, 1997, para. 6). In the ACCEL program, trust and respect are
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fostered by encouraging students to report concerns directly to the person involved, and if this

does not resolve the issue, to designated impartial staff members. Clear expectations for behavior

are communicated to students and faculty. Unresolved concerns related to respect are

communicated by students to ACCEL student service coordinators who are not faculty members.

In turn, these coordinators refer these concerns to ACCEL leadership who address them and

respond to students. Reviews of online courses include assessment of a respectful climate

between instructor and students and between students. However, the university’s standard
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process for students to report incidents of stereotyping, harassment, or discrimination has not

been communicated to students by ACCEL leaders.

In their study, Levett-Jones and Lathlean (2008) found that a sense of belongingness was

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a prerequisite to learning in nursing students. A learning community promotes a sense of

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belonginess or inclusion. The ACCEL program establishes a learning community through the use

of a cohort model. Although all theory courses are online, students meet during orientation,

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move through the program together, and support each other during their rigorous and stressful

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year. Three on-campus residencies and biweekly online clinical conferences give opportunities

for face-to-face interactions and promote relationships between diverse students, staff, and
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faculty. Students meet with staff from support services (e.g. financial aid, library, career

services) during orientation and comment on a welcoming atmosphere in the campus as a whole.
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During the program, it is common for students to contact their instructors and peers
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frequently via Skype for course-related issues and support. Skype, discussions, standardized

learning management courses, and virtual world learning are used. The involvement of
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preceptors for most clinical courses promotes a sense of inclusion among staff in health care
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agencies. Each student has a faculty advisor who supports the student and helps to resolve any

difficulties or concerns. This faculty advisor serves in a mentorship capacity before, during, and

even after the program. These interventions contribute to student retention. However, a faculty

member from an underrepresented group is not assigned to mentor students from the same or

similar groups. Underrepresented students are not consistently encouraged to participate in

student and/or nursing organizations for underrepresented groups. Since these organizations are

present on campus this represents an opportunity for improvement.


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While many students of different races, ethnicities, genders, and socioeconomic status

have been successful in this program, there is an opportunity for greater support. The cost of the

program may be a barrier to diverse students from disadvantaged backgrounds. In addition,

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students for whom English is a second language may struggle with the rapid pace of the reading

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and writing requirements in this program.

Diversity in Formal and Informal Curriculum

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The diversity in formal and informal curriculum dimension of the IE framework

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addressed content in academic programs, curricula, and experiences throughout the campus

(Williams et al., 2005). Evidence-based teaching strategies are woven into the ACCEL
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curriculum. For example, an advanced concepts course was recently implemented with the

purpose of shaping future leaders with professional values and behaviors, and providing a bridge
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to practice. However, there is little evidence that men and minority health issues (e.g. genetic
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concerns, health risks and male health issues) are included in the curriculum and this is a

potential area for improvement.


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Learning and Development


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Student-centered learning is the hallmark of the ACCEL program. An educational climate

of active student-centered teaching leads to transformative learning (IOM, 2004). Students are

encouraged to apply their experiences from their previous degree to the ACCEL program. For

example, a student who was formerly a dietician was encouraged to assist other students with

nutritional content in a pathophysiology course. This adheres to Kohn and Truglio-Londrigan’s

(2007) advice to nurse faculty to recognize the myriad talents and abilities of second degree

students in accelerated nursing programs.


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Instructors and staff are crucial to promoting student development in the ACCEL

program. They care for students in the same way that students care for patients. Role modeling

and guidance is provided through Skype, mobile phone, e-mail, and face-to-face contacts.

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Students belonging to underrepresented groups are not treated differently than majority students

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in clinical assignments. For example, students who are men are afforded the same opportunities

in obstetrics and pediatrics as their female counterparts.

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The use of the preceptor model for most clinical courses promotes a sense of immersion,

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and professional socialization. The clinical faculty member serves to oversee the clinical

experience. The preceptor, student, and instructor work together as a team to ensure that the
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clinical learning experience is successful. This preceptor clinical model appears to prepare

students for the pace in the real world of nursing through clinical maturation. (MacWilliams,
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2009).
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Learning and development includes reflection and dialogue about values and diverse

viewpoints (Williams et al., 2005). This is encouraged in the ACCEL program through the use
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of discussions, clinical conferences, and student journals. An opportunity exists in the area of
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faculty and students to evaluate themselves related to assumptions and beliefs, power inequities,

communication and interactions. These provide a foundation for achieving cultural humility

(Chang, Simon, & Dong, 2012).

A Diversity Dashboard Exemplar

Based on the above assessment, ACCEL leaders made several recommendations which

form the basis for strategic planning, monitoring, and follow-up. These recommendations are

based on the exemplar program but illustrate the process of self-assessment and may assist in
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strategic planning efforts in other nursing programs. Because each program has individual

characteristics and needs, other dashboard items may be appropriate (see Table 1).

Recommendation 1 (IE dimension Access & Equity): Examine admission and hiring

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processes for evidence of exclusionary practices related to underrepresented groups. Strategies:

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Holistic admission policies and procedures, and annual analysis of an admission process and

hiring survey of applicants. Outcome: No prospective student or faculty concerns are present

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related to exclusion, discrimination, and stereotyping of underrepresented groups.

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Recommendation 2 (IE dimension Access & Equity): Analyze differential voluntary and

involuntary attrition between underrepresented groups and majority students, as recommended


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by O’Lynn and MacWilliams (2013). Strategies: Gathering and analyzing attrition data in males

and other underrepresented group in nursing programs. Outcome: There are no statistically
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significant differences in attrition between students who belong to underrepresented groups,


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including men, and majority students.

Recommendation 3 (IE dimension Access & Equity): Identify and implement a


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recruitment plan for students who belong to underrepresented groups. Strategies: Annually assess
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the patient population in the service area. Formulate and implement a plan to recruit students

from underrepresented groups based on analysis of the surrounding area. For example, the

Wisconsin Center for Nursing (2013) identified Asians and men as targeted underrepresented

groups in the nursing workforce in Wisconsin and ACCEL should focus on recruiting these

groups. Outcome: Increase the percentage of students who belong to underrepresented groups to

better reflect the patient population being served.

Recommendation 4 (IE dimension Access & Equity): Support College of Nursing efforts

to recruit diverse faculty members. Strategy: Annually, collect and analyze data related to
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nursing faculty from underrepresented groups. Formulate and implement a faculty recruitment

plan. Outcome: The percentage of faculty who belong to an underrepresented group increases to

better reflect the student population being served.

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Recommendation 5 (IE dimension Campus Climate): When possible, a faculty member

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belonging to an underrepresented group should provide support and role-modeling for

underrepresented nursing students. Strategies: Reframe the role of advisor to one of advocate.

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An example in the ACCEL program is that the title of the faculty advisor should be changed to

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advocate and students from underrepresented groups are assigned to a faculty advisor from a

similar group where possible. Outcome: All students who belong to underrepresented groups are
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provided an advocate from the same or similar group if possible.

Recommendation 6 (IE dimension Campus Climate): Formally assess the climate in the
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nursing program, using a climate assessment tool. If a university-wide survey is conducted, the
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results should be analyzed by specific departments if at all possible. Identify and communicate a

standardized process for all students and faculty to report incidents of harassment, exclusion,
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discrimination, or stereotyping. Strategies: Reporting mechanisms, building trust through


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respectful behaviors to enhance the nursing program climate and learning experience. Outcomes:

A climate survey is conducted and analyzed and a standardized process for reporting incidents is

identified and communicated to all nursing students and faculty.

Recommendation 7 (IE dimension Campus Climate): Offer students from

underrepresented groups opportunities to connect with student/nursing organizations. Strategy:

Obtain and offer information about student/nursing organizations. Outcome: All male nursing

students are offered the opportunity to participate in the American Assembly for Men in Nursing;

all other underrepresented students will be informed of appropriate on- and off-campus
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organizations such as the National Student Nurses Association, Black Student Union, Student

Organization of Latinos, and Asian Student Organization,

Recommendation 8 (IE dimension Campus Climate): Link students from

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underrepresented groups to appropriate campus resources for academic support. Strategy: Obtain

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and communicate information about available resources to underrepresented students. Outcome:

all students from underrepresented groups are encouraged to utilize campus resources for

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assistance with language, reading, writing, and test-taking.

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Recommendation 9 (IE dimension Campus Climate): Develop and communicate new

scholarships for ACCEL students from underrepresented groups. Financial and academic
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resources are recommended strategies to promote diversity in nursing education (Gilchrist &

Rector, 2007). Dedicated budget allocations and grant funds are a few ways to provide resources
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to underrepresented student populations. For example, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
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(2012 has provided funding for diversity efforts. Outcome: new scholarships are established and

communicated to students who belong to underrepresented groups in nursing.


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Recommendation 10 (IE dimension Formal and Informal Curriculum: Ensure that the
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curriculum addresses men and minority health. Strategy: Curricular review and revision as

needed. Examples are: genetic risks, health risks related to racial/ethnic minorities and men’s

health issues. Outcome: Documentation that health issues related to men and other

underrepresented groups are addressed in the curriculum.

Recommendation 11 (IE dimension Learning & Development): Implement a self-

evaluation of cultural humility. Strategy: Faculty and students evaluate their assumptions and

beliefs, power inequities, communication, and interactions. Outcome: Faculty and student self-

evaluations are conducted on an annual basis.


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Conclusion

Inclusion and quality are inseparable. “To achieve excellence, we must be inclusive. To

be inclusive we must be equitable”. (University of Wisconsin System, 2009, p. 15). To be

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equitable we must create measureable change. By focusing on professional values and behaviors,

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embracing a diversity of perspectives, and committing to cultural humility, the profession can be

transformed. Accelerated programs clearly represent a way to achieve this transformation but it

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can be achieved in any nursing program. A case study of an accelerated program demonstrated

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how an intentional quality improvement process can be used to create benchmarks and improve

outcomes related to diversity and inclusion in nursing education. Nurse educators in other
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programs are challenged to do the same.
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Table 1

Sample Diversity Dashboard for Nursing Education Programs

IE Domain Strategy Measurable Outcome

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Access & Collect & analyze data on admission The percentage of admitted students

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Equity of students from underrepresented who belong to underrepresented groups

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groups, such as men, and racial/ethnic is [insert percentage]
minorities. Identify and implement a

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plan to recruit prospective students
who are men or belong to other
underrepresented groups to the nursing
program.

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Annually, conduct a survey of students No concerns are present related to
and faculty related to the student discriminatory, stereotypical, or
admission process for evidence of exclusionary treatment of prospective
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discrimination, stereotyping and students or faculty.
exclusion of students and faculty
belonging to underrepresented groups
Annually, collect and evaluate data on There is no statistically significant
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retention of students by race/ethnicity, difference in attrition between students


gender, and other underrepresented who belong to underrepresented groups
groups and students from majority groups.
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Identify and implement a plan to The percentage of nursing faculty who


recruit men and others belonging belong to underrepresented groups is
underrepresented groups to the nursing [insert percentage]
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faculty
Campus Annually, complete and analyze a [Insert percent} of students and faculty
Climate climate survey of nursing students and from underrepresented groups report a
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faculty welcoming climate absent of incidents


of harassment, discrimination,
stereotyping, or exclusion
Identify and communicate a A standardized process for reporting
standardized process for ACCEL incidents of harassment, exclusion,
students belonging to underrepresented discrimination or stereotyping is
groups to report incidents of identified and communicated to
harassment, exclusion, discrimination, students and faculty.
or stereotyping. Leaders/administrators follow-up on all
incidents.
Develop a code of conduct for Students, staff, and faculty have been
inclusion and educate faculty, staff, educated on the nursing program code
and students of conduct for inclusion
Implement mentorship programs for All students and faculty from
faculty and students from underrepresented groups are offered
underrepresented groups mentors from a similar group, if
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possible
Offer students from underrepresented All male nursing students are offered
groups opportunities to connect with the opportunity to participate in the
appropriate support services Great Lakes Chapter of the American
Assembly for Men in Nursing. All

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students from underrepresented groups
will be informed of appropriate on and

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off campus organizations for support,

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including financial aid services.
Students from underrepresented groups

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are encouraged to utilize campus
resources for assistance as needed.
Implement employment policies that Faculty performance evaluations
demonstrate value of staff, teaching, require evaluation of behaviors related

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and scholarly activities related to to inclusion of others. Tie indicators of
diversity and inclusion classroom climate and scholarship
related to diversity to reappointment,
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promotion, and tenure policies
Formal & Examine and revise curriculum for the Curricular analysis and revision of
Informal presence of meaningful content and content relating to diverse groups is
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Curriculum activities related to diverse groups documented.


Ensure that the curriculum addresses Documentation that health issues
men and minority health. related to men and other
underrepresented groups are addressed
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in the curriculum
Examine teaching practices for a A variety of student-centered learning
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variety of active, student-centered strategies are used including active


strategies learning methods in classroom courses
Examine clinical, laboratory, and Nurses are not portrayed by faculty as
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classroom assignments for equitable white and/or female. Clinical


practices related to underrepresented assignments (e.g. obstetrics, pediatrics)
groups are gender neutral.
Learning & Integrate reflection and dialogue about Documented activities (e.g. journaling,
Development professional nursing values and discussions) that promote reflection and
diverse viewpoints into student and dialogue about diverse views and
faculty activities professional values/behaviors between
students and faculty
Faculty and student self-evaluations of Faculty and student self-evaluations are
assumptions and beliefs, power conducted annually.
inequities, communication, and
interactions