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Accepted Manuscript

Effects of the Educational Leadership of Nursing Unit Managers on Team


Effectiveness: Mediating Effects of Organizational Communication

Eun Ha Choi, RN, MS, Eun-Kyung Kim, RN, PhD, Pil Bong Kim, RN, MA

PII: S1976-1317(17)30696-5
DOI: 10.1016/j.anr.2018.03.001
Reference: ANR 274

To appear in: Asian Nursing Research

Received Date: 7 December 2017


Revised Date: 2 March 2018
Accepted Date: 22 March 2018

Please cite this article as: Choi E.H., Kim E.-K. & Kim P.B., Effects of the Educational Leadership of
Nursing Unit Managers on Team Effectiveness: Mediating Effects of Organizational Communication,
Asian Nursing Research (2018), doi: 10.1016/j.anr.2018.03.001.

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[Title page]

1. Title of the article

Effects of the Educational Leadership of Nursing Unit Managers on Team Effectiveness: Mediating Effects

of Organizational Communication

2. Running head

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Educational Leadership of Nursing Unit Managers

3. Author names

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1) Eun Ha Choi, RN, MS

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Chungbuk National University Hospital, Cheongju, South Korea

2) Eun-Kyung Kim, RN, PhD

Department of Nursing, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, South Korea

3) Pil Bong Kim, RN, MA


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Chungcheongbuk-do Regional Mental Health Welfare Center
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4. Correspondence to:

Eun-Kyung Kim, RN, PhD.


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Department of Nursing, Chungbuk National University,


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1 chungdae-ro, Seowon-gu, Cheongiu, Chungbuk 28644, South Korea.

Emal: kyung11@cbnu.ac.kr
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Phone: +82-43-249-1730 Fax: +82-43-266-1710

5. Conflicts of interest
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The authors declared no conflict of interest.


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6. This paper was reviewed by a professional translator.


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[ ]

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7. Copyright to ANR
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Eun Ha Choi
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Eun-Kyung Kim

Pil Bong Kim


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[Acknowledgement]

The authors would like to thank the hospital for its sincere cooperation in the present study and the nurses for

their participation in the survey for the development of the nursing organization.
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Abstract

Educational Leadership of Nursing Unit Managers on Team Effectiveness: Mediating

Effects of Organizational Communication Satisfaction

Purpose: This study identifies the effects of the educational leadership of nursing unit

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managers on team effectiveness and the mediating effects of organizational communication

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satisfaction; it highlights the importance of educational leadership and organizational

communication and provides the data needed to enhance the education capacity of managers.

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Methods: The participants were 216 nursing unit managers of staff nurses at a tertiary

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hospital located in C Region, South Korea, and nurses who had worked for more than six
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months at the same hospital. This study was conducted using questionnaires on educational

leadership, team effectiveness, and organizational communication satisfaction. Data analysis


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was performed with a t-test, ANOVA, Scheffé, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, and simple

and multiple regression analyses using SPSS version 23.0. Mediation analysis was tested
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using Baron and Kenny’s regression analysis and a Sobel test. Results: The mean score for
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the educational leadership of nursing unit managers was 3.74(±0.68); for organizational

communication satisfaction, 3.14(±0.51); and for team effectiveness, 3.52(±0.49).


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Educational leadership was significantly positively correlated with team effectiveness and
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organizational communication satisfaction. Organizational communication satisfaction


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demonstrated a complete mediating effect on the relationship between educational leadership

and team effectiveness (β=.61, p<.001) and was significant (Sobel test; Z=7.40, p<.001).

Conclusion: The results indicate that the educational leadership of nursing unit managers

increases communication satisfaction among nurses; this supports the idea that educational

leadership can contribute to team effectiveness. This suggests that the educational leadership

and communication capacity of nursing unit managers must be improved to enhance the
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performance of nursing organizations.

Keywords: nurse managers; leadership; communication

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Introduction

Modern hospital organizations are promoting specialization, segmentation,

modernization, and informatization to provide high-quality healthcare services that meet

customers expectations. In addition, hospital organizations are making efforts to improve

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their management efficiency. In this rapidly changing medical environment, these

organizations are focusing on strengthening their core competencies and improving their

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relations to increase productivity [1]. In particular middle managers play the most pivotal role

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in enhancing their efficiency.

Middle managers in nursing organizations drive the achievement of the goals of each

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nursing unit and hospital, as well as improvement of performance. In particular, a nursing
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unit manager is the core manager of a nursing unit has the responsibility and authority to

understand the purpose and structure of the hospital and nursing department and to direct,
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coordinate, and evaluate nursing resource management and the performance of nursing
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activities [2]. In addition, nursing unit managers can significantly affect the efficiency of
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overall hospital organization and the quality of patient care. Therefore, nursing unit managers

should have management capabilities that can play a key role in professional performance
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and in improving the capabilities of staff nurses.

Nursing unit managers devote much time to educating patients, family caregivers,
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nursing staff, nursing students, local residents, and organizations, as well as coordinating and
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cooperating with various departments inside and outside the hospital. The educational

leadership of nursing unit managers focuses on identifying nurses abilities and attitudes, and

managing activities and education programs to improve tasks and nurses job performance,

knowledge, and attitudes, and to develop their professionalism to provide patients with

quality nursing. The educational leadership of nursing unit managers has a positive effect on
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organizational performance and team effectiveness, which can increase nurses job

satisfaction and decrease their turnover intention. Its importance has recently been

emphasized [3].

The nursing unit is an independent unit operated by the nursing unit manager, and is

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affected by complex factors such as the environment of each unit, characteristics of team

members, diversity of resources, and interactions among organizational members [4]. These

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factors also affect team effectiveness. Rapid and smooth communication between team

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members is essential for the team effectiveness of a nursing unit [5,6].

Organizational communication refers to the interactions between organizational members

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to cooperatively achieve organizational goals [7]. Organizational management can also be
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referred to as communication management, and communication plays a central role in the

operation of an organization [8]. According to the results of previous studies on


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organizational communication, organizational communication satisfaction contributes to


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achieving goals and to organizational development by increasing the job satisfaction of


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organizational members [5,9 11].

Nursing unit managers must possess outstanding communication skills. Strong


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communication skills are important components of effective leadership. A successful


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organization is one with collective efficacy and a capability to develop and use resources to
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accomplish goals that matter to all staff members through agreed-upon processes [12].

In previous studies, it was proved that the educational leadership of the leader is an

important factor for enhancing the team effectiveness [3], and that there is a positive

correlation between organizational communication satisfaction, job satisfaction,

organizational commitment and organizational effectiveness [13-17]. However, the present

study is limited to the relationship between the educational leadership, organizational


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communication satisfaction, and team effectiveness of the nursing unit manager at the time

when goal achievement and team performance are emphasized in nursing units.

This study aimed to identify the effects of organizational communication satisfaction on

the relationship between the educational leadership of nursing unit managers and team

effectiveness to improve understanding of the importance of educational leadership and

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organizational communication and provide the basic data required to enhance managers

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education capability.

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Methods

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Study design

This is a cross-sectional descriptive study that aimed to investigate the effects of the
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educational leadership of nursing unit managers on the team effectiveness of a nursing unit

and the mediating effects of organizational communication satisfaction.


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Setting and sample

The subjects of this study were the convenience extraction of staff nurses who worked for
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more than six months with the same nursing unit manager in a university hospital with
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educational mission in the C region. For the multiple regression analysis, the sample size was
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estimated at a power of .95, significance level of .05, medium-effect size of .15, and through

13 predictor variables using G*Power 3.1.9.2, a program for statistical power analyses. The

minimum number of samples required was calculated as at least 189 subjects. Thus, 250

questionnaires were distributed in anticipation of missing questionnaires. Of these, 242

completed questionnaires were collected (response rate: 96.8%). Ultimately, after excluding

26 questionnaires (10.4% dropout rate) with incomplete data, the study analyzed data from
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216 subjects, which met the minimum number of subjects required for statistical testing.

Ethical considerations

Data collection was conducted after approval of the Institutional Review Board (CBNU-

201704-BMSB-426-01) belonging to the researcher to protect the human rights of the

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research subjects. Researchers visited the nursing department at a hospital to request

participation, and to explain the purpose of this study and the contents of the questionnaires.

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A pre-educated research assistant visited each nursing unit and explained the purpose of the

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study to the staff nurses. Furthermore, data collection process, guarantee of anonymity,

autonomy of the decision to withdraw, confidentiality, and data storage and handling were

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explained to the subjects. Nurses completed a self-administered survey after consenting in
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writing to voluntarily participate in this study. Each completed questionnaire was collected in

a sealed envelope to ensure confidentiality. Collected questionnaires were coded, input into
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the computer, and stored in a lockable cabinet.


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Measurement

Educational leadership
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Educational leadership was measured using a tool revised by Ahn [3], which was based on

the Principal Instructional Management Rating Scale (PIMRS) developed by Hallinger and
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Murphy. This scale comprised 12 items, with 3 subscales, including task improvement
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activities, professional development, and education course management. Each item was rated

on a five-point Likert scale ranging from 1 = not at all to 5 = very much agree. A higher

score indicated that nurses had a higher perception of the educational leadership of their

nursing unit managers. This scale was approved for use by the developer of the tool. In a

study by Ahn [5], the reliability of this tool was Cronbach s ⍺=.94. Cronbach s ⍺in this study
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was .96.

Team effectiveness

Team effectiveness was measured using a scale originally developed by Hoegl and

Gemuenden [18] and modified by Kim [19]. The scale comprised 16 items, with 3 subscales

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on personal growth, job effectiveness, and job efficiency. Each item was rated on a five-point

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Likert scale ranging from 1 = not at all to 5 = very much agree. A high score indicated

higher team effectiveness. The scale was approved for use by the developer. The reliability of

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each subscale was determined in a study by Kim [19] and was as follows: Cronbach s ⍺=.89

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for personal growth, .90 for job effectiveness, and .80 for job efficacy. Its reliability in a study
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by Lee [20] was Cronbach s ⍺=.93, and in the present study, it was .90. In addition, in this
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study, the reliability of each subscale ranged from .75 to .88.


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Organizational communication satisfaction


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Organizational communication satisfaction was measured using a tool originally developed

by Downs and Hazen [21] and modified for nursing organizations by Park [5]. The tool
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comprised 24 items for 8 subfactors, including organizational perspective, organizational


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integration, personal feedback, supervisor communication, subordinate communication,


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media quality, horizontal communication, and communication climate. Each item was rated

on a five-point Likert scale ranging from 1 = not at all to 5 = very much agree. A higher

score indicated higher organizational communication satisfaction among organizational

members. The tool was approved for use in advance by the developer. The reliability of the

tool in a study by Park [5] was Cronbach s ⍺= .80. Cronbach s ⍺in this study was .91.
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Data collection

The data collection period was from July 24 to August 25, 2017. The purpose of the study

was explained to the nursing unit managers who were asked to cooperate in the data

collection process. Research assistants were trained in advance on data collection methods.

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This study was conducted with only those nurses who agreed with participating in the study.

Nurses completed the questionnaire in a meeting room in units for privacy. The average

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completion time was approximately15 minutes.

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Data analysis

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Analyses were conducted using SPSS version 23.0. The general characteristics of the
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subjects were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Cronbach s values were measured to
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ensure the reliability of the instruments. Differences in educational leadership, team

effectiveness, and organizational communication satisfaction were analyzed using an


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independent t-test and one-way ANOVA, and a post-hoc analysis was performed using the
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Scheffé test. Pearson s correlation coefficients were calculated to examine the relationship
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between educational leadership, team effectiveness, and organizational communication

satisfaction. The mediating effects of organizational communication on educational


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leadership and team effectiveness were analyzed using Baron and Kenny s three-step test
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procedure for mediating effects [22], which employs simple and multiple regression analyses.

Finally, the statistical significance of the mediating effects was tested using a Sobel test.

The results of testing the assumptions of the regression analysis before testing the

mediating effects of organizational communication satisfaction showed that all the following

conditions were met: the Durbin-Watson index was 1.70, indicating no residual
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autocorrelation; the minimum value of the tolerance limit for the variables was 0.62, or

greater than 0.1; and the maximum value of the variance inflation factor (VIF) was 1.61,

which was smaller than 10, indicating that multicollinearity was not a problem. In addition,

the results of the residual analysis confirmed the linearity, normality, and homoscedasticity of

the model.

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Results

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Characteristics of the study participants

A frequency analysis was conducted to analyze the general characteristics of the subjects

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(Table 1). The mean age of the subjects was 29.2 years, and 81.9% were unmarried. In terms
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of current work unit, 56.9% were working in general wards, including internal medicine and

surgery departments, and 43.1% in special units, including the intensive care unit, emergency
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room, and operating room. The average clinical career of nurses was 5.26 years, and the
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clinical career in the current work unit was 3.41 years on average .
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Differences in educational leadership, organizational communication satisfaction, and team


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effectiveness according to demographic and job characteristics

Table 2 provides the results of the analysis of the differences in the educational
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leadership, organizational communication satisfaction, and team effectiveness of nursing unit


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managers according to their demographic and job characteristics. The overall mean score of

educational leadership, organizational communication satisfaction, and team effectiveness

were 3.74, 3.14, and 3.52, respectively.

The nurses who worked at general units showed statistically higher score of educational

leadership of nursing unit managers (F=4.03, p<.001), organizational communication

satisfaction (F=5.05, p<.001), and team effectiveness (F=2.94, p<.004) than those who
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worked at special units. Organizational communication satisfaction was higher for new

nurses with less than one year than nurses with more than one year of total clinical career

(F=4.71, p =.010). In addition, organizational communication satisfaction was higher for

nurses with less than one year than nurses more than one year of current work unit clinical

career (F=8.98, p<.001).

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Correlation between educational leadership, organizational communication satisfaction, and

team effectiveness

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Table 3 shows the correlation between the educational leadership of nursing unit

managers, organizational communication satisfaction, and team effectiveness of the subjects.

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Education leadership was significantly positively correlated with team effectiveness (r=.46,
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p<.001) and organizational communication satisfaction (r=.66, p<.001); and organizational
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communication satisfaction was significantly positively correlated with team effectiveness

(r=.62, p<.001) (Table 3).


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The mediating effects of organizational communication satisfaction on the relationship

between educational leadership and team effectiveness


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Table 4 provides the results of the regression analysis conducted to verify the mediating

effects of organizational communication satisfaction on the relationship between the


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educational leadership of nursing unit managers and team effectiveness. In the first step, the
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results of the regression analysis using educational leadership as an independent variable and

organizational communication satisfaction as a mediator variable were significant ( =.62,

p<.001), supporting educational leadership as a reasonable explanation for the 38.0% of

organizational communication satisfaction. In the second step, the results of the regression

analysis using educational leadership as the independent variable and team effectiveness as
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the dependent variable were statistically significant ( =.46, p<.001), supporting educational

leadership as a reasonable explanation for the 21.0% of team effectiveness. In the third step,

regression analysis was conducted with educational leadership and organizational

communication satisfaction as predictive factors and team effectiveness as the dependent

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variable, to investigate the effect of organizational communication satisfaction on team

effectiveness. The results showed that only organizational communication satisfaction was a

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significant predictive factor of team effectiveness ( =.61, p<.001). In other words, when the

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organizational communication satisfaction was set as a mediator variable in this step, the

standardized regression coefficient of educational leadership declined from .46 to .09, and it

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was found not to be significant with respect to team effectiveness ( =.09, p=.188), indicating

that the complete mediating effect of organizational communication satisfaction was able to
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explain 44.0% of team effectiveness (Figure 1).


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A Sobel test was performed to verify the significance of the mediating effects of
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organizational communication satisfaction [23]; the mediating effects of organizational

communication satisfaction on the relationship between educational leadership and team


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effectiveness were found to be significant (Z=7.40, p<.001).


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Discussion
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The results of this study showed that team effectiveness increased as nursing unit

managers exercised more educational leadership and organizational members were more

satisfied with organizational communication. These results suggest that the educational

leadership of nursing unit managers can achieve nursing unit goals and improve performance.

Leadership is the interpersonal influence that leads to achievement of goals through

communication. Leader's role in achieving organizational goal largely depends on how well
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they communicate [24]. The nursing unit manager demonstrated educational leadership such

as guidance, encouragement, and information providing for improving the job ability of the

staffs and improved the team effectiveness of the nursing unit through the communication

process towards attainment of the goal with the staffs.

In this study, the mean score for the educational leadership of nursing unit managers was

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3.74 (out of 5 points), higher than the 3.11 found in a study by Ahn [3], in which nurses

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working at four general hospitals in the same area were surveyed using the same tool. This

difference can be attributed to the fact that the present study site was a university hospital and

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tertiary hospital trying to accomplish an education mission, which meant that nursing unit

managers in this nursing organization faced higher demands to educate nurses, nursing

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students, nursing assistants, patients, and caregivers than those in general hospitals, and they
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endeavored to faithfully fulfill this corresponding role. In the field of education, a principal s
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educational leadership had a greater effect on the effectiveness of a school organization than
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transformational or managerial leadership [25]. In addition, knowledge-sharing efforts to


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increase organizational competitiveness emerged as an important issue. The results of a study

on hospital organizations [26] indicated that the effects of nurses knowledge management on
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organizational effectiveness highlight the importance of educational leadership.


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The results of this study showed that organizational communication satisfaction was
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significantly higher in nurse with short clinical career. If newly employed nurses or new

nurses transferred from other wards are introduced into a different ward, they require a

certain period of work orientation according to the nature of the nursing task. As a result, the

time nursing unit managers spending on education has increased, which naturally has

enhanced the organizational communication satisfaction of staff nurses. Also, staff nurses

working in general units had significantly higher educational leadership, organizational


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communication satisfaction, and team effectiveness than staff nurses working in special units.

The results showed that the number of unit nurses managed by a unit manager was larger than

that of general units in special units of research hospital, and that staff nurses in general unit

had more education and interaction time with unit manager, which may have influenced

organizational communication satisfaction and team effectiveness.

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Educational leadership in the education field maintains the educational conditions of an

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organization, maximizes support to improve teaching and learning effectiveness, and

promotes the growth and development of those being educated. According to the Korean

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Hospital Nurses Association [27], the ratio of new nurses with less than one year in a clinical

career to total nursing staff at tertiary hospitals was 14.8% on average, and the turnover rate

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of new nurses with less than one year in a clinical career was very high at 29.8% on average.
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This suggests that for these nurses, the educational leadership of nursing unit managers is
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needed; education is essential to improve the competencies of staff nurses, and nursing unit

managers must satisfy their education needs. When, staff nurses gain confidence through
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their education and communication, their job satisfaction and job commitment will increase,
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which will contribute to organizational performance [28].

Nursing unit managers are responsible for setting the tone and creating a climate conducive
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to teaching and learning. Because unit managers play such a pivotal role in the success of the
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unit, it becomes evident that the preparation and continuous professional development of
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staffs within educational efforts [29]. Educational leaders not only provide nurses with

opportunities for professional development, but they also share the necessary information to

encourage and support nurses in their efforts to achieve organizational goals. A successful

organization is one with collective efficacy and a capability to develop and use resources to

accomplish goals that matter to all staff members through agreed-upon processes [12].

Nursing unit manager can provide feedback to each other through collaboration during staff
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development. Professional development must be constructed in ways that deepen the

discussion, open up the debates, and enrich the array of possibilities for action [17]. The

results of this study indicate that the mean score for organizational communication

satisfaction was 3.14 (out of 5 points), similar to the 3.17 found in a study by Lee [13]

involving nurses. These results suggest that nursing unit managers need to make efforts to

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create a ward culture that enables more free communication with staffs. It is a unit manager s

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responsibility to establish strong lines of communication with and among leaders and staffs.

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In addition, unit manager should monitor the effectiveness of practices and their impact on

staff learning [17]. In addition, nursing unit managers should develop career development

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education programs to promote employees morale and support them through horizontal
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communication.
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The mean score for team effectiveness was 3.52 in this study. These results were similar

to the overall mean score of 3.50 found in a study by Lee in which nurses were surveyed
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using the same tool [20], and somewhat lower than the 3.62 found in a study by Kim [19] on
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office workers at large companies. Therefore, team effectiveness appears to be a matter of

assessing not only the achievement of a team s goals, but also whether team members ability
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is improved during the team s work. The latter is an important factor for team effectiveness.
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A team s success varies depending on the level of goal achievement, task performance

methods, and the capabilities of team members. One of the characteristics of high performing

teams is team members with the right expertise. To be a high-performing team, team

members must be satisfied with themselves and improve their knowledge and skills during

the course of their work. Staff developments should focus on content knowledge, provide

opportunities for active learning, and there should be an overall coherence of the staff
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development activities [17]. If the abilities of team members are improved through

educational leadership of unit manager, they will work more efficiently, and eventually

achieve team goals [20]. Therefore, nursing unit managers should identify team members

abilities and attitudes, and confirm whether their personal growth opportunities are reflected

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in their work. These should be applied so that nurses job performance, nursing knowledge,

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and attitudes can be improved in the process of providing quality nursing suitable for patients.

The results of this study also significantly correlated the educational leadership of

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nursing unit managers as perceived by nurses with team effectiveness and organizational

communication satisfaction. As the educational leadership of nursing unit managers

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perceived by nurses was higher, team effectiveness was also higher in this study, similar to
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the results of previous research [3]. In addition, these results are aligned with those of
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previous studies involving nurses [13-15], indicating that as employees were more satisfied

with organizational communication, their organizational commitment was higher.


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On the other hand, the results for verifying the mediating effects of organizational
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communication satisfaction on the relationship between the educational leadership of nursing

unit managers and team effectiveness indicated that the effects of educational leadership on
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the team effectiveness of staff nurses differed according to organizational communication


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satisfaction. This implies that the organizational communication satisfaction as perceived by


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nurses mediated the educational leadership of nursing unit managers and team effectiveness,

thus affecting team effectiveness. In other words, the educational leadership of nursing unit

managers can increase staff nurses organizational communication satisfaction to enhance

team effectiveness. Nursing units that demonstrate educational leadership, to make cultures

concrete and keep them vital, members of unit repeatedly communicate and affirm their

shared understandings [17]. Unit managers work together in teams, engaging in the process
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of performance, that promote deep team learning, leading to higher levels of staff

achievement [30].

The results of this study confirmed that the educational leadership of nursing unit

managers affects team effectiveness via the organizational communication satisfaction of

staff nurses. These findings suggest that the educational leadership of nursing unit managers

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can contribute to team effectiveness by activating communications with nurses and increasing

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their satisfaction. If nurses team effectiveness increases, nursing performance will improve

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accordingly, and the quality of nursing services will be enhanced to increase patient

satisfaction and ultimately maximize the efficiency of hospitals. Therefore, the educational

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leadership of nursing unit managers is an important factor affecting organizational
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performance.
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Conclusion

The present study found that the educational leadership of nursing unit managers affected
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organizational communication satisfaction among nurses, and that organizational


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communication played a mediating role in increasing team effectiveness. Therefore, nursing


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unit managers can increase team effectiveness through education and training to enhance

their effective educational leadership competencies and organizational communication with


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nurses.
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Recommendations for future research

First, more studies are needed to verify the effects of educational leadership using diverse

samples. Second, it is recommended that further studies include various factors that affect

educational leadership. Third, programs should be developed to improve the communication

satisfaction of nursing organizations, and studies to verify these effects should be conducted.
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Table 1. Socio-demographic and Work related Characteristics of Participants (N=216)

Characteristics Categories n (%) M±SD

Age (yr) ≤25 49 (22.7)

26-≤30 115 (53.2) 29.20±5.75

31≤ 52 (24.1)

Marital Single 177 (81.9)

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Married 39 (18.1)

Education College 31 (14.4)

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Bachelor 170(78.7)

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≥Master 15(6.9)

Religion Yes 71 (32.9)

No 145 (67.1)

Current work unit General units


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Special units 96(43.1)

Total clinical career (yr) 1a 23(10.6)


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1- 5b 117(54.2) 5.26±5.86

5≤c
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76(35.2)

Current work unit clinical 1a 38(17.6)


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career (yr)
1- 5b 133(61.6) 3.41±3.84

5≤c
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45(20.8)

Note. Special units include intensive care unit, emergency room, operating room, and emergency unit.
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Table 2. Differences in Team Effectiveness, Organizational Communication Satisfaction,
Educational Leadership according to Socio-demographic and Work related Characteristics
(N=21
6)
Organizational
Educational leadership communication Team effectiveness

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Characteristics Categories satisfaction
t/F(p) t/F(p) t/F(p)
M±SD M±SD M±SD
Scheffé Scheffé Scheffé

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Age (yr) ≤25 3.71±0.69 3.22±0.49 3.55±0.44
26-≤30 3.76±0.61 0.13(.877) 3.16±0.46 2.32(.101) 3.50±0.49 0.22(.80)

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31≤ 3.71±0.82 3.02±0.61 3.53±0.53
Marital Single 3.74±0.69 3.16±0.49 3.50±0.47
0.09(.931) 1.31(.198) -0.99(.332)

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Married 3.73±0.67 3.03±0.58 3.59±0.56
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Education College 3.58±0.73 3.01±0.52 3.52±0.44
Bachelor 1.45(.238) 1.22(.298) 0.18(.833)
3.75±0.67 3.16±0.50 3.51±0.50
≥Master 3.93±0.73 3.20±0.59 3.59±0.48
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Religion Yes 3.76±0.74 3.15±0.55 3.54±0.50


0.36(.720) 0.11(.916) 0.48(.634)
No 3.73±0.65 3.14±0.49 3.51±0.48
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Current work General units 3.90±0.66 3.28±0.47 3.60±0.48


unit 4.03(<.001) 5.05(<.001) 2.94(<.004)
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Special units 3.53±0.65 2.95±0.49 3.41±0.48


Total clinical a
1 3.95±0.86 3.41±0.49 3.69±0.51
career (yr) 4.71(.010)
1- 5b 1.23(.293) 2.00(.138)
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3.72±0.60 3.15±0.44 3.52±0.44


a>b,c
5≤c 3.71±0.74 3.05±0.58 3.46±0.54
Current work 1a
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3.88±0.78 3.40±0.49 3.68±0.46


unit clinical 8.98(<.001)
career (yr) 1- 5b 1.71(.183) 2.96(.054)
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3.74±0.61 3.13±0.46 3.50±0.45


a,b>c
5≤c 3.61±0.79 2.94±0.56 3.44±0.58
Total
3.74±0.68 3.14±0.51 3.52±0.49
(M±SD)
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Table 3. Correlations between Educational Leadership, Organizational Communication
Satisfaction, and Team Effectiveness (N=216)

Educational Organizational Team


Variables leadership communication effectiveness

r (p) r (p) r (p)

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Educational leadership 1

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Organizational communication .<2 (<.001) 1

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Team effectiveness .4< (<.001) .<< (<.001) 1

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Table 4 Mediating Effect of Organizational Communication Satisfaction on the Relationship


between Educational Leadership and Team Effectiveness (N=216)

Adjusted
Step Independent variable Dependent variable B β (p) t F p
R2

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Step 1. Educational leadership Organizational .46 .62 11.43 .38 130.66 <.001

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communication (<.001)
satisfaction

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Step 2. Educational leadership Team effectiveness .33 .46 7.60 .21 57.72 <.001
(<.001)

Step 3. Educational leadership Team effectiveness .06 .09 1.32 .44 84.64

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<.001
(<.188)
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.58 .61 9.39
Organizational Team effectiveness
communication (<.001)
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satisfaction
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Sobel test: Z= 7.40, p<.001


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*p<.001
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Figure 1. Mediating effect of organizational communication satisfaction on the relationship


between educational leadership and team effectiveness
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*
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