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Proceedings of the 4th National Conference; INDIACom-2010

Computing For Nation Development, February 25 – 26, 2010

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s Institute of Computer Applications and Management, New Delhi

A Simulation Study of Content Delivery Network

N. Ramachandran*; P. Sivaprakasam+
Indian Institute of Management Kozhikode*; Sri Vasavi College, Erode+
raman@iimk.ac.in; psperode@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT 5. LRU cache replacement policy;

This paper examines the simulation of content delivery network 6. STATIC cache policy;
(CDN) using simulation software and compares with the real- 7. TCP / IP networking;
time data. In the real time scenario, as against the conventional 8. Wizard for creating self-contained simulations
CDN setup, a combination of CDN technique “URL (bottles);
Rewriting” and reverse proxy in local area network (LAN) is 9. Utility for executing unattended simulations;
applied. It aims to increase the website performance by 10. Utility for automatically generating results' reports;
utilizing the under utilized resources in an Organization. 11. Utility for extracting statistics related to net-utility;
Significance of this method is that there is no additional 12. Utility for converting Apache log files into CDNsim
investment required for implementing this and more over there trace files;
is no need to change anything in the existing networking 13. Extensible by implementing modules in the form of
infrastructure. A detailed simulation and real-time analysis is libraries.
This software is widely used by well renowned institutes
around the world.
Content Delivery Network, Performance analysis, Reverse CDNSIM SIMULATION
proxy, URL Rewriting, Simulation software, CDNSim In this simulation, we have to give inputs in 5 different steps.
Fig (i) represents the fist step, in which we have to select the
INTRODUCTION environment. We selected the closest surrogate.
Researchers have widely considered content delivery networks
to be an effective solution [1] to reduce flash crowd and
provide an efficient website access in good response time.
CDN is using the technology either DNS redirection or URL
rewriting. This paper examines the performance analysis of
CDN setup using the combination CDN technique “URL
Rewriting” [8] and reverse proxy by utilizing the underutilized
nodes in an organization with CDNSim software.

Using the above simulation software, the response time data

was collected by setting up 3 different simulations, using 2, 5
and 10 surrogate servers along with one origin server.

In real time scenario, 3 simulations were setup by hosting the

entire website in 2, 5 and 10 nodes. One more node was kept Fig (i)
for running the CDN technique “URL rewriting” and revere

CDNSim is a free open source simulation software for
modeling and simulation framework for CDNs [4]. Main
features of this software, as per the software documentation,
1. Cooperative push based content management policy;
2. Non-Cooperative push based content management
3. Cooperative pull based content management policy.
4. Non-Cooperative pull based content management
policy; Fig (ii)
Proceedings of the 4th National Conference; INDIACom-2010

Fig (ii) represents the second step and in this we have to give Fig (v) represents the final step and in this we set the output
inputs of routers, link speed, number of outgoing connections, directory and the bottle name in which the collected data will
number of clients, number of retries, mean waiting per retry, store.
number of incoming and outgoing connections of both
surrogate servers and origin servers, number of surrogate This simulation setup repeated three times using 2, 5 and 10
servers and origin servers. Input values are illustrated in surrogate servers.
fig (ii).

Fig (iii)

Fig (iii) represents step 3 and in this step we have to give

website object ID, object size and traffic in a text format, which
we can extract from access file.

Fig. (vi)

Fig (vi) shows the CDN implementation in an Organisation. In

this setup, a node which is acting as a CDN server is placed in
the demilitarized zone, though it is not mandatory.

In CDN, reverse proxy was configured in the web server and

“URL rewriting” page was placed in the web home directory.
The constraint here is that IIS cannot be used as the web server
Fig (iv) in the nodes, due to limited connectivity. Windows XP’s IIS
supports only 10 concurrent sessions. In order to overcome
Fig (iv) represents step 4 and this step configures each this, any other web server that supports more concurrent
surrogate server’s local cache. The configuration is set by a sessions is to be deployed in the place of IIS. Apache was
file, which describes the contents, the capacity and the cache therefore used for this experiment.
replacement policy of every surrogate server. The file contains
records, each one referring to a surrogate server. REAL-TIME SIMULATION
We examined three different web hosting methods to analyse
the performance of the website. They are:

1. Node acting as CDN and website hosted in 10 nodes.

2. Node acting as CDN and website hosted in 5 nodes.
3. Node acting as CDN and website hosted in 2 nodes.

Nodes configuration that we used in this experiment is Pentium

IV processor with 2 GB RAM.

Web page access time data was collected by using the web tool
Fig (v) websitepulse.com while the hit was around 2500 per minute.
The hits were simulated by using script. Fig (vii) shows the
sample data
Fig (ix)

Fig (ix) shows real-time CDN data report. As the chart shows,
in the first method, which is 2 surrogate servers, the mean
response time is 4.44 seconds. In the second and third method
that is, 5 and 10 surrogate severs, the response time is 2.76 and
. 2.73 seconds respectively.

Fig (vii)


Fig (x)

Fig (x) shows comparison chart of both CDNSim simulation

software and Real-Time data analysis. If we compare both, the
difference is approximately 0.3 seconds higher than the
Fig (viii) CDNSim software, which is insignificant.

Fig (viii) shows CDNSim data report. As the chart shows, in CONCLUSION
the first method, which is 2 surrogate servers, the mean CDN is a proven technology for avoiding flash crowd with
response time is 4.33 seconds. In the second and third method, good response time. By using this technology, we can utilize
that is, 5 and 10 surrogate severs, the response time is 2.44 the underutilized resources in an institutional environment
seconds each. much effectively. Especially, in academic institutes and small
Proceedings of the 4th National Conference; INDIACom-2010

organizations, where many a nodes are underutilized, can be

put to optimum use by making use of this technique without
disturbing the existing network. As website data is replicated in
many nodes, there is no need to take backup and no single
point of failure. Another important factor is that we do not need
to invest for implementing this technique.

Simulation software CDNSim has some limitations. It is
exclusively designed for CDN setup. We can give only inputs
like number of origin server, number of surrogate servers,
number of clients, bandwidth, etc. We cannot achieve
maximum end user customizations using it. We can analyse the
same setup using different simulation software like NS2,
Opnet, etc. and customize them suiting to our setup.

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