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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РФ
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Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение


высшего профессионального образования
«ПЕНЗЕНСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»
========================================================
Педагогический институт имени В.Г. Белинского

N.A. Averianova

A Handbook
of Theoretical English Grammar

Учебное пособие
по теоретической грамматике английского языка
для студентов университетов и педагогических вузов

Пенза
2013
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УДК 811.111 (075.8)


ББК 81.2 Англ
А19
Рецензенты:
кандидат педагогических наук,
директор лингвистической гимназии № 6 г. Пензы
В.В.Кашаева;

кандидат филологических наук,


доцент кафедры “Французский язык и методика
преподавания французского языка”
Пензенского государственного университета
Л.В.Суркова

Аверьянова Н. А.
A19 A Handbook of Theoretical English Grammar: Учебное пособие по
теоретической грамматике английского языка для студентов университетов
и педагогических вузов / Н. А. Аверьянова. – Пенза: Изд-во ПГУ, 2013. –
111 с.

Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов филологических


факультетов университетов и факультетов иностранных языков
педагогических вузов. Оно направлено на изучение наиболее важных
проблем морфологии и синтаксиса английского языка, развитие
лингвистической наблюдательности и навыков самостоятельного анализа.
Книга содержит краткое изложение лекций, отражающих основные
положения грамматической теории английского языка, темы семинарских
занятий, вопросы для дискуссий, глоссарий и библиографию.
Учебное пособие подготовлено на кафедре “Английский язык и
методика преподавания английского языка” ПГУ.

УДК 811.111 (075.8)


ББК 81.2 Англ

©Пензенский государственный
университет, 2013

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“Grammar is the soul of humankind.
Its intricacies trigger our laughter,
Our tears, our dreams.
Grammar is the secret muse of all
Expression,
The portrait of life’s emotions…
Nothing in life is more essential,
More sensitive,
More intrinsic to the human soul.
When students come
To share this vision,
Grammar bridges the world of living to
The world of writing, reading, and
Speaking.”
Harry Noden

Preface

Teaching English or any other language we aim at giving our university


students the system. We should explain to them that English grammar is a system of
categories, the elements of which are mutually related. This makes it possible to
substitute one element for another.
Learners of English are supposed to be in full command of the grammatical
system of this language. Only then we will be able to use the language properly and
to understand how this grammatical information may help us master the language,
become proficient in using it.
As a result of his studies the student is meant to acquire an insight into the
structure of the language and an ability to form his own ideas on this or that problem.
To study grammar is not merely to understand some abstract schemes, but to acquire
practical knowledge of the actual functioning of grammatical elements. We want our
students to know how words are actually inflected in English and how English
sentences are built up.
The author hopes that these brief lectures and points for discussion will be
useful and stimulating for the students and the given glossary and bibliography will
serve as a guide to further reading.

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Contents

Preface………………………………………………………………………..............3
Lecture One Essentials of Morphology...........................................................5
Lecture Two Parts of Speech...........................................................................8
Lecture Three The Noun as a Part of Speech ..................................................10
Lecture Four The Verb as a Part of Speech ...................................................14
Lecture Five The Verb: Tense and Aspect ....................................................17
Lecture Six The Verb: Time Correlation (Order) ........................................21
Lecture Seven The Verb: The Grammatical Category of Voice……………. .24
Lecture Eight The Verb: Mood .......................................................................28
Lecture Nine The Non-Finite Forms of the Verb (Verbals) ...........................32
Lecture Ten The Functional Parts of Speech ............................................38
Lecture Eleven Phrases. The Study of Minor Syntax ....................................43
Lecture Twelve The Sentence and Its Characteristics .......................................48
Lecture Thirteen The Simple Sentence. Parts of the Sentence ...........................52
Lecture Fourteen The Secondary Parts of the Sentence …………………….... 57
Lecture Fifteen The Composite Sentence. Compound Sentences………...… 63
Lecture Sixteen The Complex Sentence ............................................................68
Lecture Seventeen Linguistics of Text ..................................................................71
Morphology...............................................................................................................74
Seminar I. Parts of Speech. The Noun and Its Categories...................................75
Seminar II. The Verb as a Part of Speech ........................................................... 80
Seminar III. The Verb and Its Categories ............................................................ 82
Seminar IV. Non-Finite Verbs. Functional Parts of Speech ................................ 84
Syntax........................................................................................................................87
Seminar V. The Phrase and the Sentence ............................................................ 88
Seminar VI. The Simple Sentence and Its Structure ............................................ 89
Seminar VII. Parts of the Sentence ...................................................................... 91
Seminar VIII. The Composite Sentence .............................................................. 93
Seminar IX. Linguistics of Text……………………………………..………... 95
Glossary......................................................................................................................98
Bibliography.............................................................................................................108

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Lecture One
Essentials of Morphology

1. Grammar and its place in language.


2. Morphology and its main notions.
3. The morphemic structure of the word.
4. Ways of expressing grammatical meanings.

Grammar as a word has two meanings:


1) it is a system of rules according to which we’re building sentences;
this definition finds its realization in practical grammar;
2) it is a branch of science which helps us to understand and to explain
these rules; this is the aim of theoretical grammar of a language
which presents a theoretical description of its grammatical system.
Grammar may be called the philosophy of language. It is connected with
phonology, lexicology, stylistics.
The nature of grammar as a constituent part of language is better understood when
we discriminate between two planes of language, namely, the plane of content and
the plane of expression.
The plane of content comprises the purely semantic elements contained in
language. The plane of expression comprises the formal units of language taken by
themselves, apart from the meanings rendered by them. The two planes are
inseparably connected, so that no meaning can be realized without some material
(formal) means of expression. Grammatical elements of language present a unity of
content and expression.
Taking into consideration the discrimination between the two planes, we may say
that the purpose of grammar as a linguistic discipline is, in the long run, to disclose
and formulate the regularities of the correspondence between the plane of content and
the plane of expression in the formation of utterances.

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Grammar consists of morphology and syntax. The usual definition of
morphology, which may be accepted as it stands, is this:
Morphology is this part of grammar which studies the forms of words in a certain
system. It is a system of changing of words.
As for the usual definition of syntax, it may be said to be this:
Syntax is this part of grammar which studies phrases and sentences.
Each part of grammar has its own unit. Morphology faces the two segmental
units: the morpheme and the word. But the morpheme is not identified otherwise than
part of the word.
There exist many definitions of the term “word” and none of them is generally
accepted. Still the majority of linguists are of the opinion that the word is a
nominative unit of language, it is the smallest naming unit.
The word is formed by morphemes. The morpheme is one of the central notions
of grammatical theory. The definition of a morpheme is not an easy matter. It has
been attempted many times by different scholars. Without going into particulars of
the discussions that have taken place, we may briefly define the morphemes as the
smallest meaningful units into which a word form may be divided.
Morphemes may be of different types. The roots of notional words are regarded
as classical lexical morphemes; they express some lexical meaning.
There may be zero morphemes, that is, the absence of a morpheme may indicate a
certain meaning. Thus, the form “pen” is characterized by a zero morpheme as being
a singular form. The morpheme –s in the word “pens” has a positive form and it may
be called a positive morpheme.
In grammar we are of course concerned with the grammatical, or structural,
meaning of morphemes. These morphemes which have no lexical meaning or
function are called grammatical morphemes. E.g.: pen-s, train-ed.
Different grammatical morphemes of the same word make up its paradigm. That
is why the purpose of theoretical grammar is to study the paradigms of the words.
Some grammatical morphemes are written together with words they refer to
(bound morphemes), but some of them are loosely connected with the lexical

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morpheme (free morphemes), they form two words, one of which has no lexical
meaning and it is used to express some grammatical meaning.
Grammatical morphemes which are written together with lexical morphemes are
called inflexions.
Notional words, first of all verbs and nouns, possess some morphemic features
expressing grammatical (morphological) meanings. These features determine the
grammatical form of the word.
Grammatical meanings are very abstract, very general. The grammatical form
unites a whole class of words, so that each word of the class expresses the
corresponding grammatical meaning together with its individual, concrete semantics.
The grammatical category may be defined as a unit consisting of at least two
grammatical morphemes combined by one common meaning.
More specifically, the grammatical category is a system of expressing a
generalized grammatical meaning by means of paradigmatic correlation of
grammatical forms.
Thus, the noun in English has 2 grammatical categories: those of number and of
case.
Grammatical categories may be expressed differently:
1) by means of inflexions which are added to the root morphemes: pen – pens, to
visit –visited;
2) sound alternation which consists in changing a sound (a vowel) inside the
root: man – men, write – wrote – written, sing –sang – sung;
3) by means of analytical words which are used to express some grammatical
category of another word: has invited, is invited, does not invite, will invite;
4) suppletive formation which is found in a very limited number of cases only and
consists in building a form of a word from an altogether different stem: go –
went, I – me, good – better.

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Lecture Two
Parts of Speech

1. General characteristics of grammatical classes of words.


2. Principles of word classification.
3. The system of parts of speech in English.
4. Different approaches to the description of parts of speech.

The words of language depending on various formal and semantic features are
divided into grammatically relevant sets or classes. The traditional grammatical
classes of words are called “parts of speech”.
Though grammarians have been studying parts of speech for over two thousand
years, the criteria used for classifying words are not yet agreed upon. Still parts of
speech are not altogether an invention of grammarians. What is meant by a “part of
speech” is a type of word differing from other types in some grammatical point or
points.
In modern linguistics parts of speech are discriminated on the basis of three
principles: semantic, formal and functional.
1. The semantic principle of classification presupposes the evaluation of the
generalized meaning. What is meant here is the meaning common to all the words of
a given class and constituting its essence. This meaning is understood as the
“categori(c)al” meaning of a part of speech.
Thus, the generalized meaning of the noun is “thingness”. This applies equally
to all and every noun.
2. By form we mean the morphological characteristics of a type of a word. Nouns
have the categories of number and case. Verbs possess the categories of tense, voice,
mood, aspect, etc. Adjectives have the category of degrees of comparison. Several
parts of speech (prepositions, conjunctions and others) are characterized by
invariability.

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3. The functional criterion (principle) concerns the syntactic role of words in the
sentence typical of a part of speech. The noun is mostly used as the subject, a
predicative, an object, an attribute or an adverbial modifier. As to the syntactical
function of the verb in the sentence, it is that of the predicate.
It should be remembered that modern principles of part of speech classification
have been formulated as a result of painstaking research. The four celebrated names
are especially notable for the elaboration of these criteria, namely, V.V. Vinogradov
in connection with his study of Russian grammar, A.I. Smirnitsky, B.A. Ilyish and
M.Y. Blokh in connection with their study of English grammar.
In accordance with these principles it is possible to distinguish the following
parts of speech in English: the noun, the adjective, the pronoun, the numeral, the
verb, the adverb, the stative (the adlink); prepositions, conjunctions, particles, modal
words, interjections, articles, response words (yes, no).
Alongside of the three–criterion principle of dividing words into lexico-
grammatical classes linguists have developed other principles.
Worthy of note is another, narrower principle of word-class identification based
on syntactic featuring of words only. The principles of syntactic (syntactico-
distributional) classification of English words were worked out by L. Bloomfield and
his followers Z. Harris and especially Ch. Fries.
The syntactico-distributional classification of words is based on the study of
their combinability by means of substitution testing. The testing results in developing
the standard model of four main “positions” of notional words in the English
sentence: those of the noun (N), verb (V), adjective (A), adverb (D). Pronouns are
included into the corresponding positional classes as their substitutes. Words standing
outside the “positions” in the sentence are treated as functional words (15 groups in
number) of various syntactic values.
Words may be also divided into classes according to their lexical meaning.
Thus, words belonging to different topics form different classes or semantic fields
(School Life. Flowers). It is a purely lexical classification.

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Lecture Three
The Noun as a Part of Speech

1. General characteristics and lexico-grammatical classification of nouns.


2. The grammatical category of number.
3. The grammatical category of case.
4. The problem of the category of gender in English.

The noun is considered to be the main part of speech in any language as it is used
to nominate objects and things of extralinguistic world. As a part of speech it has the
categorial meaning of “substance”or “thingness”.
The noun is the most numerous lexico-grammatical class of lexemes. It is but
natural that it should be divided into subclasses.
The first nounal subclasses are proper and common nouns. The foundation of this
division is “type of nomination”.
Common nouns are subdivided into countable and uncountable nouns. This
subdivision is founded on the basis of “quantitative structure”. From the grammatical
point of view it is very important with regard to the category of number. The
difference between the two subclasses may be observed from their names. Countable
nouns may express single things and plurality of objects. Uncountable nouns may
express either material or abstractness, but they can never denote plurality.
As a part of speech the noun is characterized by the grammatical categories of
number and case.
The category of number is expressed by the opposition of the plural form of the
noun to the singular form of the noun (girl – girls, foot – feet). Its grammatical
meaning is either “oneness” or “more-than-oneness” of objects.
Thus, the grammatical category of number in Modern English, as in most other
languages, comprises two forms: singular and plural. The strong member of this
binary opposition is the plural. It is marked by the positive morpheme -s or -es: cats,
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boys, foxes. This formal mark is productive in MnE. The weak member of this
opposition, that is the singular, is expressed by a zero morpheme.
Besides these forms there are some other, non-productive ways of expressing the
number opposition. The plural of the nouns in English may be expressed:
a) by a vowel interchange (man – men, tooth – teeth, foot – feet);
b) by the archaic suffix -en supported by phonemic interchange (ox – oxen,
child – children);
c) by individual plural suffixes in some borrowed words (formula – formulae,
phenomenon – phenomena, etc.);
d) in some cases the plural form of the noun is homonymous with its singular
form (sheep, deer, fish, etc.).
As we see the English plural has many variants.
With regard to the category of number English nouns fall into two subclasses:
countables and uncountables. The former have number opposites, the latter have not.
Uncountable nouns are again subdivided into those having no plural opposites and
those having no singular opposites.
Nouns like milk, chemistry, love having no plural opposites are usually called by
a Latin name – Singularia Tantum.
Nouns like outskirts, clothes, earnings having no singular opposites are known as
Pluralia Tantum.
However, even those nouns which have no number opposites are not outside the
grammatical category of number.
In the course of linguistic investigation the category of case in English has
become one of the vexed problems of theoretical discussion. There exist different
views on the subject. The most usual view is that English nouns have two cases: the
common case and the genitive (or possessive) case. Besides this view there are other
opinions which can be divided into two main groups: (1) the number of cases in
English is more than two, (2) there are no cases at all in English nouns.

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Case is the category of a noun expressing relations between the thing denoted by
the noun and other things, or properties, or actions, and manifested by some formal
sign in the noun itself.
The category is expressed in English by the opposition of the apostrophized s-
form, usually called the “genitive” (or the “possessive”) case, to the unfeatured form
of the noun, usually called the “common” case. The common case is the unmarked
member of the opposition (boy, month). The genitive case is the marked member (the
boy’s ball, Ann’s letter).
The possibility of forming the genitive is mainly limited to a certain class of
English nouns (declinables). Here belong nouns denoting living beings (my mother’s
room, the dog’s head), time (this year’s elections) and distance (a mile’s walk).
Since both cases and prepositions show “relations of substances”, some linguists
speak of analytical cases in Modern English (the “theory of prepositional cases”).
According to this theory combinations of nouns with prepositions should be
understood as morphological case forms (G. Curme). To the student is said to be the
dative case, of the student is considered to be the genitive case, etc.
The prepositional theory seems to be unconvincing.
Another view may be called the “theory of positional cases”. In accord with this
theory the unchangeable forms of the noun are differentiated as different cases by
virtue of the functional positions occupied by the noun in the sentence. This view
may be found in the works by J. Nesfield, M. Deutschbein, etc.
The limited inflexional system of two cases in English was formulated by such
scholars as H. Sweet, O. Jespersen and has been radically developed by
A.I.Smirnitsky, B.A. Ilyish, L.S. Barkhudarov, M.Y. Blokh and others.
However, there is a different view on the problem of the English noun cases. It
approaches the English noun as having completely lost the category of case in the
course of its historical development. This view is expressed by G.N. Vorontsova.
G.N. Vorontsova treats ‘s as a preposition and denies the existence of cases in
Modern English.

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It is evident that the case system of Modern English is undergoing serious
changes.
Some grammarians say that the English noun has the grammatical category of
gender. Thus, M.Y. Blokh thinks that the category of gender is expressed in English
by the obligatory correlation of nouns with the personal pronouns of the third person.
But most scholars (B.A. Ilyish, A.I. Smirnitsky, I.P. Ivanova) deny the existence of
the grammatical category of gender in English. Not a single noun in MnE shows any
peculiarities in its morphology due to its denoting a male or a female being. The
suffix -ess belongs not to grammar to form gender, but to lexicology to form new
words.
Thus, the English noun has only two grammatical categories, number and case.

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Lecture Four
The Verb as a Part of Speech

1. General characteristics of the verb.


2. Possible classifications of verbs.

Grammatically the verb is the most complex part of speech. This is due to the
central role it performs in the expression of the predicative functions of the sentence.
The general categorical meaning of the verb is process presented dynamically,
i.e. developing in time.
The processual categorical meaning of the notional verb determines its
characteristic combination with nouns denoting both the doer of the action (its
subject) and the recipient of the action (its object). It is regularly modified by an
adverb.
In the sentence the finite verb invariably performs the function of the verb-
- predicate.
The verb is the only part of speech in present-day English that has a
morphological system based on a series of categories. It is the only part of speech that
has analytical forms. The verb has the following grammatical categories: tense,
aspect, mood, voice, time correlation (or order), person and number.
In accordance with their stem-structure, verbs, like other parts of speech, fall
under the following groups:
a) simple verbs which are not numerous (go, take, read);
b) derived verbs (organize, rewrite, purify, underestimate);
c) compound verbs consisting of two stems (whitewash, blackmail);
d) composite verbs consisting of a verb with a lexico-grammatical word-
-morpheme attached to it (give up, take off, put on).

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A well-known English grammarian of nowadays, R. Quirk, speaks of stative and
dynamic verbs. When verbs do not admit the progressive, they are called stative.
When they do admit it, they are called dynamic.
In accordance with the aspective nature of their lexical meanings, verbs can be
classified into terminative and non-terminative.
Terminative verbs denote actions which cannot develop beyond a certain
inherent limit; their meaning includes the final stage of the development of the action.
Here belong such verbs as to come, to arrive, to leave, to find, to bring, to take, to
kill, to stand up, to catch, to stop, to conclude, etc.
Non-terminative verbs denote actions which have no inherent limits. To this
subclass belong such verbs as to move, to continue, to live, to sleep, to work, to
behave, to hope, to stand, to love, to respect, to exist, etc.
Verbs are divided into subjective and objective, depending upon their
combinability with words denoting the subjects and the objects of the actions they
name.
Subjective verbs are associated only with nouns (noun-equivalents) denoting the
subject of the action or the performer of the action.
E.g.: John rose and went away. People talk. Birds fly.
Objective verbs are mostly associated with two nouns (or noun-equivalents)
denoting the subject and the object of the action named by the verb.
E.g.: John wrote two letters.
Objective verbs that are connected with their object words directly are called
transitive verbs. All the other verbs, both subjective and objective, are called
intransitive. It should be noted, however, that there are many verbs in English that
occur both transitively and intransitively.
E.g.: John rang the bell. The bell rang.
According to their basic forms, verbs may be divided into regular (weak or
standard), irregular (strong or non-standard) and mixed verbs.
This classification is purely grammatical (morphological).

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Verbs may be classified according to their syntactic functions (functional
classification). It depends on the degree to which they retain their lexical meaning.
There are notional, auxiliary, link and modal verbs.
Notional are verbs possessing full lexical meaning, they may be used without
any additional words as simple predicates.
The majority of English verbs are notional: to write, to speak, to read, to ask,
etc.
E.g.: John wrote a letter.
Auxiliary are verbs which have completely lost their lexical meaning, they are
used only as form words, having only grammatical functions.
Auxiliary verbs are used in analytical forms to express tense, aspect, mood and
voice. Here belong be, do, have, shall, will, should, would, may, might.
E.g.: Alice doesn’t go to school.
There are some verbs in English which have very general, “faded” lexical
meanings. They are called semi-notional verbs. They are comparatively few in
number, but of very frequent occurrence. They include two peculiar groups: link-
verbs and modal verbs.
Link verbs are those which to a smaller extent have lost their meaning. They
introduce the nominal part of the predicate (the predicative).
E.g.: The house is big.
Modal verbs are those which can’t be used without additional words though
they have a meaning of their own: can, may, must, ought, should, etc.
E.g.: John can swim.
According to their meaning, they express modality, that is the speaker’s attitude
towards the action denoted by the verb which follows it.

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Lecture Five
The Verb: Tense and Aspect

1. Morphological characteristics of the verb.


2. The grammatical category of tense.
3. The grammatical category of aspect.

Morphological properties of the verb are characterized by a number of forms or


changes of the verb which are united into some grammatical categories. The finite
verb in English has acquired the following grammatical categories: tense, aspect, time
correlation (or order), voice, mood, person and number.
Each grammatical category has its content and its form. In other words it is two-
sided; it is a unity of form and meaning. Each grammatical category consists of at
least two forms, but it may comprise more than two forms (3-5, for instance). The
meaning of each grammatical category is general, rather abstract. It is expressed by
some formal signs or by the absence of such signs (the meaningful absence).
The existence of the tense category in English is universally recognized. The
immediate expression of grammatical time, or “tense” (Lat. tempus), is one of the
typical functions of the finite verb.
The grammatical category of tense is defined as a verbal category which reflects
the objective category of time and expresses the relation of the time of the action
denoted by the verb to the moment of speaking.
The category of tense in English comprises 3 forms: Present, Past and Future.
One should distinguish time from tense. The grammatical category of tense is the
reflection of the objective category of time. The main divisions of objective time
appear to be clear enough. There are three of them: past, present and future. The
moment of speech serves as the demarcation line between the past and the future.
These three periods are reflected in language and are marked by some language
means.

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The time of an action or event can be expressed lexically with the help of such
words and combinations of words as this year, this week, now (present), yesterday, a
year ago, last week (past), next week, tomorrow, next year (future). However, we
don’t speak of the grammatical category of tense here, but of some words expressing
time relations.
Some doubts have been expressed about the existence of the future tense in
English. The existence of the future tense in English was denied by O. Jespersen. He
defended the view that shall and will (in the combination with the infinitive) retain
their modal meanings in all their uses. Thus, in Jespersen’s view, English has no way
of expressing “pure futurity”, free from modal shades of meaning. In other words, it
has no form standing on the same grammatical level as the forms of the past and
present tenses.
A well-grounded objection against the inclusion of the construction shall/will +
Infinitive in the tense system of the verb has been advanced by L.S. Barkhudarov.
The reason why he denies the existence of the future tense in English is that the
combinations in question can express at once both the future time and the past time
(the form “future-in-the-past”); and it hardly makes any sense in terms of a
grammatical category. That is why L.S. Barkhudarov speaks of the Non-Past Tense
and the Past Tense.
However, these reasons seem unconvincing. In analysing the English future
tense, the modal factor, naturally, should be taken into consideration.
But there are some facts which speak against this statement. It is widely known
that the expression of the future in other languages is also connected with modal
semantics. As for English, there are contracted forms: I’ll, you’ll, he’ll. In American
English will is described as expressing pure future with all the persons. It makes us
say that in English we have three tenses after all: Past, Present and Future. They make
up one grammatical category of tense.
An interesting view on the English tense system has been put forward by
M.Y.Blokh. In his opinion in Modern English the grammatical expression of tense is
effected in two correlated stages. At the first stage, the process receives an absolutive

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time characteristic by means of opposing the past tense to the present tense. The
marked member of this opposition is the past form. At the second stage, the process
receives a non-absolutive, relative time characteristic by means of opposing the forms
of the future tense to the forms of no future marking. Thus, M.Y. Blokh speaks of
two “temporal categories”; the first one is called the category of “primary time”, and
the second, the category of “prospective time”, or “prospect”. This view throws a
new light on the category of tense in English.
The category of tense is closely connected with the grammatical category of
aspect in English.
The category of aspect shows the character of the action, i.e. whether the action
is taken in its progress, in its development (“continuous”) or it is simply stated, its
nature being unspecified (“non-continuous”).
It consists of two sets of forms: Continuous and Non-Continuous or Indefinite.
The marked member of the opposition is the continuous. Its categorical meaning is
“action in its concrete progress”. The unmarked member of the opposition, the
indefinite, leaves this meaning unspecified.
The problem of aspect is controversial in English grammar. There are different
interpretations proposed by various scholars.
H. Sweet and O. Jespersen do not recognize the existence of aspect in Modern
English. They treat the “continuous” forms as tense forms (termed “progressive”,
“expanded”, “long”, “durative”, or “relative” tense forms) expressing actions
simultaneous with some other actions or situations.
At the second stage of the interpretation of the continuous, the form was
understood as rendering a blend of temporal and aspective meanings. This view was
developed by I.P.Ivanova. Of course, this combined temporal-aspective interpretation
of the continuous should be appraised as an essential step forward. It does not follow,
however, that we are unable to separate the category of tense from that of aspect.
We follow the views advanced by A.I. Smirnitsky, B.A. Ilyish, V.N. Yartseva,
B.S. Khaimovich and B.I. Rogovskaya, L.S. Barkhudarov who treat tense and aspect
as different grammatical categories.

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Another view is held by M.Y. Blokh. He recognizes two aspective categories:
the category of development (continuous and non-continuous forms) and the category
of “retrospective coordination (retrospect) (perfect and non-perfect forms). M.Y.
Blokh proves this statement by the fact that the forms of the continuous and the
perfect can freely coexist in one and the same syntagmatic manifestation of the verb.
That is why we have to infer that they enter (in the capacity of oppositional markers)
different categories, though related to each other by their general aspective character.
This view throws a new light on the grammatical category of aspect in English.

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Lecture Six
The Verb: Time Correlation (Order)

1. The grammatical category of time correlation (or order).


2. Different views on the problem of the English verb.

The grammatical category of time correlation (or order) is constituted by the


opposition of the perfect forms of the verb to the non-perfect, or imperfect forms.
The meaning of the grammatical category of time correlation is to show whether
the action is viewed as prior to (perfect), or irrespective of (non-perfect), other
actions or situations.
The perfect forms pay particular attention to the priority of the action and its
relation to the moment of speaking. In short, speaking about the perfect forms we
may say that they denote an action completed before the present moment (and
connected with it) or before a definite moment in the past or future. In speech,
however, we come across various uses of the perfect forms, which may acquire
different shades of meaning.
1. First and in most cases, the perfect form expresses the result of the action.
E.g.: John has broken his leg.
2. The second meaning which may be expressed by the perfect form is that of reason.
E.g.: John has lost his pen. He is unable to do his exercises.
3. The perfect form is used to indicate the whole period of duration.
E.g.: John has spoken for twenty minutes. (He is still speaking now.)
4. The perfect form may express an action, the time of which is indefinite, but it has
some importance (value) for the present.
E.g.: W.Shakespeare has written many plays.
In this connection it is necessary to note that the lexical meaning of the verb can
influence the meaning of the perfect form.
All the meanings discussed are characteristic of the past perfect and future
perfect. That is why the time relation of the action with a certain moment (in the
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present, past or future) may be considered as the main meaning of the perfect form. It
is clear enough that this meaning is quite different from the continuous form and
tenses (Present, Past and Future). Prof. A.S. Smirnitsky was the first to draw attention
to that fact. He took the perfect to be a means of expressing the category of time
correlation, a special, self-sufficient category. The problem of classification of the
English verb paradigmatics has been treated in many different ways, and has
occasioned much controversy.
Let us now consider each of these views on the problem of the English verb
separately.
H. Sweet gives his classification of the forms in question according to their
semantics. He distinguishes the main meaning of each form and, in accordance with
it, he gives a name to it. H. Sweet in his theory doesn’t deal with the grammatical
categories, and this is of course a weak point of his interpretation of the English verb.
As for the perfect, H. Sweet approaches it as a peculiar tense form. The difference
between the perfect and non-perfect forms of the verb, according to the tense
interpretation of the perfect, consists in the fact that the perfect denotes a secondary
temporal characteristic of the action.
The next attempt at explanation of all these forms was made by O. Jespersen in
his book “The Philosophy of Grammar”. This scholar builds up a scheme where he
tries to place all the forms of the verb. His scheme is logically built.
Proceeding from logic, however, he doesn’t use the language material. The
perfect form is treated as a peculiar tense category, which should be classed in the
same list as the categories “present” and “past”.
The outstanding linguist B.A. Ilyish in his book “The Structure of Modern
English” doesn’t speak of any system of tenses. He dwells upon some forms of the
English verb and their uses in speech. It is a detailed classification. Prof. Ilyish tries
to investigate and find out one general meaning of each separate form (Indefinite,
Continuous, Perfect).
Taking into consideration the existence of the Perfect forms Prof. Ilyish treats
them as belonging to the aspect system. The essence of the perfect forms is defined as

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“resultative”. Later on, B.A. Ilyish includes the perfect forms into the category of
correlation, though adding that it is hard to define.
The Perfect Continuous is left without any discussion.
The categorical individuality of the perfect was shown as a result of study
conducted by the eminent linguist A.I. Smirnitsky. Analysing different views on the
problem, he comes to the conclusion that the scholars underestimate the peculiarities
characteristic of the “perfect” system in English. What was achieved by this brilliant
thinker is a vivid demonstration of the fact that the perfect form builds up its own
category which conveys the meaning of priority, precedence. The immediate factor
that gave cause to A.I. Smirnitsky to create the new interpretation of the perfect was
the peculiar structure of the Perfect Continuous form in which the perfect, the form of
precedence, coexists syntagmatically with the continuous, the form of development.
Since the two expressions of the same categorical semantics are impossible in one
and the same verbal form, the perfect cannot be either an aspective form, or a
temporal form.
This view is shared by B.S. Khaimovich and B.I. Rogovskaya,
L.S.Barkhudarov. The first two authors propose to call the perfect form “the category
of order”.
Thus, all the forms of the verb make up a system of 3 grammatical categories:
tense, aspect, time correlation.

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Lecture Seven
The Verb: The Grammatical Category of Voice

1. The grammatical category of voice: active and passive.


2. The problem of the voice system in Modern English.

The category of voice, undoubtedly, is the most controversial category of the


verb. The complexity of the category of voice in English lies in the fact that there is
no strict one-way correspondence between meaning and means of expression.
The verbal category of voice shows the direction of the action (process) denoted
by the verb, as regards the participants of the situation reflected in the syntactic
construction.
The voice of the English verb is expressed by the opposition of the passive form
of the verb to the active form of the verb. This has not been disputed by any scholar,
but views may differ concerning other voices.
The active voice is a form which shows that a person or a thing denoted by the
subject of the sentence is the doer or performer of the action.
E.g.: John opened the door.
According to the definition of A.A. Kholodovich, the active voice shows that the
subject of the sentence coincides with the doer or performer of the action.
The passive voice is a form which shows that a person or a thing denoted by the
subject of the sentence is the receiver or sufferer of the action.
E.g.: The door was opened by John.
According to A.A. Kholodovich, the passive voice shows that the subject of the
sentence doesn’t coincide with the doer or performer of the action.
As a matter of fact, the situation reflected by the passive construction does not
differ in the least from the situation reflected by the active construction. What is
changed then with the transition from the active voice to the passive voice? It is the
speaker’s presentation of the situation, his subjective appraisal of it.

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This property of the category of voice shows its immediate connection with
syntax.
Thus, the said fundamental meaningful difference between the two forms of the
verb may be found in various situational contexts. The use of the active voice gives
additional emphasis to the doer of the action, while the use of the passive voice
emphasizes the recipient of the action, or the action itself. In particular, we find the
passive constructions when the subject is unknown or is not to be mentioned for
certain reasons, or when the attention of the speaker is centered on the action as such.
E.g.: We were interrupted then.
The defeat of the champions was very much regretted.
It should be noted that these two-member constructions are characteristic of English.
It is evident that the problem of voice is very closely connected with that of
transitive and intransitive verbs. This subdivision is highly relevant for many
European languages, but not for English. In English the exact relation between voice
and transitivity remains somewhat doubtful.
As a matter of fact, there are many verbs in English that can occur both
transitively and intransitively: to open, to close, to ring, to start, to stop, to cook, to
boil, to break, etc. The passive transformation is, moreover, possible in English with
verbs that have objects, including prepositional ones, since the object of the active
verb becomes the subject of the passive.
E.g.: The child will be looked after all right.
The bed had not been slept in.
The dress has never been tried on.
In view of such constructions, we should perhaps say that the vital point is the
objective character of the verb, rather than its transitivity. The formation of the
passive voice is possible if the verb denotes an action relating to some object.
Still, not all the verbs capable of taking an object are actually used in the passive
voice. In particular, the passive form is alien to many verbs denoting actions of weak
dynamic force, such as have, belong, cost, resemble, fail, misgive, become, lack, etc.
Thus, in accord with their relation to the passive voice, M.Y. Blokh suggests that we

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should divide all the verbs into two large sets: the set of passivized verbs and the set
of non-passivized verbs.
Opinions differ as to the voice system of Modern English. Though most linguists
(A.I. Smirnitsky, G.N. Vorontsova, L.S. Barkhudarov and D.A. Shteling, etc.),
apparently, recognize only two voices in MnE – the active voice and the passive
voice, some also speak of three more voices: the reflexive voice (B.A. Ilyish,
I.P.Ivanova), the reciprocal voice (B.A. Ilyish), the middle voice (B.A. Ilyish,
M.Y.Blokh). All these voices are related to the unmarked member of the voice
opposition.
The reflexive voice is formed by combining the verb with the semantically
weakened reflexive self-pronoun.
E.g.: John hurt himself badly.
If we treat this case and the like as a form of the reflexive voice, the self-pronoun
should be looked upon as the voice auxiliary. But some grammarians (M.Y. Blokh)
say that the reflexive pronouns are still positional members of the sentence, though
bound with their notional kernel elements. To prove this statement we may compare
the following two sentences:
1. John hurt himself badly.
2. John hurt his hand badly.
The comparison shows that the self-pronoun is replaced by his hand in the
second sentence. But his hand performs the function of the object in the sentence,
that is why himself may be also considered as the object of the sentence. Thus, hurt
himself is rather a verb phrase, than a form of the verb.
Moreover, there are some English verbs which are used without a self-pronoun
to denote an action which the doer performs on himself. Examples of this kind are not
numerous: to dress, to wash. Having analysed these facts, we may come to the
conclusion that the existence of the reflexive voice in English is doubtful.
The problem of the reciprocal voice is somewhat similar to that of the reflexive
voice. Under the heading we will consider formations like They greeted each other,
met each other, kissed one another, etc.

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The verbs denote actions performed by the subjects on one another, i.e.
reciprocally.
The grounds for assuming a special reciprocal voice are weaker than those for
assuming a reflexive voice.
Alongside of the considered two, there is still a third use of the verb in English
directly connected with the grammatical voice distinctions. It is called the middle
voice. The problem arises chiefly in connection with the possible double use of a
number of verbs in Modern English.
E.g.: 1. I opened the door.
2. The door opened.
In the first sentence the verb denotes an action which is performed by the doer
on an object in such a way that a change is brought about in that object.
In the second sentence a process is expressed as if going on of its own accord.
The presentation of the verbal action of this type comes under the heading of the
middle voice.
The difference in meaning and in syntactical construction is clear enough and
recognized by the majority of scholars (A.I. Smirnitsky, G.N. Vorontsova,
M.Y.Blokh, B.A. Ilyish, L.S. Barkhudarov, etc.). There are, however, no
morphological signs to express the difference between these two sentences. In both of
them the form of the verb is active.
A different view on the English category of voice has been put forward by
L.S.Barkhudarov. According to this view, there exist two voices in English, the active
and the passive. The active voice, besides the active meaning proper, includes a
reflexive, reciprocal and middle meanings. L.S. Barkhudarov doesn’t speak of
different voices here, but of different meanings within one and the same categorical
form of the active voice.
This solution of the voice problem in Modern English appears to be convincing.
However, the other interpretations should be also taken into consideration.

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Lecture Eight
The Verb: Mood

1. The grammatical category of mood in English.


2. The indicative mood and the imperative mood.
3. The problem of the subjunctive mood.

Mood is the grammatical category of the verb expressing the relation of the
action denoted by the verb to reality from the speaker’s point of view.
In the sentences John listens attentively; Listen attentively; John would have
listened attentively if he had been interested, we deal with the same action of
listening. But in the 1st sentence the speaker presents the action as taking place in
reality, whereas in the 2nd sentence the speaker urges the listener to perform the
action. In the 3d sentence the speaker presents the action as imaginary.
There is no unity of opinion concerning the number of English moods. It varies
from two to sixteen. Thus, A.I. Smirnitsky, O.S. Akhmanova, M.A. Ganshina and
N.M. Vasilevskaya find six moods in Modern English (indicative, imperative,
subjunctive I, subjunctive II, conditional and suppositional). B.A. Ilyish,
V.N.Zhigadlo, I.P. Ivanova, L.L. Iofic find only three moods – indicative, imperative
and subjunctive. The latter, according to B.A. Ilyish, appears in two forms – the
conditional and the subjunctive. L.S. Barkhudarov distinguishes only the indicative
and the imperative mood. M.Y.Blokh finds two moods in English: the subjunctive
which is the strong member of the opposition, and the indicative.
As for G.N. Vorontsova, she distinguishes four moods in English: 1) indicative,
2) optative, represented in three varieties (imperative, desiderative, subjunctive),
3) speculative, found in two varieties (dubitative and irrealis) and 4) presumptive.
The main division which has been universally recognized is the division of
moods into the one which represents an action as real (the indicative) as against that
or those which represent it as non-real.

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The indicative mood is the basic mood of the verb. Morphologically it is the
most developed system including all the categories of the verb.
Semantically it is a fact mood. It serves to present an action as a fact of reality. It
is the “most objective” or the “least subjective” of all the moods.
E.g.: The sun rises in the East (it denotes an actual fact; the speaker’s attitude is
neutral).
The imperative mood represents an action as a command, urging or request
addressed to one’s listener. It is a direct expression of one’s will. That is why it is
much more “subjective” than the indicative mood. Its modal meaning is very strong
and distinct.
Morphologically the imperative mood is the least developed of all moods. It is
represented by one form only (Read!), without any suffix or ending.
Some linguists are of the opinion that Modern English possesses analytical
forms of the imperative mood for the 1st and the 3d persons built up with the help of
the semantically weakened unstressed let, as in Let her come, Let us read, etc.
G.N. Vorontsova gives a detailed analysis of these constructions to prove that
they are analytical forms of the imperative. But most linguists (B.A. Ilyish,
B.S.Khaimovich, B.I. Rogovskaya) reject this point of view. The let-constructions
rather belong to syntax.
Now let us consider a very difficult set of problems connected with the so called
subjunctive mood. Probably the only thing linguists are unanimous about with regard
to the subjunctive mood is that it represents an action as a “non-fact”, as something
imaginary, desirable, problematic, contrary to reality. In all other respects opinions
differ.
Pointing out the main possible approaches to the analysis of the English mood,
B.A. Ilyish starts from the meanings of the mood forms. He obtains 4 main meanings:
inducement, possibility, unreal condition, consequence of unreal condition. We
would thus get either four or three moods (if the last two of them are taken together),
or two moods (if the last three are taken together under the heading of “non-real
action”).

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If, on the other hand, we start from the means of expressing moods (both
synthetical and analytical) we shall obtain 6 moods (including the Imperative mood)
with the following meanings: 1) inducement; 2) possibility; 3) unreal condition; 4)
unlikely condition; 5) consequence of unreal condition; 6) wish or purpose.
Then B.A. Ilyish describes different contexts (grammatical patterns) where these
meanings may be found. At the same time B.A. Ilyish does not propose any definite
classification. Really it is not an easy matter to give such a classification because the
subjunctive mood has no regular paradigms. Its various shades of meaning are found
in different types of sentences and clauses which are not part of the morphological
system of moods.
L.S. Barkhudarov denies the existence of the subjunctive mood in Modern
English. The forms with should and would are not considered by this scholar as
analytical ones, because their second component, the infinitive, may be also found in
free constructions. The forms if I knew, if I had known are treated by
L.S.Barkhudarov as forms of the past and past perfect tense indicative in certain
syntactic environments. This point of view is hardly convincing.
A different view on the English mood system has been put forward by Prof.
M.Y.Blokh. According to this view, the category as a whole is constituted by the
forms of the indicative mood contrasted against the forms of the subjunctive mood.
M.Y. Blokh gives two correlated presentations of the category, namely, a formal
presentation and a functional one.
First, he considers the verb be which has a special finite oblique mood, different
from the direct indicative:
E.g.: Be it as you wish. So be it.
The same form of the considered mood may be found with other verbs.
E.g.: Long live our friendship. God forgive us.
(But these forms have become archaic and are found as survivals in poetry, high
prose, official documents, etc.).

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The analysed form-type which is traditionally called “subjunctive” (or
“subjunctive one”) is named by M.Y.Blokh the spective mood, as he reserves the
term “subjunctive” for denoting the mood of unreality as a whole.
The imperative mood morphemically coincides with the spective mood, since it
presents the same infinitive stem, though in relation to the second person only. This
may be shown by means of equivalent transformations. Cf.:
Be off → I demand that you be off.
Prof. Blokh suggests that the imperative verbal forms should be looked upon as a
variety of the spective.
The spective mood falls into the pure spective and the modal spective.
E.g.: Whatever they should say of the project, it must be considered seriously.
Analysing the forms of the subjunctive referring to the past order of the verb (the
past subjunctive), M.Y.Blokh distinguishes two more form-types:
the stipulative conditional:
E.g.: If I were in your place, I’d only be happy
and the consective conditional:
E.g.: If I had lived there, he would have visited us.
All these form-types are united under the heading of the “subjunctive mood”.
The described system is not finished in terms of the historical development of
language. On the contrary, it is in the state of making and change. Still, now we will
speak of the existence of the three moods in English: the indicative, the imperative
and the subjunctive.

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Lecture Nine
The Non-Finite Forms of the Verb (Verbals)

1. General characteristics of the verbals.


2. The infinitive and its features.
3. The gerund and its peculiarities in English.
4. The participles and their functioning in the sentence.

The system of the non-finite forms of the verb, verbals or verbids, is one of the
most striking features of Modern English. It is composed of three forms: the
infinitive, the gerund and the participle. Some linguists (M.Y.Blokh, for instance)
find four non-finite forms distinctly differing from one another: the infinitive, the
gerund, the present participle and the past participle.
None of the English verbals has any category of person, number, tense or mood.
They are the most specific finite verb categories. They constitute predication of the
sentence which is expressed in the predicate of the sentence.
Being unable to express the predicative meanings, the verbals are never used in
the function of the predicate. It makes them different from the finite verbs. The
syntactical functions of the non-finite forms of the verb are those of the subject, a
predicative, an object, an adverbial modifier and sometimes an attribute.
The verbals have some features in common with the finite forms. The verbals
possess such grammatical categories as aspect, voice, time correlation.
Besides the features common to the English verb as a whole, the verbals have
certain features of their own distinguishing them from the finite verb.
1. Their lexico-grammatical meaning is of dual nature. The verbal meaning of
“action, process” is presented as some kind of “substance” or “quality”.
2. They have peculiar morphemes distinguishing the verbals from the finite verb:
-ing (gerund and participle I), -(e)d, -(e)n (participle II), to (infinitive).
3. The combinability of the verbals is also of mixed nature. Partly it resembles
that of a finite verb, and partly that of a noun or an adjective.
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4. One of the peculiarities of the verbals is their being used as secondary
predicates. This secondary predication is included into the sentence.
E.g.: John saw the children running.
The infinitive is the non-finite form of the verb which combines the properties of
the verb with those of the noun, serving as the verbal name of a process.
Representing an action in its most general form the infinitive is often treated as
the initial form of the verb, the head-form of the whole paradigm of the verb.
The infinitive is characterized by the following features:
1. Its dual lexico-grammatical meaning of an action, process partially viewed as a
substance.
2. The grammatical categories of voice, aspect and time correlation.
3. Its peculiar combinability resembling that of the verb, and partly that of the
noun.
Like a finite verb, the infinitive is combined with adverbs (to speak fluently),
with nouns and pronouns denoting the doer or the object of the action (We expected
you to bring the book).
Like a noun, the infinitive may be combined with a finite verb (To land seemed
impossible. John promised to come).
4. The syntactical functions of the subject, predicative, object, attribute, adverbial
modifier, etc.
5. The word-morpheme to. The presence or absence of this word-morpheme
depends on the environment of the infinitive in speech. The form with the marker to
is called traditionally the “to-infinitive”, or in more recent linguistic works, the
“marked infinitive”. The other form, without the marker to, is called traditionally the
“bare infinitive”.
Like other word-morphemes, to can be separated from the rest of the analytical
word by some other word or words. In this case linguists speak of the split infinitive.
E.g.: My task is to thoroughly investigate.
6. The infinitive is used in analytical forms like shall bring, will bring, should
bring, would bring, etc.

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The infinitive is used in different types of constructions:
1) the Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction (the function of a complex object): I
want John to come and dine with us;
2) the Subjective Infinitive Construction: John is said to resemble his father;
3) the for-to-Infinitive Construction: He waited for her to speak.
The gerund is the non-finite form of the verb which, like the infinitive, combines
the properties of the verb with those of the noun. The gerund developed from the
verbal noun which in the course of time became verbalized preserving at the same
time its nominal character. The gerund is characterized by the following features:
1. Its dual lexico-grammatical meaning of an action partially viewed as a
substance.
2. The categories of voice and time correlation.
3. The morpheme -ing.
4. Its peculiar combinability which is of double nature. It resembles the
combinability of the verb and that of the noun.
Like a finite verb, the gerund is combined with adverbs, with nouns or pronouns
denoting the object of the action.
E.g.: She burst out crying bitterly.
Like a noun, the gerund is combined with prepositions, possessive pronouns and
nouns in the possessive case.
E.g.: I am very, very tired of dancing.
5. The syntactical functions of the subject, predicative, object, attribute,
adverbial modifier.
E.g.: Talking mends no holes (the subject).
John simply loves riding (an object).
He was born with the gift of winning hearts (an attribute).
The gerund, like the infinitive, serves as the verbal name of a process, but its
substantive quality is more strongly pronounced than that of the infinitive. It may be
explained by the fact that the gerund became part of the verb system much later than
the infinitive.

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In English we observe the so-called “half-gerund”, as in the examples Excuse my
boys (them) having bored you so. The subject word of the gerund here is a noun in
the common case. It may also be a pronoun in the objective case.
The gerund fully coincides with participle I in English. The traditional view is
that we have here two homonymous forms: the participle and the gerund. Some
linguists, however, speak of one form (the ing-form) which in different contexts
acquires different shades of meaning and performs different syntactical functions.
Such a view is held by the Dutch scholar E. Kruisinga. In some passages of his book
he merely speaks of “the ing”, though in other parts he uses the terms “gerund” and
“participle”.
It must be said that this question is difficult to solve.
We think it more convincing to hold to the traditional view which has it that the
participle and the gerund are two essentially different forms sounding the same.
The participle is the non-finite form of the verb which combines the properties
of the verb with those of the adjective.
There are two participles in English: participle I and participle II which are often
called the present participle and the past participle respectively. The difference
between them lies in the voice.
In its outer form participle I is wholly homonymous with the gerund, ending in
the suffix –ing. It distinguishes the same grammatical categories of voice and time
correlation. The difference between participle I and the gerund lies in their syntactical
functions.
The most characteristic syntactical functions of participle I are those of:
a) an attribute: John admired a picture hanging above his head;
b) an adverbial modifier of time, cause, manner: Approaching the town John
thought of his youth;
c) part of a complex object: We saw John talking to his young wife;
d) a predicative: The effect of John’s story was terrifying.
Speaking about the combinability of the participle (both present and past) we
should point out that it partly resembles that of the verb (the participle is combined

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with adverbs, with nouns and pronouns denoting the object of the action), and partly
that of the adjective (it modifies nouns) and of the adverb (it modifies verbs).
Participle I and participle II participate in analytical forms like is asking, is
asked, has asked, is being asked, etc.
As for participle II, it stands somewhat apart. It possesses a number of peculiar
features which are worth considering in detail.
Subjective verbs such as to exist, to die, to lie, etc. have no participles II used
independently. There are but a few exceptions to this principle such as runaway,
fallen, collapsed, vanished, gone, faded, retired.
It is clear that as far as the category of voice goes, the past participle belongs to
the passive.
Participle II has no opposite of time correlation. In speech, however, it denotes
simultaneousness or priority depending on the lexical meaning of the lexeme it
belongs to and the context it occurs in.
Thus, the only grammatical category which is expressed in participle II is that of
voice (namely, the passive voice). The other categories, namely, aspect, tense and
correlation (and, of course, mood, person, and number) find no expression in it.
Owing to these peculiarities, participle II occupies a unique position in the verbal
system.
Participle II may be used in the sentence in the following functions:
a) an attribute (The locked door made her cry);
b) an adverbial modifier of time, condition, comparison, concession (When
questioned, John shook his head);
c) a predicative (John was impressed);
d) part of a complex object (John found his sister changed).
In Modern English we find the following predicative constructions with the
participle:
1) the Objective Participial Construction (John found his sister changed);
2) the Subjective Participial Construction (John and Jane were heard talking
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3) the Nominative Absolute Participial Construction (The weather being fine, we
went for a walk);
4) the Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction (John sat quite silent, with his
eyes fixed on the ground).
English participles, like those of Russian and other languages, may sometimes
develop into adjectives or into nouns.
E.g.: a charming woman, written work; the wounded, the accused, etc.
Both adjectivization and substantivization involve the change of combinability
and function, i.e. they are cases of conversion.

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Lecture Ten
The Functional Parts of Speech

1. General characteristics of the functional parts of speech.


2. Origin of the functional parts of speech.
3. Prepositions. Conjunctions. The article.

According to their meaning, morphological characteristics and syntactical


functions, words fall under certain classes called parts of speech. We distinguish
between notional and functional parts of speech.
All words belonging to the notional parts of speech denote things, actions and
other extralinguistic phenomena. They have their own general meaning which
overlaps all the concrete meanings of these parts of speech.
The functional parts of speech lack their general meaning in the sense we
understand it. They are used in phrases and sentences either to connect the notional
words or to modify them.
There are some problems connected with the functional parts of speech. Many
linguists argue about their belonging to parts of speech. Some of them (I.P. Ivanova,
for instance) distinguish functional parts of speech from functional words (here
belong, first of all, auxiliary verbs which may function as notional words).
One of the problems we will dwell upon is this: are functional words morphemes
or separate words? It has been solved in different ways by different authors.
On the one hand, they may be compared with grammatical morphemes. Thus,
according to this approach, prepositions, conjunctions, articles are like affixes, but
they are written separately from the notional words. The functional words are helpers,
servants. They cannot be used in any function of the sentence: the preposition cannot
be used in the function of the subject, predicate or anything else.
This opinion was shared by Acad. I.I. Meshchaninov. He considered prepositions
as prefixes of the case.

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On the other hand, if we take into consideration the form of the functional words,
we may recognize that they resemble the notional words. What are the reasons for
this?
1. First of all, the functional words are written separately.
2. They have inflexions, that is the functional words change their form: He
doesn’t go there.
3. All the functional words change their places: Do you go there?
4. They may be used independently: Will he go to school? – Yes, he will.
5. One notional word may have two functional words: John can and will do it.
6. One functional word may have several notional words: John will go there and
do it.
Taking into consideration all these arguments we may state that these functional
elements are separate words, not morphemes. This view is held by Prof.
A.I.Smirnitsky, I.P. Ivanova and other scholars.
L.S. Barkhudarov considers the functional words as affixes according to their
function and words according to their form.
To sum it up we may say that the main features of the functional words are as
follows:
1) they are never used independently, as independent components of the sentence or
phrase;
2) they cannot be used without notional words but in some cases;
3) they are never stressed but in case of contrast;
4) they never occupy positions in the sentence.
Speaking about the origin of the functional parts of speech we are sure to say that
all of them come from the notional parts of speech which have their own full lexical
meaning. In the course of the language development some of the notional words
begin to specialize in marking the syntactical relations between words (prepositions
and conjunctions) or modifying the words (the article), etc. This process is known to
be the process of grammatization.

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This process of converting notional words into functional ones is alive and very
active in Modern English. The English language becomes more and more analytical.
According to their semantics and functioning in phrases and sentences, the
functional parts of speech are classified into: the preposition, the conjunction, the
article, the modal words, the particle, the interjection, etc. We will consider the most
important of them.
It is common knowledge that prepositions are a most important element of the
structure of Modern English which has no developed case system.
The preposition is a functional part of speech which denotes some relations
between objects and phenomena in the extralinguistic world.
It should be noted that in some cases prepositions do not express relations
between extralinguistic phenomena. They merely serve as link between words.
E.g.: John depends on his parents.
Prepositions are not stressed, as a rule. They stand before the words they refer to.
Sometimes they are separated and placed at the end of the sentence or clause. In this
case they are stressed.
E.g.: The doctor was sent for.
Prepositions may be classified according to their structure and according to their
meaning.
As far as their structure is concerned, prepositions, like other parts of speech, fall
into the following groups:
1. Simple: at, in, of, by, with, for, etc.
2. Derivative: below, beside, along, etc.
3. Compound: inside, within, into, throughout, etc.
4. Composite: instead of, in accordance with, in front of, etc.
According to their meaning, prepositions may be divided into:
1) prepositions of place and direction (in, on, below, under, between, etc.);
2) time (after, before, at, etc.);
3) prepositions expressing abstract relations (by, with, because of, with a view to,
etc.).

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The lexical meaning of some prepositions is quite concrete (in, below, between,
after, till, etc.). The meaning of some other prepositions may be weakened to a great
extent (to, by, of). For instance, the preposition to generally indicates direction or
movement towards something: John came to Moscow.
But in some cases the lexical meaning of the preposition to is weakened: The
house belongs to John’s parents.
Some prepositions are polysemantic and they may express different relations:
for, at, etc.
Some prepositions are homonymous with adverbs (after, before), and
conjunctions (before, since, etc.).
Because of this fact A.I. Smirnitsky thinks it possible to regard prepositions not
as a separate part of speech, but as a group of adverbs. However, this view appears to
be very shaky.
The conjunction is a functional part of speech which denotes some connection or
other existing between phenomena in extralinguistic reality.
According to their morphological structure, conjunctions are divided into the
following groups:
1. Simple: and, or, but, till, after, that, so, etc.
2. Derivative: until, unless, etc.
3. Compound: however, whereas, wherever, etc.
4. Composite: as well as, as long as, in case, etc.
Some conjunctions may be used in pairs: both … and, either … or, not only …
but (also), neither … nor, whether … or.
Unlike prepositions, conjunctions are never predicted by any preceding word.
As to their syntactical function, conjunctions are divided into two classes:
coordinating conjunctions and subordinating conjunctions.
There are four different types of coordinating conjunctions:
1) copulative conjunctions: and, nor, as well as, both … and, etc.;
2) disjunctive conjunctions: or, either … or, or else, else;
3) adversative conjunctions: but, while, whereas;

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4) causative-consecutive conjunctions: so, for.
Many of the subordinating conjunctions introduce different kinds of clauses:
that, if, as, while. Subordinating conjunctions may be also used in simple sentences:
as if, as though, though, if.
The conjunctions are not numerous, but of very frequent occurrence in speech.
The article presents us with one of the most difficult and intricate problems of
language structure. One of the problems connected with the article is this: is the
article a separate part of speech or not? Prof. I.P. Ivanova considers the article a
separate part of speech. To prove her point of view Prof. Ivanova investigates the
general meaning of the article, its morphological characteristics and syntactical
functions.
Some other grammarians consider the article a grammatical morpheme and not a
separate part of speech. It is said to be a special type of grammatical auxiliary
(B.A.Ilyish, M.Y. Blokh). It forms the grammatical collocation “article + noun”.
Even nowadays linguists argue about the number of articles. Some grammarians
say that there are two articles in English: the indefinite article (a, an) and the definite
article (the).
Some grammarians speak of the “zero article” (A.I. Smirnitsky). According to
this view, then, there would be three articles in English: definite, indefinite and zero.
This idea of a zero article takes its origin in the notion of “zero morpheme”. Thus, if
we say that the article is a morpheme, this view and the term “zero article” may be
accepted. If the article is a word, the notion “zero” seems very doubtful.
Speaking about the meaning of the article it should be noted that it imparts some
additional meaning to the lexical meaning of the noun with which it is used.
Thus, the article is a grammatical means of expressing definite and indefinite
ideas within the noun.

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Lecture Eleven
Phrases. The Study of Minor Syntax

1. The phrase and its relation to the word and to the sentence.
2. The structure of the phrase.
3. Possible classifications of phrases.
4. Means of expression of syntactical relations in phrases.

Speaking about syntax we should distinguish between two levels: that of phrases
(Minor Syntax) and that of sentences (Major Syntax).
The phrase is a combination of two or more notional words which are organized
according to the laws of the given language and express a notion to signify it.
Like separate words, phrases have a nominative function, but they represent the
referent of nomination as a complicated phenomenon, be it a concrete thing (a
beautiful flower), an action (to eat with greediness), a quality (extremely difficult), or
a whole situation (the fantastic view of the sea). The phrase is used in the process of
communication as a ready block of material. The phrase has the following features:
1) the phrase is a combination of two or more notional words;
2) the combination is syntactically organized and grammatically formed;
3) the phrase is usually less than a sentence and it goes into the sentence as its
part;
4) components of the phrase semantically fit each other;
5) one component is independent (dominant), its head word;
6) the dependent word (adjunct) makes the meaning of the head word more
exact and concrete, it limits the head word;
7) the phrase is a realization of a concept or a notion;
8) the phrase has no communication value.
The phrase is a syntagmatic unit which is characterised by some kind of
syntactical relations. The syntactical relations between words may be of 3 types:
1) subordinative,
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2) coordinative,
3) predicative.
Predication is proper to the sentence and subordination and coordination are
proper to the phrase.
From the point of view of syntagmatic relations phrases may be divided into:
1) syntagmatic groupings of notional words alone: a soft voice(n), to move
slowly(v);
2) syntagmatic groupings of notional words with functional ones: in prose, too
loud;
3) syntagmatic groupings of functional words alone: up to, such as.
Groupings of notional words fall into two mutually opposite types by their
grammatical and semantic properties:
1. Equipotent (coordinative) groupings are constituted by words related to each other
on an equal rank.
E.g.: prose and poetry; come and go.
2. Dominational (subordinative or dependent) groupings are formed by words which
are syntactically unequal; one of them is the head word, the other is its adjunct.
The two basic types of dominational connection are bilateral (reciprocal, two-
way) domination and monolateral (one-way) domination. Bilateral domination is
realized in predicative connection of words, while monolateral domination is realized
in completive connection of words.
The predicative connection of words uniting the subject and the predicate builds
up the basis of the sentence.
All the completive connections fall into two main divisions: objective
connections and qualifying connections.
Objective connections are subdivided into non-prepositional and prepositional,
while from the semantico-syntactic point of view, they are classed as direct and
indirect or oblique.
E.g.: to remember a man, to sympathize with the child.
Qualifying completive connections are divided into:

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attributive connections (a pretty girl),
adverbial connections (to speak fast).
Speaking about the structure of phrases we should recognize:
1) elementary (simple) phrases: gold watch, to wait an hour;
2) compound phrases: white and red roses, rich in coal and oil;
3) complex phrases which may be of immediate extension (parallel): to run
hastily downstairs, a fine blue silk dress and successive extension: the demand for the
development of economy of the country.
According to their head-word, phrases are divided into:
1) nominal groups (blue eyes, mother’s letter);
2) adjectival groups (kind to people, rich in oil);
3) verbal groups (to speak fluently, to answer quickly);
4) adverbial groups (very quickly, too slowly).
According to the position of their adjunct, phrases are divided into:
1) prepositional (a bright boy, a charming smile);
2) postpositional ( a window of the room, to treat with respect).
According to the criteria of distribution, all word groupings may be classified
into 2 big classes: headed and non-headed. If a word-group has the same distribution
as one of its members it is called headed.
E.g.: red rose, to speak fast.
If the distribution of the word-group is different from either of its members it is
regarded as non-headed.
E.g.: side by side, face to face.
Semantic relations between the components of the phrase may be those of:
a) the action and its doer (performer):
E.g.: the president’s visit;
b) the action and its object:
E.g.: introduction of a new method;
c) the action and its place:
E.g.: life in London;

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d) the action and its quality:
E.g.: John’s courage;
e) a part of the whole:
E.g.: John’s hand;
f) time and temporary relations:
E.g.: a month’s leave, etc.
There are different ways of expressing syntactical relations between the
components of a phrase in Modern English. The main ways are:
1) agreement or concord,
2) government,
3) enclosure.
Agreement consists in making the subordinate word take a form similar to that
of the word to which it is subordinate. The sphere of agreement is restricted to two
pronouns – this and that.
Government consists in the use of a certain form of the subordinate word
required by its head word, but not coinciding with the form of the head word itself
which is typical of agreement. Government is found in Modern English only in the
use of the objective case of personal pronouns and of the pronoun who when they are
subordinate to a verb or follow a preposition.
However, there is another means of expressing syntactical relations which plays
an important role in Modern English. It is called enclosure. We speak of enclosure
when some element of a phrase is enclosed between two parts of another element.
E.g.: a beautiful flower; the then president.
There is another way of expressing syntactical relations between components of
a phrase which is termed adjoining. It is usually described as absence both of
agreement and of government.
E.g.: extremely beautiful, to speak fluently.
To draw some conclusion we should note that the phrase is a self-contained and
grammatically formed unit of syntax which is less than a sentence. The phrase is a
nominative unit, not a communicative one. The phrase is included into the sentence

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and becomes its part. It is only in the sentence that it gets intonation and is charged
with some part of communication. The phrase may have at least 2 notional words and
the number of its components is not limited. It is an open unit. The usual number of
its components goes up to 3 members. The study of phrases can’t be done without
valency (the possibility of a word to be combined with other words).

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Lecture Twelve
The Sentence and Its Characteristics

1. The sentence and its main features.


2. Classifications of sentences.
3. The structure and types of simple sentences.
4. The paradigmatic structure of the sentence.

The sentence is the integral unit of speech built up of words according to a


definite syntactic pattern and distinguished by a communicative purpose.
The sentence, being composed of words, may in certain cases include only one
word of various lexico-grammatical standing.
E.g.: Congratulations! Thanks! Why?
The sentence is characterized by its specific category of predication which
establishes the relation of the named phenomena to actual life. In this sense, as
different from the word and the phrase, the sentence is a predicative unit.
The centre of predication in a sentence of a verbal type is a finite verb.
There is another difference between the sentence and the word. Unlike the word,
the sentence does not exist in the system of language as a ready-made unit. With the
exception of a limited number of utterances of phraseological citation, it is created by
the speaker in the course of communication.
Being a unit of speech, the sentence is intonationally delimited. Intonation
separates one sentence from another.
There are various principles of classification of sentences. The sentence is a
communicative unit, that is why the primary classification of sentences must be based
on the communicative principle. This principle is formulated in traditional grammar
as the “purpose of communication”.
According to the purpose of communication, 3 main sentence types have long
been recognized in linguistic tradition:
1) declarative,
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2) imperative,
3) interrogative.
Each of the cardinal communicative sentence types can be represented in two
variants: non-exclamatory and exclamatory.
Prof. Ilyish speaks of purely exclamatory sentences:
E.g.: Oh, for God’s sake, Henry!
Thus, he distinguishes 4 types of sentences.
Sentences may be also classified according to their structure. Scholars usually
distinguish:
1) simple sentences,
2) composite sentences.
Sentences with only one predication are called simple sentences. Those with
more than one predication are called composite sentences.
Composite sentences with coordinated clauses are called compound sentences.
Composite sentences with subordinated clauses are called complex sentences.
We will now discuss the structure of the simple sentence and the types of simple
sentences.
The simple sentence is a sentence in which only one predicative line is
expressed.
E.g.: Tastes differ. This may happen any time.
It has been traditional for some time to classify sentences into two-member and
one-member sentences. This distinction is based on a difference in the so-called main
parts of a sentence.
The sentence containing both the subject and the predicate is called a two-
member sentence. All other types are usually called one-member sentences.
Cf.: I’d like a cup of tea. / A cup of tea!
One-member sentences should be kept apart from two-member sentences with
either the subject or the predicate omitted, i.e. from elliptical sentences.

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A simple sentence containing some words besides the predication is called
extended. An unextended sentence contains no other parts but the subject and the
predicate.
One should recognize the category of “elementary sentence”. This is a sentence
all the positions of which are obligatory:
E.g.: The girl listened to me.
Each real sentence of speech can be reduced to one or more elementary
sentences. In contemporary modern linguistics the paradigmatic approach has
provided a comprehensive theoretical ground for treating the sentence not only as a
ready unit of speech, but also as a meaningful lingual unit existing in a pattern form.
Some of the patterns are base patterns, while others are their transforms.
E.g.: You are fond of the kid. → Are you fond of the kid?
In the process of investigation the initial, basic element of syntactic derivation
has been found. We will use the term “kernel sentence” which seems to be more
flexible.
Syntactic derivation is to be understood as paradigmatic production of more
complex pattern-constructions out of kernel pattern-constructions as their structural
bases.
E.g.: I saw him come. ← I saw him. + He came.
For the production of the sentence-transforms the following procedures are used:
1) morphological change
E.g.: John starts → John will be starting → John has started;
2) introduction of functional words (functional expansion)
E.g.: Now they agree → Now they do agree;
3) substitution
E.g.: I want another book, please → I want another one, please;
4) elimination of some elements (deletion)
E.g.: It’s a pleasure! → Pleasure;
5) positional arrangement
E.g.: The man is here → Is the man here?

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6) intonational arrangement ( by punctuation in writing)
E.g.: We must go → We must go?
The paradigm of the sentence is the set of changes of the whole sentence without
changing its denotational (lexical) meaning.

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Lecture Thirteen
The Simple Sentence. Parts of the Sentence

1. The problem of the parts of the sentence.


2. The main parts of the sentence. The subject.
3. The predicate and its types.
4. Semantic structure of the sentence. Functional sentence perspective.

Speaking about parts of the sentence in Modern English, we distinguish the


subject, the predicate, the object, the attribute and different types of adverbial
modifiers. All these parts are nothing but functions or positions of the notional words
in the sentence.
Traditionally these parts of the sentence are divided into 2 groups:
1) main parts – the subject and the predicate;
2) secondary parts – the object, attribute, adverbial modifiers.
According to the opinion of representatives of old grammar school the subject
and the predicate of the sentence make the sentence complete. But it is not always
correct. Language material proves the fact that very often the secondary parts can’t be
omitted from the sentence.
E.g.: John invited his friends.
These contradictions make up a problem of the division of the parts of the
sentence into the main and secondary parts. Not long ago some grammarians (Prof.
Blokh) introduced some other division of the parts of the sentence. They suggested
that the terms “obligatory” and “optional” should be used to name the parts of the
sentence.
Obligatory parts are those components of the sentence which are necessary to
express a complete thought and they can’t be omitted from the structure of the
sentence without destroying it.

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Optional parts are those components of the sentence which are used to enlarge
the obligatory parts, and as a result they make up word-combinations of notional
words which are called phrases.
Thus, the optional parts of the sentence don’t go into the structure of the
sentence. On the other hand, the obligatory parts of the sentence make up its
minimum, or the model of the sentence.
The most important part of the sentence is considered to be the subject.
The subject is one of the two main parts of the sentence, it denotes the thing
whose action or characteristic is expressed by the predicate, it is not dependent on
any other part of the sentence and it may be expressed by different parts of speech.
The subject of the sentence can be expressed by a single word or a group of
words. The most frequent ways are a noun in the common case, a personal pronoun in
the nominative case, a demonstrative pronoun, a substantivized adjective, a numeral,
an infinitive, a gerund, etc.
On the semantic level in English there are two types of subjects: 1) definite, 2)
indefinite.
The definite subject denotes the thing meant, it can be clearly defined.
E.g.: The polite waiter brought my tea.
Talking with you is a pleasure.
The indefinite subject denotes the thing meant but it can’t be clearly defined. It
may be some indefinite person, a state or a thing.
E.g.: One wants to live forever.
The subject may be: 1) personal, 2) impersonal.
Cf.: It (the door) was opened by a young girl of 13 or 14.
It often rains in October.
The second principal part of the sentence is the predicate which expresses an
action, state, or quality of the person or thing denoted by the subject.
Predicates may be classified from the point of view of their content and
structure.

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According to its content the predicate falls into 2 types: 1) the process (or
action) predicate, 2) the non-process predicate.
The process predicate is characterized as a certain process or activity.
E.g.: Birds fly. The train has come.
The non-process predicate denotes certain qualities or characteristics of the thing
denoted by the subject. The non-process predicate may be of 3 types:
1) the qualificative predicate expressing certain qualities or properties of the
subject: Jane is young;
2) the objective predicate consisting of a verb and a noun demanded by the verb:
John has many friends;
3) the adverbial or circumstantial predicate denotes the place, circumstances or
surroundings where the subject finds itself: John is in London.
Prof. Smirnitsky introduced a new type – double predicate.
E.g.: The moon rose red.
The idea of the sentence can be regarded as the compression of two ideas: 1) the
moon rose, 2) the moon was red. In this case we see double relations of the predicate
with the subject. Semantically this type may be described as a process qualificative
predicate because it expresses at the same time process and qualification (quality).
According to its structure, the predicate falls into 4 main types: 1) simple
predicate: verbal and nominal; 2) compound predicate: verbal and nominal.
The simple predicate is expressed by a finite verb in a simple or a compound
tense form. It may be also expressed by a phraseological unit.
E.g.: He gave me a book / He gave a violent start.
The compound predicate consists of two parts: a finite verb expressing
predication and some other part of speech (a noun, a pronoun, an adjective, a verbal)
expressing the main content of the predicate.
The problem which arises in connection with the study of the predicate is that of
the boundaries of the predicate.
The predicate may be complicated and the second part of it may be a word-
combination, a prepositional phrase, a comparative construction, etc.

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adj.phrase adj.phrase
E.g.: Her dress was all pure white, her lips were bright red.
Her mind was as blank as paper.
They are often used in modern literature and in speech.
The sentence may be described from the semantic point of view. Each sentence
comprises information of a dialectical unit: of semantics, syntactical relations and
lexical meanings of the words. Semantic or deep structure is a general, typical
informational content which is regularly found in separate concrete utterances. The
content of the sentence finds its realization in its surface structure which is the
formation of the sentence by means of sounds, morphemes, words, intonation and
some other elements.
The idea of surface and deep structures was introduced in 1961 by Ch. Hockett
and further developed by N. Chomsky. It was an investigation of the relations
between the content and the form.
The content of the sentence may be presented as:
1) propositional content or proposition,
2) communicative frame.
The proposition is the meaning of a sentence, its nominative side; it consists of
predicates and arguments.
The predicates are relational terms and usually correspond to verbs in sentences.
They may be actions, processes, properties, relations - propositional predicates. The
arguments are the terms which are related and usually correspond to nouns. They
may be things, objects, persons, ideas – propositional roles which may be presented
in the following way: 1) agent, 2) object, 3) addressee, 4) medium, 5) instrument, 6)
goal, 7) recipient.
Each sentence is correlated with the judgement. It’s a unit of our thought and
consists of two parts: the subject and the predicate. Judgement is expressed within the
sentence. Within the sentence we find different parts of it which coincide with the
subject and the predicate of the judgement. They are called the theme (topic)

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referring to the subject of the judgement, and the rheme (comment) referring to the
predicate of the judgement.
The theme expresses the starting point of the communication, i.e. it denotes an
object or phenomenon about which something is reported.
The rheme expresses the basic informative part of the communication, its
contextually relevant centre.
We should distinguish between what we are talking about (the theme or the
topic) and what we are saying about it (the rheme or the comment).
The theme and the rheme are called communicative frame, actual division of the
sentence or functional sentence perspective.
E.g.: The door was opened by a young girl.
theme rheme
There are different ways of expressing the distinction between the theme and the
rheme:
1) the constructions (it is … that(who), it is …which): It was Mr. Anderson who
helped me;
2) particles (only, even, etc.): Only the son made her live;
3) the indefinite article: A birdlike lady entered the room;
4) word-order: In the beginning, she had asked questions.
The problem of functional sentence perspective requires further careful
investigation before a complete theory of all phenomena belonging to this sphere can
be worked out.

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Lecture Fourteen
The Secondary Parts of the Sentence

1. The object and its role in the sentence.


2. The attribute and its role in the sentence.
3. Adverbial modifiers.
4. Loose parts, the apposition, direct address, parentheses, and insertions.
5. Word order.

The object is a secondary part of the sentence characterized by objective


relationship with any part of the sentence expressed by a verb, an adjective, or a
stative, etc.
There are several types of objects. From the point of view of their structure,
objects may be simple, phrasal, complex or clausal.
Cf.: He heard the news / He heard a lot of news / Nobody knew of his being absent
from town / He was amazed by what he had heard there.
According to the way the object is connected to its head word, it may be either
non-prepositional: He wrote a letter or prepositional: He wrote a letter with a pen.
In both cases there is a relationship between a process and a certain thing
connected with the process. In the first sentence it is the closest.
From the point of view of their value and grammatical peculiarities, three types
of objects can be distinguished in English:
1) the direct object: I wrote a poem;
2) the indirect object: I wrote her a poem;
3) the cognate object: One must live one’s own life.
The terminative object may be of 5 types:
1) resultative: John built a house;
2) the object on which the action expressed by a verb is directed: He digs the
ground;
3) the object expressing the content of the action: He sang a pop-song;
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4) the object of the end of the action: He reached the house;
5) the cognate object: He slept a peaceful sleep.
In all these cases the object limits the process or the action expressed by the
verb.
Among other parts of the sentence we find in English an objective predicative
which can be expressed by a noun, an adjective, an infinitive or a participle. It is
traditionally called a complex object.
E.g.: They found him guilty.
They elected him president.
They saw him run. They saw him running.
The attribute is a secondary part of the sentence serving to characterize nouns or
noun-equivalents either qualitatively, quantitatively or from the point of view of
situation.
E.g.: It was a letter from his devoted friend.
I’ve never seen a better place.
Semantically attributes may express various shades of relations with the nouns
they characterize. They may be:
1) qualitative (a deep sea),
2) quantitative (many children),
3) circumstantial (the house on the hill).
An attribute can either precede or follow the noun it modifies. According to their
position attributes are divided into:
1) prepositive,
2) postpositive.
From the point of view of their connection with the head word and other parts of
the sentence, attributes may be divided into non-detached (close) and detached
(loose) ones.
Non-detached attributes form one sense group with their head word which they
generally adjoin.

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E.g.: She grew white and red roses. Everyone could see his most deeply-felt
emotions.
Detached attributes are only loosely connected with their head word and are
optional from the point of view of structure, although very important semantically.
E.g.: A daughter of poor but honest parents, I have no reason to be ashamed of my
origins.
The adverbial modifier is a secondary part of the sentence which modifies another
part of the sentence expressed either by a verb, an adjective, a stative or an adverb.
E.g.: John spoke in a whisper. It was a very long story.
Semantically adverbials denote place, time, manner, cause, purpose, result,
condition, concession, attendant circumstances, degree, measure, thus forming
semantic clauses, such as adverbials of place, time, etc.
An adverbial modifier may be expressed by an adverb, a prepositional nominal
phrase, a non-finite verb form, a predicative complex, a clause, etc.
E.g.: The problem is too difficult to solve.
We meet every day.
Adverbials are obligatory when the sentence structure demands one or when their
absence changes the meaning of the verb.
E.g.: He behaved bravely. John lives in London.
Non-obligatory adverbials are those which are not necessary for the structure of
the sentence. They neither influence the meaning of the verb form, nor do they
change the structure or the meaning of the rest of the sentence, no matter how
important they are from the communicative viewpoint.
E.g.: She left the room without saying a word.
Adverbial modifiers are detached when they are placed in an unusual position.
E.g.: Like him, she saw danger in it.
Adverbials may be divided into circumstantial, or, as A.I. Smirnitsky calls them,
adverbials of situation, and qualitative adverbials.
Adverbials of situation comprise adverbials of:
a) time,

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b) place,
c) cause,
d) purpose,
e) condition,
f) concession,
g) attendant circumstances.
Qualitative adverbials comprise adverbials of:
a) manner and measure,
b) result and comparison,
c) degree.
There are some parts in the sentence whose position in its structure has been
treated variously by different authors. First of all, it refers to the apposition which has
been often regarded as a special kind of attribute.
The apposition is a part of the sentence expressed by a noun or a nominal phrase
(the head word), or sometimes by a clause.
The apposition names the title, or profession, or social position of the person, or
description of the non-person.
E.g.: He always admired her, a very pretty creature.
Beyond the villa, a strange-looking building, began the forest.
Like the attribute, the apposition may be in preposition or postposition.
From the point of view of their relation to the head word, appositions, like
attributes, are subdivided into:
1) non-detached (close): The River Thames in London is tidal;
2) detached: He actually envied Jolyon the reputation of succeeding where he,
Soames, had failed (J. Galsworthy).
There are some elements of the sentence which are neither its main parts, nor
any of the usual secondary ones. They are sometimes called independent elements.
The independent element may consist of a word or a phrase. There are two groups
of such elements:

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1. The direct address is the name of a person (or occasionally a non-person) to
whom the rest of the sentence is addressed.
E.g.: Jenny, darling, don’t say such things.
2. The parenthesis is a word or a phrase which has no syntactical ties with the
sentence and expresses the speaker’s attitude to what he says.
E.g.: Undoubtedly she is the angel of a girl.
As a rule a parenthesis refers to the sentence (or clause) as a whole.
Here also belong insertions which are described as various additional statements
inserted in the sentence. They carry some extra information about something
mentioned in the sentence.
E.g.: He had not killed her. And yet (stepping up on the near-by bank and shaking
the water from his clothes) had he?
The difference between the parenthesis and the insertion is a difference in the
way they are connected with the main body of the sentence. The connection in the
case of parenthesis is much closer than in the case of insertions.
Grammarians sometimes speak of loose or detached parts of the sentence which
are described as such parts that are less intimately connected with the rest of the
sentence, and have some independence. They are: attributes, adverbial modifiers,
appositions and parentheses which we have just discussed.
The words in English are arranged in a certain order which is fixed for every
type of the sentence, and is therefore meaningful. We find several principles
determining word order in a sentence. Word order fulfils several functions –
grammatical, emphatic or communicative, and linking. These functions are
manifested in different arrangements of the parts of the sentence.
The main function of word order is to express grammatical relations and
determine the grammatical status of a word by fixing its position in the sentence.
There exist two ways of arranging words: 1) direct word order, 2) inverted word
order.

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1. Modern English is characterized by a rigid word order in accordance with
which the subject of declarative sentences precedes the predicate. This is the so-
called direct word order.
E.g.: The boy gave me no answer.
2. The other common pattern of word order is the inverted one (when the
predicate precedes the subject).
E.g.: Here comes the lady of the house.
In some cases inversion may be taken as a normal order of words in
constructions with special communicative value. Inversion as a normal word order is
used in questions, polite requests, there-sentences, exclamatory sentences, negative
imperative sentences.
E.g.: What are the police after? There is nothing in it.
Long live our friendship! Don’t you do it!
The second function of word order is to make prominent or emphatic that part of
the sentence which is more important or informative in the speaker’s opinion.
Prominence and emphasis are achieved by placing the word in an unusual
position. End position is emphatic for the subject:
E.g.: In the centre of the room, under the chandelier, as became a host, stood the
head of the family, old Jolyon himself (J. Galsworthy).
The third function of word order is to express continuity of thought in sentences
following one another. This continuity is often supported by demonstrative pronouns
and adverbs.
E.g.: Women are terribly vain. So are men – more so, if possible.
On the whole, the problem of word order proves to be a highly complex one,
requiring great care and subtlety in the investigation.

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Lecture Fifteen
The Composite Sentence. Compound Sentences

1. Transition from simple to composite sentences.


2. General characteristics of the composite sentence.
3. Compound sentences and their types.

The simple sentence is considered to be the main unit of speech which expresses
judgement or proposition.
In speech, however, we find some sentences which don’t fit these rules, and it is
impossible to find a strict borderline between the sentences of simple and composite
patterns.
The fact is that within the simple sentence we find some transitional elements
from the simple to the composite sentence. In English these elements are well-
defined. They are:
1) homogeneous parts,
2) sentences with a dependent appendix,
3) sentences with secondary predication.
All these constructions semantically approach the composite sentence. That is
why formally they may be considered as extended and enlarged simple sentences, but
semantically they express several propositions.
Homogeneous parts are those parts of the sentence which fulfil the same
function in the sentence; they are parts of the same syntactical category (subjects,
predicates, objects, attributes or adverbial modifiers). The sentences with
homogeneous parts are the result of the contraction out of 2 or more simple
sentences.
E.g.: The men were cold and sick and silent.
This sentence is the result of the contraction of at least 3 sentences: The men
were cold; The men were sick; The men were silent.

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Sentences with a dependent appendix also lack an essential feature of a complex
sentence. They are often called phrases consisting of the conjunction than and a noun,
a pronoun, or a phrase following an adjective or an adverb in the comparative degree.
E.g.: It takes less courage to climb down than to face capture…
The appendix is obligatory, otherwise the sentence is not complete. This
sentence may be expanded into: It takes less courage to climb down than it does to
face capture… After this we get a clause introduced by the conjunction than and the
sentence becomes a complex one.
Within the simple sentence grammarians often find some constructions with
secondary or dependent predication. One of them is the complex object.
Semantically the complex object is the realization of a proposition and it is equal
to a sentence, but syntactically it is equal to a complex part of the sentence. To prove
it we may change the simple sentence with the complex object into a complex
sentence:
E.g.: John heard her singing. ← John heard how she was singing.
Another type of secondary predication may be seen in the so-called absolute
construction.
The absolute construction is a free or independent construction consisting of two
elements between which we find secondary predication.
E.g.: This duty completed, he had three months’ leave. ← When this duty was
completed he had three months’ leave.
There are some other transitional elements from simple to composite sentences.
Nominal phrases are among them.
E.g.: We were glad of John’s arrival. ← We were glad that John had arrived.
All these transitional elements are in development, the process is active now.
The composite sentence is a sentence formed by two or more predicative lines
(clauses). In its structure a clause is similar to a simple sentence, but unlike a simple
sentence, it forms part of a bigger syntactical unit. Being a polypredicative
construction, it expresses a complicated act of thought.

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Within a composite sentence clauses may be joined by means of coordination or
subordination, thus forming a compound or a complex sentence respectively.
By coordination the clauses are arranged as units of syntactically equal rank, i.e.
equipotently.
E.g.: I met John and he told me the news.
By subordination the clauses are arranged unequally, one being categorically
dominated by the other.
E.g.: I met John who told me the news.
Clauses may be connected in two ways: 1) syndetically, 2) asyndetically.
1. The first means of combining clauses is conjunctional, i.e. with the help of
conjunctions and conjunctive words. The difference between conjunctions and
conjunctive words lies in the fact that conjunctions don’t play any role in subordinate
clauses.
E.g.: Mary is singing and you are listening to her.
John knows that Mary sings beautifully.
Conjunctive words express relations between clauses and at the same time they
are included into the subordinate clause fulfilling some function in it.
E.g.: The boy who answered his question was John.
The conjunctive word who here connects the subordinate clause (attributive
clause) with the word it modifies. Moreover, who is at the same time the subject of
the subordinate clause.
2. The second means of combining clauses is non-conjunctional, i.e. without any
conjunctions.
E.g.: The rain fell softly, the house was quiet.
It is well known that the use of composite sentences, especially long and
logically intricate ones, is characteristic of literary written speech rather than
colloquial oral speech.
This fact is quite evident. It is this type of speech that deals with lengthy
reasonings, descriptions, narrations, all presenting abundant details.

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The compound sentence is a composite sentence built on the principle of
coordination, i.e. parataxis. A compound sentence consists of two or more clauses of
equal rank which form one syntactical whole in meaning and intonation.
Coordination, the same as subordination, can be either syndetical (by means of
coordinative connectors) or asyndetical.
The compound sentence is derived from two or more base sentences. The base
sentences joined into one compound sentence lose their independent status and
become coordinate clauses – parts of a composite unity. The opening clause is
“leading” (the “leader” clause), the successive clauses are “sequential”. This division
is essential not only from the point of view of outer structure, but also in the light of
the semantico-syntactic content. It is the sequential clause that includes the connector
in its composition.
From the point of view of the relationship between coordinate clauses, we
distinguish four kinds of coordinate connection:
1) copulative,
2) adversative,
3) disjunctive,
4) causative-consecutive.
The length of the compound sentence in terms of the number of its clauses is
practically unlimited. It is determined by the informative purpose of the speaker. The
commonest type of the compound sentence in this respect is a two-clause
construction.
On the other hand, predicatively longer sentences, from the point of view of
semantic correlation between the clauses, are divided into “open” and “closed”
constructions.
Copulative and enumerative types of connection, if they are not varied in the
final clause, form “open” constructions.
E.g.: They visited house after house. Sometimes they were too large and
sometimes they were too small, sometimes they were too far from the centre of things
and sometimes they were too close… (W.S. Maugham).

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In the multi-clause compound sentence of a closed type the final part is joined
on an unequal basis with the previous one (ones), whereby the chain of ideas is
expressed finally.
E.g.: Pleasure may turn a heart to stone, riches may make it callous, but sorrow–
oh, sorrow cannot break it (O. Wilde).
This subdivision was put forward by Prof. Blokh.
Thus, the compound sentence is a type of the composite sentence. It is
extensively used in colloquial speech and is often resorted to when events are
described in a stately or impressive way.

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Lecture Sixteen
The Complex Sentence

1. The complex sentence and its types.


2. Types of subordinate clauses.

The complex sentence is a polypredicative construction built up on the principle


of subordination, i.e. hypotaxis. It is derived from two or more base sentences – a
principal or main clause and a subordinate clause.
The principal clause dominates the subordinate clause positionally, but it doesn’t
mean that by its syntactic status it must express the central informative part of
communication.
E.g.: Just fancy that John has proposed to Mary!
All the essential information is included into the subordinate clause. The
principal clause is a sheer introducer of the latter.
Subordination is marked by some formal signals contained either in the
subordinate clause:
E.g.: This is the news which Mary didn’t know,
or in both:
E.g.: The more he looked at Mary, the more he liked her.
These formal signals may be conjunctions or connectives.
When clauses are joined by connectors they are said to be joined syndetically. If
no special linking element is used they are said to be joined asyndetically. In some
cases inversion is employed as a signal of subordination of one clause to another.
The principal clauses of complex sentences are usually not classified, though
their meanings are not neutral with regard to the meanings of the subordinate clauses.
Cf.: He will visit you because he has time.
He will visit you if he has time.
The problem of classifying subordinate clauses is not an easy one. There exist
several principles of classifying clauses into different types.
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Two criteria are most often used in classifying the subordinate clauses of
complex sentences: meaning and combinability.
According to the meaning, subordinate clauses may be: of time, condition,
objective, etc.
Cf.: I know when he came. When he came, it was already late.
According to the combinability, subordinate clauses may be classified in two
ways:
1) in accordance with their relation to the word of the principal clause they are
attached to;
2) they are linked to some part of speech with similar combinability.
Each of the criteria has its advantages and disadvantages. But in syntax the
correlation with the parts of the sentence is preferable to the correlation with the parts
of speech.
Thus, subordinate clauses function as different parts of the sentence (subject,
predicative, object, apposition, attribute, adverbial modifier).
Traditionally these numerous types of clauses are arranged in three groups:
1) nominal clauses,
2) attributive clauses,
3) adverbial clauses.
All nominal clauses have a function of a noun or a nominal phrase. There exist
subject, predicative, object and appositive nominal clauses. All nominal clauses are
very closely connected with the principal clause.
Attributive clauses function as modifiers to a word of nominal character which
is generally called the antecedent. Attributive clauses fall into two major classes:
1. Descriptive (non-defining, non-restrictive) clauses which do not single out a
thing but contain some additional information about the thing or things denoted by
the head word.
E.g.: I consulted John who promised to help me.
2. Restrictive (defining, limiting) attributive clauses which single out, determine
a person, a thing, an idea, etc. expressed by the antecedent. Therefore the meaning of

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the main clause is not complete or is altogether changed without the subordinate
clause.
E.g.: A library is a place where they keep books.
Adverbial clauses are usually classified according to their meaning, that is,
according to the relation they bear to the main clause. An adverbial clause may
qualify the whole main clause, the verbal predicate or any verbal part. Its position
therefore varies: it may be initial, medial or final.
E.g.: Women are very shy when they are expressing their emotions.
According to their semantics, we distinguish between adverbial clauses of place,
time, manner, comparison, condition, concession, purpose, cause, result.
Complex sentences which have two or more subordinate clauses discriminate
two basic types of subordination:
1) parallel when subordinate clauses immediately refer to one and the same
principal clause:
E.g.: When he agrees to hear me, and when we have spoken the matter over, I’ll
tell you the result;
2) consecutive when one subordinate clause is commonly subordinated to
another making up an uninterrupted gradation:
E.g.: I’ve no idea why she said she couldn’t call on us at the time I had suggested.

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Lecture Seventeen
Linguistics of Text

1. Text as an object of research.


2. The sentence in the text.
3. Super-phrasal unities.

According to the traditional view, the sentence is considered to be the highest


syntactical unit. Everything that is larger than the sentence was considered to be a
combination of these sentences.
Even such an outstanding linguist as L. Bloomfield pointed out that the sentence
is the largest grammatically arranged linguistic form.
However, sentences in continual speech are not used in isolation.
The Russian linguists N.S. Pospelov and L.A. Bulakhovsky expressed the
opinion that there exists a syntactical unit which is higher than the sentence. It was
called a “complex syntactic unity” or “super-phrasal unity” (SPU) or “paragraph”.
The paragraph is an exposition of unity of semantics and structure. Each SPU
consists of more than one sentence, but it may sometimes coincide with one sentence
only. Thus, it reveals a discourse, and the latter is usually a combination of several
sentences and is characterized by a relative completeness of the topic and by semantic
and syntactic connections of its components.
Semantic and structural unity or integrity of sentences of a SPU makes linguists
come to the conclusion that the sentence is a component of the paragraph. Recently
they have thoroughly investigated this question and come to the conclusion that this
branch of linguistics should be called text linguistics. Moreover, having analysed a
great number of SPU they discovered several kinds of devices which hold the
elements of thought together in a paragraph. The following means are usually named:
1. Sentences may be connected by conjunctions and other connectives, such as:
and, but, yet, however, therefore, etc.
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2. Sentences may be connected by transitional or directive expressions:
accordingly, and then, again, at the same time, as the result, for example, on the
other hand, first, second, finally, in conclusion, in other words, etc.
3. Sentences may be connected by pronouns: this, that, these, those, his, its,
etc. which carry the readers’ mind back to the “antecedent” they refer to.
4. Repetition of key or echo words may be used to connect sentences.
5. Parallel structures are used to bring the reader back to the ideas phrased in
similar forms.
6. The paragraph usually has the following structure:
a) the topic sentence,
b) the summarizing sentence,
c) the topic sentence with a transitional phrase.
E.g.: We’ll have a lovely garden. We’ll have roses in it and daffodils and a lovely
lawn with a swing for little Billy and little Barbara to play on. And we’ll have our
meals down by the lily pond in summer (K. Waterhouse and W. Hall).
In our example the sentences are connected by means of conjunctions, repetition
of key and echo words (lovely, little), parallel structures. All these means help
connect these sentences into one super-phrasal unity.
The key words may be repeated quite differently and may be used in different
functions. Sometimes their functions are taken up by some other elements. There are
two ways of expressing the function of an element which is absent:
1. I couldn’t find him, though I wanted to.
It is called representation and is often used in Modern English.
2. He works more than you do.
It is called substitution.
Representation may be expressed by an auxiliary verb of an analytical verb form
of which it is a part: be, have, will, should, would. It may occur within the sentence
and in short answers in dialogues.
Substitution has also some types; it is another way of suggesting the meaning of
a word that is not actually used in a sentence. Instead of repeating a word which has

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already been used in the sentence, another word is used. Here we find two main
words: 1) do instead of any notional verb, 2) one instead of any noun.
As we can see, the sentence remains the central structural-syntactic element in
all the formations of topical significance.
The word text is used in linguistics to refer to any passage, spoken or written, of
whatever length, that forms a unified whole.
The text is a unit of language in use. It is not a grammatical unit, like a sentence
or a clause; and it is not defined by its size.

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Morphology

The word “morphology” itself consists of two lexical morphemes: Greek


morphē = form and Greek logos = word.
Morphology is that part of grammar which studies the forms of words in a
certain system. It deals with the structure of words as dependent on the meaning of
constituent morphemes. Thus the morpheme is the ultimate unit of the semantic level
of language.
Morphemes are the smallest meaningful units into which a word-form may be
divided.
For instance, the word-forms “learns” and “played” consist of two
morphemes: learn + s, play + ed. The left-hand parts of these words are called lexical
morphemes. They express the lexical meaning of the words in question, whereas -s
and -ed are grammatical morphemes, because they serve to denote the grammatical
meanings of tense, mood, number, person and other grammatical morphological
distinctions of the verb in Modern English.
The word is the smallest naming unit. Morphologically words may be simple,
composite and derivatives. The last two are the most powerful means of word-
building in Modern English. This aspect belongs, however, to the sphere of
lexicology.
Every language contains thousands upon thousands of words. They are
classified into the great classes called “parts of speech”. The division into parts of
speech is primarily based on “categorial” meanings. Thus, nouns denote objects and
substances: pen, snow, beauty, etc., verbs express processes: to teach, to dance, to
learn, etc., adjectives denote properties or qualities of objects: admirable, fine,
playful, etc. Parts of speech are also characterized by their morphological features
and syntactical properties.

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Seminar I
Parts of Speech. The Noun and Its Categories

1. Language and speech. Morphology as part of grammar.


Morphological units and their characteristics.
2. Grammatical meanings and ways of their expression.
3. Word-classification into parts of speech. Different principles of
classifying words. Parts of speech in English as paradigmatic word classes.
4. The noun as a part of speech. Kinds of nouns and the importance of
their classification.
5. The grammatical category of number.
6. The grammatical category of case. The use of cases.
7. The problem of gender in English.

Read the text taken from “The Moon and Sixpence” by W. Somerset
Maugham (Moscow, 1972, p.132-133).
Examine the analysis given below, choose a passage from the text and give a
morphological analysis of the verbs that occur in the text under consideration.
When analysing any text it is essential to pay due attention to how the word is
actually built up, what relationships are between the constituent morphemes within
the form of a word. Is it always an easy matter to single out a root morpheme? What
does a grammatical morpheme give to a word – its form or its meaning, or both?
“When I went she wouldn’t speak to me. She told them to send me away. I
swore that I forgave her everything, but she wouldn’t listen. She tried to beat her head
against the wall. The doctor told me that I mustn’t remain with her. She kept on
saying, “Send him away!” I went, and waited in the studio. And when the ambulance
came and they put her on a stretcher, they made me go in the kitchen so that she
shouldn’t know I was there”.

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While I dressed – for Stroeve wished me to go at once with him to the
hospital – he told me that he had arranged for his wife to have a private room, so that
she might at least be spared the sordid promiscuity of a ward. On our way he
explained to me why he desired my presence; if she still refused to see him, perhaps
she would see me. He begged me to repeat to her that he loved her still; he would
reproach her for nothing, but desired only to help her; he made no claim on her, and
on her recovery would not seek to induce her to return to him; she would be perfectly
free.
But when we arrived at the hospital, a gaunt, cheerless building, the mere
sight of which was enough to make one’s heart sick, and after being directed from
this official to that, up endless stairs and through long bare corridors, found the
doctor in charge of the case, we were told that the patient was too ill to see anyone
that day. The doctor was a little bearded man in white, with an off-hand manner. He
evidently looked upon a case as a case, and anxious relatives as a nuisance which
must be treated with firmness. Moreover, to him the affair was commonplace; it was
just a hysterical woman who had quarrelled with her lover and taken poison; it was
constantly happening. At first he thought that Dirk was the cause of the disaster, and
he was needlessly brusque with him. When I explained that he was the husband,
anxious to forgive, the doctor looked at him suddenly, with curious, searching eyes. I
seemed to see in them a hint of mockery; it was true that Stroeve had the head of the
husband who is deceived. The doctor faintly shrugged his shoulders.”
Thus, in the very first sentence “When I went she wouldn’t speak to me”
1) went
2) speak
3) I
4) she
5) me
6) when
7) to – are all at first sight one-morpheme words.

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1. “Went” – is the past indefinite of “go” in Modern English although
etymologically it goes back to OE “wenden” – direct one’s way, thus in “go” and
“went” we have suppletive forms.
2. “Speak” – is an infinitive in the compound modal verbal predicate “wouldn’t
speak”; etymologically it goes back to OE “sprecan” – make use of language in an
ordinary, not a singing, voice.
3. “I” – is a personal pronoun in the Nominative Case; together with the form
of the Objective Case “me”, it constitutes the category of case. As the 1-st person
singular pronoun it is opposed to other pronouns:
I – you, he / she / it
I – we, you, they, but these grammatical distinctions of person and number are
not expressed morphologically as all these forms are different words.
4. “She” – is a personal pronoun in the Nominative Case; together with the form
of the Objective Case “her”, it constitutes the category of case. As the 3-d person
singular pronoun it is opposed to other pronouns:
she – I, you, he / it
she – we, you, they, but all these forms are different words.
5. “Me” – see point 3.
6. “When” – is a conjunction and an adverb. Thus we may say that there are
lexico-grammatical classes of words in English which are categorically
underdetermined: they have no special grammatical morphological categories and
may “shift” from one function to another. Their status is rather shaky and such words
are united into the group of polyfunctional words.
7. “To” – is a preposition. Being a functional part of speech it has no special
grammatical morphological categories.

Points for discussion:


1. What kinds of grammatical morphemes do you know? Give your examples.
2. What is the difference between a zero morpheme and a positive one?
3. What processes are characteristic of the following paired words:

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tooth – teeth
child – children
picture – pictures
good – better
medium – media
ring – rang
4. Give the paradigms of the nouns “clothes” and “woman-doctor”. Define the
paradigm.
5. Read the following poem and analyse all the cases of plural nouns in it. Give
the correct forms, if necessary:
We’ll begin with a box, and the plural is boxes,
But the plural of ox should be oxen, not oxes.
Then one fowl is goose, but two are called geese,
Yet the plural of moose should never be meese.
You may find a lone mouse or a whole lot of mice
But the plural of house is houses, not hice.
If the plural of man is always called men,
Why shouldn’t the plural of pan be called pen?
The cow in the plural may be cows or kine
But the plural of vow is vows, not vine.
I speak of a foot and you show me your feet,
And I give you a boot, would a pair be called beet?
If one is a tooth and the whole set are teeth,
Why shouldn’t the plural of booth be called beeth?
If the singular is this, and the plural is these,
Should the plural of kiss be rightly called keese?
Then one may be that, and three may be those,
Yet hat in the plural would never be hose.
We speak of a brother and also of brethren,
But though we say mother, we never say methren.

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The masculine pronouns are he, his and him,
But imagine the feminine, she, shis and shim!
So the English, I think, you all must agree,
Is a language as “queer” as any you’d see.

Anonymous

6. How does a part of speech differ from a class or any other grouping of
words?

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Seminar II
The Verb as a Part of Speech

1. The adjective and its characteristics.


2. The adverb and its characteristics.
3. The pronoun and the numeral.
4. The verb as a part of speech. Various classifications.
5. The verb: the grammatical category of tense.
6. The verb: the grammatical category of aspect. The definition of the
category, views on the problem of aspects.
7. The grammatical category of time correlation (order). Different
views on the essence of the perfect form.

Read the text taken from “Jennie Gerhardt” by Theodore Dreiser (Moscow,
1972, p.81). Examine the analysis given below, choose a passage from any book and
analyse it paying attention to Tense forms.

“The days which followed were ones of dreamy uncertainty to Jennie. She
went over in her mind these dramatic events time and time and time and again. It was
not such a difficult matter to tell her mother that the Senator had talked again of
marriage, that he proposed to come and get her after his next trip to Washington, that
he had given her a hundred dollars and intended to give her more, but of that other
matter – the one all-important thing, she could not bring herself to speak. It was too
sacred. The balance of the money that he had promised her arrived by messenger the
following day, four hundred dollars in bills, with the admonition that she should put it
in a local bank. The ex-Senator explained that he was already on his way to
Washington, but that he would come back or send for her. “Keep a stout heart”, he
wrote. “There are better days in store for you.”
The given text shows how Past tense forms can be used in a context.
“Followed”, “were”, “went”, “arrived”, “explained”, “was”, “wrote” are Past

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Indefinite Tense forms relating actions as already happened in the past and belonging
to the past. The forms of the Past Perfect “had talked”, “had given”, “had promised”
are used here to present an action with reference to another action in the past, to
describe this action as preceding another action in the past.
The analytical verbal units with “should” and “would” – “should put” and
“would come” stand out and deserve some additional explanation. At first sight it
may seem that “should” and “would” function here as a mere transposition of “shall”
and “will” according to the well-known rule of sequence of tenses. This is true with
“would come” which expresses simple and straight-forward futurity. As for “should
put” it may be interpreted as a modally loaded verbal collocation.

Another extract from the same novel:

“The significance of the material and spiritual changes which sometimes


overtake us are not very clear at the time. A sense of shock, a sense of danger, and
then apparently we subside to old ways, but the change has come. Never again, here
or elsewhere, will we be the same. Jennie pondering after the subtle emotional turn
which her evening’s sympathetic expedition had taken, was lost in a vague confusion
of emotions. She had no definite realization of what social and physical changes this
new relationship to the Senator might entail. She was not conscious as yet of that
shock which the possibility of maternity, even under the most favorable conditions,
must bring to the average woman. Her present attitude was one of surprise, wonder,
uncertainty; and at the same time she experienced a genuine feeling of quiet
happiness. Brander was a good man; now he was closer to her than ever. He loved
her. Because of this new relationship a change in her social condition was to
inevitably follow. Life was to be radically different from now on – was different at
this moment. Brander assured her over and over of his enduring affection” (p.79).

Read the passage, explain the role of Tense forms and the effect achieved by
their interplay.

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Seminar III
The Verb and Its Categories

1. The verb. The grammatical categories of person and number.


2. General characteristics of the category of voice: meanings and forms. The
category of voice and classification of verbs.
3. The problem of the reflexive voice and the reciprocal voice.
4. The problem of the middle voice.
5. The grammatical category of mood: meanings and forms. Mood as a
grammatical category and modality. The indicative mood and the imperative mood.
6. The subjunctive mood. Views on the number of moods in English. Mood
and Tense.

Points for discussion:


1. What is the difference between the active voice and the passive voice?
2. Which of the following verbs can form passive constructions: to rise, to
break, to depend on, to fly, to follow, to raise, to arrive at, to have, to become, to
fetch, to live in, to cost?
3. The category of voice in L. Barkhudarov’s theory of English.
4. What is the difference between the indicative mood and the subjunctive
mood, the indicative mood and the imperative mood?
5. How does Mood differ from Modality?
6. The category of mood in M. Blokh’s theory of English.
7. Analyse the voice-forms in the following sentences:
a) A rising bell had been rung soon after six, but Dora had learned that it did
not concern her, only those who were going to Mass (I. Murdoch).
b) Soames didn’t count; these young nephews – Soames was thirty-eight –
couldn’t drink (J. Galsworthy).
c) I opened the door for them with my key (I. Shaw).

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d) Ivor, fanning himself with the portrait of an Astral Being, looked out into
the darkness and drew a breath (A. Huxley).
e) She rang the bell and when the boy came asked him who had brought the
book and when (S. Maugham).
f) A man is not worth much when he is ready to sell himself and his
country for fifty pounds or less even if the bank notes are brand new and numbered in
sequence (O. Pinto).
g) Elizabeth and George talked and found each other delightful (R.
Aldington).
8. Analyse the mood-forms in the following sentences:
a) “Let them spend their God-damned money”, she said fretfully, twitching
her head as though to get the cigarette smoke out of her eyes. “I wish they were
spending a lot more, the fat-heads. I wish the poor bastard had had enough sense to
make them grease him good to take the beating he’s in for. Now all he’ll get will be
the ride. Ignorance is bliss”(R. Warren).
b) If I were you I would ask at the embassy whether there has been any
change (G. Greene).
c) Dutty, still retreating, looked toward the band and waved his arms at
them and shouted, “Play, play! Play the ‘Star-Spangled Banner’!” (R. Warren).
d) I suppose you are a stranger in these parts, or you would have heard what
happened last autumn (Ch. Brontë).
e) But now, do sing again to us (G. Eliot).
f) She was going away and would not say where she was going (Th.
Dreiser).
g) And that pretty girl-widow, I should like to know her history: whether
she be a native of the country, or… (Bell).

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Seminar IV
Non-Finite Verbs. Functional Parts of Speech

1. Peculiar features of verbals, their dual nature. Grammatical categories of


verbals: aspect, time correlation and voice.
2. The infinitive and its features. Its role in the sentence.
3. The gerund and its peculiarities. Gerundial constructions.
4. The participles and their functions in the sentence. The ing-forms in English.
Grammatical homonymous forms.
5. The functional parts of speech, their characteristics and origin.
6. The article and its general characteristics as a functional part of speech.
Meaning of articles. Number of articles. Use of articles.
7. The preposition and its characteristics as a functional part of speech. The
structure and combinability of prepositions. The problem of meaning of prepositions.
The preposition and the adverb.
8. The conjunction and its characteristics as a functional part of speech.

Read the text taken from “Prose and Memoirs, Essays” by Evelyn Waugh
(Moscow, 1980, p.65-66).

Analyse the ing-forms morphologically, formulate the criteria that help to


distinguish between adjectives in -ing like interesting (an interesting film) and the so-
called verbals, i.e. non-finite forms of the verb: Participle I and Gerund.

“That morning just before luncheon the weather began to show signs of
clearing, and by half-past one the sun was shining. The doctor made one of his rare
visits to the school dining-hall. At his entry everybody stopped eating and laid down
his knife and fork.

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“Boys”, said the Doctor, regarding them benignly, “I have an announcement
to make. Clutterbuck, will you kindly stop eating while I am addressing the school.
The boy’s manners need correcting, Mr. Prendergast. Boys, the chief sporting event
of the year will take place in the playing-fields tomorrow.
Mr. Pennyfeather, who, as you know, is himself a distinguished athlete, will
be in charge of all arrangements. The preliminary heats will be run off to-day. All
boys must compete in all events. The countess of Circumference has kindly
consented to present the prizes. Mr. Prendergast will act as referee, and Captain
Grimes as timekeeper. I shall myself be present to-morrow to watch the final
competitions. That is all, thank you. Mr. Pennyfeather, perhaps you will favour me
with an interview when you have finished your luncheon?”

Points for discussion:


1. What is the difference between the infinitive and the gerund, participle I
and the gerund?
2. Replace the gerund by a complex with a gerund or half-gerund:
a) I don’t mind applying this method into practice.
b) Mother insisted on doing this work at once.
c) He confessed to having broken the vase.
d) When a small boy, he liked being taken out hunting by his father.
e) Do you object to translating this article into French?
3. Explain the use of the articles in the following sentences:
a) To be seventeen was practically as good as being grown-up. One could
now drive the Ford, or indeed David’s sporting car with impunity. Seventeen was an
age at which anything might happen. Romance, adventure lay before one.
b) It is difficult to think of an after you.
c) Over the bookshelves there were pictures; several Goyas, a Dali, and,
over the fireplace, a large Teniers.
d) Then the me you don’t know must be the same as the me you do know, -
else there would be two mes?

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e) “Oh, baby, you are a naughty girl. That’s the second time she has done
that, miss. Ivy, come and wipe the milk off the floor and empty the bath, and then
you can go and fetch James and Emmy from Mrs. Siddon’s room. They’ve been
having tea there, miss.”

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Syntax

Syntax is that part of grammar which studies phrases (minor syntax) and
sentences (major syntax). It deals on the one hand with the structure of phrases, the
relations between their components and classification of phrases, and on the other
hand with structural and communicative types of sentences.
The phrase is a combination of two or more notional words which are
organized according to the laws of the given language and express a notion to signify
it.
Like separate words, phrases have a nominative function, but they represent
the referent of nomination as a complicated phenomenon, be it a concrete thing (a
beautiful dress), an action (to answer with a smile), a quality (extremely difficult), or
a whole situation (the fantastic view of the sea). The phrase is used in the process of
communication as a ready block of material.
The basic unit of syntax is the sentence.
The sentence is an integral unit of speech built up of words according to a
definite syntactic pattern and distinguished by a communicative purpose. The
sentence is a predicative utterance-unit. It is not only the chief means of conveying a
thought, but also a means of showing the speaker’s attitude to it.
Sentences may be classified from the point of view of their structure and from
the viewpoint of the purpose of communication.
According to their structure, sentences are divided into simple and composite
which may be compound and complex. According to the purpose of communication,
sentences are traditionally divided into declarative, interrogative, imperative and
exclamatory.

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Seminar V
The Phrase and the Sentence

1. The phrase and the problem of its definition. The phrase and the
sentence.
2. Possible classifications of phrases (structural and semantic).
3. Syntactical relations in the phrase and language means of their
expression (agreement, government, adjoining, enclosure).
4. The sentence, its definitions and characteristics.
5. Classifications of sentences and their principles.

Points of discussion:
1. What is the difference between the phrase and the sentence?
2. What principles are classifications of phrases based on?
3. What types of sentences are distinguished in English?
4. Define ways of expressing syntactical relations in the following phrases:
- the window of the room
- Peter the First
- those countries
- the former President
- to invite him.
5. State the relations between the components of the following “of-
phrases”:
- an interval of 15 minutes
- the glory of an officer
- the arrival of Prime Minister
- a report of Mr. Brown
- a metre of lace
- the title of the book
- a student of the group.

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Seminar VI
The Simple Sentence and Its Structure

1. The structure of the sentence. The paradigmatic structure:


a) sentence patterns; models of the sentence;
b) kernel sentences and derived sentences.
2. Models of sentence analysis.
3. The semantic structure of the sentence. Different levels of the structure of
the sentence. Surface and deep structures.
4. The problem of classification of parts of the sentence.

Points for discussion:


1. Define the paradigm of the sentence.
2. Give the paradigm of the following sentences and describe the procedures:
a) Jim speaks German every day.
b) My friends live in Philadelphia.
3. Write the following kernel sentence structures as actual sentences of your
own:
NV
NVN
N V pr N
NVNN
NVD
N be N
N be pr N
N be D
N be A
4. Analyse the following sentence according to different models of sentence
analysis:
An attractive woman opened the door quietly.

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5. Transform the following kernel sentences into noun phrases:
a) The birds sing.
b) The hunter killed a hare.
c) They loved books.
d) The machine works.
6. How does the semantic structure of the sentence differ from its surface
structure? Give your own examples.
7. Define propositions in the following sentences and ways of their
expression:
a) Jim gave his teacher a copy-book.
b) Jane heard the door open.
c) The letter was sent to London by air.
8. Define the “theme” and the “rheme” of the sentence. Describe their
functions in the English sentence.
9. Analyse the following sentences indicating the “theme” and the “rheme”.
Comment on the devices:
a) It was 5 o’clock exactly when he finished his work.
b) Not in the exhibition as yet is a line of do-it-yourself garden furniture.
c) If only it were so she would accept his invitation.
d) A mouse-like woman entered the room.
e) The mouse-like woman saw an old man sitting at the table.

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Seminar VII
Parts of the Sentence

1. The main parts of the sentence:


a) the subject and its types;
b) the predicate and its types.
2. The secondary parts of the sentence:
a) the object, its role in the sentence, its classifications as to its form and
its meaning;
b) the attribute and its types;
c) the adverbial modifiers.
3. The apposition, direct address, the parenthesis, insertions and loose parts.
4. Word order and its role in the English sentence (its functions).

Points for discussion:


1. What is the difference between the main parts of the sentence and the
secondary parts of the sentence?
2. Define the subject of the sentence and its type. State what it is expressed by:
Don’t buy this book. It is of no importance.
It is cold here. Is the window open? It’s already shut.
One often has ideas of that kind.
It was unwise of you to accept his offer.
You cannot judge a tree by its bark.
3. Analyse the predicate in the following sentences:
My son a gentleman!
It’s time we were making a move.
She is on our side.
The band had ceased playing.
The moon was shining cold and bright.
Reference books must not be taken away from the reading room.

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Don’t talk!
Her memory was as blank as paper.
The girl gave a smile.
It was enough the way she looked at him.
4. State the type of the object in the following sentences and what it is
expressed by:
I saw him leave the room.
She bought a dictionary for her brother.
We are waiting for John to arrive.
Philip smiled his charming smile.
We find it difficult to be angry with her.
She sang some of the old songs.
She has made coffee for all of us.

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Seminar VIII
The Composite Sentence

1. Simple and composite sentences compared. Transition from the simple to the
composite sentence. Classifications and general characteristics of composite
sentences.
2. The compound sentence. Its definition, general characteristics, types of
compound sentences.
3. The complex sentence. Its definition, general characteristics. Classifications
of subordinate clauses.
4. Mixed sentences.

Points for discussion:


1. What is the difference between simple and composite sentences?
2. How does the compound sentence differ from the complex one?
3. Examine the analysis given below and define the type of a subordinate
clause and the connectives introducing it in the following sentences:
“…what I have to say is, that his mother lives on charity in an alms-house” (Ch.
Dickens).
This is a complex sentence consisting of one principal clause and two
subordinate clauses. The first subordinate clause is a subject clause introduced by the
conjunctive pronoun “what”; the second subordinate clause is a predicative clause
introduced by the conjunction “that”; both subordinate clauses are of the first degree
of subordination.
I wish you could come to the theatre to-night (O. Wilde).
Why they came East I don’t know (S. Fitzgerald).
I felt as though I were a mark on a firing range (G. Greene).
I’ll give her such a bottle of champagne, as she doesn’t get every day (J.
Galsworthy)

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As he was sitting at breakfast next morning, Basil Hallward was shown into the
room (O. Wilde).
…I awoke with the impression that my aunt had come and bent over me, and
had put my hair away from my face… (Ch. Dickens).
What I mean to say is that the most important thing is that the process of
civilization shouldn’t be interrupted by all this war business (R. Aldington).

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Seminar IX
Linguistics of Text

1. Text as an object of research.


2. General characteristics of super-phrasal unities (SPU). Means of
connecting sentences in the discourse.
3. The phenomena of representation and substitution in English.
4. The problem of syntactical synonyms and homonyms.
5. Analysis of sentences.

Points for discussion:


1. What is the difference between representation and substitution? Give
examples.
2. What difficulties in analysis may arise when we are faced with syntactical
homonyms? Illustrate it with your examples.
3. Analyse the following sentences according to the given items:
a) propositions and their expressions;
b) noun phrases,
c) subordinate clauses, if any;
d) transitional elements,
e) predicates;
f) kernel sentences, their patterns and semantics:
1) Hercule Poirot to sleep while murder is committed!
2) Is the weather not likely to change?
3) Our Elsie was looking at her with big imploring eyes; she was frowning,
she wanted to go.
4) I longed to stay there and tell the truth but that would have been ridiculous,
so I came away.
5) What surprised him was that there was no pain about it.

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6) Why were her own relations so rich, and Phil never knew where the money
was coming from for tomorrow’s tobacco?
7) He spoke as if I were a child that needed to be distracted.
8) The whole house being made of wood, it looked good.
9) He found his neighbour very pretty.
10) I did not tell Muriel on my return to London what George had said to me,
or what he looked like, but contended myself with assuring her that he was well and
happy.
4. Read the extract taken from “Three Men in a Boat” by Jerome K. Jerome. -
M., 1964, p. 29-30. Analyse the syntactic structure of the passage and the stylistic use
of the morphological forms that occur in the text under consideration.

“And then he would lift up the picture, and drop it, and it would come out of
the frame, and he would try to save the glass, and cut himself; and then he would
spring round the room, looking for his handkerchief. He could not find his
handkerchief, because it was in the pocket of the coat he had taken off and he did not
know where he had put the coat, and all the house had to leave off looking for his
tools, and start looking for his coat; while he would dance round and hinder them.
“Doesn’t anybody in the whole house know where my coat is? I never came
across such a set in all my life – upon my word I didn’t. Six of you! – and you can’t
find a coat that I put down not five minutes ago! Well, of all the – “
Then he’d get up, and find that he had been sitting on it, and would call out:
“Oh, you can give it up! I’ve found it myself now. Might just as well ask the
cat to find anything as expect you people to find it.”
And, when half-an-hour had been spent in tying up his finger, and a new glass
had been got, and the tools, and the ladder, and the chair, and the candle had been
brought, he would have another go, the whole family, including the girl and the
charwoman, standing round in a semi-circle, ready to help. Two people would have
to hold the chair, and a third would help him up on it, and hold him there, and a

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fourth would hand him a nail, and a fifth would pass him up the hammer, and he
would take hold of the nail, and drop it.
“There!” he would say, in an injured tone, “now the nail’s gone”.

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Glossary

abstract noun: a noun that denotes an abstract or intangible concept, such as


happiness or anger
active (voice): in an active sentence, the person or thing that is performing or
causing the action is the subject of the sentence; also, there is an object that
receives the action. For example, in the sentence The boy hit the ball ‘The boy’
performs the action hit and the ball receives the action
adjective: a word that describes or modifies the meaning of a noun. An adjective
provides lexical meaning. It is one of the major word class categories
adjective phrase: an adjective phrase is a phrase in which an adjective is the head
or main word
adjunct: a qualifying word, phrase, etc., depending on a particular member of a
sentence
adverb: a word that describes or modifies a verb, an adjective, another adverb, a
phrase, or a sentence. An adverb provides lexical meaning. It is one of the major
word class categories
adverb phrase: a phrase containing an adverb as the main word, or head
affirmative sentence: a sentence that does not have a negative verb; often referred
to as a positive sentence
affix: a term including both suffixes and prefixes
agent: (as a semantic role): the person or other being that instigates the happening
denoted by the verb, e.g.: Jenny has written me a letter
agreement or concord: the relationship between units in such matters as number,
person, and gender. The two related units should both be singular or both plural,
feminine or masculine, etc.
article: the words a/an, and the. They signal nouns and are members of one of the
minor structure word categories
aspective grammatical meanings: differential grammatical meanings describing the
inner character of the verbal process in terms of its beginning, duration, iteration,

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termination, intermination, or its instantaneous, supercompleted, undercompleted
character, etc.
auxiliary verb: have, be, do. A verb that “helps” and/or “supports” the main verb
bound morpheme: a morpheme that must be attached to another morpheme. It
cannot stand alone. For example un- as in unhappy or the plural -s as in boys
case: a nounal category showing the relation of the referent to some other referent
collective noun: a noun that refers to a group, e.g.: committee, team, government
comment: something said about (predicated of) the topic. Cf.: topic
comparative: a form of an adjective or adverb that is used to describe differences
between two persons, things, or situations
complement: an obligatory dependent language unit
complex sentence: a sentence that has the main clause and one or more subordinate
clauses
compound sentence: a sentence that has two or more main clauses but no
subordinate clause. The main clauses are conjoined by coordinators
conjunction: a word that connects clauses. There are two types of conjunctions:
coordinators and subordinators
constituent: the basic unit of a sentence, including noun, adjective, adverb,
prepositional and verb phrases. Sentence constituents are combined in meaningful
ways to form sentences
coordinative phrase: a phrase based on coordination and consisting of elements of
equal rank
coordinator: a type of conjunction that connects two or more main clauses, phrases,
or words: and, but, or, for, yet
countable noun: a noun that refers to something that can be counted, e.g.: pencil,
book, job
deep structure: the formal syntactical construction represented by dummy symbols
replaced by lexical entities in ways determined by their feature content. Cf. :
surface structure

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definite article: the word the. It is used when speakers want to refer to something
that is known to the speaker and the hearer
demonstrative: this, these and that, those. A demonstrative indicates whether
something is near or far in relation to the speaker
dependent clause: a subordinate clause; a clause that cannot stand alone, but that
must occur with the main clause and that is introduced by a subordinator
derivational: referring to the formation of language units
derivational suffix: a suffix which may be followed by other suffixes
determiner: a structure word that occurs before a noun and specifies or limits it in
some way, e.g.: the, those, some
diachronic: dealing with the study of language changes over a period of time. Cf.:
synchronic
dichotomy: division into two parts or categories
differential feature: a distinctive feature of a categorial form
direct object: an object which follows the verb phrase and which typically indicates
the person, thing and so on directly affected by the meaning of the verb
distribution: the contextual environment of a language unit
dominational phrase: a phrase based on the relationship of the modifier and the
modified. Cf.: equipotent phrase
elementary unit: a unit indivisible into minor constituents, a minimal element, the
smallest unit
equipotent phrase: a phrase based on logical succession of elements having an equal
rank. Cf.: dominational phrase
finite verb: a verb explicitly expressing predication on the basis of the categories of
tense and mood, verb of complete predication
form: the construction of a particular word. In English, form is no guarantee of
function
free morpheme: a morpheme that does not need to be attached or bound to another
morpheme

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function: the role of a word, phrase or clause. In English form is no guarantee of
function
functional part of speech: a part of speech having a partial nominative value. Cf.:
notional part of speech
future: time that is yet to come. It is usually expressed in English by will or be
going to
genitive case: a term in grammar marking possession and analogous relations in the
case system of Latin and other inflected languages
gerund: -ing form of a verb that functions as a noun
gerund phrase: a phrase with a gerund
goal: entity towards which an action is directed, e.g.: He sends a letter to London
government: a kind of concord in which one term controls or selects the form of the
partner
half-gerund: a form having mixed, participial and gerundial, features
heterogeneous: differing in kind; having dissimilar or incongruous elements
hierarchy: organization of elements based on ranking
homogeneous: of the same kind or nature; essentially alike; uniform in structure;
composed of parts all of the same kind. Cf.: heterogeneous
idiom: a fixed or set expression that cannot be determined from the individual parts,
e.g.: to eat crow = to humbly admit that you were wrong, to kick the bucket = to
die
immediate constituents: constituent elements immediately entering any meaningful
combination
implication: information which is implied, not given explicitly, but which is entailed
by some other elements of the context
indefinite article: the word a or an. It is used when speakers want to refer to an
indefinite or undefined meaning, e.g.: a back seat driver, an unforgettable
impression

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indicative verbal forms: verbal forms expressing the categorical meanings of the
indicative mood and describing the denoted action in terms of absolutive time. Cf.:
subjunctive forms, oblique verb forms
indirect object: an object which normally follows the main verb and precedes the
direct object. The indirect object usually refers to someone indirectly affected by the
action of the verb
inflectional suffix: a suffix which must always come at the end of the morpheme
groups to which it belongs. Cf.: derivational suffix
instrument: (as a semantic role) the physical stimulus of the action, e.g.: to strike
with a knife
inversion: the process of moving the first auxiliary to the front of a sentence to form
a question, e.g.: He is walking → Is he walking?
irregular verb: a verb that does not follow the normal inflectional patterns of
English to form the past simple and/or past participle
lexeme: a word taken as an invariant unity of form and meaning
main clause: independent clause. A clause that can stand alone and does not require
another clause
modality: the way in which proposition is modified in terms of reality/non-reality
(possibility, necessity, desire, obligation, belief, hope, hypothesis, etc.). It shows
the relation of the nominative content to reality (M.Y. Blokh). Cf.: predication
morpheme: the smallest meaningful unit. It is not the same as a syllable. A
morpheme can be a single word, e.g.: hippopotamus or it can be a grammatical
unit such as the past tense -ed inflection attached to a regular verb. Affixes are
also morphemes, e.g.: un- as in unhappy
morphology: the study of how morphemes are put together to form words
(derivational morphology) and how morphemes provide grammatical information
(inflectional morphology)
nonstandard: a form of the language not accepted in general usage, e.g.: He don’t
know me

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non-terminative verb: a verb not expressing a potential limit in the development of
the denoted action. Cf.: terminative verb
notional part of speech: a part of speech of full nominative value. Cf.: functional
part of speech
noun: a word that is generally thought of as referring to people, animals, places,
ideas, or things. A noun provides lexical meaning. It is one of the major word
class categories
noun phrase: a phrase which (typically) has a noun or a pronoun as its head and
which can have various important functions in a clause or sentence
object: (as a semantic role) entity (thing) which is relocated or changed; whose
existence is in the focus of attention, e.g.: to break the window. Sometimes O. is
identified with patient, i.e. entity which is the victim of some action: to kill a fox
objective verb: a verb taking an object of any kind (direct, indirect, prepositional).
Cf.: transitive verbs
oblique verbal form: the form of a verb which expresses the categorial meanings of
irreality. Cf.: indicative verbal form
opposition: correlation of categorial forms having a certain function
paradigmatic: referring to language system on the basis of invariant-variant relations
connected on a non-linear basis. Cf.: syntagmatic
part of speech: a class of words distinguished by a particular set of lexico-
grammatical features
particle: a functional part of speech which actualizes limiting and specifying
meanings
passive (voice): in a passive sentence the doer or agent of the action is either
unimportant, unknown or the speaker wants to emphasize the original object, e.g.:
A flying object hit John versus John was hit by a flying object
phoneme: the smallest constituent of a word having no meaning but fulfilling the
function of differentiating morphemes

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phrasal verb: a verb with one or more prepositions/adverbs (or particles) where the
verb and the preposition/adverb function as a semantic unit. The verb + adjective/
adverb have a meaning that cannot be determined from their separate parts
phrase: a combination of two or more notional words that form a grammatical unit,
e.g.: a noun phrase, a verb phrase, an adjective phrase
Pluralia Tantum nouns: nouns having only the plural form. Cf.: Singularia Tantum
nouns
predication: the act of referring the nominative content of the sentence to reality
(M.Y. Blokh). Cf.: nomination
prefix: a morpheme attached to the beginning of a word, e.g.: un- in unhappy
preposition: a structure class word, e.g.: in, from, to, on. A preposition introduces a
prepositional phrase and links the phrase with other words in a sentence
prepositional phrase: a phrase with a preposition followed by a noun or a noun
phrase
presupposition: a proposition whose truth is necessary for either the truth or the
falsity of another statement. It remains intact in case of negation and modal
operators, e.g.: John is divorced
primary predication: predication expressed in a sentence which has as its predicate
a finite form of the verb. Cf.: secondary predication, potential predication
pronoun: a word that functions to substitute for a noun or a noun phrase
proposition: the content of a declarative sentence, that which is proposed, or stated,
denied, questioned, etc., capable of truth and falsity
referent: the denoted object of the world. Cf.: sign
regular plural: a noun that forms the plural by adding -s, with any necessary
spelling changes
regular verb: a verb that forms the past simple by adding -ed, with any necessary
spelling changes
relevant: pertinent, applicable, bearing on the issue in question
retrospective coordination: establishing relation between the given action and some
prior action or moment

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root: the element left after all affixes have been removed from a complex word,
carrying the basic lexical meaning of the word
secondary predication: predication expressed by potentially predicative complexes
with non-finite forms of the verb and verbal nouns. Cf.: primary predication
semantics: the study of meaning of words and sentences, their denotations,
connotations, implications and ambiguities
semi-notional words: words which have a complete nominative meaning but fulfil
syntactic functions typical of functional words. Cf.: notional words, functional
words
semi-predicative construction: a construction made up by a non-finite form of the
verb and a substantive element denoting the subject or object of the action
expressed by the non-finite form of the verb. Cf.: fully predicative construction
sign: a material designator of meaning, a concrete token element used in the concrete
process of communication and reference
Singularia Tantum nouns: nouns having only the singular form. Cf.: Pluralia
Tantum nouns
speech act: a form of interpersonal communication which is distinguished by a
specific communicative intention of the speaker and its own linguistic markers
standard: language forms generally accepted by most users in formal and informal
contexts; the forms that are found in grammar texts and in foreign/ second
language texts
stative verb: a verb that refers to mental states, attitudes, emotions, and conditions.
A stative verb is usually not used in the progressive forms
stem: a term in grammar and word-formation for a root plus the element that fits it
into the flow of speech
structure: the set of relations between the elements of a system; construction
subject: the part of the sentence, usually a noun or a noun phrase, that acts as the
agent, doer, or experiencer of the action
subordinate clause: a dependent clause that cannot stand alone, but that must occur
with the main clause and that is introduced by a subordinator

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subordination: the linking of the main clause and another clause so that this clause
is subordinate or dependent upon the main clause. The subordinate clause is
introduced by a subordinator
subordinator: a word that subordinates a clause to the main clause. A subordinator
introduces a subordinate or dependent clause
substantive: a noun
suffix: a bound morpheme that occurs at the end of a word, e.g.: rude → rudeness
superlative: a form of an adjective or an adverb that is used to rank a person, thing,
or situation in the last position
super-phrasal unity: a combination of separate sentences forming a textual unity.
Cf.: complex syntactic unity, dicteme, supra-sentential construction
suppletivity: the formation of word-forms from different roots. Cf.: affixation
surface structure: the resultant syntactic construction derived through
transformations of the deep structure. Cf.: deep structure
synchronic: referring to a certain stage in the development of a phenomenon;
coexistent. Cf.: diachronic
syntagma (syntactic): a word-group consisting of two or more notional elements
syntagmatic: connected on a linear basis. Cf.: paradigmatic
system: a structured set of elements connected by a common function
terminative verb: a verb expressing a potential limit in the development of the
denoted action. Cf.: non-terminative verb
topic: something about which something is said (predicated). Cf.: comment
transformation: transition from one syntactic pattern to another syntactic pattern
with the preservation of its notional parts
transitivity: the ability of a verb to take a direct object
uncountable noun: a noun that cannot be counted, e.g.: happiness. It cannot be
used in the plural or with the indefinite article a/an or a number
valency: the ability of a language unit to take an adjunct, potential combinability of a
language unit

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verb: a semantic class of words that refer to actions, situations, states, attitudes,
mental conditions
verb phrase: a phrase containing a verb
verbal: a non-finite form of the verb, a verbid. Cf.: finite verb
voice: an active or passive type sentence construction, e.g.: Shakespeare wrote
Hamlet versus Hamlet was written by Shakespeare
word class: a group of words that are classified together on the basis of lexical
meaning and/or grammatical function

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Наталия Александровна Аверьянова

A Handbook of Theoretical English Grammar

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