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Flowsheet :
a graphic representation, using symbols
interconnected with lines, of the successive
steps in a procedure or system.
 Also called flow diagram.

a diagrammatic representation of the

sequence of operations or equipment in an
industrial process, computer program, etc

 Flowsheetsare intended to represent and

explain processes.
 shows the arrangement of the equipment
selected to carry out the process; the
stream connections; stream flow-rates
and compositions; and the operating
 It is a diagrammatic model of the process.
Used for – used by
 willbe used by the specialist design groups as the
basis for their designs.
 include piping, instrumentation, equipment design
and plant layout.
 used by operating personnel for the preparation of
operating manuals and operator training.
 During plant start-up and subsequent operation, the
flow-sheet forms a basis for comparison of
operating performance with design.
 The flow-sheet is drawn up from material balances
made over the complete process and each
individual unit.
Drawing Flowsheet
 constructed with a consistent set of
symbols for equipment, piping, and
operating conditions.
 At present there is no generally accepted
industrywide body of drafting standards,
although every large engineering office
does have its internal standards.
 Some information appears in ANSI and
British Standards publications, particularly
of piping symbols.
Block flowsheet

Process Flowsheet

Mechanical Flowsheet (P&ID)

Utility Flowsheet
Block Flowsheet
a drawing is made with rectangular blocks to
represent individual processes or groups of
operations, together with quantities and
other pertinent properties of key streams
between the blocks and into and from the
process as a whole
 Process flowsheets embody the material
and energy balances between and the
sizing of the major equipment of the plant.
 They include all vessels such as reactors,
separators, and drums; special processing
equipment, heat exchangers, pumps, and
so on.
 Numerical data include flow quantities,
compositions, pressures, temperatures, and
so on.
Process Flowsheet
Mechanical flowsheets
 also are called piping and instrument
(P&I) diagrams to emphasize two of their
major characteristics.
 not showing operating conditions or
compositions or flow quantities,
 show all major as well as minor equipment
 More realistically than on the process
 P&I diagrams for individual utilities such as
steam,steam condensate, cooling water, heat
transfer media in general, compressed air, fuel,
refrigerants, and inert blanketing gases,
 SHOWS how they are piped up to the process
 connections for utility streams are shown on the
mechanical flowsheet, and
 their conditions and flow quantities usually
appear on the process flowsheet.
shows the arrangement of the
process equipment, piping, pumps:-
Piping and instrument diagram
1-Prepared by chemical engineer with the aid of
mechanical and control Engineers.

2-Regarded as a data base for mechanical

engineer for manufacturing of vessels, Heat
exchangers, Machines and controllers.

3-This diagram flows the PFD configuration.

4- All process equipment identified by an

equipment number.
 5- The equipment should be drawn roughly in
proportion, and the location of nozzles shown.
 6-All pipes, identified by a line number. The pipe
size and material of
 construction should be shown. The material may
be included as part of
 the line identification number.
 7-All valves, control and block valves, with an
identification number.
 8-The type and size should be shown. The type
may be shown by the symbol used for the valve
or included in the code used for the valve
 number.
 9-Ancillary fittings that are part of the piping
system, such as inline sight-glasses, strainers and
steam traps; with an identification number.
 10-Pumps, identified by a suitable code number.
 11-All control loops and instruments, with an
identification number.