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Professional Conduct and Ethical Standard
Ethics – Is a branch of philosophy which studies the principle of right or wrong in human
conduct. Right or wrong are qualities assigned to actions, conduct and behavior.
Latin word “ethos” or “ethicus” means customary, behavior, moral.
Greek word “ethikos” which means customary.
Based on its etymological meaning, it is taken to mean as a philosophical science that deals with
the morality of human conduct or human act (Babor, Ethics 2008)
It is practical science of the morality of human conduct (Glenn, Ethics)
Importance of Ethics
1. Indispensable knowledge
2. Without moral perception, man is only an animal
3. Without morality, man’s rational being is a failure

- Is the quality of human acts by which they are constituted as good, bad or indifferent.
- Is the foundation of every human society.
- Without civic morality, communities perish; without personal morality their survival has no
- Every culture admits the importance of morality as a standard of behavior. When the moral
foundation of a nation is threatened, society itself is threatened.

Moral Integrity
- Is the only true measure of what man ought to be.
- The most successful professional, is nothing unless he too is morally upright. Thus, the
philosophers speak of Ethics as the “only necessary knowledge”.

Ethics Morals
Ethics refer to the rules that a social system Morals are our own principles
provides us with

2 Major Divisions of Ethics

1. General Ethics
2. Special Ethics (Professional Ethics, Police Ethics)
General Ethics – the study of the general principles of morality.
Special Ethics – the study of the application of the general principles of morality.
Professional Ethics – a sub-branch of special ethics.
- A set of moral code to which every profession must subscribe.
- Aims to guide the actuations of the professional in the practice of his profession.

Examples of Professional Ethics

1. Medical Ethics
2. Business Ethics
3. Legal Ethics
4. Code of Ethics for Teacher
5. Code of Ethics of Public Officials
6. Police Ethics

Police Ethics - A practical science that treats the principles of human morality and duty as
applied to Law Enforcement.

Difference between Human Acts and Acts of Human

Human Acts Acts of Human
Actions performed by a man knowingly and Actions which happen in man.
Deliberate or intentional actions or voluntary Instinctive and are not within the control of
the will
Actions are the result of conscious Biological and physiological movements in
knowledge and are subject to the control of man such as, metabolism, respiration, fear,
the will anger, love and jealousy

Human Acts – act which proceeds from the deliberate free will of man.
- Any sort of activity, internal or external, physical or spiritual performed by human being

Essential Attributes of Human Acts

1. It must be performed by a conscious agent who is aware of what he is doing and of its
2. It must be performed by an agent who is acting freely, that is, by his own volition and
powers. An action done under duress and against one’s will is not entirely a free action.
3. It must be performed by an agent who decides willfully to perform act. This willfulness is
the result to perform an act here and now, or in some future time.
Kinds of Human Acts
1. Elicited Acts – those performed by will and are not bodily externalized. Under this type of
acts are:
• Wish – is the tendency of the will towards something, whether this will be realizable or not.
• Intention – is the tendency of the will towards something attainable but without necessarily
committing oneself to attain it.
• Consent – is the acceptance of the will of those needed to carry out the intention.
• Election – is the selection of the will of those effective enough to carry out the intention.
• Use – is the command of the will to make use of those means elected to carry out intention.
• Fruition – is the enjoyment of the will derived from the attainment of the thing he had
desired earlier.
2. Commanded Acts – those than either by man’s mental or bodily powers under the
command of will.

a) Internal Actions
Examples: conscious reasoning, recalling something, encouraging oneself, and controlling
aroused emotions.
b) External Actions
Examples: walking, eating, dancing, laughing, listening and reading
c) Combination of internal and external movements.
Examples: studying, driving a car, writing a letter, and playing chess.

Moral Distinctions – “Dictates of reasons” stands for the norm of morality which is the
standard by which actions are judged as to their merits or demerits.
Classification of Action According to the norms of Morality
1. Moral (Good) actions – actions which are in conformity with the norm of morality.
2. Immoral (Bad) actions – actions which are not in conformity with the norm of morality.
3. Amoral (Indifferent) actions – actions which stand neutral in relation to the norm of
They are neither good nor bad in themselves. But certainly amoral actions may become good or
bad because of the circumstances attendant to them.
Comes from the Latin word “Voluntas” referring to the will.
Voluntariness is essential to an act. Without it, an act is a mere act of man
Types of Voluntariness
1. Direct voluntariness – primarily intended by the doer, either as an end in itself or as means
to achieve something.
Example: He who intends to go to a party in order to drink with friends wills both the going to
the party and the drinking with friends. Both acts, therefore, are directly voluntary.
2. Indirect voluntariness – act or situation which is the mere result of a directly willed act.
- Refers to an act which is desired not as an end in itself but as a foreseen effect or
consequences of an act.
Throwing precious cargoes from a sinking boat to save lives of passengers. Here the throwing
and losing of the cargoes is not desired or intended. It comes as a consequence of saving lives
of passengers.
Going to a party to enjoy with friends but making trouble when drunk. The making of trouble
may have been foreseen and foreknown but it may have been intended; in which case, the act
of making trouble is only indirectly voluntary.

Classification of Voluntariness
1. Perfect voluntariness – person who fully knows and fully intends an act.
2. Imperfect voluntariness – person who act without fully realizing what he means to do, or
without fully intending the act.
3. Conditional voluntariness – person who is forced by circumstances beyond his control to
perform an act which he would not do under normal conditions.
4. Simple voluntariness – person doing an act willfully, regardless of whether he likes to do it
or not. It is either positive or negative.
Modifiers of Human Acts
1. Ignorance – absence of knowledge which a person ought to possess.
“ ignorance of the law excuses no one” – implies that no one should not act in the state of
ignorance and that no one who has done wrong may not claim ignorance as a defense.
2. Passions – either tendencies towards desirable objects, or tendencies away from
undesirable or harmful things.
Classification of Passions
a. Positive Emotions – love, desire, hope, and bravery.
b. Negative Emotions – hatred, horror, sadness, despair, fear and anger.
Passions are Psychic Responses – As such, they are neither moral or immoral, however, man is
bound to regulate his emotions and submit them to the control of reason.
c. Fear – disturbance of the mind of a person who is confronted by an impending danger or
harm to himself or loved ones.
Fear is an instinct for self-preservation – We even fear new experiences or situations such
as, embarking on a long journey, being left alone in a strange place, or being asked to speak
before a group of people.
d. Violence – physical force exerted on a person by another free agent for the purpose of
compelling said person to act against his will.
e. Habits – lasting readiness and facility, born of frequently repeated acts, for acting in a
certain manner. They are acquired inclinations towards something to be done. They assume
role of a second nature, moving one who has them to perform certain acts with relative
The word “habit-forming” that we use to refer to certain experience shows how easy it is for
one to acquire a habit.
It also implies that a habit is not easy to overcome or alter.
It requires a strong-willed person to correct a habit successfully within a limited period of time.
Action and Emotion
- Man does an act with emotion and feeling not like a robot. In doing this act, man does not
only evoke certain sentiments, but his decision or intention to perform is swayed by his

- Emotions are generally instinctive in origin. Neither the degree of their intensity, clarity, or
awareness makes them human acts to be judged as good or evil. It means simply that man’s
thoughts and actions are colored by his emotions.

- Moral perfection comes from within. We, Filipinos, refer to its as “Kagandahan ng loob”. It is
“loob” because from within human personality.

Kagandahang Loob
- It refers to attitude and its stands for all that is good, we call kaibigan, in human being. It is
the multiplicity of sterling qualities, both natural and acquired, which, because they proceed
from the hearts and minds and it also greatly influenced one’s behavior towards himself and
- Kagandahan ng loob includes such moral values as mapagmahal, may pakiramdam, may
pakikiramay, matulungin, masayahin and hindi mapagkunwari.

Rights and Duties

- Man is born with rights and duties and having rights is an attribute of a person. That is why
we have Commission on Human Rights that is addresses violations of such rights.
- We insist on our rights but ignore our duties. Duties however are more fundamental than
The duty to do good and to avoid evil is all above all rights.
Kinds of Rights
1. Natural rights – based on natural law, that is on human nature.
2. Human rights – based on human positive laws, either those enacted by the State or a
religious sect.
a. Civil rights – dependent upon the laws of the state.
b. Ecclesiastical or religious rights – dependent upon the laws of a church or a religious
3. Alienable and Inalienable Rights
Alienable rights – civil or religious rights, which can be surrendered, renounced, or removed,
such as the right to decent livelihood.
4. Right of Jurisdiction – power of lawful authority to govern his subjects and to make laws for
5. Right of property – power to own, to sell, to barter, to lend, to change, or give away one’s
personal possessions.
6. Juridical right – all rights in so far are based on laws. These rights must be respected,
allowed, fulfilled, as a matter of strict justice.
7. Non-Juridical rights – founded on laws, either natural or human, but on virtue. Thus, these
are also called moral rights.
Definition of Duty
Objectively – it is anything we are obliged to do or to omit
Subjectively – it is a moral obligation incumbent upon a person of doing, omitting, or avoiding
Duty is a moral obligation because it depends upon freewill. As such it resides on a person.
Duty is defined by law, any willful neglect of duty makes the person accountable for such act.
Kinds of Duties
1. Natural duties – imposed by natural law, such as the duty to care for our health.
2. Positive duties – imposed by a human positive law, such as the duty to pay taxes and to
observe traffic rules.
3. Affirmative duties – which require the performance of a certain act, such as casting a ballot
during election; applying for a business license.
4. Negative duties – which require the omission of a certain act, such as not carrying illegal
firearms, or not destroying the property of other.
Bill of Rights
- Is a list of rights pertaining to persons. These rights are recognized, guaranteed, and
protected against invasion, reduction and destruction.
- Is premised on the belief in the dignity of man and the intrinsic worth of human life.
- A list of individual liberties, freedom and rights which are guaranteed and protected
under Article III of the 1987 Philippine Constitution.
Civil and Political Rights
The Bill of Rights includes civil and political rights of the people.
1. Civil Rights – Those which an individual enjoys in his private activities, or in his transactions
with others, as protected and granted by law. These include the right to privacy, the right to
travel or change residence, the right to property, the right to worship, and the right to free
access to a court justice. Civil rights are enjoyed by citizens and non-citizens alike.
2. Political Rights – Those which an individual enjoys participating in government affairs.
These include the right of speech and free press, the right to form associations, the right to
assemble and to petition the government for redress of grievances, the right to vote and to
be voted upon to public office. Political rights are enjoyed only by the citizens of each
particular country.
Civil and Political Rights are what we call “Human Right”, but in its widest sense human rights
include those pertaining to the dignity of the person such as integrity, liberty, education, health,
work and welfare.
Cardinal Rules Respecting Human Rights
(SEC 11, ART 11, 1987 Philippine Consitution)
The right to wear a piece of cloth to shield himself from shivering cold or melting heat; a right
to have a bowl of rice to fill his empty stomach for the day; the right to have a shelter to spend
the night; the right to every working man to assure himself and his family a life worthy of
human dignity, and the right to live with honor, dignity and respect of his fellowmen living in a
just and human society under the blessing of democracy.
Entrusted with the constitutional mandate to serve and protect the people, law enforcers
should be the very first protectorate of human rights.
Without recognizing and respecting the sanctity of human rights are enshrined in the
Constitution, they can never induce public respect or command obedience to existing laws.
Ethics as Value Education
Ethics – relies solely on human reason to investigate truths.
Ethics – takes the form of Value Education
Value – is something a person prizes, cherishes and esteems as important to him.
Value – is intimately related to the search for meaning in human life
Aim of Value Education – to guide the individual in choosing wisely his values and in acting
upon them.
Man – who possesses an intellect (insight) and will (volition)
Person – considered as self or ego which implies self sufficiency of the person and implies
worth or value.
Self – first and most fundamental of the values
Life is meaningful when a man has found something capable of arousing his commitment to it,
something deserving for his best efforts, something worth living for and worth dying for.
Values – enable man to change, to establish self-control and self-direction.
Definitions of Value
Value came from the Latin word “valere” which means “to be strong or to be worth”
Value is concept that describes the beliefs of an individual or culture
Values are considered subjective and vary across people and cultures
Values are ideas and norms man consider relevant and good
Value System – A set of values may be placed into the notion of value system
Personal Values
Evolve from the circumstances with the external world and can change over time
Integrity in the application of values refers to its continuity (it would be appropriate to apply
religious values in times of happiness as well as in times of despair)
Implicitly related to choice; they guide decisions by allowing for an individual’s choices to be
compared to each choice’s associated values.
Developed early in life may be resistant to change. (A personal knowledge of the appropriate
values for their own genes, feelings and experience)
Personal value of other persons is dignity of that other person
Kinds of Values
1. Biological Values – necessary to the physical survival of man as an organism.
a. Life and Health
b. Food and Shelter
c. Work
2. Social Values – necessary to the sensual needs and fulfillment
a. Leisure and Sex
b. Marriage
c. Family and Home
d. Parental Authority
e. Education
3. Rational Values – necessary to the functions and fulfillment of intellect and will.
a. Understanding and control of nature
b. Guide and control of oneself
c. Solidarity
d. Parental Authority with Fellowmen
e. Religion

Moral Values – directly pertain to the function of intellect and will; those choices, decisions and
actions, by which man’s rational faculties are involved and perfected
Characteristics of Moral Values
1. Moral values are goods having intrinsic qualities of desirability.
2. Moral values are universal – they appeal to man as man and to man as a specific individual
3. Moral values are obligatory – they come as natural duty, because possession of the is
expected as an integral quality to man as rational creature directed by natural powers
towards truth, beauty and goodness

Virtue – is a habit or firm disposition which inclines a person to do good and avoid evil.
- Characterized by stability, a virtuous person not only strives to be a good person, but also
seeks what is good and chooses to act in a good way.
- Aristotle defined virtue as “that which makes both a person and what he does good.”
Standard Behavior of Police Officers (Four Cardinal Virtues)
1. Prudence
- characterized by “being careful about one’s choices, not taking undue risks and not saying
or doing things that might later be regretted”
- Prudence’s roots date back to Aristotle’s writings on practical wisdom, in which he hails it as
a crucial, linking virtue
- An ability to govern and discipline oneself by means of reason and sound judgment.
- It is a virtue that attracts the intellect to choose the most effective means for accomplishing
what is morally good and for avoiding what is evil.

Example: Checking your bank account before you spend money.

2. Justice
- concept of moral rightness based on ethics, rationality, law, natural law, religion, fairness,
or equity, along with the punishment of the breach of said ethics.
- The virtue that inclines the will to give to each other one of his right.
- Is the steady and lasting willingness to give others the treatment that they deserve by right.

John Rawls - claim that “Justice is the first virtue of social institutions, as truth is of systems of

3. Fortitude
- strength or firmness of mind that enables a person to face danger, pain or despondency
with stoic resolve.
- One of the four cardinal virtues. As such, it can be practiced by anyone, since, unlike the
theological virtues, the cardinal virtues are not, in themselves, the gifts of God through
grace but the outgrowth of habit.
- Commonly called courage, but it is different from what much we think of as courage today.
Fortitude is always reasoned and reasonable; the person exercising fortitude is willing to
put himself in danger if necessary, but he does not seek danger for danger’s sake.
- Fortitude is a virtue that allows us to overcome fear and to remain steady in our will in the
face of obstacles. Prudence and Justice are the virtues through which we decide what needs
to be done; fortitude gives us the strength to do it.
- Fortitude is not foolhardiness or rashness, “rushing in where angels fear to tread”. Indeed,
part of the virtue of fortitude

Fr. John A. Hardon, S.J., notes in his Modern Catholic Dictionary, is the “curbing of
recklessness”. Putting our bodies or lives in danger when it is not fortitude but foolishness.

St. Thomas Aquinas ranked fortitude as the third of the cardinal virtues, because it serves
prudence and justice, the higher virtues.
4. Temperance
- Sophrosyne in Greek is defined as “moderation in action, thought, or feeling; restraint”.
- It has been studied by religious thinkers, philosophers, and more recently, psychologists,
particularly in the positive psychology movement.
- It is considered as a virtue, a core value that can be seen consistently across time and
cultures. It is considered one of the four cardinal virtues, for it is believed that no virtue
could be sustained in the face of inability to control oneself, if the virtue was opposed to
some desire.
- Temperance is generally defined by control over excess, so that it has many classes, such as
abstinence, chastity, modesty, humility, prudence, self-regulation, and forgiveness and
mercy; each of these involves restraining some impulse, such as sexual desire, vanity, or
- an ability to moderate or avoid something.
- It is virtue that regulates the carnal appetite for sensual pleasure.

Other Values
1. Religious Values – pertain to man’s relationship with God, guiding and regulating his
communion with Him.
2. Cultural Values – pertain to man’s relationship sharing with others in a given community of
persons, shaping their spiritual kinship, and directing their attention to definite ideals of
3. Social Values – pertain to the relationship necessary in the promotion of human society as a
whole, integrating the motivation and interests of members towards the common objective
or goal.
3 Division of Justice
1. Commutative Justice
2. Distributive Justice
3. Legal Justice
3 Division of Justice

1. Commutative Justice
- regulates those actions that involve the rights that exist between one another, such as in
conducting business transactions.
- An example would be honoring a commitment or promise made to another person, such as
completing a job that you were committed to and paid to do.

2. Distributive Justice
- regulates those actions that involve the rights that an individual may claim from society.
- A form of justice that governs the means by which authority distributes the goods and
obligations of social life among the members of society.
- An example of this would be the government distributing goods to areas that were affected
by the recent natural disasters.

3. Legal Justice
- regulates those actions which society may justly require to individual for the common good.
- A form of justice that governs the way individuals respond to the obligations of living in the
society or living under the state.
- An example of this is volunteering at different places within the community and helping
those in needs by giving of our time, money, or talents to serve them.

Fortitude is exercise by means of the following

1. Patience – calmness and composure in enduring something.
2. Perseverance – the ability to go on despite the obstacle and opposition.
3. Endurance – it is the ability to last.

Hierarchy of Values
- Order of values from the lowest to the highest importance.
- Goods pertaining to the soul, the intellect and will occupy the highest level of importance
while the biological values occupy the lowest rank.

Choosing our Values

- Man must be wise enough to choose his values in accordance to their intrinsic worth.
- The highest value
- He is the Summum Bonum
- The ultimate end of human life
- Not only the Alpha and Omega of the created universe, he is the preserver of values.

Summum Bonum
- Ultimate and absolute good that will fulfill all human desires.
- Is a latin word that means “The highest good” one which cannot be subordinated by any
- Characterizes “the morals of all morals” and the “ethics of all ethics”.
Philippine National Police Code of Professional Conduct and Ethical Standard
PNP Vision
Imploring the aid of the almighty, by 2030, we shall be a highly capable police service working
in partnership with a responsive community towards the attainment of a safer place to live,
work and do business.
PNP Mission
To enforce the law, to prevent and control crimes, to maintain peace and order and to ensure
public safety and internal security with the active support of the community
PNP Philosophy
Service, Honor and Justice
PNP Core Values
1. Maka-diyos (Pro God)
2. Makabayan (Pro Country)
3. Makatao (Pro-people)
4. Makakalikasan (Pro-environment)

PNP Hymn / PNP Lingkod Bayan

Bantay ng katahimikan
PNP lingkod ng bayan
Kriminal aming kalaban
Mamamayan paglilingkuran
Sa bayan at mamamayan
PNP ang inyong sandigan
Integridad, disiplina at kasanayan
Gabay sa tungkuling alay
Makadiyos at Makabayan
Makatao at Makakalikasan
Sa tungkuli’y aming karangalan
Ihandog nag iisang buhay
Batas ay ipapatupad
Pantay-pantay para sa lahat
Walang mayaman o mahirap
Ang dulot sa bayan ay galak
PNP mamamayan magtulungan
Kaayusa’t katatagan ating kamtan
Kalakalan uunlad na tunay
kapayapa’y ating tagumpay
Makadiyos at Makabayan
Makatao at Makakalikasan
Sa tungkuli’y aming karangalan
Ihandog nag-iisang buhay
Ihandog nag-iisang buhay

Brief Historical Background on the PNP Code of Professional Conduct and Ethical Standards
According to Section 37 of Republic Act 6975, “There shall be established a performance
evaluation system which shall be administered in accordance with the rules, regulations and
standards, and a Code of Conduct promulgated by the Commission for members of the PNP”
NAPOLCOM Resolution No. 92-4
The resolution issued by the NAPOLCOM approving the draft of the PNP Code of Professional
Conduct and Ethical Standards by the PNP.
Approved on March 12 1992
Laws Related to the PNP Code of Professional Conduct and Ethical Standards
1. Republic Act 3019 – Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices Act.
2. Republic Act 6713 – Code of Conduct and Ethical Standards for Public officials and
3. Republic Act 7080 – Anti-Plunder Act
4. People’s Law Enforcement Board rules and regulations
5. Republic Act 10589 – Anti-Corruption Month Act (December)

The Need of Police to Study Ethics

1. Limited Police Academy training in Ethics
2. Limited Academic training in Ethics
3. The Intellectual Capabilities of today’s officer
Law Enforcement Code of Ethics
As a law enforcement officer, my fundamental duty is to serve mankind; to safeguard life and
property, to protect the innocent against deception, weak against oppression or intimidation
and the peaceful against violence or disorder ” ; and respect the constitutional rights of all men,
liberty equality and justice.
I will keep my private life unsullied as an example to all maintain courageous calm in the face of
danger, scorn, or ridicule; develop self-restraint and to be constantly mindful of the welfare of
others. Honest in thought and deed in both my personal and official life. I will be exemplary in
obeying the laws of the land and regulations of may organization. “Whatever I see or hear of a
confidential nature or that is confided to me in my official capacity will be kept ever secret
unless revelation is necessary in the performance of my duty ”.
“I will never act officiously or permit personal feelings, prejudices, animosities, or friendship to
influence my decision ” with no compromise for crime and with relentless prosecution of
criminals. I will enforce the law courteously and appropriately without fear of favor, malice or
ill-will, never employing unnecessary force or violence and “never accepting gratuities in
“I recognize the badge of my offices as a symbol of public faith and I accept it as a public trust to
be held so long as I am true to the ethics of police service”. I will never engage in acts of
corruption or bribery, not will condone such act by other police officers. I will cooperate with all
legally authorized agencies and their representatives in the pursuit of justice.
I know what I alone and responsible for my own standard of professional performance and will
take every reasonable opportunity to enhance and improve my level of knowledge and
competence. “I will constantly strive to achieve these objectives and ideals, dedicating myself
before God to my chosen profession – law enforcement.”

2 Main Virtues Cultivated by Code of Ethics

1. Ethics of Public Service
2. Ethics of Professionalism
Ethics - Is a personal commitment to uphold what is true and good
The code of ethics was introduced in 1954
Canon of Police Ethics
1. Primordial police responsibility
2. Limitation of police authority
3. Knowledge of the law and other responsibilities
4. Use of proper means to obtain proper ends
5. Cooperation with public officials
6. Proper conduct and behavior
7. Conducts towards the community
8. Conduct in arresting law violation
9. Firmness in refusing gifts or favors
10. Impartial presentation of evidence
11. Attitude toward police profession

Canon of Police Ethics

1. Primordial police responsibility
“the primary objective upholder of the law must know its crime, police man must knew too
well that he has committed his life to defend and protect the rights of the citizen”
2. Limitation of police authority
“policeman as an upholder of the law must know its limitation upon him in enforcing the law”
“ the police must recognize the center of the democratic system of government which gives no
person absolute power”
3. Knowledge of the law and other responsibilities
“ the policeman shall apply himself to the principles of the laws which he is sworn to apply ”
4. Use of proper means to obtain proper ends
“the policeman must be mindful of his responsibility to have strict selection of methods in
discharging the duty of his office ”
4. Cooperation with public officials
“ the policeman shall cooperate fully with other public officials the performance of authorizes
5. Proper conduct and behavior
“the policeman shall be mindful of his special identification by the public as an upholder of law”
6. Conducts towards the community
"policeman shall deal with individuals of the community in the manner calculated to instill
respects for its law"
8. Conduct in arresting law violator
"policeman shall use his powers of arrest according with the law"
9. Firmness in refusing gifts or favor
“ policeman representing the government bears heavy responsibility of maintaining in his
conduct the honor and integrity of all government institution
10. Impartial presentation of evidence
"policeman shall be concerned equally in the prosecution of the accused in the defense of the
11. Attitude toward police profession
"policeman shall regard the discharge of his duties as public trust"
Unreasonable Force Reduce Community Cooperation
A police officer will never employ unnecessary force or violence and will use only such force in
the discharge of duty as in reasonable in all circumstances.
Force should be used only with the greatest restraint and only after discussion, negotiation and
persuasion have been found to be inappropriate or ineffective.
While the use of force is occasionally unavoidable, every police officer will refrain from applying
the unnecessary infliction of pain or suffering and will never engage in cruel, degrading or or
inhuman treatment of any person.
Use of Reasonable force when persuasion is not sufficient
a. The police should use reasonable force to the extent necessary to secure observance of the
law or to restore order only when the exercise of persuasion , advice and warning is found to
the insufficient to attain police objectives.
a. No violence or unnecessary force shall be subject to any greater restrain than is necessary for
his detention.

Impartial Enforcement of Laws

The police seek and reserve community favor, not by catering to community opinion, but
constantly demonstrating absolutely impartial enforcement of laws, without regard to the
justice and injustice of the substance of particular laws.
Impartial enforcement of laws on all individual members of the, society without regard to their
race or social standing.
The Community are the Police
The police at all times should maintain relationship with the community that gives really to the
historic tradition that the tradition that he police are the community are the police.
The police are the only members of the community who are paid are the only members to
maintain peace and order which are incumbent on every citizen in the interest of community
Police should not Usurp Judicial Powers
The police should always direct their actions strictly toward their functions and never appear to
usurp the powers of judiciary by averaging individuals of the state of authoritative judging guilt
or punishing the guilt.
Reduction of Crime Disorder
The test of police efficiency is not the reduction of crime and disorder until totally eradicated,
not by evidence of police present and action in dealing with the community.
Rule of Enforcement Impartially Observed
a. Policemen engaged in anti-crime operation must always consider the safety and security of
who might be caught in the crossfire or arm encounters.
b. The use of force including firearms, justifiable only by virtue of the Doctrine of Self-Defense
and Defense of a Stranger, Nobody, including the policeman and other law enforcement
authorities, is above the law.
c. The use of force especially firearms, should be applied only as a last resort, when all other
peaceful and non-violent means has been exhausted.
d. The use of force, especially firearms, should be confined only the lawless elements and the
responding PNP unit. This is inherent in the police service in which the profession, the
armaments and safety life of every PNP member is dedicated to the protection and safety of
the people.
Police Discretion
A police officer will use responsibility discretion vested in the position and exercise it within the
law. The principle of reasonable will guide the officer’s determinations and the officer will
consider all surrounding circumstances whether any legal action shall be taken. Consistent and
wise use of discretion, based on professional policing competence, will do much to preserve
good relationships and retain the confidence of the public. There can be difficulty in choosing
between conflicting courses of action. It is important to remember that a timely word of advice
rather than arrest – which maybe correct in appropriate circumstances can be a more effective
means of achieving a desire end.
All PNP members shall abide and adhere to the provisions of this Code of Professional Conduct
and Ethical Standards. Towards this end, a truly professionalized and dedicated law enforcer
shall be developed in promoting peace and order, ensuring public safety and enhancing
community participation guided by the principle that a public office is a public trust and that all
public servants must at all times be accountable to the people. They shall serve with utmost
responsibility, integrity, morality, loyalty and efficiency with due respect to human rights and
dignity as hallmark of a democratic society. They shall at all times bear faithful allegiance to the
legitimate government, support and uphold the Constitution, respect the duly constituted
authority and be loyal to the police service.
1. Neglect of Duty or Nonfeasance – is the omission or refusal, without sufficient excuse, to
perform an act or duty, which it was the Peace Officer’s legal obligation to perform, it implies a
duty as well as its breach and the fact can never be found in the absence of a duty.
2. Irregularities in Performance of Duty or Misfeasance – is the improper performance of some
act which might be lawfully done. - the performance of a duty or act that one is obligated or
permitted to do in a manner which is improper, sloppy, or negligent (e.g., report writing, unsafe
operation of motor vehicle, aggressively “reprimanding” a citizen, improper searching of
arrested persons).
3. Misconduct or Malfeasance – is the doing, either through ignorance, inattention or malice, of
that which the officer had no legal right to do all, as where he act without any authority
whatsoever, or exceeds, ignores or abuses his powers.
4. In-competency – is the manifest lack of adequate ability and fitness for the satisfactory
performance of police duties. This has reference to any physical intellectual quality the lack of
which substantially incapacitates one to performs the duties of peace officer.
5. Oppression – it imports an act of cruelty, severity, unlawful, execution, domination, or
excessive use of authority. The exercise of the unlawful powers or others means, in depriving,
an individual of his liberty or property against his will is generally an act of oppression.
6. Dishonesty – is the concealment or distortion of truth in a matter of fact relevant of one’s
office or connected with the performance of his duties.
7. Disloyalty to the Government – consists of abandonment or renunciation of one’s loyalty to
the Government of the Philippines, or advocating the overthrow of the government.
8. Violation of Law – it presupposes conviction in court of any crime of offense penalized under
Revised Penal Code or any special law or ordinances.
9. Graft – the acquisition of gain or advantage by dishonest, unfair, or sordid means, especially
through the abuse of one’s position or influence in politics or government.
10. Corruption – an act done with an intent to give some advantage inconsistent with official
duty and the rights of others.
11. Bribery – the act of receiving gifts or presents or accepting offers and or promises in
exchange for committing a crime that relates to the exercise of the office which the public
officer discharge.
12. Public Officer – includes elective and appointive officials and employees, permanent or
temporary, whether in the classified or unclassified or exempt service receiving compensation
from the government.
13. Command – the authority a person lawfully exercises over subordinates by virtue of rank or
assignment or position.
14. Responsibility – the obligation to perform one’s duties and functions and his accountability
for his actions.
15. Command Responsibility – the doctrine that imposes commensurate accountability to one
who is vested with authority to exercise management and/or leadership functions.
Police Officer’s Creed
I believe in God, The Supreme Being, a Great Provider, and the creator of all men and
everything dear to me. In return, I can do not less than love Him above all, seek His guidance in
the performance of my sworn duties and honor Him at all times.
I believe that respect for authority is a duty. I respect and uphold the Constitution, the laws of
the land and the applicable rules and regulations. I recognize the legitimacy and authority of
the leadership, and follow and obey legal orders of my superior officers.
I believe in selfless love and service to the people. Towards this end, I commit my self to the
service of my fellowmen over and above my personal convenience.
I believe in sanctity of marriage and the respect for women. I shall set the example of decency
and morality and shall have high regard for family life and chastity.
I believe in the responsible dominion and stewardship over material things. I shall inhibit
myself from ostentatious display of my property. I shall protect the environment and conserve
nature to maintain ecological balance. I shall respect private and public properties and prevent
others from destroying them.
I believe in the wisdom of truthfulness. I must be trustworthy and I shall speak the truth at all
times as required by the profession.
Basic Issues
1. PNP Image – The image of any organization affects the spirit de’ corps, morale and welfare of
members and sense of pride to the organization. In view thereof, all members of the PNP
should conduct themselves in a manner that would not place the PNP in bad light. Instead, they
should live in accordance with the PNP core values and possess the following virtues: honor,
integrity, valor, justice, honesty, humility, charity and loyalty to the service.
2. Career Management, the key to professionalism – Its improper implementation will greatly
prejudice the personnel professionalization process as regard procurement, promotion,
assignment, placement, training, awards, and retirement.
3. Police Management Leadership – The effectiveness of law enforcement is reflective of the
managerial capabilities and competent leadership of the men and women who run the PNP
4. Equality in the Service – There shall be judicious and equitable distribution of opportunity to
prove one’s worth in the police service.
5. Delicadeza – In consonance with the requirements of honor and integrity in the PNP, all
members must have the moral courage to sacrifice self-interest in keeping with the time-
honored principle of delicadeza.
6. Police Lifestyle – The PNP shall endeavor to promote a lifestyle for every member of the
organization that is acceptable and respectable in the eyes of the public.
7. Political Patronage – All PNP members must inhibit himself from soliciting political patronage
in matters pertaining to assignment, awards, training and promotion.
8. Human Rights – All PNP members must respect and protect human dignity and man’s
inalienable rights of life, liberty and property.
9. Setting Example – All PNP members should set good example to the subordinates and follow
good example from the superiors.

Professional Conduct and Ethical Standards

Standard of Police Professionalism
All PNP personnel shall perform duties with excellence, competence, integrity, intelligence and
expertise in the application of specialized skill and technical knowledge.
Police Professional Conduct
All members of the PNP shall observe the following professional conduct.
1. Commitment to Democracy – Uniformed PNP members commit themselves to the
democratic way of life and values and maintain the principle of public accountability. They shall
at all times uphold the Constitution and be loyal to our country, people and organization above
loyalty to any person or organization.
2. Commitment to Public Interest – All PNP members shall always uphold public interest over
and above personal interest.
2. Non-Partisanship – PNP members shall provide services to everyone without discrimination
regardless of party affiliation in accordance with existing laws and regulations.
2. Physical Fitness and Health – All PNP members shall strive to be physically and mentally fit
and in good health at all times.
5. Secrecy Discipline – All PNP members shall guard the confidentiality of classified information
against unauthorized disclosure, including confidential aspects of official businesses, special
orders, communications and other documents, roster or any portion thereof of the PNP,
contents of criminal records, identities or persons who may have given information to the
police in confidence and other classified information on intelligence material.
6. Social Awareness – All PNP members and their immediate family members shall be
encouraged to actively get involved in the religious, social and civic activities to enhance the
image of the organization but without affecting their official duties.
7. Non-Solicitation of Patronage – All members shall seek self-improvement through career
development and shall not directly or indirectly solicit influence or recommendation from
politicians, highranking government officials, prominent citizens, persons affiliated with civic or
religious organizations with regard to their assignments, promotions, transfer or those of other
members of the force, nor shall they initiate any petition to be prepared and presented by
citizens in their behalf.
8. Proper Care and Use of Public Property – PNP personnel shall be responsible for the security,
proper care and use of public property issued to them and/or deposited under their care of
9. Respect of Human Rights – In the performance of duty, PNP members shall respect and
protect human dignity and uphold the human rights of all persons.
10.Devotion of Duty – All PNP personnel shall perform their duties with dedication,
thoroughness, efficiency, enthusiasm, determination, and manifest concern for public welfare,
and shall refrain from engaging in any activity which shall be in conflict with their duties as
public servants.
11. Conservation of Natural Resources – All personnel of the PNP shall help in the development
and conservation of our natural resources for ecological balance and posterity as these are the
inalienable heritage of our people.
12. Discipline – All personnel of the PNP shall conduct themselves at all times in keeping with
the rules and regulations of the organization.
13. Loyalty – Above all, PNP personnel must be loyal to the Constitution and the police service
as manifested by their loyalty to their superiors, peers and subordinates as well.
14. Obedience to Superiors – All PNP personnel shall obey lawful orders and courteous to
superior officers and other appropriate authorities within the chain of command.
15.Command Responsibility – In accordance with the Doctrine on Command Responsibility,
immediate Commanders/Directors shall be responsible for the effective supervision, control
and direction of their personnel and shall see to it that all government resources shall be
managed , expended or utilized in accordance with laws and regulations and safeguard against
losses thru illegal or improper disposition.
Police Ethical Standards
ETHICAL STANDARDS - Refers to the established and generally accepted moral values and
ethical standards
1. Morality – All PNP personnel shall adhere to high standard of morality and decency and shall
set good examples for others to follow. - they must not involved with illegal activities. - they
shall be loyal to their spouses.
2. Judicious Use of Authority – PNP members shall exercise proper and legitimate use of
authority in the performance of duty. • Judicious – wise; proper
3. Integrity – PNP personnel shall not allow themselves to be victims of corruption and
dishonest practices in accordance with the provisions of R.A 6713 and other applicable laws.
4. Justice – PNP personnel shall strive constantly to respect the rights of others so that they can
fulfill their duties and exercise their rights.
5. Humility – All PNP personnel shall recognize the fact that they are public servants and not the
masters of the people and toward this end, they should perform their duties without
5. Orderliness – All PNP personnel shall follow logical procedures in accomplishing tasks
assigned to them to minimize waste in the use of time, money and effort.
7. Perseverance – Once a decision is made, PNP members shall take legitimate means to
achieve the goal even in the face of internal or external difficulties, and despite anything which
might weaken their resolve in the course of time.
Police Officer’s Pledge
• I will love and serve God, my country and my people;
• I will uphold the Constitution and obey legal orders of the duly constituted authorities;
• I will oblige myself too maintain a high standard of morality and professionalism;
• I will respect the customs and traditions of the police service; and
• I will live a decent and virtuous life to serve as an example to others.

2 Possible Causes of Public Mistrust for Police Ethics

1) The perception that a police subculture exists that either turns good officers bad or tolerates
evil in the midst of policing; and
1) The perception that most of policing is just a front for racial discrimination.