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Please look at the interview questions below and prepare a response to be provided during the interview.



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In regard to voice, a gateway is a device that offers an IP interface on one side and some sort of legacy
telephone interface on the other side.

H323 and MGCP are two protocols designed to control the communication through the gateway. Quite
simply, the main difference is H323 is a peer to peer protocol, where MGCP is a client/server protocol.

With H323, there is a higher level of intelligence where the protocol defines how to locate remote
endpoints and establish communications between the endpoints. MGCP is less intelligent in that you tell
it what the endpoints are.

H323 is popular in video conferencing applications, and for example, an H323 gateway is required for a
mobile phone using 3G to connect to a video call. MGCP is popular in localized private networks where
you input the endpoints that will interact with the system.

     
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For IT, we can simply use the command ipconfig /all

But a GUI method that is easily explained to a standard user is to open the status of the network adapter
and view the details.

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A partition is the groups and membership classes that can be used to classify a specific department, or
region, where a calling search space is used as a directory or lookup which also determines what partition
is used for the lookup. CSS can also be used for restrictions if the partition group is not a member of the
search space.


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Secure Survivable Remote Site Telephony is a VoIP disaster recovery mechanism. If for whatever
reason the Call Manager server or the WAN link goes down. With these devices down, the IP phones are
no longer using secure communications. SRST allows the gateway routers to operate in this secure
mode, ensuring the voice communications are authenticated, encrypted and integrity assurance.


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The Real-Time Monitoring Tool monitors device status, performance, voice ports, and other applications.
It almost acts like a heartbeat of the system. It provides email alerting for threshold breaches, system
logging, and performance counters.





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Publisher is the main device that holds the master copy of the database,but typically the phones are
registered to subscriber which is the servers that contain the replicated database from the publisher. All
phones can register with both but there can be multiple subscribers. You can choose which subscriber to
use. There can only be one publisher in the system.

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On the cables I punched down, I have only ever used the blue, blue/white and orange, orange/white
which are pins 1,2,4,5 on an RJ45 cable.

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The D Channel carries the control and signaling information at a rate of 16Kbps. It carries the information
needed to connect or disconnect calls, and other calling parameters such as call waiting or caller ID.

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A simple comparison that can be made is a PDB is like a fax machine, where VoIP is like email. The
memo is transmitted just fine over the fax machine, but the email is digitally sent using less resources.

A traditional PBX communicates over POTS lines using the Public Switching telephone Network. This
requires the system to pass through a third party to transmit the communication. With VoIP, we can
utilize our internal IP based network to allow voice communications sent digitally (as opposed to analog
ala PBX) over the already in place data network. A major benefit with this system is seen if a company
has locations in multiple countries. Using the internal network all but eliminates international calling fees.


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The IOS is the operating system software used by Cisco devices. It is typically accessed and used by
command line interface. You would use the IOS for the vast amount of functions on the device, such as
configuration, device management, statistics, and troubleshooting.

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The purpose of a VLAN is to segment the network into a group of hosts with a common communication
requirement. There are a number of reasons for this, such as to create more broadcasts domains, which
allows for distributed traffic load on the network as devices only broadcast on the same network
segment/VLAN.

VLANS offer better management, security, and scalability.




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Trivial File Transfer Protocol is a stripped down FTP protocol with the intended function of reading or
writing small files to a remote device. TFTP cannot list directories or provide authentication. TFTP uses
UDP port 69 and uses a set packet size of 512 bytes.

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