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Name : Fada Azkadina Zhufairah

NIM : P07120119045
Prodi : D3 Keperawatan Tk 1

Mental Disorder

One disease that is experienced by humans is a mental disorder. What

exactly is a mental disorder? Mental disorders are psychological or behavioral
patterns that are generally associated with stress or mental disorders that are not
considered part of normal human development. The disorder is defined as a
combination of affective, behavioral, cognitive components or perceptions related to
certain functions in the brain region or nervous system that performs human social

Not yet known exactly what causes mental disorders. However, this condition is
known to be related to biological and psychological factors. Biological factors (or
called organic mental disorders) include disorders of nerve cell function in the brain,
infections, for example due to Streptococcus bacteria, congenital abnormalities or
brain injury, brain damage due to impact or accident, lack of oxygen to the baby's
brain during childbirth, having parents or families with mental disorders, drug abuse
in long term, and nutritional deficiencies. Psychological factors include traumatic
events, such as violence and sexual harassment, loss of parents or neglected in
childhood, lack of ability to associate with others, divorce or death by a partner,
feelings of inferiority, inadequacy, anger, or loneliness.

There are many different types of mental disorders. Some common ones include
Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, phobias
Depression, bipolar disorder, mood disorders, Eating disorders, Personality disorders
Post-traumatic stress disorder, Psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia. Common
mental disorders include depression, which affects about 300 million, bipolar
disorder, which affects about 60 million, dementia, which affects about 50 million,
and schizophrenia and other psychoses, which affects about 23 million people
globally. Stigma and discrimination can add to the suffering and disability associated
with mental disorders, leading to various social movements attempting to increase
understanding and challenge social exclusion.

Services are based in psychiatric hospitals or in the community, and assessments

are carried out by mental health professionals such as psychiatrists, psychologists, and
clinical social workers, using various methods such as psychometric tests but often
relying on observation and questioning. Treatments are provided by various mental
health professionals. Psychotherapy and psychiatric medication are two major
treatment options. Other treatments include lifestyle changes, social interventions,
peer support, and self-help. In a minority of cases, there might be involuntary
detention or treatment. Prevention programs have been shown to reduce depression.

Not all mental disorders can be prevented. However, there are a number of steps
can take to reduce the risk of mental illness, including continuing to actively
participate in relationships and activities, share with friends and family when facing
problems, do regular exercise, eat regularly, and manage stress well, sleep and wake
up regularly at the same time every day, do not smoke and use drugs, limit
consumption of alcoholic drinks and caffeinated drinks, consume medicines
prescribed by your doctor, according to dosage and usage rules, and immediately see
a doctor if symptoms of mental disorders appear.