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Philippine Copyright 2017

by Rex Book Store, Inc.

RBS Science and Technology Series


Science Links 9
Revised Edition 2017
ISBN 978-971-23-8488-2
Classification: Teacher’s Resource Material (53-SB-00106-0)

Published, copyrighted 2017, and distributed by Rex Book Store, Inc. (RBSI) with main office at 856 Nicanor Reyes Sr. St., Sampaloc,
Manila/Tel. Nos.: 735-1364, 736-0567
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CONTENTS

Publisher’s Note ....................................................................................................................................................... vii


Preface.......................................................................................................................................................................... xi
Salient Features ...................................................................................................................................................... xiii
Curriculum Map ....................................................................................................................................................... xv

FIRST QUARTER – LIVING THINGS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT

Unit I: Circulatory and Respiratory System Working


with Other Organ Systems
Lesson 1: The Organs of the Cardiovascular System .................................................................................. 3
Lessons 2 and 3: The Blood and the Blood Clotting Process/The Different Blood Groups ........... 5
Lesson 4: The Cardiac Cycle, Heart Sounds, and Blood Pressure ............................................................ 8
Lesson 5: How the Different Organs of Respiration Work with the Circulatory System ................. 11
Lesson 6: Taking Care of Our Circulatory and Respiratory Systems ....................................................... 14

Unit II: Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits


Lesson 1: The Structure of the Chromosome ................................................................................................. 24
Lesson 2: Non-Mendelian Patterns of Inheritance ....................................................................................... 25

Unit III: Biodiversity and Evolution


Lesson 1: Types of Biodiversity ............................................................................................................................ 35
Lesson 2: Adaptations as Key Factors for Species Survival ....................................................................... 39

Unit IV: Flow of Energy and Life Processes in Ecosystems


Lesson 1: Organisms and How They Obtain Energy .................................................................................... 46
Lesson 2: Photosynthesis ...................................................................................................................................... 48
Lesson 3: Cellular Respiration .............................................................................................................................. 51

iii
SECOND QUARTER – MATTER
Unit V: Chemical Bonding

Lesson 1: The Octet Rule ........................................................................................................................................ 58


Lesson 2: Ionic Bond................................................................................................................................................ 60
Lesson 3: Covalent Bond........................................................................................................................................ 62
Lesson 4: Metallic Bonds........................................................................................................................................ 64

Unit VI: The Variety of Carbon Compounds


Lesson 1: The Carbon Atom ................................................................................................................................. 72
Lesson 2: Hydrocarbons......................................................................................................................................... 73
Lesson 3: Functional Groups ................................................................................................................................ 74

Unit VII: Mole Concept


Lesson 1: Mole and Mass Relationship ............................................................................................................. 80
Lesson 2: Percentage-by-Mass Composition of a Compound ................................................................. 82
Lesson 3: Empirical Formula and Molecular Formula ................................................................................. 82

THIRD QUARTER – EARTH AND SPACE


Unit VIII: Volcanoes

Lesson 1: Introduction to Volcanoes ................................................................................................................. 87


Lesson 2: Types of Volcanoes .............................................................................................................................. 89
Lesson 3: Volcanic Eruption .................................................................................................................................. 90
Lesson 4: Energy from Volcanoes ....................................................................................................................... 91

Unit IX: Climate


Lesson 1: Introduction to Climate ...................................................................................................................... 96
Lesson 2: Factors that Affect Climate ................................................................................................................ 98
Lesson 3: Global Climate Change Phenomenon .......................................................................................... 99

Unit X: Stars and Constellations

Lesson 1: Characteristics of Stars ........................................................................................................................ 105


Lesson 2: Arrangement of Stars in a Group .................................................................................................... 106
Lesson 3: Changing Position of Constellations.............................................................................................. 107
Lesson 4: Beliefs and Practices About Constellations and Astrology .................................................... 107

iv
FOURTH QUARTER – FORCE, MOTION, AND ENERGY
Unit XI: Mechanics of Motion
Lesson 1: Projectile Motion: A Two-Dimension Motion ............................................................................. 114
Lesson 2: Impulse and Momentum ................................................................................................................... 117

Unit XII: Work, Power, and Energy


Lesson 1: Energy Transformation........................................................................................................................ 124
Lesson 2: Conservation of Energy ...................................................................................................................... 126

Unit XIII: Heat, Work, and Efficiency


Lesson 1: Heat and Work........................................................................................................................................ 133
Lesson 2: Heat and the Conservation of Energy Principle......................................................................... 135
Lesson 3: Second Law of Thermodynamics .................................................................................................... 135
Lesson 4: Heat Engines as Used in Electricity Production ......................................................................... 137

Unit XIV: Electricity and Magnetism


Lesson 1: Power Generation and Energy Losses ........................................................................................... 146
Lesson 2: Energy Production, Transmission, and Distribution ................................................................. 149

Key to Correction .................................................................................................................................................... 159

v
vi
PUBLISHER’S NOTE

RESPONSE TO THE CHALLENGES OF K to 12

“A teacher built a temple


With loving and infinite care
Planning each arch with patience
Laying each stone with prayer…”

What makes an effective teacher? Some would say, a mind that never ceases to learn, a heart that
is always willing to love, and hands that are offered to accompany a young traveler in the quest for
knowledge. It is these essential traits that help teachers dedicate themselves to the tremendous but
vital task of educating learners. From the first day of school, to the next ten months, they will be seen
discovering their learners, searching new references, crafting lesson plans, trying out new strategies,
designing instructional materials, and assessing their learners — daily tasks that teachers have grown
adept to.
Yet with the advent of the new K to 12 curriculum, both novice and experienced teachers
face a lot of adjustments. They will have to adapt to a new framework, learn new approaches, and
incorporate 21st century skills that meet present and future realities. They will have to teach an
enriched curriculum, and even change old paradigms with fresh ones. We, your partners at REX Book
Store, understand.
This enhanced Teacher’s Resource Material (TRM) is designed to assist teachers during this
critical transitional phase in facilitating their learners’ understanding of the lesson. This Transition
TRM allows teachers to apply the essential features of the K to 12 curriculum even on products that
have yet to receive the K to 12 transformation.

Backward Design
This new TRM follows the “authentic” backward design espoused by Dr. Grant Wiggins, one of
the proponents of the teaching for understanding approach. In this design, units in the TRM have
been organized according to themes and content domains, changing the traditional quarter-based
division. Units have now been enriched with additional lessons that go beyond the worktext,
preparing learners with the necessary skills as they transition from the old curriculum to the new K to
12 curriculum. Furthermore, the understanding-based orientation of the TRM will guide the teachers
every step of the way, providing them with the learning goals, pre-assessments, learning plans, and
performance-based assessments that will contribute to the holistic development of the learners. The
Key Understandings and Key Questions found in the TRM allow teachers to tailor their instruction
so that learners would appreciate and value the relevance of these lessons in their lives. Updated
references and innovative teaching strategies used in the enrichment of the TRM will also add to the
teachers’ knowledge of their subject matter.

Technology Enhancement CD (TEC)


We believe that to teach 21st century learners effectively, teachers need to be equipped with the
appropriate 21st century tools. Thus, we have included with this TRM the Technology Enhancement
CD (TEC) – a teaching companion that provides teachers with a repertoire of instructional materials
(IMs) that they can use to prepare effective lessons. In the TEC, teachers will find IMs such as multimedia
presentations, ready-to-print worksheets, and audio files. Also included are related articles from Rex
Crown Journals and links to educational websites.

vii
The IMs found in the TEC have also been assigned to particular parts in the lesson plans
of the TRM as prompted by the following icons. These are based on the research on the four
planning questions for instruction of Robert J. Marzano, Debra Pickering, and Jane E. Pollock of the
Association of Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD). According to their findings, certain
instructional strategies have been precisely identified as effective in improving learning, and they
have been framed within four planning questions to guide teachers on when to use these strategies
appropriately. These planning questions have been translated into the four key stages in lesson
development, particularly the:

Learning Objectives – This icon basically addresses what learners will learn in the lesson.
The instructional materials indicated here provide the objectives for desired learning
outcomes.

Learning Evidences – This icon provides exercises and feedback strategies to help the
teacher determine the learners’ prior knowledge. By knowing the learners’ current level
of understanding, the teacher can provide instruction better attuned to their learning
dispositions.

Acquisition Strategies – This icon gives the teacher strategies that will help learners
acquire learning and unlock meaning. Examples of these strategies include:
• Cues, questions, and advance organizers
• Nonlinguistic representation
• Summarizing and note-taking
• Cooperative learning
• Reinforcing effort

Practice Strategies – This icon presents strategies that help learners practice, review, and
apply their learning. By analyzing new learning, such as through identifying similarities
and differences with other concepts, and by applying it through generating and testing
hypothesis, learners are better able to retain learning and transfer it to unique situations.

Hence, when an icon appears in a particular section of the lesson plan, it signals to the teacher
that there are additional IMs available in the TEC that the teacher can use as optional enrichment
activities.

Nurturing the 5Cs of the Filipino K to 12 Teacher


Through all the features found in this TRM, the teachers’ level of competence will surely get a
boost. Their creative minds will also get the needed spark with the provision of various Differentiated
Instruction (DI) activities in this TRM for the purpose of giving every learner a chance to succeed.
These activities, which cater to the learners’ readiness, interest, and learning profile, will not only
develop their understanding of the lesson but will challenge the teachers’ creativity to come up
with new ones. Furthermore, teachers will value the contribution of every learner in the classroom
no matter how small. As the learners’ empathy is evoked through the activities, so too is the
teachers’ compassion for their efforts, urging them to nurture, monitor, and acknowledge them. The
TRM likewise provides for the integration of values found in the textbook into the real world. This
opportunity will aid the learners to expand their knowledge of the self and open new avenues for
character formation. It is in the opening of this facet and the discussion about it that teachers will also
find themselves clarifying their own beliefs, thus, contributing to their own character formation.

viii
Teaching is not all hard work. It is peppered with little successes dotted with smiles and painted
with a blush of joy. It is all these that move the teacher to go on, day after day, year after year from
one commitment to another.

“…But the temple the teacher fashioned


Will last while the ages roll
For that beautiful, unseen temple
was a child’s immortal soul.”
(Author unknown)

REX Book Store, Inc.

ix
x
PREFACE

The Teacher’s Resource Material of Science Links series is especially designed for teachers to
make teaching-learning more meaningful for the 21st century learners. It ushers learners in achieving
learning goals and standards through differentiated strategies that would tap their different learning
preferences.
The very essence of this Teacher’s Resource Material is in its rich collection of differentiated
activities differentiated authentic performance tasks that will help teachers to encourage learners to
work at their best and at their pace and preferences.

This Teacher’s Resource Material has the following parts:


• Curriculum Map
This part gives an overview of the unit. This map presents the Lesson Topics in each unit;
the Key Understandings and Key Questions; and the Knowledge and Skills for the specific
lessons. These are aligned to 21st century skills which are necessary for today’s learners.
• Teaching Plan
This part of the Teacher’s Resource Material is a very rich resource for teaching on a day-
to-day basis. The Teaching Plan:
– starts with the introductory page which has the Unit Summary, Content, and
Performance Standards aligned to the Grade Level Standards, and Overarching KUs
and KQs;
– is followed by the unit’s pre-assessment tool to assess the students’ readiness vis-à-
vis the learning goals; and
– presents the learning flow from the first lesson to the last lesson of a specific unit. It
is in this part where the enrichment made by differentiation of activities and tasks
can be found.
• Answer Key to Exercises
This concludes each unit of the Unit Plan.

This Teacher’s Resource Material will be able to make the students find enjoyment and meaning
to every learning experience in school as they perform authentic tasks.

The Authors

xi
xii
SALIENT FEATURES
As a trusted partner in education, Rex Book Store is committed to provide quality instructional
materials for both teachers and learners. It has developed worktexts that are aligned to DepEd’s
learning competencies. These materials are equipped with varied learning activities that are meant to
realize the goal of each subject area. In addition, these are designed to engage learners in meaningful
learning experiences.
Complementing these worktexts are Teacher’s Resource Materials (TRMs) that have been
designed to guide teachers in the implementation of the basic education curriculum.
These TRMs are accompanied with instructional CDs that contain a library of teaching resources,
worksheets, and web links. The TRMs technology enhancements aim to give teachers a high-tech
boost in their creativity and resourcefulness.

CORE BENEFIT
This series, through its ‘LINKS’ instructional design, will deepen conceptual understanding of the
science around the learners. It provides the learners relevant experiences in their performance of
independent experimentation and tasks that are significant to the society; thus, concepts learned are
tailored for life application.

Salient Features Description Learners’ Benefits

LINKS Instructional This book has a unique way of Learners will realize that all lessons
Design presenting chapter topics using the have relevance to real life.
LINKS Instructional Design.
Loop This part of the chapter aims to hook Learners will be find out what they
the learners to the chapter lessons. already know and what they need to
know.

Investigate It is in this part that learners have Learners will discover the realities of
laboratory activities which will help science concepts through laboratory
them discover the lesson or enhance activities.
their knowledge about the chapter.

Navigate This part of the chapter equips Learners will firm up the key
learners with a discussion of various understanding of scientific concepts.
lesson topics.

Knot It is in this part where learners Learners will see connections of


connect the lesson learned to real-life science lessons to real life.
values and to other discipline.

Size Up This is the part where learners have Learners will be able to assess their
an assessment on the lesson level of retention on the lesson
presented. discussed.

Life Lessons This part gives the applications of the Learners will see the connection and
learning concepts and investigations importance of science to their real-life
to real-life situations. experiences.

Amazing Facts These are learning trivia within the Learners will have their “aha!”
lesson to sustain learners’ curiosity. experience through this feature.

xiii
Unit Test The unit test is designed to address Learners will gain awareness of
the three key goals in learning: the different science concepts by
acquisition, meaning making, and participating in the lesson tasks.
transferring.

Differentiated This part is where learners are Through this, learners will be assessed
provided with differentiated tasks. on their summative performance
Summative task or product using Differentiated
Assessment Task Instruction.
They will be able to show their
learning using the preferred skill or
activity.

Technology Enhancement CD (TEC)


The Technology Enhancement CD (TEC) is a teaching companion designed to equip teachers
with 21st century tools that they can use to enrich their instruction. The TEC features the following:

• Instructional Materials (IMs) such as multimedia presentations,


downloadable ready-to-print worksheets, and links to
educational websites
• IMs are assigned to icons that represent particular instructional
purposes such as Learning Objectives, Learning Evidences,
Acquisition Strategies, and Practice Strategies
• Icons are purposefully integrated into the lesson plans of the
Teacher’s Resource Material (TRM)

Rex Book Store hopes that through the efficient use of the worktexts, TRMs, and the Technology
Enhancement supplements, teachers and learners may gain the full benefits of the basic education
curriculum. Because with Rex Book Store, you’re booked for success.

xiv
CURRICULUM MAP
Key Stage Standards:
The learners should have developed scientific, technological, and environmental literacy that would lead to rational choices on issues confronting
them. Having been exposed to scientific investigations related to real life, they should recognize that the central feature of an investigation is that if one
variable is changed (while controlling all others), the effect of the change on another variable can be measured. The context of the investigation can be
problems at the local or national level to allow them to communicate with learners in other parts of the Philippines or even from other countries using
appropriate technology.
The learners should demonstrate an understanding of science concepts and apply science inquiry skills in addressing real-world problems through
scientific investigations.

Grade Level Standards:


After learning about the digestive system, learners have expanded their knowledge to a deeper understanding of the respiratory and circulatory
systems to promote overall health. They are familiar with some technologies that introduce desired traits in economically important plants and
animals.
Learners can explain how new materials are formed when atoms are rearranged. They can recognize that a wide variety of useful compounds may
xv

arise from such rearrangements.


Learners can identify volcanoes and distinguish between active and inactive ones. They can explain how energy from volcanoes may be tapped
for human use. They are familiar with climatic phenomena that occur on a global scale. They can explain why certain constellations can be seen only at
certain times of the year.
Learners can predict the outcomes of interactions among objects in real life applying the laws of conservation of energy and momentum.

FIRST QUARTER – LIVING THINGS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT


Unit I: Circulatory and Respiratory Systems Working with the
No. of Days: 16 days
Other Organ Systems
Content Standards: Performance Standard:
The learner: The learner:
• demonstrates understanding of how the different structures • conducts an interview with the school nurse or the local health workers
of the circulatory and respiratory systems work together to
transport oxygen-rich blood and nutrients to the different parts on practices that promote proper care for the organs of the circulatory
of the body. and respiratory systems.
• demonstrates understanding of the prevention, detection, and
treatment of diseases affecting the circulatory and respiratory
systems.
Key Teaching
Lesson Number/ Understandings Skills/*21st Points of Strategies/ Assessment
Knowledge Resources
Title/Focus and Key Century Skills Integration Differentiated Strategies
Questions Instruction
Lesson 1 – The KU: 1. The cardiovas- 1. Describes Integration with: • Think-Pair-Share • Think-Pair-Share • Madriaga, E. A.
Organs of the 1. The heart and cular system the parts and Music and • Brainstorming • Research work (2012), Science
Cardiovascular circulatory 2. The lymphatic functions of Technology Activity Links: Biology,
System the circulatory • Quiz Rex Book Store
system system • Experiential
Number of days: make up the system. • Journal Writing
3. Vocabulary “Circulatory Learning
(4 days) cardiovascular Words: 2. Explains the • Portfolio Activity www.
system. mechanism System Song” • Collaborative
heart, blood Activity • Size Up rexinteractive.com
2. Rhythmic vessels, blood, on how the
Lesson Focus circulatory • Hands-On • Performance
pumping of the cardiovascular, Integration with:
system Activity Task using
• Types of mammalian lymphatic,
transports Language and GRASPS
circulatory heart drives arteries,
nutrients, gases, Health
system blood through capillaries, veins,
pulmonary etc. and other
• Heart molecules to
and systemic
xvi

• Problems in circuits. and from the


the circulatory different parts
3. Different organs of the body.
system
are involved in
• Healthy the process of 3. Explains how
circulatory transporting lifestyle (e.g.,
system blood and fluids regular exercise,
that the body smoking)
can use. affects the
functioning of
the circulatory
KQ: system.
1. How does the 4. Thinking and
circulatory Problem-Solving
system manage Skills
stress?
Lesson 2 and KU: 1. Composition of 1. Describe the Integration with: • Demonstration • Think-Pair-Share • Madriaga, E. A.
3 – The Blood 1. Blood is blood parts and Language and Arts • Tic-tac-toe • Research work (2012), Science
and the Blood composed 2. Formed functions of Links: Biology,
Clotting Process the circulatory “Exit Activities” • Quiz Rex Book Store
of different elements in the
/ The Different constituents blood system. “Dramatization” • Journal Writing
Blood Groups and functions. 2. Compare and
3. Functions of the • Portfolio Activity www.rexinterac-
2. The blood blood vessel contrast the tive.com
• Size Up
Number of days: vessels serve as different blood
4. Platelets vessels. • Performance
(4 days) the passageway (also called Task using
Lesson Focus for blood to thrombocytes) 3. Sequence the
GRASPS
feed supply and help the blood venues of the
• The blood protect the cells oxygenated and
vessels to clot (thicken
of the body. and stop deoxygenated
• Parts and 3. Blood contains flowing). blood in the
functions of clotting factors pathways of
the circulatory 5. Red blood cells circulation.
to help it clot
xvii

system (also called


and the body’s erythrocytes) 4. Explains the
• The human tissues to heal. carry oxygen mechanism
blood 4. The solids in and are the on how the
the blood are most plentiful. circulatory
• ABO blood
cells. Each of system
relationship 6. White blood
the three main transport
• The Rh or ‘D’ cells (also called nutrients, gases,
types of blood leukocytes)
blood factor and other
cells circulates ward off
within the molecules to
infection. and from the
plasma. When the body different parts
KQ: is fighting of the body.
1. How does the infection, it
makes them in 5. Infer blood
blood circulate types after the
in the body? ever-increasing
numbers (an addition of
2. How are the important part typing sera.
different organs of the immune
of transport system at work).
important to Still, most
maintaining a healthy adults
smooth flow have about 700
of traffic in our times as many
body’s highway? red blood cells
3. How does one’s as white ones.
blood type 7. Vocabulary
affect his life? Words: plasma,
4. Why is blood corpuscles,
typing albumin, red
important? blood cell,
globulin, white
blood cell,
haemoglobin,
etc.
Lesson 4 – The KU: 1. How all systems 1. Makes a chart Experential • Chalk and Board • Think-Pair-Share • Madriaga, E. A.
Cardiac Cycle, 1. The walls of are reliant on of diseases Learning • Socratic • Research work (2012), Science
Heart Sounds, each other for affecting the Links: Biology,
the heart are a Integration with: Dialogue • Quiz
circulatory
xviii

and Blood special muscle homeostasis. Rex Book Store


Pressure For example, system and their Language • Experiential • Journal Writing
known as Learning
the circulatory prevention, “A Trip to the
Number of days: cardiac muscle. • Portfolio Activity www.rexinterac-
system is detection, and Circulatory • Laboratory
(3 days) 2. The conduction responsible for treatment. System” Activity • Size Up tive.com
Lesson Focus system causes transporting 2. Explain how it Integration with • Research Work • Performance
the cardiac gases, nutrients, affects multiple
• Lymphatic technology: Task using
muscle to beat, and waste body systems • Review/ Drills
System and GRASPS
pump blood throughout the and ultimately Video clip on
Immunity to the organs, lymphatic system
body. homeostasis
tissues, and cells in disorders Integration
of the body. 2. Vocabulary
like Congestive with Language
Words: heart,
3. Cardiovascular Heart Failure and Logical/
cardiac,
disease is the (CHF). Mathematical: “I
cardiovascular,
leading cause of Have Who Has”
lymphatic, etc. 3. Problem-Solving
death in many and Thinking game
developed Signs
countries.
4. Employability
Skills
KQ:
1. What are the
structures and
functions of the
cardiovascular
system?
2. How does
lifestyles affect
the health of the
cardiovascular
system?

Lesson 5 – How KU: 1. Different organs 1. Explains how Integration with: • Chalk and Board • Labeling • Madriaga, E. A.
the Different 1. The circulatory composing the respiratory Arts • Socratic • Graphic (2012), Science
Organs of and the the respiratory and circulatory Dialogue Organizer Links: Biology,
Respiration system systems are Experential Rex Book Store
respiratory Learning • Laboratory • KWL
xix

Work with the systems are 2. Mechanism of interrelated


Circulatory Integration with: Activity • Journal Entry
the transport breathing 2. Discuss the www.rexinterac-
System and exchange respiration • Research Work
3. Adaptations Technology • Portfolio tive.com
Number of days: systems. of the lungs process in • Review/Drills
“Film Viewing” • Performance
(6 days) 2. The movement and kidneys in humans
Integration with: Tasks Using
of air in a body bringing about 3. Problem-Solving GRASPS
is accomplished their functions and Thinking Technology
Lesson Focus
by breathing. efficiently Skills “Library
• Functions and Different organs 4. The two phases (Research) Work”
parts of the are involved in
respiratory of respiration
the process of
system transporting 5. The pathway
• Respiration oxygen and of oxygen
process carbon dioxide and carbon
through dioxide through
• Respiratory the human
the human
problems respiratory tract.
respiratory tract.
3. Gas exchange 6. Vocabulary
or gaseous Words:
exchange respiration,
occurs when inhalation,
we inhale and exhalation,
oxygen enters upper
our body respiratory
and goes to tract, lower
the lungs by respiratory
passing through tract, influenza,
the alveoli and emphysema,
when we exhale etc.
in which the
carbon dioxide
is expelled
from the body
system.

KQ:
1. Why do people
have different
xx

breathing
capacities?
2. What are the
structures and
functions of the
cardiovascular
system and
the respiratory
system?
3. How do the
cardiovascular
system and
respiratory
system
coordinate
their functions
together?
Lesson 6 – Taking KU: 1. Harmful 1. Explains Integration with: • Chalk and Board • Labeling • Madriaga, E. A.
Care of Our 1. A heart-healthy substances how harmful Technology • Socratic • Graphic (2012), Science
Circulatory and lifestyle choices that affect the substances Dialogue Organizer Links: Biology,
Respiratory should include function and affect the Rex Book Store
Systems health of these respiratory “Film Viewing” • Experiential • KWL
information Learning
Number of days: about how systems and circulatory • Journal Entry
systems. • Laboratory www.rexinterac-
(2 days) proper nutrition 2. Realize that the • Portfolio tive.com
Integration with: Activity
Lesson Focus is balanced with decisions they 2. Explains how
Language: RAFT • Performance
exercise. Specific make now affect lifestyle (e.g., • Research Work
• Harmful Tasks Using
components their future regular exercise,
substances • Review/ Drills GRASPS
include health and well- smoking)
that affect the choosing being. affects the “Research in the
circulatory and healthy food, functioning of Library”
respiratory 3. Vocabulary
consuming Words: the circulatory
systems appropriate and respiratory
• Taking care of portion sizes, digestive systems.
the circulatory understanding system, urinary
xxi

and respiratory calorie system,


systems requirements, cigarette,
determining a smoking,
healthy weight, nicotine, tar
and establishing
healthy eating
habits to carry
into adulthood.

KQ:
1. How can we
maintain
healthy
circulatory and
respiratory
systems?
Key Stage Standards:
The learners should have developed scientific, technological, and environmental literacy that would lead to rational choices on issues confronting
them. Having been exposed to scientific investigations related to real life, they should recognize that the central feature of an investigation is that if one
variable is changed (while controlling all others), the effect of the change on another variable can be measured. The context of the investigation can be
problems at the local or national level to allow them to communicate with learners in other parts of the Philippines or even from other countries using
appropriate technology.
The learners should demonstrate an understanding of science concepts and apply science inquiry skills in addressing real-world problems through
scientific investigations.

Grade Level Standards:


After learning about the digestive system, learners have expanded their knowledge to a deeper understanding of the respiratory and circulatory
systems to promote overall health. They are familiar with some technologies that introduce desired traits in economically important plants and animals.
Learners can explain how new materials are formed when atoms are rearranged. They can recognize that a wide variety of useful compounds may
arise from such rearrangements.
xxii

Learners can identify volcanoes and distinguish between active and inactive ones. They can explain how energy from volcanoes may be tapped
for human use. They are familiar with climatic phenomena that occur on a global scale. They can explain why certain constellations can be seen only at
certain times of the year.
Learners can predict the outcomes of interactions among objects in real life applying the laws of conservation of energy and momentum.

FIRST QUARTER – LIVING THINGS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT

Unit II: Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits No. of Days: 12 days
Content Standards: Performance Standard:
The learner: The learner:
• demonstrates understanding that genetic information is organ- • illustrates how traits of economically important plants and animals are
ized in genes on chromosomes improved through breeding
• demonstrates understanding that traits of an organism are trans-
mitted to the offspring through the genes found in chromosomes
Key Teaching
Lesson Number/ Understandings Skills/*21st Points of Strategies/ Assessment
Knowledge Resources
Title/Focus and Key Century Skills Integration Differentiated Strategies
Questions Instruction
Lesson 1 – The KU: 1. Chromosomal 1. Describe Integration with: • Demonstration • Whip Around • Madriaga, E. A.
Structure of the basis of the location Technology (2012), Science
1. Chromosomes • Socratic • Idea Bulb
Chromosome inheritance of genes in Links: Biology,
are responsible Dialogue
2. Vocabulary chromosomes • Pen-and-Paper Rex Book Store
Number of days: for carrying “Film Viewing”
Words: cell • Collaborative
genetic • Venn Diagram
division, 2. Investigate the Activity
(4 days) information
chromosomes, transmission of • Portfolio www.rexinterac-
in each • Experiential
Lesson Focus haploid, diploid, characteristics tive.com
organization. Learning • Journal Entry
alleles, gene from parents
• Gender KQ: • Discovery
location, etc. to off spring, • Size Up
Determination Learning
1. What link and identify
• The Genes lies between examples of
xxiii

chromosomes characteristics
• Linked Genes and genetics? in offspring.

3. Describe
the role and
relationship of
chromosomes,
genes, and DNA
Lesson 2 – Non- KU: 1. Definition 1. Construct 1. Read a news • Think-Pair- • Hands On – • Madriaga, E. A.
Mendelian of Multiple and analyse article about Share: Minds on (2012), Science
Patterns of 1. Understand Punnett squares the death of Links: Biology,
Allelism and • GRASPS • Short Quiz
Inheritance the gene code showing the woman due to Rex Book Store
Codominance. • Say Something • Ticket-to-Leave
for traits and inheritance of wrong blood
be familiar 2. Relationships the A, B, O blood transfusion. Cards
Number of days: with simple between types. By pair, the www.rexinterac-
(4 days) students will tive.com
dominance Multiple 1. Explains how
inheritance and Allelism and genes are share their
responsible for answers to
Punnett squares. Codominance in
Lesson Focus two questions
the inheritance specific traits.
• Principle of 2. They should related to the
of a trait which 2. Propose how article read.
Incomplete understand the
does not follow genetics can
Dominance terms genotype
the Mendelian be used in
• Principle of and phenotype. addressing Performance
pattern (i.e.,
Codominance certain Task :
3. Multiple Allelism inheritance
• Principle of situations 1. Goal–To prove
is a condition of ABO blood
Multiple Alleles or solving
xxiv

where more types). before a court


problems. as to whether
• Sex Linked Traits than two alleles
3. Possible or not Juan
• Sex influenced control a single
combinations Manuel is a
Trait trait, resulting to
of three alleles long lost son
• Sex Limited Trait a greater variety of Don Manny,
(i.e., IA , IB, and
of phenotypes a prominent
i) resulting
for the trait. billionaire who
to different
recently died.
4. Codominance blood group
may result genotypes and
from multiple phenotype.
allelism, where
neither of
two alleles is
dominant.
over the 4. Vocabulary Role–Lawyer of
other, in turn, Words: Rosalinda and
result to the dominance, Mercedes, Don
expression (or traits, Manny’s two
appearance) of Codominance, acknowledged
two phenotype allele, children
influenced by Hemophilia,
color blindness, Audience–Court
the two alleles. Judge
etc.
KQ: Situation or
1. Why are there context of
inherited traits scenario - Court
which are hearing
expressed in Product for
more than two evaluation -
forms? Case narrative
defending your
xxv

2. What explain
the coinciding conclusions as a
expression or lawyer, supported
appearance of by Punnett
two phenotypes squares
for a single trait Integration with
in an individual? Technology
3. How are “Research on
multiple allelism Human Genome
and codominace Project”
exhibited in the “You Tube Video
inheritance of on Genetic
blood type in Variation and
humans? Inheritance”
Key Stage Standards:
The learners should have developed scientific, technological, and environmental literacy that would lead to rational choices on issues confronting
them. Having been exposed to scientific investigations related to real life, they should recognize that the central feature of an investigation is that if one
variable is changed (while controlling all others), the effect of the change on another variable can be measured. The context of the investigation can be
problems at the local or national level to allow them to communicate with learners in other parts of the Philippines or even from other countries using
appropriate technology.
The learners should demonstrate an understanding of science concepts and apply science inquiry skills in addressing real-world problems through
scientific investigations.

Grade Level Standards:


After learning about the digestive system, learners have expanded their knowledge to a deeper understanding of the respiratory and circulatory
systems to promote overall health. They are familiar with some technologies that introduce desired traits in economically important plants and animals.
Learners can explain how new materials are formed when atoms are rearranged. They can recognize that a wide variety of useful compounds may
arise from such rearrangements.
xxvi

Learners can identify volcanoes and distinguish between active and inactive ones. They can explain how energy from volcanoes may be tapped
for human use. They are familiar with climatic phenomena that occur on a global scale. They can explain why certain constellations can be seen only at
certain times of the year.
Learners can predict the outcomes of interactions among objects in real life applying the laws of conservation of energy and momentum.

FIRST QUARTER – LIVING THINGS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT

Unit III: Biodiversity and Evolution No. of Days: 15 days


Content Standards: Performance Standard:
The learner: The learner:
• demonstrates understanding that most species that have once • makes a multimedia presentation of a timeline of extinction of
existed are now extinct representative microorganisms, plants, and animals
• demonstrates understanding that species become extinct when
the environment changes and they fail to adapt
Key Teaching
Lesson Number/ Understandings Skills/*21st Points of Strategies/ Assessment
Knowledge Resources
Title/Focus and Key Century Skills Integration Differentiated Strategies
Questions Instruction
Lesson 1a – Types KU: 1. Organisms are 1. Explain the Integration with: • Demonstration • Frayer Model • Madriaga, E. A.
of Biodiversity 1. Biodiversity dependent and advantage With Music and • Library Work • Journal Writing (2012), Science
balances the interdependent of high Technology Links: Biology,
with each other. biodiversity over • Think-Pair-Share • Exit Cards Rex Book Store
Number of Days: earth. Without
biodiversity, we 2. Variation is low biodiversity. • 10+2 Note • Portfolio
(3 days) cannot say that good! If a 2. Describe Integration with: taking
www.rexinterac-
our planet may population the relative Language and • Experiential tive.com
exist. Diverse loses some of abundance of Technology Learning
Lesson Focus
area provides this variation, species on earth
• Mind Splatter
• Species diversity us our needs it is more and in different
to survive such vulnerable to environments. • Debate
• Importance of
as food, clean environmental • Group Dynamics
xxvii

biodiversity
air, medicine, changes than a
• Biodiversity loss beauty and the population with
• The Philippine like. It makes our more variation.
biodiversity environment 3. Vocabulary
productive. Words:
A diverse biodiversity,
ecosystem is ecosystem,
very beneficial endemic
to humans. species, species
A diverse diversity,
ecosystem can endangered
prevent and species, etc.
recover from
lots of disasters.

KQ:
1. How important
is biodiversity?
Lesson 1b – KU: 1. Due to climate 1. Identify causes Integration with: • Extinction • Anticipation • Madriaga, E. A.
Causes of Species The earth is change, of species Art poster guide (2012), Science
Extinction and worsening uncontrollable extinction • Socratic • Pencil and Paper Links: Biology,
Evolution because it is calamities are 2. Describe Dialogue Rex Book Store
now extremely • Library Work
already polluted. ongoing • Demonstration
It is due to the destroying lives changes in • Graphic
Number of Days: and properties. • Experiential Organizer www.rexinterac-
abusive human biological tive.com
(3 days) activity wherein 2. Vocabulary diversity Learning • Analogy
the non-renewable words: through
• 3-minute pause
resources extinction, extinction of
Lesson Focus • Journal Writing
are gradually anthropogenic relative species.
• Natural causes declining. As causes, 3. Investigate • RERUN
of species a result, more migration, the role of
extinction species become ecesis, human • Performance
environmental Tasks Using
endangered and interference, etc.
• Human facts in causing GRASPS
extinct. There these changes.
activities
will come a time
• Laws of that starvation
xxviii

biodiversity widespread
• The ‘Domino’ because there
or ‘Riffle Effect’ are prevalent
of Species fish kill, forest
Extinction and agricultural
land are being
converted into
commercial and
residential area,
and different
diseases will be
rampant because
of the dirt that
is covering our
planet.
KQ:
How does
civilization affect
the environment?
Lesson 2 – KU: 1. Heterotroph 1. Relates species Integration with: • Extinction • Anticipation • Madriaga, E. A.
Adaptations as Students will hypothesis extinction to Art poster guide (2012), Science
Key Factors for understand: 2. Radiocarbon the failure of • Socratic • Pencil and Paper Links: Biology,
Species Survival dating populations Dialogue Rex Book Store
1. Living of organism to • Library Work
organisms 3. Vocabulary adapt to abrupt • Demonstration • Graphic
Number of Days: change over Words: fossils, changes in the • Experiential Organizer www.rexinterac-
(5 days) time due to amber, environment. Learning tive.com
living and petrifaction, • Analogy
non-living sedimentation, 2. Conduct an
• 3-minute pause
factors in the footprints, electronic
Lesson Focus • Journal Writing
environment. comparative search for
• Extinction and information
xxix

anatomy, • RERUN
Adaptation 2. Organisms need on factors
to change and comparative, • Performance
• Adaptations and cytology, that affect the
adapt to their reproduction Tasks Using
Animal Behavior comparative, GRASPS
environment in and survival of
order to survive. embryology, etc.
species.
3. Organisms are
related to each
other in many
ways.
4. Darwin’s
theories
impacted
the theory of
evolution.
5. There is
variation in the
genes within
the same
population of
organisms.
KQ:
1. How does
adaptation
change
the earth’s
landscape?
2. What factors
affect the ability
of organisms
to survive and
reproduce in an
ecosystem?
xxx
Key Stage Standards:
The learners should have developed scientific, technological, and environmental literacy that would lead to rational choices on issues confronting
them. Having been exposed to scientific investigations related to real life, they should recognize that the central feature of an investigation is that if one
variable is changed (while controlling all others), the effect of the change on another variable can be measured. The context of the investigation can be
problems at the local or national level to allow them to communicate with learners in other parts of the Philippines or even from other countries using
appropriate technology.
The learners should demonstrate an understanding of science concepts and apply science inquiry skills in addressing real-world problems through
scientific investigations.

Grade Level Standards:


After learning about the digestive system, learners have expanded their knowledge to a deeper understanding of the respiratory and circulatory
systems to promote overall health. They are familiar with some technologies that introduce desired traits in economically important plants and animals.
Learners can explain how new materials are formed when atoms are rearranged. They can recognize that a wide variety of useful compounds may
arise from such rearrangements.
xxxi

Learners can identify volcanoes and distinguish between active and inactive ones. They can explain how energy from volcanoes may be tapped
for human use. They are familiar with climatic phenomena that occur on a global scale. They can explain why certain constellations can be seen only at
certain times of the year.
Learners can predict the outcomes of interactions among objects in real life applying the laws of conservation of energy and momentum.

FIRST QUARTER – LIVING THINGS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT

Unit IV: Flow of Energy and Life Processes in Ecosystems No. of Days: 14 days

Content Standard: Performance Standards:


The learner: The learner:
• demonstrates understanding of photosynthesis and respiration • shows through a poster how photosynthesis and respiration are related
as life energy processes to each other in terms of the feeding relationships and the transfer of
energy through trophic levels
• reports on farming practices that relate knowledge of photosynthesis
that may result to increased yield
Key Teaching
Lesson Number/ Understandings Skills/*21st Points of Strategies/ Assessment
Knowledge Resources
Title/Focus and Key Century Skills Integration Differentiated Strategies
Questions Instruction
Lesson 1 – KU: 1. The difference 1. Effectively Integration with: • Demonstration • Flash Card • Madriaga, E. A.
Organisms and Students will between matter uses science language • Simon Says • Pen-and-Paper (2012), Science
How They Obtain understand that: and energy. equipment. Links: Biology,
Energy • Socratic • Graphic Rex Book Store
1. Life depends 2. The basic 2. Accurately Dialogue Organizer
on energy flow energy gathers
transformations measurements • Science • Portfolio
Number of days: within systems. Olympics www.rexinterac-
in the and other data. • KWL Chart tive.com
(3 days) 2. An ecosystem environment. • Experiential
transfers (and 3. Makes • 3-2-1 Exit Card
3. What quantitative Learning
transforms) • Size Up
Lesson Focus matter and microhabitats and qualitative
are in a school observations. • Performance
• Metabolism and energy from
yard? Tasks Using
Its Phases one organism to 4. Diagrams the
GRASPS
another. 4. The external flow of energy
xxxii

3. Organisms and internal in food chains,


(including stimuli and food webs,
you) and their how organisms and energy
environments responded pyramids.
are differently 5. Compares
interconnected. to their and contrasts
environments. internal and
external stimuli.
KQ:
1. How are matter
and energy
connected?
2. How are
organisms
dependent on
one another?
3. How are
organisms
shaped by their
environment?

Lesson 2 – KU: 1. List the require- 1. Illustrates and Integration with: • Charades • Idea Bulb • Madriaga, E. A.
Photosynthesis 1. Photosynthesis ments for describe the language • Find the Fib • Web Map (2012), Science
happens only photosynthesis process of Links: Biology,
and cellular photosynthesis. • Show and Tell • Pen-and-Paper Rex Book Store
Number of days: to the plants,
a chemical respiration to • Discovery • Graphic
(5 days) process that happen. Learning Organizer
2. Provides www.rexinterac-
converts solar 2. Vocabulary evidence that • Demonstration • Whip Around tive.com
energy to Words: Glu- plants can
Lesson Focus • Science • Size Up
chemical energy cose, oxygen, manufacture
• Raw Materials of Olympics • Performance
while respiration redox reaction, their own food.
Photosynthesis happens in thermochemical Tasks Using
xxxiii

• Other Factors both plants and phase, electron GRASPS


Important in animals. These transport chain,
Photosynthesis processes are photosystem I
both associated and II, photores-
• Chloroplasts to energy piration, etc.
and Pigments production.
• The light and
dark reaction of
photosynthesis KQ:
1. How is pho-
tosynthesis
associated to
respiration?
Lesson 3 KU: 1. Essential 1. Differentiate the Integration with: • Demonstration • Pen-and-Paper • Madriaga, E. A.
– Cellular 1. Photosynthesis processes in basic features of language • Socratic • Matching (2012), Science
Respiration and respiration sustaining photosynthesis Dialogue Links: Biology,
life on Earth and respiration • Think-Pair-Share Rex Book Store
both occur • Experiential
in cellular includes cellular • Note-Taking
Number of days: respiration and Learning
organelles 2. Explains the • Portfolio www.rexinterac-
(4 days) because the photosynthesis. • Teacher Talk
importance of • T-Chart tive.com
cells are the 2. Vocabulary photosynthesis • Role Play
site for energy Words: • Exit Pass
Lesson Focus to other
production. It adenosine organism • Sentence
• Mitochondria is where the triphosphate, Completion/
as the Site energy-making mitochondrion, Examples
of cellular organelles are aerobic
Respiration found. The cells respiration, • Size Up
• Chemical need energy glycolysis, Krebs • Performance
Reactions that in order for the cycle, electron Tasks Using
Power Cellular body to perform transport chain, GRASPS
Respiration well. etc.
xxxiv

• Types of cellular
respiration KQ:
• Anaerobic 1. Why do
Respiration respiration and
photosynthesis
occur in cellular
organelles?
Key Stage Standards:
The learners should have developed scientific, technological, and environmental literacy that would lead to rational choices on issues confronting
them. Having been exposed to scientific investigations related to real life, they should recognize that the central feature of an investigation is that if one
variable is changed (while controlling all others), the effect of the change on another variable can be measured. The context of the investigation can be
problems at the local or national level to allow them to communicate with learners in other parts of the Philippines or even from other countries using
appropriate technology.
The learners should demonstrate an understanding of science concepts and apply science inquiry skills in addressing real-world problems through
scientific investigations.

Grade Level Standards:


After learning about the digestive system, learners have expanded their knowledge to a deeper understanding of the respiratory and circulatory
systems to promote overall health. They are familiar with some technologies that introduce desired traits in economically important plants and animals.
Learners can explain how new materials are formed when atoms are rearranged. They can recognize that a wide variety of useful compounds may
arise from such rearrangements.
xxxv

Learners can identify volcanoes and distinguish between active and inactive ones. They can explain how energy from volcanoes may be tapped
for human use. They are familiar with climatic phenomena that occur on a global scale. They can explain why certain constellations can be seen only at
certain times of the year.
Learners can predict the outcomes of interactions among objects in real life applying the laws of conservation of energy and momentum.

SECOND QUARTER – MATTER

Unit V: Chemical Bonding No. of Days: 9 days


Content Standards: Performance Standards:
The learner: The learner:
• understands the forces that hold metals together • conducts a survey of organic and inorganic compounds found as natural
• knows how atoms form bonds with other atoms by transfer or resources in the Philippines
sharing electrons • presents data in poster, chart, or multimedia the uses of compounds
based on their properties
Key Teaching
Lesson Number/ Understandings Skills/*21st Points of Strategies/ Assessment
Knowledge Resources
Title/Focus and Key Century Skills Integration Differentiated Strategies
Questions Instruction
Lesson 1 – The KU: 1. Electron 1. Explain Values: • Gallery Walk Pre-Assessment: • Aquino, M. et al.
Octet Rule 1. Electron Configuration chemical Science Links 9.
• No man is an • Brain storming • Pre-Test
changes in REX Publishing.
configuration 2. Lewis Electron island • mnemonics
terms of the (2013)
Number of days: helps identify Dot Structure
breaking of Formative
elements • Bascara, M. et
(4 days) bonds and the
and their rearrangement
Assessment: al. Science Links
arrangement of atoms to Chemistry. REX
• Drills / Practice
in the periodic form new Publishing.
Lesson Focus: Exercises
table. substances ( (2012)
• Electron Critical Thinking
2. Stability of
Configuration and Problem Summative
elements is
and Valence Solving). Assessment:
important and
Electron
is achieved 2. explain the • journal
xxxvi

• Lewis Electron through most important


Dot Structure chemical principle of
(LEDS) bonding which chemical
causes atoms bonding.
to gain, lose or 3. show / illustrate
share electrons. the LEDS of
atoms.
KQ: 4. recognize
different types
1. How can of compounds
electron (ionic or
arrangement be covalent) from
used to identify their properties
substances? such as melting
point, hardness,
polarity, and
electrical
and thermal
conductivity.
Lesson 2 – Ionic KU: 1. Ionic Charges 1. Explain the • Medicine • Double-Entry Pre-Assessment: • Aquino, M. et al.
Bond formation Journal Science Links 9.
1. The need to 2. Formation • Hypokalemia • KWLH
of ionic REX Publishing.
Number of days: attain stability of Ionic compounds (Potassium Ion • Think-Pair-Share
enables ions Compounds Deficiency) (2013)
(4 days) in terms of
to bond and 3. Chemical ionization Formative • Internet
Lesson Focus: form ionic Assessment:
Formula and energy and • Bascara, M. et
• Ionic Charges compounds Name of ionic electron al., Science Links
by gaining or • Drills / Practice
Compounds affinity (Critical Chemistry. REX
• Formation Exercises
losing electrons. Thinking Publishing.
of Ionic 4. Important and Problem
Compounds 2. The type Ions and Ionic (2012)
Solving);
of bonds a Compound Summative
• Chemical 2. Infer trends
substance has Assessment:
Formula and in ionization
influences • simile
Name of Ionic energy and
its chemical
Compounds electron affinity
and physical
• Important properties. 3. Explain
xxxvii

Ions and Ionic how binary


3. Atomic structure and ternary
Compounds
dictates compounds
bonding, are formed
which in turn and write
determines the their chemical
structures of formula (Critical
compounds Thinking
and Problem
Solving);
KQ: 4. Determine
1. Why is stability the uses of
of compounds ions and ionic
essential? compounds in
the body and in
2. How are industry.
properties
5. Research on
related to the economic
bonding? importance
of some
carbonates
(Information
Literacy)
Lesson 3 – KU: 1. Formation 1. Explain/ • Technology • Socialized Pre-Assessment: • Aquino, M. et al.
Covalent Bond 1. Stability of two of Covalent illustrate the • Importance recitation • Anticipation Science Links 9.
non-metals Compounds formation of covalent • double-entry Guide REX Publishing.
is achieved 2. Chemical of covalent compounds journal (2013)
Number of days: compounds
through Formula • gallery walk • Internet
(4 days) covalent and Name 2. explain the Formative
• enrichment • Bascara, M. et
bonding which of Covalent molecular Assessment: al. Science Links
enable them to Compounds geometry activity (album-
Lesson Focus: making) • Drills / Practice Chemistry. REX
share electrons. 3. Molecular through VSEPR Publishing.
Exercises
• Formation • differentiated
2. The type Geometry 3. differentiate (2012)
and Naming activity using • enrichment
of element 4. Difference ionic and
of Covalent modality activity (album-
determines the Between Ionic covalent
Compounds making)
type of bond Bond and bonding
• Molecular that will occur • differentiated
Covalent Bond
Geometry in chemical activity using
reaction. modality
• Properties of
Ionic Bond
xxxviii

and Covalent Summative


KQ:
Compounds Assessment:
1. What is the use
or importance • quiz
of covalent • exit pass
compounds in
our daily lives?
Lesson 4 – KU: 1. Metallic 1. Explain • Industry • Differentiated • Q and A • Aquino, M. et al.
Metallic Bonds 1. Metals have Properties properties • Importance of Activity using • Research Science Links 9.
properties of metals in Metals modality Assignment REX Publishing.
which terms of their • 2-column chart (2013)
Number of days: structure. • 4-box syndetic
determine their • enrichment 3-2-1 exit card • Internet
(4 days) uses to industry 2. Create a activity • Unit Test • Bascara, M. et
and society. scrapbook al. Science Links
showing metals • Performance Chemistry. REX
Lesson Focus:
and their uses. Task Publishing.
• Metallic KQ:
(2012)
Properties 1. Why do metals
have high
melting point?
2. Why are metals
good conductor
of electricity?
xxxix
Key Stage Standards:
The learners should have developed scientific, technological, and environmental literacy that would lead to rational choices on issues confronting
them. Having been exposed to scientific investigations related to real life, they should recognize that the central feature of an investigation is that if one
variable is changed (while controlling all others), the effect of the change on another variable can be measured. The context of the investigation can be
problems at the local or national level to allow them to communicate with learners in other parts of the Philippines or even from other countries using
appropriate technology.
The learners should demonstrate an understanding of science concepts and apply science inquiry skills in addressing real-world problems through
scientific investigations.

Grade Level Standards:


After learning about the digestive system, learners have expanded their knowledge to a deeper understanding of the respiratory and circulatory
systems to promote overall health. They are familiar with some technologies that introduce desired traits in economically important plants and animals.
Learners can explain how new materials are formed when atoms are rearranged. They can recognize that a wide variety of useful compounds may
arise from such rearrangements.
Learners can identify volcanoes and distinguish between active and inactive ones. They can explain how energy from volcanoes may be tapped
xl

for human use. They are familiar with climatic phenomena that occur on a global scale. They can explain why certain constellations can be seen only at
certain times of the year.
Learners can predict the outcomes of interactions among objects in real life applying the laws of conservation of energy and momentum.

SECOND QUARTER – MATTER

Unit VI: The Variety of Carbon Compounds No. of Days: 12 days


Content Standard: Performance Standard:
The learner: The Learners:
• understands the type of bond that carbon forms resulting to the • creates a database of the organic compounds surveyed, indicating their
diversity of carbon compounds structure, properties and uses
Key Teaching
Lesson Number/ Understandings Skills/*21st Points of Strategies/ Assessment
Knowledge Resources
Title/Focus and Key Century Skills Integration Differentiated Strategies
Questions Instruction
Lesson 1 – The KU: 1. Organic vs. 1. Explain the Values: • gallery walk Pre-Assessment: • Aquino, M. et al.
Carbon Atom 1. To understand Inorganic importance of • Those which • description Frayer Model Science Links 9.
life is to 2. Importance carbon and how are unseen are wheel REX Publishing.
understand of Organic the structure essential. (2013)
Number of days: of carbon atom • research work
organic Compounds Formative • Internet
chemistry affects the type • Venn diagram Assessment:
(4 days) • Bascara, M. et
which is all of bonds it
forms. • Laboratory al., Science Links
about carbon Chemistry. REX
Activity
Lesson Focus: compounds. 2. Research Publishing.
on different • DI activity using
• Carbon (2012)
allotropes of MI
Structure
KQ: carbon, their
• Organic vs.
xli

1. Why is the properties and


Inorganic
study of organic structure, and Summative
compounds their biological Assessment:
important to and economic • Quick Quiz
our lives? importance.
• journal
2. How do organic 3. Differentiate
compounds organic and
benefit inorganic
and harm compounds.
the human 4. Recognize the
health and general classes
environment? of organic
compounds and
their uses.
Lesson 2 – KU: 1. Isomerism 1. explain / Industry: • Double Entry Pre-Assessment: • Aquino, M. et al.
Hydrocarbons 1. Properties 2. Types of illustrate • Hydrocarbons Journal • Q and A using Science Links 9.
of carbon Hydrocarbons different everywhere like Readiness REX Publishing.
determine their isomers of an the Teflon pan Grouping (2013)
Number of days: 3. Uses of atom.
functions. Hydrocarbons or kitchen ware • Internet
(4 days) 2. research on
2. Isomers are • Bascara, M. et
4. Effects of how methane is Formative
differing Hydrocarbons al. Science Links
arrangements of produces out of Assessment: Chemistry. REX
Lesson Focus: to health and
the same atoms wastes. Publishing.
environment • Drills
• Isomerism
3. name different (2012)
• Classes of types of
Hydrocarbons KQ: hydrocarbons, Summative
1. What are the give examples Assessment:
- Alkanes
effects of and their uses • Quick Quiz
- Alkenes
hydrocarbons and effects in
- Alkynes • Exit pass
to humans, daily life.
- Aromatic environment
Hydrocarbons and other
xlii

• Uses of compounds?
Hydrocarbons
• Effects of
Hydrocarbons
to Health and
Environment
Lesson 3 – KU: 1. Hydroxyl Group 1. Explain the Medicine: • Socialized Pre-Assessment: • Aquino, M. et al.,
Functional 1. Functional 2. Carbonyl Group functional • Diseases cured Recitation - simile Science Links 9.
Groups groups groups, their by penicillin REX Publishing.
3. Carboxyl Group examples, and Formative (2013)
Number of days: determine
(4 days) chemical Amines and their uses in Assessment: • Internet
properties Amides daily life.
Lesson Focus: - discussion • Bascara, M. et
of organic technique al. Science Links
• Hydroxyl Group substances.
Summative Chemistry. REX
• Carbonyl Group Publishing.
Assessment:
(2012)
- Unit Test
• Carboxyl Group 1. The presence 1. Develop • Info Drive
• Amines and of functional ways of how about Carbon
Amides groups can be people can be Compounds:
used to predict protected from its importance,
the products of harmful carbon hazards,
a reaction. compounds. and proper
handling.

KQ:
1. How are the
arrangement
and number of
carbon atoms in
a hydrocarbon
related to the
properties?
xliii

2. How are the


three forms of
unsaturated
hydrocarbons
different?
Similar?
3. How does the
carbon atom’s
structure affect
the type of
bonds formed
in organic
molecules?
Key Stage Standards:
The learners should have developed scientific, technological, and environmental literacy that would lead to rational choices on issues confronting
them. Having been exposed to scientific investigations related to real life, they should recognize that the central feature of an investigation is that if one
variable is changed (while controlling all others), the effect of the change on another variable can be measured. The context of the investigation can be
problems at the local or national level to allow them to communicate with learners in other parts of the Philippines or even from other countries using
appropriate technology.
The learners should demonstrate an understanding of science concepts and apply science inquiry skills in addressing real-world problems through
scientific investigations.

Grade Level Standards:


After learning about the digestive system, learners have expanded their knowledge to a deeper understanding of the respiratory and circulatory
systems to promote overall health. They are familiar with some technologies that introduce desired traits in economically important plants and animals.
Learners can explain how new materials are formed when atoms are rearranged. They can recognize that a wide variety of useful compounds may
arise from such rearrangements.
Learners can identify volcanoes and distinguish between active and inactive ones. They can explain how energy from volcanoes may be tapped
xliv

for human use. They are familiar with climatic phenomena that occur on a global scale. They can explain why certain constellations can be seen only at
certain times of the year.
Learners can predict the outcomes of interactions among objects in real life applying the laws of conservation of energy and momentum.

SECOND QUARTER – MATTER

Unit VII: Mole Concept No. of Days: 10 days


Content Standard: Performance Standard:
The Learners: The Learners:
• understands that matter consists of an extremely large number • designs an educational game involving mole concepts
of very small particles which can be quantitatively measured by
the unit, which is called mole
Key Teaching
Lesson Number/ Understandings Skills/*21st Points of Strategies/ Assessment
Knowledge Resources
Title/Focus and Key Century Skills Integration Differentiated Strategies
Questions Instruction
Lesson 1 – KU: 1. The Avogadro’s 1. Define mole Values: • brain storming Pre-Assessment: • Aquino, M. et al.
Mole and Mass 1. Understanding Number and its use in • count your activity • Splash Science Links 9.
Relationship moles leads 2. Molar Mass chemistry. unseen • socialized REX Publishing.
- Think-Pair-Share (2013)
to a better 3. Formula Mass 2. Use the mole blessings recitation
Number of days: understanding or Molecular concept to • demonstration • Internet
of molecules. Weight express mass of Formative • Bascara, M. et
(4 days) substances. Industry: • DI activity using
2. The mole is MI Assessment: al. Science Links
an essential 3. Solve for molar Review of Chemistry. REX
composition of - Drills
Lesson Focus: concept in mass and Publishing.
understanding formula mass. chemical products • Laboratory (2012)
• The Avogadro’s in the house Activity
the mechanisms
Number of chemistry • exit pass
xlv

• Molar Mass and has a


significant role • DI activity using
• Formula Mass or MI
Molecular Mass in chemical
calculations and
• Stoichiometric the application
Conversions of dimensional Summative
analysis in their Assessment:
solution. • Simile
KQ: • checking of
1. Why use moles SPLASH
to know the • design of a
number of game using
molecules you mole concepts
have in a sample
of a substance?
2. How is
Avogadro’s mole
essential to
understanding
stoichiometry?
3. What are its
applications to
our daily lives?

Lesson 2 – KU: 1. Percentage 1. Describe the Technology: • Socialized Pre-Assessment: • Aquino, M. et al.
Percentage- 1. Elements and Composition composition of • Breathalyzer to recitation • Misconception Science Links 9.
by-Mass compounds 2. Stoichiometry a compound analyze toxicity • demonstration check REX Publishing.
Composition of a have a counting by percentage (2013)
Compound system to mass. • Internet
attain more 2. Determine the Formative
• Bascara, M. et
Number of days: information and percentage of Assessment: al. Science Links
understanding. composition of Chemistry. REX
(2 days) • Drills
a compound Publishing.
given its (2012)
KQ: chemical
Lesson Focus: Summative
1. What is the formula and vice Assessment:
• Computing significance versa.
percentage of getting • quick quiz
xlvi

composition of percentage • simile


a compound composition
from formulas?

Lesson 3 – KU: 1. Empirical • Differentiate Industry: • socialized Pre-Assessment: • Aquino, M. et al.


Empirical 1. The formulas formula empirical and Review of recitation • Q and A Science Links 9.
Formula and manifest 2. Molecular molecular composition of • demonstration REX Publishing.
Molecular formula. Formative (2013)
the changes formula chemical products
Formula occurring in • Compute the in the house Assessment: • Internet
Number of days: elements and empirical and • Drills • Bascara, M. et
(4 days) compounds and the molecular al. Science Links
can help express formula of
Summative
Lesson Focus: Assessment: Chemistry. REX
these changes compounds. Publishing.
• Computing in scientific and • quick quiz (2012)
empirical and precise manner.
• simile
molecular
formula of
compounds
KQ:
1. What is the
significance
of getting
percentage
composition
from formulas?
2. What is the
significance
of empirical
and molecular
formulas?
xlvii
Key Stage Standards:
The learners should have developed scientific, technological, and environmental literacy that would lead to rational choices on issues confronting
them. Having been exposed to scientific investigations related to real life, they should recognize that the central feature of an investigation is that if one
variable is changed (while controlling all others), the effect of the change on another variable can be measured. The context of the investigation can be
problems at the local or national level to allow them to communicate with learners in other parts of the Philippines or even from other countries using
appropriate technology.
The learners should demonstrate an understanding of science concepts and apply science inquiry skills in addressing real-world problems through
scientific investigations.

Grade Level Standards:


After learning about the digestive system, learners have expanded their knowledge to a deeper understanding of the respiratory and circulatory
systems to promote overall health. They are familiar with some technologies that introduce desired traits in economically important plants and animals.
Learners can explain how new materials are formed when atoms are rearranged. They can recognize that a wide variety of useful compounds may
arise from such rearrangements.
xlviii

Learners can identify volcanoes and distinguish between active and inactive ones. They can explain how energy from volcanoes may be tapped
for human use. They are familiar with climatic phenomena that occur on a global scale. They can explain why certain constellations can be seen only at
certain times of the year.
Learners can predict the outcomes of interactions among objects in real life applying the laws of conservation of energy and momentum.

THIRD QUARTER – EARTH AND SPACE

Unit VIII: Volcanoes No. of Days: 13 days


Content Standard: Performance Standards:
The learners: The learners:
• knows the interior of the Earth using information from • participates in making informed decisions based on identified permanent
volcanoes danger zones around active volcanoes
• shows emergency preparedness before, during, and after a volcanic
eruption including following advisories regarding alert levels and calls for
evacuation given by responsible government agencies
Key Teaching
Lesson Number/ Understandings Skills/*21st Points of Strategies/ Assessment
Knowledge Resources
Title/Focus and Key Century Skills Integration Differentiated Strategies
Questions Instruction
Lesson 1 – KU: 1. Supernatural 1. Identify Society: • Socialized Pre-Assessment: • Aquino, M. et al.
Introduction to 1. Volcanoes are Beliefs volcanoes in the Superstitious Recitation • SPLASH Science Links 9.
Volcanoes part of this 2. Theories of community or belief on • Tiered Activity REX Publishing.
region. Formative (2013)
world which Volcanism volcanoes Assessment:
Number of days: proves that it 2. Analyze the • Valdoz, M. et al.
has a purpose in supernatural • DI Activity using Science Links
(2 days) this system. beiefs relating Sternberg’s Integrated
to volcanoes. Triarchic Science. REX
Lesson Focus:
KQ: Intelligence Publishing.
• Supernatural 3. Explain the
1. What is the role nature and • Laboratory (2012)
Beliefs
of volcanoes theories of Activity
• Theories of in this earth’s • Tiered Activity
volcanoes.
xlix

Volcanism system?
Summative
• Features of a
Assessment:
Volcano
• Exit Pass
Lesson 2 – Types KU: 1. Cylinder Cones 1. Compare and Industry: • Socialized Pre-Assessment: • Aquino, M. et al.
of Volcanoes 1. The type of 2. Composite contrast the Mining Recitation Q and A Science Links 9.
Number of days: volcano also Volcanoes characteristics • 2-column note REX Publishing.
determines and behaviour (2013)
(4 days) 3. Shield of different
a volcano Formative • Valdoz, M. et al.
Lesson Focus: Volcanoes types of
eruption and Assessment: Science Links
type of magma 4. Volcanic Domes volcanoes. Integrated
• Cinder Cones • 2-column note
• Composite
it expels. 5. Super Volcanoes 2. describe the Science. REX
2. Proper different types Publishing.
Volcanoes 6. Submarine
implementation of volcanoes. Summative (2012)
• Shield Volcanoes
Volcanoes
of rules and
7. Subglacial
3. explains what Assessment:
regulations in happens when
• Volcanic Domes Volcano • Quick Quiz
the activities volcanoes erupt
near volcanoes using models or • Exit Pass
will protect the illustration.
locals.
• Supervolcanoes KQ:
• Submarine 1. What controls
volcanoes the shape of a
• Subglacial volcano?
Volcano

Lesson 3 – KU: 1. Classification of1. Distinguish Industry: • Socialized Pre-Assessment: • Aquino, M. et al.
Volcanic Eruption 1. Proper volcanic activity between active, Sulfur mining Recitation Q and A Science Links 9.
information 2. Process Involved dormant and • Venn Diagram REX Publishing.
and emergency in volcanic extinct. (2013)
Number of days: • Cycle Map
preparedness eruption 2. Classify volcanic Formative • Valdoz, M. et al.
(4 days) will help keep activities, • DI Activity using Assessment: Science Links
3. Volcano alert Sternberg’s
a society safe levels in the processes, and Integrated
Triarchic • DI Activity using
from volcanic Philippines alerts. Science. REX
Lesson Focus: Intelligence Sternberg’s
activity. and in other 3. Participate Publishing.
Profile Triarchic
• Process involved (2012)
countries on making Intelligence
in Volcanic
KQ: 4. Magmatic erup- informed Profile
Eruption
tion decisions based
l

• Classification 1. Why are on identified


of Volcanic volcanoes 5. Phreatomag- permanent Summative
Eruptions prevalent in matic eruption danger zones Assessment:
certain parts of around active
• Volcano Alert • 3W’s
the Earth? volcanoes.
Levels in the
Philippines 2. Can we utilize 4. Show
and in other the energy emergency
Countries coming from preparedness
volcanoes? during and
after a volcanic
eruption
including
following
advisories
regarding alert
levels.
Lesson 4 – Energy KU: 1. Geothermal 1. Explain how Values: • Socialized Pre-Assessment: • Aquino, M. et al.
from Volcanoes 1. Despite energy volcano • Metamorphism recitation. • Picture Study Science Links 9.
their effects, provides (a change REX Publishing.
volcanoes are information process from (2013)
Number of days: about the
important the original to Formative • Valdoz, M. et al.
(3 days) dynamic in the interior of the something new Assessment: Science Links
planet. Earth; brought about Integrated
- Enrichment
2. Illustrates how by pressure, Science. REX
Lesson Focus: Activity: Disaster
energy from temperature, Publishing.
KQ: Preparedness
• Geothermal volcanoes or chemical (2012)
Energy and 1. In what ways maybe tapped alteration.
ways to harness are volcanoes for human Summative
it beneficial to us? use through Assessment:
diagrams;
• checking of
SPLASH
• Unit Test
li

• Debate
Key Stage Standards:
The learners should have developed scientific, technological, and environmental literacy that would lead to rational choices on issues confronting
them. Having been exposed to scientific investigations related to real life, they should recognize that the central feature of an investigation is that if one
variable is changed (while controlling all others), the effect of the change on another variable can be measured. The context of the investigation can be
problems at the local or national level to allow them to communicate with learners in other parts of the Philippines or even from other countries using
appropriate technology.
The learners should demonstrate an understanding of science concepts and apply science inquiry skills in addressing real-world problems through
scientific investigations.

Grade Level Standards:


After learning about the digestive system, learners have expanded their knowledge to a deeper understanding of the respiratory and circulatory
systems to promote overall health. They are familiar with some technologies that introduce desired traits in economically important plants and animals.
Learners can explain how new materials are formed when atoms are rearranged. They can recognize that a wide variety of useful compounds may
arise from such rearrangements.
Learners can identify volcanoes and distinguish between active and inactive ones. They can explain how energy from volcanoes may be tapped
lii

for human use. They are familiar with climatic phenomena that occur on a global scale. They can explain why certain constellations can be seen only at
certain times of the year.
Learners can predict the outcomes of interactions among objects in real life applying the laws of conservation of energy and momentum.

THIRD QUARTER – EARTH AND SPACE

Unit IX: Climate No. of Days: 10 days


Content Standard: Performance Standard:
The learners: Performance Standards
• understands the factors that affect climate, the effects of The learners:
changing climate, and how to adapt to them • participates in activities that reduce risks and lessen effects of climate
change
Key Teaching
Lesson Number/ Understandings Skills/*21st Points of Strategies/ Assessment
Knowledge Resources
Title/Focus and Key Century Skills Integration Differentiated Strategies
Questions Instruction
Lesson 1: KU: 1. Meteorology vs. 1. Compare Society: • Video Watching Pre-Assessment: • Aquino, M. et al.
Introduction to 1. Climate Climatology and contrast Climate Around • Socialized Rating Chart Science Links 9.
Climate awareness 2. Weather and weather from the Globe Discussion REX Publishing.
prepares people Climate climate. (2013)
• Fish Bowl
on proper 2. Classify climates Formative • Valdoz, M. et al.
Number of days: 3. Classifying
response Climates of the of the world. Assessment: Science Links
(3 days) to climatic Integrated
World 3. Explain different - Laboratory
activities. climate Science. REX
4. World Climate Activity
classification Publishing.
Lesson Focus: Zones
system. (2012)
• Meteorology vs. KQ:
Summative
Climatology 1. How is weather Assessment:
liii

• Branches of different from


Climatology climate? - Exit Pass

• Climate 2. Why is it
Classification important
Systems to study the
climates that
• World Climate
occurred
Zones
millions of years
now?

Lesson 2 – KU: 1. Latitude 1. Explain how the Society: • 2-Column Note Pre-Assessment: • Aquino, M. et al.
Factors that 1. Human 2. Ocean Currents different factors Climate Around Pad • K-W-L-H Science Links 9.
Affect Climate lifestyle and affect climate of the Globe • Research REX Publishing.
3. Winds an area. Formative (2013)
Number of days: environmental
conditions 4. Elevation 2. Explain how Assessment: • Valdoz, M. et al.
(3 days)
adapt to a 5. Relief living things • Research Science Links
Lesson Focus: certain climate adapt to certain Integrated
of a region.
6. Near Water
climate.
Summative Science. REX
• Latitude
Assessment: Publishing.
• Quick Quiz (2012)
• K-W-L-H
• Ocean Currents KQ:
• Winds 1. What
geographic
• Elevation
features
• Relief and climatic
• Proximity to elements will
Water you choose in
deciding for a
particular place
to settle?
2. How does
the global
water affect
the climate
in different
continents?

Lesson 3 – Global KU: 1. Introduction to 1. Demonstrate Values: • video watching Pre-Assessment: • Aquino, M. et al.
Climate Change 1. Climate Climate Change understanding • adaptabililty vs. • discussion • Video Analysis Science Links 9.
liv

Phenomenon change is 2. Climate Change of the global Intelligence technique REX Publishing.
climate Formative (2013)
Number of days: global problem in Focus: using graphic
caused by Impacts and phenomenon; organizer Assessment: • Valdoz, M. et al.
(4 days) Society:
anthropogenic Threats 2. Explain the • DI using Science Links
Lesson Focus: • DI using
activities main indicators • Cimate Change Sternberg’s Integrated
3. Ways to Mitigate Sternberg’s
• Main Indicators associated with and causes of and its impact Triarchic Science. REX
the Effects of Triarchic
of Climate industrialization climate change; to Mayan Intelligence Publishing.
and population Climate Change Intelligence
Change 3. Justify how Civilization Profile Profile (2012)
growth.
• Causes of human activities Summative
Climate Change KQ: contribute to Assessment:
climate change;
• Climate Change 1. Why is climate • Simile
and
in Focus: changing?
Impacts and 4. Participate in • Unit Test
2. Has the world
Threats activities that • Brochure /
really warmed?
reduce risks and Travel Guide
• Ways to Mitigate
3. When did lessen climate about a chosen
the Effects of
climate become change. biome
Climate Change
a global
problem?
Key Stage Standards:
The learners should have developed scientific, technological, and environmental literacy that would lead to rational choices on issues confronting
them. Having been exposed to scientific investigations related to real life, they should recognize that the central feature of an investigation is that if one
variable is changed (while controlling all others), the effect of the change on another variable can be measured. The context of the investigation can be
problems at the local or national level to allow them to communicate with learners in other parts of the Philippines or even from other countries using
appropriate technology.
The learners should demonstrate an understanding of science concepts and apply science inquiry skills in addressing real-world problems through
scientific investigations.

Grade Level Standards:


After learning about the digestive system, learners have expanded their knowledge to a deeper understanding of the respiratory and circulatory
systems to promote overall health. They are familiar with some technologies that introduce desired traits in economically important plants and animals.
Learners can explain how new materials are formed when atoms are rearranged. They can recognize that a wide variety of useful compounds may
arise from such rearrangements.
lv

Learners can identify volcanoes and distinguish between active and inactive ones. They can explain how energy from volcanoes may be tapped
for human use. They are familiar with climatic phenomena that occur on a global scale. They can explain why certain constellations can be seen only at
certain times of the year.
Learners can predict the outcomes of interactions among objects in real life applying the laws of conservation of energy and momentum.

THIRD QUARTER – EARTH AND SPACE

Unit X: Stars and Constellations No. of Days: 12 days


Content Standard: Performance Standard:
The learners: The learners will:
• understands the relationship between the visible constellations • discusses whether or not beliefs and practices about constellations and
in the sky and Earth’s position along its orbit. astrology have scientific basis
Key Teaching
Lesson Number/ Understandings Skills/*21st Points of Strategies/ Assessment
Knowledge Resources
Title/Focus and Key Century Skills Integration Differentiated Strategies
Questions Instruction
Lesson 1 – KU: 1. Properties of 1. Explain the Society: • Socialized Pre-Assessment: • Aquino, M. et al.
Characteristics of 1. The distance Stars properties and - horoscope Discussion • Q and A Science Links 9.
Stars of the sun and 2. The HR Diagram evolution of • Think-Pair-Share REX Publishing.
the stars to the stars; (2013)
3. The Evolution of
earth makes life 2. Infer the Formative • Valdoz, M. et al.
Number of days: Stars
(3 days) possible in our characteristics Assessment: Science Links
planet. 4. Other Classes of of stars Integrated
Stars • Laboratory
based on the Science. REX
Activity
Lesson Focus: 5. Astronomical characteristics Publishing.
KQ: Instruments of the Sun (2012)
• Introduction on
Stars 1. How do the 3. Infer that the Summative
stars affect arrangement of Assessment:
• The Evolution of conditions of life stars in a group
Stars on our planet? • journal
(constellation)
lvi

• Other Classes of 2. Why do we need does not


Stars to study about change
the stars? 4. Demonstrate
understanding
on astronomical
instruments.

Lesson 2 – KU: 1. Naming 1. Observe that Society: • 2-column note Pre-Assessment: • Aquino, M. et al.
Arrangement of 1. The system Constellations the position of • culture and pad • K-W-L-H Science Links 9.
Stars in a Group that governs 2. Constellations in a constellation belief system REX Publishing.
Number of days: stars and the Night Sky changes in the Formative (2013)
(3 days) constellations course of a Assessment: • Valdoz, M. et al.
3. Some Famous night
Lesson Focus: also gives data Constellations • Discussion Science Links
on earth’s Organizers Integrated
• Introduction time, date, and Science. REX
about direction. Summative Publishing.
Constellations Assessment: (2012)
• K-W-L
• Astronomical 1. How do the • Unit Test
Instruments constellations • Model of a
• Constellations in affect conditions Constellation
Focus of life on our
planet?
• Different
Constellations in 2. Why do we
the Sky need to study
about the
• Some Famous constellations?
Constellations

Lesson 3 – KU: 1. The Changing 1. Using models, Society: • 2-column note Pre-Assessment: • Aquino, M. et al.
Changing 1. Stars look Constellations shows which • culture and pad • K-W-L-H Science Links 9.
Position of constellations REX Publishing.
different 2. Zodiac belief system
Constellations
lvii

because of their Constellations may be (2013)


and observed at
temperature, Formative • Valdoz, M. et al.
Lesson 4 – 3. Unique Culture different times
luminosity, and and Belief Assessment: Science Links
Beliefs and stage of their of the year Integrated
Practices About System • Discussion
life’s cycle. They 2. Analyze the Science. REX
Constellations 4. Astronomy and Organizers
and Astrology have different unique culture Publishing.
colors based the Scientific and belief (2012)
Number of days: upon their stage Method system that
(6 days) Summative
in the life cycle. 5. Uses of come with Assessment:
Lesson Focus: Constellation to the study of
2. Hertzsprung-
• The Changing People Today constellations • K-W-L
Russel diagrams
Constellations allow us to 3. Demonstrate • Unit Test
• Zodiac analyze and understanding • Model of a
Constellations identify the life on the use of Constellation
• Factors the cycle of a star. constellations to
Cause the people today.
Changing
Positions of
Constellations
• Astronomy vs. 3. Stars have a life
Astrology cycle, starting
• Unique Culture from birth to
and Belief their death -
System Our Sun is 4.6
billion old, and
• Uses of it passed its
Constellations middle age.
to People Today
4. Universe is so
vast that no
one could tell
where it starts
and where it
ends - Universe
is expanding.
KQ:
1. How do we
lviii

know the type


of a star (young
vesus old, low
mass versus
big mass, hot
or cold) by
looking at a H-R
diagram?
2. What factors
determine the
characteristics
of a star?
3. Why
Constellations
are important
for astronomers
and for us?
4. Why does a
constellation
look different
during different
seasons (winter
vs. summer)?
lix
Key Stage Standards:
The learners should have developed scientific, technological, and environmental literacy that would lead to rational choices on issues confronting
them. Having been exposed to scientific investigations related to real life, they should recognize that the central feature of an investigation is that if one
variable is changed (while controlling all others), the effect of the change on another variable can be measured. The context of the investigation can be
problems at the local or national level to allow them to communicate with learners in other parts of the Philippines or even from other countries using
appropriate technology.
The learners should demonstrate an understanding of science concepts and apply science inquiry skills in addressing real-world problems through
scientific investigations.

Grade Level Standards:


After learning about the digestive system, learners have expanded their knowledge to a deeper understanding of the respiratory and circulatory
systems to promote overall health. They are familiar with some technologies that introduce desired traits in economically important plants and animals.
Learners can explain how new materials are formed when atoms are rearranged. They can recognize that a wide variety of useful compounds may
arise from such rearrangements.
Learners can identify volcanoes and distinguish between active and inactive ones. They can explain how energy from volcanoes may be tapped
lx

for human use. They are familiar with climatic phenomena that occur on a global scale. They can explain why certain constellations can be seen only at
certain times of the year.
Learners can predict the outcomes of interactions among objects in real life applying the laws of conservation of energy and momentum.

FOURTH QUARTER – FORCE, MOTION, AND ENERGY

Unit XI: Mechanics of Motion No. of Days: 11 days


Content Standard: Performance Standard:
The learners: The learners:
• demonstrates understanding of projective motion, impulse and • advocates road safety through various media focusing on vehicular
momentum, and conservation of linear momentum collisions
• proposes ways to enhance sports related to projectile motion
Key Teaching
Lesson Number/ Understandings Skills/*21st Points of Strategies/ Assessment
Knowledge Resources
Title/Focus and Key Century Skills Integration Differentiated Strategies
Questions Instruction
Lesson 1 – KU: 1. When a force 1. Describe the Science and • Picture Analysis • Idea Bulb • Aquino, M.D.
Projectile Motion: 1. Many human is applied horizontal and Sports: • Socratic • Pencil and Paper (2012), Science
A Two-Dimension activities are to an object vertical motions “Physics in Sports” Dialogue Links: Physics,
Motion perpendicular of a projectile. • Problem-based Rex Book Store
manifestations • Demonstration Learning
Number of days: that objects do to the direction 2. Investigate the
not fall from a of its motion relationship Science and • Experiential • RAFT
(5 days) it causes Technology: Learning www.rexinterac-
moving target between the • Field Trip tive.com
Lesson Focus straight to the the object angle of release “Projectile Motion” • Whip Around • Hallway Exhibit
ground. to change and the height
• Types of
direction but and range of the • Acrostics
Projectile
not speed. projectile. “Moon Olympics”
Motion • Mirroring
KQ: 2. A relationship
• Elements of 3. Display an • Size Up
lxi

1. How do exists between understanding


Projectile
2-D (and/or the universal of the • Performance
Motion
3-D) motion law of independence Tasks Using
• Conditions concepts relate gravitation and GRASPS
of the vertical
of Projectile to real life the effect of and horizontal
Motion events? gravity on an velocities of a
object at the projectile. Apply
surface of Earth. this knowledge
3. Circular motion in solving
requires the problems
application of a involving
constant force projectiles.
directed toward
the center of the
circle.
4. Vocabulary
Words:
projectiles,
vertical motion,
horizontal
motion, 4. Create a device
trajectory, angle, to measure the
etc. speed of the
ball as it passes
through each
ring showing
that it increases
at equal rates.
5. Illustrate an
understanding
of projectiles
fired at an angle
by solving
problems
associated with
such projectiles.
6. Identify
equations for
lxii

centripetal
acceleration
and centripetal
force.
7. Solve problems
for circular
motion in the
horizontal
plane.
Lesson 2 – KU: 1. The momentum 1. Relates impulse Science and • Video • Brainstorming • Aquino, M.D.
Impulse and 1. Momentum before the and momentum Technology: Presentation • Show and Tell (2012), Science
Momentum plays many roles collision and to collisions “Keeping Up With • Flash Card Links: Physics,
after the of objects • Paper-and-Pen Rex Book Store
in our lives. Momentum!” • Socratic
collision is the (e.g. vehicular • Portfolio
Number of days: 2. Momentum, like same, as long collision). Dialogue
energy, is also • Journal Writing www.rexinterac-
(6 days) as there are no 2. Infers that • Listen-Think-
conserved. external forces. Pair-Share • Size Up tive.com
the total
This is called momentum • Performance
Lesson Focus conservation of Science and Tasks Using
KQ: before and
• Impulse- momentum. Language: GRASPS
after collision is
Momentum 1. How can you
2. Colliding bodies equal.
Theorem apply the
concept of
are parted after 3. Examine effects “Impulsive
• Law of the collision. and predict Moments and
momentum to
Conservation of everyday life causes of Cars!”
Momentum situations? collision-related
lxiii

• Types of damages/
Collisions injuries.
Key Stage Standards:
The learners should have developed scientific, technological, and environmental literacy that would lead to rational choices on issues confronting
them. Having been exposed to scientific investigations related to real life, they should recognize that the central feature of an investigation is that if one
variable is changed (while controlling all others), the effect of the change on another variable can be measured. The context of the investigation can be
problems at the local or national level to allow them to communicate with learners in other parts of the Philippines or even from other countries using
appropriate technology.
The learners should demonstrate an understanding of science concepts and apply science inquiry skills in addressing real-world problems through
scientific investigations.

Grade Level Standards:


After learning about the digestive system, learners have expanded their knowledge to a deeper understanding of the respiratory and circulatory
systems to promote overall health. They are familiar with some technologies that introduce desired traits in economically important plants and animals.
Learners can explain how new materials are formed when atoms are rearranged. They can recognize that a wide variety of useful compounds may
arise from such rearrangements.
Learners can identify volcanoes and distinguish between active and inactive ones. They can explain how energy from volcanoes may be tapped
lxiv

for human use. They are familiar with climatic phenomena that occur on a global scale. They can explain why certain constellations can be seen only at
certain times of the year.
Learners can predict the outcomes of interactions among objects in real life applying the laws of conservation of energy and momentum.

FOURTH QUARTER – FORCE, MOTION, AND ENERGY

Unit XII: Work, Power, and Energy No. of Days: 10 days


Content Standard: Performance Standard:
The learner: The learner:
• demonstrates understanding of conservation of mechanical • practices safety in amusement rides
energy
Key Teaching
Lesson Number/ Understandings Skills/*21st Points of Strategies/ Assessment
Knowledge Resources
Title/Focus and Key Century Skills Integration Differentiated Strategies
Questions Instruction
Lesson 1 – Energy KU: 1. Energy 1. Explain the Science and • Picture Analysis • Word Wall • Aquino, M.D.
Transformation 1. There are many transformations relationship History: • Charades • KWL Chart (2012), Science
forms of energy and conversions between work “Simple Machines Links: Physics,
and power. • Lecture/ • Frayer Model Rex Book Store
Number of days: that affect how 2. Vocabulary Through Time” Discussion
mankind lives. Words: 2. Identify the • Venn Diagram
(3 days) different types • Experiential • Boardwork
Potential Learning www.
of machines.
KQ: Energy, Kinetic • Wheel Organizer rexinteractive.com
Lesson Focus Energy, Law of 3. Discuss how • Role Playing
1. How does an • Portfolio
Conservation of machines work. • Science
• Forms of Energy understanding • Short Answer
Energy, etc. 4. Explain how Olympics
• Energy of the forms
machines are • Performance
Conversions energy and
Task on GRASPS
lxv

energy applied and


conversions combined in
help society? familiar tools
that help man.

Lesson 2 – KU: 1. Mechanical 1. Distinguish Science and • Video • Brainstorming • Aquino, M.D.
Conservation of 1. Man depends energy is elastic, between kinetic Technology: Presentation • Show and Tell (2012), Science
Energy on energy in kinetic and and potential • Demonstration Links: Physics,
“Energy on • Paper-and-Pen
Number of days: many aspects of potential or energy. Rex Book Store
Demand!” • Socratic
his life. gravitational. 2. Identify • Portfolio
(6 days) Dialogue
2. It is important 2. Many common things that • Short Answer www.
Lesson Focus other examples individuals can • Listen-Think-
to recognize the Group-Share • Size Up rexinteractive.com
• Potential Energy major energy of energy do to conserve
sources help energy. • Performance
• Kinetic Energy sources people
provides fuel Tasks Using
use today to 3. Define and
• Work-Energy to man’s daily GRASPS
meet their investigate
Theorem energy needs.
energy needs energy sources
• Law of and the effects such as solar,
Conservation of human wind,
Energy
beings have 3. Vocabulary geothermal
on pollution Words: velocity, heat, nuclear,
and the position, fossil fuels, and
environment. work-energy hydroelectric
equivalence, law power.
of conservation 4. Identify and
KQ: of energy describe various
1. What benefits sources of
do the study of energy not
energy and its dependent on
conservation fossil fuels.
gives mankind?
5. Perform
activities to
demonstrate
conservation
of mechanical
energy.
lxvi

6. Infer that the


total mechanical
energy remains
the same during
any process.
Key Stage Standards:
The learners should have developed scientific, technological, and environmental literacy that would lead to rational choices on issues confronting
them. Having been exposed to scientific investigations related to real life, they should recognize that the central feature of an investigation is that if one
variable is changed (while controlling all others), the effect of the change on another variable can be measured. The context of the investigation can be
problems at the local or national level to allow them to communicate with learners in other parts of the Philippines or even from other countries using
appropriate technology.
The learners should demonstrate an understanding of science concepts and apply science inquiry skills in addressing real-world problems through
scientific investigations.

Grade Level Standards:


After learning about the digestive system, learners have expanded their knowledge to a deeper understanding of the respiratory and circulatory
systems to promote overall health. They are familiar with some technologies that introduce desired traits in economically important plants and animals.
Learners can explain how new materials are formed when atoms are rearranged. They can recognize that a wide variety of useful compounds may
lxvii

arise from such rearrangements.


Learners can identify volcanoes and distinguish between active and inactive ones. They can explain how energy from volcanoes may be tapped
for human use. They are familiar with climatic phenomena that occur on a global scale. They can explain why certain constellations can be seen only at
certain times of the year.
Learners can predict the outcomes of interactions among objects in real life applying the laws of conservation of energy and momentum.

FOURTH QUARTER – FORCE, MOTION, AND ENERGY

Unit XIII: Heat, Work, and Efficiency No. of Days: 18 days


Content Standard: Performance Standard:
The learner: The learner:
• demonstrates understanding of the relationship among heat, • practices wise choice of electrical appliances based on its energy
work, and efficiency efficiency
Key Teaching
Lesson Number/ Understandings Skills/*21st Points of Strategies/ Assessment
Knowledge Resources
Title/Focus and Key Century Skills Integration Differentiated Strategies
Questions Instruction
Lesson 1 – Heat KU: 1. Thermodynamic 1. Explain how Science and • Guessing Game • Spider Map • Aquino, M.D.
and Work 1. Temperature processes most processes Language: • Analogy • Narrative Frame (2012), Science
and heat that occur in tend to decrease “Biography of Sadi Organizer Links: Physics,
nature are all the order of a • Graphic Rex Book Store
Number of Days: prescribe the Carnot” • Lecture and Organizer
activities of irreversible system over
(4 days) processes. time and that “Tiered Activity” Clustering • Pen-and-Paper
solids, liquids, www.rexinterac-
and gases in 2. Vocabulary energy levels “Performance Task: • Experiential • 3-2-1 Exit Card tive.com
their applied words: are eventually B1” Learning
Lesson Focus distributed • Journal Writing
states. Adiabatic,
• Introduction to uniformly. • Size Up
2. Kinetic theory Isobaric,
Thermodyna- Isometric, 2. Construct
and thermody-
mics Isochoric, etc. a model to
namics show
• Thermodynamic the relationship demonstrate
that heat can do
lxviii

processes of energy trans-


fer between one work.
form of energy
and another.
3. Heat flow
and work are
two forms of
energy transfer
between
systems.

KQ:
1. How do changes
in matter relate
to thermody-
namics?
Lesson 2 – KU: 1. Heat Engine 1. Examine • Project based • Lecture, • Laboratory • Aquino, M.D.
Heat and the 1. Thermodynam- 2. Carnot Engine how steam learning question, observation (2012), Science
Conservation of ics involve the generators • Cooperative answer, and with follow-up Links: Physics,
Energy Principle 3. Refrigerators and turbines discussion documentation Rex Book Store
effects of heat and Heat Pumps group work
and and work that produce • Laboratory • Laboratory
Lesson 3 – accompany all 4. Heat Engines electricity. investigations reports
as Used in www.rexinterac-
Second Law of changes in mat- 2. Discuss how and inquiry (essay, data, tive.com
Thermodynamics ter. Electricity the equations calculation,
Production • discussions,
Number of Days: 2. The work done of heat transfer demonstrations graph, synthesis
by a heat engine affect the and analyses and conclusion)
(6 days) design of
that is working • Projects
Lesson Focus in a cycle is efficient devices (building
the difference and home mechanical
• Entropy
between the construction. devices)
• Applications
heat flow into 3. Demonstrate
of the Laws of
the engine how thermal
Thermodynam-
lxix

at high energy
ics
temperature affects the
and the heat characteristics
flow out of matter.
at a lower
temperature.
3. The internal
energy of an
object includes
the energy of
random motion
of the object’s
atoms and
molecules. The
greater the
temperature
of the object,
the greater the
energy of
motion of the
atoms and
molecules that
make up the
object.

KQ:
1. How do the laws
of conservation
apply to energy
and work?
2. Why does
thermal
expansion
play such an
important role
in engineering
lxx

design?

Lesson 4– Heat KU: 1. Thermodyna- 1. Solve problems Science and • Guessing Game • Spider Map • Aquino, M.D.
Engines as Used 1. The study of mics is the study involving the Mathematics: • Analogy • Narrative Frame (2012), Science
in Electricity thermodynam- of heat and its laws of thermo- “Tiered Activity” Organizer Links: Physics,
Production transformation dynamics • Graphic Rex Book Store
ics and its laws Science and • Lecture and Organizer
Number of Days: helps unravel into work. 2. Compare and Kinesthetics: Clustering • Pen-and-Paper
(8 days) and predict 2. Vocabulary contrast heat www.
numerous mys- words: Law of engines and “Tiered Activity” • Experiential • 3-2-1 Exit Card
Lesson Focus Learning rexinteractive.com
teries of nature. Conservation of heat pumps. Science and
• Heat Engine • Journal Writing
2. Thermodynam- Energy, Entropy, 3. Apply the laws Music: • Science
• Carnot Engine Enthalpy, etc. Olympics • Size Up
ics has its roots of thermody- “Tiered Activity”
• Refrigerators in many practi- namics to daily • Performance
and Heat Pumps cal problems life. Tasks Using
such as trans- GRASPS
• Heat Engines
portation,
as Used in
Electricity
Production
refrigeration, air 1. Design an “Performance Task:
conditioning, experiment B3”
renewable ener- showing the Science and Arts:
gies, etc. application of
any or all of “Performance Task:
3. Most processes B2”
tend to decrease these laws to
the order of a daily life. Science and
system over 2. infers that heat Environment:
time, so that transfer can be “Performance
energy levels used to do work Task: A”
eventually are and that work
distributed involves the
more uniformly. release of heat.
3. explains why
KQ: machines are
never 100%
lxxi

1. How can efficient.


entropy allow us
to interpret the 4. explains how
behavior of the heat transfer
natural world? and energy
transformation
2. How can the make heat
study of ther- engines like
modynamics geothermal
make a positive plants work.
difference on
the worsening
climate situa-
tion?
Key Stage Standards:
The learners should have developed scientific, technological, and environmental literacy that would lead to rational choices on issues confronting
them. Having been exposed to scientific investigations related to real life, they should recognize that the central feature of an investigation is that if one
variable is changed (while controlling all others), the effect of the change on another variable can be measured. The context of the investigation can be
problems at the local or national level to allow them to communicate with learners in other parts of the Philippines or even from other countries using
appropriate technology.
The learners should demonstrate an understanding of science concepts and apply science inquiry skills in addressing real-world problems through
scientific investigations.

Grade Level Standards:


After learning about the digestive system, learners have expanded their knowledge to a deeper understanding of the respiratory and circulatory
systems to promote overall health. They are familiar with some technologies that introduce desired traits in economically important plants and animals.
Learners can explain how new materials are formed when atoms are rearranged. They can recognize that a wide variety of useful compounds may
arise from such rearrangements.
lxxii

Learners can identify volcanoes and distinguish between active and inactive ones. They can explain how energy from volcanoes may be tapped
for human use. They are familiar with climatic phenomena that occur on a global scale. They can explain why certain constellations can be seen only at
certain times of the year.
Learners can predict the outcomes of interactions among objects in real life applying the laws of conservation of energy and momentum.

FOURTH QUARTER – FORCE, MOTION, AND ENERGY

Unit XIV: Electricity and Magnetism No. of Days: 18 days


Content Standard: Performance Standard:
The learner: The learner:
• demonstrates understanding of power generation, transmission, • communicates how electricity from power plants reaches one’s home
and distribution
Key Teaching
Lesson Number/ Understandings Skills/*21st Points of Strategies/ Assessment
Knowledge Resources
Title/Focus and Key Century Skills Integration Differentiated Strategies
Questions Instruction
Lesson 1 – Power KU: 1. Power 1. Explain energy Integration with: • Socratic • Portfolio Aquino, M.D.
Generation and 1. Electric power generation and transformation Technology Dialogue • Short Answer (2012), Science
Energy Losses is generated by energy losses in various • Experiential Links: Physics, Rex
activities/events • Graphic Book Store
rotating a coil in Learning Organizers
a magnetic field. (e.g. waterfalls,
Number of days: archery, • Socratic • Differentiated
(5 days) 2. Transformers amusement Dialogue Summative Task www.rexinterac-
play a vital rides) • Demonstration tive.com
role in the
transmission 2. Explain
Lesson Focus:
and distribution generation and
• Power and transmission
of electric
Energy of electricity
power.
lxxiii

• Power Rating through power


stations
• Power Cost
KQ: 3. Explain the
• Watt Meters importance of
1. How can electric
power be a national grid
generated and system
transported
over the
transmission
lines from
the power
generation
facility to
homes?
2. How can
you use your
understanding
of electricity
and magnetism
to improve your
life and that
of others in
your school or
community?

Lesson 2 – Energy KU: 1. Transmission 1. Examine • Cooperative • Problem-solving · Laboratory Aquino, M.D.
Production, 1. Electrical and distribution how steam group work Demonstrations reports (2012), Science
Transmission and current and of electrical generators • Web-based • PowerPoint (essay, data, Links: Physics, Rex
Distribution magnetic energy from and turbines instruction presentations calculation, Book Store
fields interact power plants to produce and notes graph, synthesis
to power homes. electricity. and conclusion)
Number of days: www.rexinterac-
electric motors 2. Step up 2. Enumerate · Student class tive.com
(5 days) or generate transformers various ways participation
electric power. are used to of generating
increase the electricity in
Lesson Focus:
source voltage the Philippines
• Electricity KQ: and decrease and state the
lxxiv

• Transmitting 1. What role do the current to transformation


Energy transformers minimize the of energy
have on power ratio of power for each (e.g.
• Electricity loss during hydroelectric,
transmission
Generation transmission geothermal or
and
• Energy Demand distribution? while a wind power
• Legal, step down plant).
Ethical and transformers 3. Describe
Environmental are used to energy loss in
Issues vs. lower the high transmission
Electricity voltage and cables and
Generation increase the low explain how
current to make these can be
• Energy Agenda them usable prevented.
by consumers
in homes and
business places
FIRST QUARTER – LIVING THINGS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT
Unit I: Circulatory and Respiratory System Working
with Other Organ Systems

Summary
Grade Level Standards
In this unit, students will learn about the interactions between the
circulatory and respiratory systems and their importance within the After learning about
human body. In Lesson 1, the students will explore the different types of the digestive system,
circulatory system and the components of these systems: heart, blood learners have expanded
vessels, and blood itself. The students will also study the human heart their knowledge to a
and circulation, and the causes and effects of cardiovascular diseases. deeper understanding
In Lesson 2, students will learn that to survive, humans must obtain of the respiratory and
oxygen and dispose of carbon dioxide. This exchange of gases between circulatory systems to
an organism and its environment is accomplished by the process of promote overall health.
respiration; hence it is important to learn about the different types of They are familiar with
respiratory systems and the components of these systems. The students some technologies
will also study the structure and physiology of the human respiratory that introduce desired
system, including the mechanism and control of breathing. traits in economically
important plants and
The purpose of this unit is for students to realize the interdepen-
animals.
dence of these two systems and their role in keeping humans alive and
healthy. As a form of assessment, the students will research on the role Learners can explain
of breathing in the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between how new materials
the air and the circulatory system, and how these gases are transported are formed when
throughout the body. atoms are rearranged.
They can recognize
Content Standards that a wide variety
of useful compounds
The learner:
may arise from such
• demonstrates understanding of how the different structures rearrangements.
of the circulatory and respiratory systems work together to
Learners can identify
transport oxygen-rich blood and nutrients to the different
volcanoes and distinguish
parts of the body.
between active and
• demonstrates understanding of the prevention, detection, and inactive ones. They can
treatment of diseases affecting the circulatory and respiratory explain how energy
systems. from volcanoes may be
Performance Standard tapped for human use.
They are familiar with
The learner:
climatic phenomena that
• conducts an interview with the school nurse or the local health occur on a global scale.
workers on practices that promote proper care for the organs They can explain why
of the circulatory and respiratory systems. certain constellations can
be seen only at certain
Pre-Assessment times of the year.
1. Diagnostic Test on Circulatory System Learners can predict
Have the students answer the following questions: the outcomes of
interactions among
– What is the first thing that comes to your mind when you
objects in real life
hear the word circulatory?

1
– Cite at least three organs/parts of the circulatory system
that you know and discuss briefly how each function. applying the laws of
conservation of energy
– How does the circulatory system help you?
and momentum.
– What do a person’s blood composition, blood pressure,
and blood chemistry tells us about his/her body? Overarching KU:
Then, after collecting their responses, encourage students to • Transport systems
briefly discuss their respective answers in the class. Make sure to functionally connect
limit the discussion to not more than five minutes. In closing, tell body cells with the
them that next they will study about the circulatory system and organs of exchange
they will find out more about their health through the condition of • The cells need
their circulatory system. nutrients and oxygen
in order to survive
2. KWL Chart: “Respiratory System”
• Organs and organ
Ask the students to fill up two columns of the KWL chart. The
systems work together
last column will be filled up as you conclude this lesson.
within the human
body to perform
What I Know What I Want to What I Learned specific functions.
Know
• Gas exchange supplies
oxygen for cellular
respiration and
dispose of carbon
dioxide

Overarching KQ:
• Why are the
circulatory and
respiratory systems
important to other
body systems?
• How do the circulatory
and respiratory
systems contribute
in sustaining life
processes?

Resource/s:
Madriaga, E. A (2010)
Science Links: Biology,
Rex Book Store, Inc.

2
Lesson 1: The Organs of the Cardiovascular System (4
KU:
days)
• The heart and
Lesson Focus: Types of circulatory system, Heart, Problems in the circulatory system
circulatory system, and Healthy circulatory system make up the
cardiovascular system.
Introduction (Activating Prior Knowledge) • Rhythmic pumping of
1. Song the mammalian heart
drives blood through
From the Internet, download any song about the Circulatory pulmonary and
System. Play this song in the class. Have them answer the following systemic circuits
questions: • Different organs
a. What is circulation? are involved in
the process of
b. Cite three parts of the circulatory system mentioned in the
transporting blood
song. How do these parts aid the circulation process? and fluids that the
c. What should be your attitude towards keeping a healthy body can use.
circulatory system? KQ:
2. Think-Pair-Share • How does the
circulatory system
Let the students do the loop activity found in the worktext. manage stress?
Knowledge:
Body
• The cardiovascular
1. Inquiry Lab system
Ask the students to do the inquiry activity found in the • The lymphatic system
worktext.
• Vocabulary Words:
2. Brainstorming Activity heart, blood vessels,
To start off the discussion, ask the students to identify the blood, cardiovascular,
strongest muscle in their body. From their responses, lead them lymphatic, arteries,
to identify the correct answer, which is the heart. Then, ask them capillaries, veins, etc.
to state reasons why they think the heart is the body’s strongest
muscle.
3. Read alone and turn to a classmate and explain material
Facilitate the discussion by showing to the class the diagram of Skills:
the heart. Tell them that before you continue with the lecture, they
will need to read the lesson first and then explain it with a partner.
Ask them to respond to the following prompts:
• Does the heart works or functions periodically? How frequent • describes the parts
does the heart works inside our body? and functions of the
• How does the heart function? circulatory system
• Why is the heart necessary to our well-being? • explains the
mechanism on how
the circulatory system
transports nutrients,
gases, and other
molecules to and from
the different parts of
the body

3
4. Group Activity
• explains how lifestyle
Introduce the idea that the heart is a pump and have students (e.g., regular exercise,
offer their definitions of pump. Clarify and agree on a class definition. smoking) affects the
Divide students into groups of four or five and ask each group to functioning of the
think of how pumps are used in everyday activities. For each idea, circulatory system
the group should provide an illustration of the pump as it is used.
Explain how it is used and what can be done in case of malfunction. Integration with:
Instruct each group to present their findings and display in a central Language
location. Have the students compare and contrast their pumps to
the heart.
5. Hands-On Activity
Using the following materials: wide mouth jar (plastic),
balloons, skewer, two flexible straws, scissor, tub or pail to collect
water spills, and sponge, have students build a model of a heart
that pumps. Ask the class to follow the procedure below: 21st Century Skills
Procedure: – Thinking and
Problem-Solving
1. Cut the neck off of the balloon (Do not throw away the neck of Skills
the balloon since this will be used in step 4 below).
2. Place a half full of water into the jar. Stretch the balloon
from step 1 over the mouth of the jar, making sure that it fits
perfectly.
3. Using the skewer, poke two small holes into the stretched
balloon, about 2 cm apart. Carefully insert a straw through
each hole in the balloon; make sure that the straws are snugly
fitted to the balloon and that there are no gaps between the
straws and the balloon.
4. Retrieve the neck from the balloon in step 1 and turn it into
a valve that goes on the end of one straw as a flap. Use tape
to lightly secure the straw and the neck of the balloon. Then,
Formative Assessment
bend down the straw with the balloon valve.
5. Place the jar in a tub or pail. Push and release the balloon
stretched over the jar several times. Make sure that water can
flow through the straws.
Extension Questions:
• Which direction does the water flow?
• How is your device (pump) similar to the heart?
• What would happen if you remove the balloon flap
(valve) from the apparatus?
• What effect does the valve have on how well the water
flows?
• What are other examples of uses of valves and pumps?

4
6. Short Quiz
Give a short quiz to the class.

Conclusion
1. Journal Writing
Have the students answer the question below:
“What do you think might be the effect of zero gravity (as
experienced in space flight) on the circulatory system?”
2. Portfolio Activity Integration with:
Language and Health
Inform the students that they need to develop a health advisory
newsletter that will provide information on how diet and lifestyle
affect the circulatory system. The newsletter must include activities
and planned meals that promote a healthier circulatory system. All
suggested activities and meals must be supported by a brief and
correct explanation on how to keep the circulatory system healthy.
Their newsletter must also include appropriate illustrations that
convey the important ideas and information on the contents of the
newsletter.

Lessons 2 and 3: The Blood and the Blood Clotting KU:


Process/The Different Blood Groups (4 days) • Blood is composed of
different constituents
and functions.
Lesson Focus: The blood vessels, Parts and functions of the • The blood vessels
circulatory system, The human blood, ABO Blood serve as the
Relationship, The Rh or ‘D’ Blood Factor passageway for blood
to feed supply and
Introduction (Activating Prior Knowledge) protect the cells of the
1. Quick Write body.

Tell the class to quickly write three things they know about • Blood contains
clotting factors to help
blood (as a general topic) before you start with the lessons.
it clot and the body’s
tissues to heal.
• The solids in the blood
are cells. Each of the
three main types of
Body blood cells circulates
within the plasma.
1. Inquiry Lab
Have the class perform the inquiry lab to help them get started
with the lesson.
Ask them to describe how the short lab activity increased their
understanding about the lesson. KQ:
2. Dramatization • How does the blood
circulate in the body?
Set up a large room-sized diagram of the circulatory system.
Provide each student tags to indicate their role in the system. Have • How are the different
them assume the roles of body organs and parts such as blood, organs of transport

5
heart, lungs, arms, legs, etc. Have the students, whose role is blood, important to
to travel from the heart to the lungs. As the “blood” students travel, maintaining a smooth
give them several tags labeled “oxygen.” The “blood” then travels flow of traffic in our
back to the heart and to the other parts of the body. As the “blood” body’s highway?
travels to each body part, it exchanges “oxygen tags” for tags la-
beled “carbon dioxide” and “other wastes.” When the oxygen is used • How does one’s blood
up, the “blood” then must travel back to the heart and lungs to ex- type affect his life?
change the “carbon dioxide and waste” for new “oxygen.” • Why is blood typing
Ask the students, “What factors do you think might affect the important?
efficiency of circulation in real bodies?” Knowledge:
Extension Activity (Differentiated): • Composition of blood
Assign students one of the following task: • Formed elements in
Analytical: Write a creative story following a red blood cell the blood
through the circulatory system. • Functions of the blood
vessel
Creative: Make a video depicting the life of a blood cell as it
travels through the circulatory system. • Platelets (also called
thrombocytes) help
Practical: Construct a model of how blood cells go exactly the blood to clot
where they are needed most in the body without ever (thicken and stop
stopping. flowing).
Encourage students to include the major parts of the • Red blood cells (also
circulatory system as characters in the story. Students must be sure called erythrocytes)
carry oxygen and are
not to deviate from the true path a blood cell travels.
the most plentiful.
3. Library/Research Work
Ask the students to make an e-research about the following
using varied resources available either at the school library or at
home: • White blood cells (also
called leukocytes)
• List some activities that contribute to building a stronger heart. ward off infection.
• How would a weak heart effect the movement of blood When the body is
through the body? fighting infection, it
makes them in ever-
• Name some ways a "weak heart" might affect a person's daily increasing numbers
activities. (an important part of
Tell how an exercise program for the elderly needs to be the immune system
at work). Still, most
different from younger adults.
healthy adults have
4. Experiential Activity (2) about 700 times as
many red blood cells
Let the students to work in pairs and have them use the
as white ones.
following materials: large container of water, bulb syringe, and
• Vocabulary Words:
oblong balloons. Ask them to demonstrate the expansion and
plasma, corpuscles,
contraction of blood vessels as blood is pumped through the blood albumin, red blood
vessels using a model. cell, globulin,
Procedure: white blood cell,
haemoglobin, etc.
1. One student fills the bulb with water. The other student secures
a balloon over the tip.

6
2. The first student gently squeezes and releases the bulb so that
Skills:
the balloon repeatedly fills with water.
• Describe the parts
3. The partner holds the balloon between the fingers to feel and functions of the
the expansion and contraction. This shows an expansion and circulatory system
contraction of blood vessels as the heart beats. • Compare and contrast
4. Students should then exchange roles to allow each to feel the the different blood
vessels
movement.
• Sequence the venues
5. Video Clip of the oxygenated and
Download the video discussion on ABO Blood Group System deoxygenated blood
in the pathways of
at http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/blood-types-abo-
circulation
system-red-blood-cell-antigens-blood-groups.html#lesson. Before
• Explains the
letting them see the clip, tell them to form themselves into groups
mechanism on how
of three and choose their respective video viewing role (one role
the circulatory system
for each member of the group): transport nutrients,
OBSERVER: Observe the clip for points to remember or ponder. gases, and other
molecules to and from
ADAPTER: Watch out for ideas that can be adapted from the the different parts of
video to be used in real life. the body

EXTENDER: Upon what ideas from the video can you build or • Infer blood types after
the addition of typing
add to extend your knowledge or learnings about
sera
the topic?
6. Differentiated Activity: RAFT Integration with Drama
Arts and Language:
Have the students write a story with “blood” as the main Dramatization, Short
character, describing how it circulates throughout the body to Story Writing
carry oxygen and nutrients to various tissues and organs:
You were in a lab accident and shrunk down to microscopic size.
Differentiated by
While you were hiding from the large hands that were grabbing the lab
Learning Profile:
material all about you, you were accidentally scoped up and slipped Dramatization, extension
into the cut on the person’s hand. In the blood stream, you decided to and Reflecting on the
tell someone about the things that were passing you by. Video
Role of the writer: Choose: observer, eyewitness, reporter,
map-maker
Audience: Choose: parent, other students, teacher,
community, doctor
Integration with
Format: Choose: letter, diary, newspaper article,
Technology: Research/
text messages, and map with place
Library Work and Video
markers and descriptions.
Clip
Topic: The route of a blood cell through the
Integration with
blood stream and what happens as it pass
Language and Arts: Exit
through the, heart, lungs and as it passes
activities
by the body cells.

7
Conclusion
1. Quick Draw
Tell the class to quickly draw their conclusion about the lessons.
Have them answer this question:
“Why is blood important in circulatory processes?”
2. “What I Learned” Reflection Journal
Have the class write a short reflection of what they learned
from the lessons and compare these learning from their initial
responses during APK.

Lesson 4: The Cardiac Cycle, Heart Sounds, and Blood KU:


Pressure (3 days) 1. The walls of the heart
are a special muscle
Lesson Focus: Lymphatic System and Immunity known as cardiac
muscle.
Introduction (Activating Prior Knowledge)
1. Video Clip
Show the class video clips downloaded from the Internet
regarding the lesson. An example video may be downloaded at
http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/the-cardiac-cycle-
phases-explanation-terms.html#lesson. 2. The conduction
system causes the
Body cardiac muscle to
1. Inquiry Lab beat, pump blood to
the organs, tissues,
Have the class perform the inquiry lab to help them get started
and cells of the body.
with the lesson.
3. Cardiovascular disease
Ask them to describe how the short lab activity increased their
is the leading cause
understanding about the lesson.
of death in many
developed countries.
KQ:
1. What are the
structures and
functions of the
cardiovascular
2. Socratic Dialogue system?
Explain to the class that the heart consists of two pumps 2. How does lifestyle
that constantly pump blood to the lungs through the circulatory affect the health of
system. As the blood is pumped through the arteries, one can feel the cardiovascular
the artery walls stretch and relax. Tell them that this is their pulse system?
and that they can measure the pumping of their hearts using the
pulse.
As a demonstration, feel for your pulse using your fingers. Ask
them what problems may arise by using the finger to feel their
pulse. Let the students feel for their pulse with their fingers. Call
for volunteers and have them share their pulse rates. Give them the
pulse rate information below and verify their initial findings.
8
Pulse Rate
Knowledge:
Everyone’s pulse (average heart rate per minute) changes as
we age. Here is a list of average pulse rates at different ages: 1. How all systems are
reliant on each other
• Newborn: 130 bpm
for homeostasis.
• 3 months: 140 bpm For example, the
• 6 months: 130 bpm circulatory system
is responsible for
• 1 year: 120 bpm
transporting gases,
• 2 years: 115 bpm nutrients, and waste
• 3 years: 100 bpm throughout the body.
• 4 years: 100 bpm 2. Vocabulary Words:
heart, cardiac,
• 6 years: 100 bpm
cardiovascular,
• 8 years: 90 bpm lymphatic, etc.
• 12 years: 85 bpm
Skills:
• adult: 60–100 bpm
1. Makes a chart of
3. Experiential Learning diseases affecting the
Provide a chart with the headings “activity” and “beats per circulatory system
minute.” Have the students identify activities that they perform and their prevention,
daily. Each student selects a minimum of three activities to record detection, and
in the activity column of their chart. With the assistance of a partner, treatment.
each student will calculate and record “beats per minute” for each 2. Explain how it affects
activity. Ask them to use the information in the chart to explain the multiple body systems
relationship of physical activity and heart rate. and ultimately
Extension Activity: Improvising a Stethoscope homeostasis in
disorders, like
Have the students bring one (1) cardboard tube from a paper
Congestive Heart
towel roll. Let them work in pairs and listen for their partner’s
Failure (CHF).
heartbeat by placing the tube over the partner’s heart. Tell the
students to count the number of beats per 30 seconds. Add this Integration with
number together twice to find out how many times each minute Mathematics and
the person’s heart beats. Then, have one partner run in place for Language: Experiential
one minute, then listen again. Have the students write down what Learning
they hear and calculate the new beats per minute. Finally, have
the partners switch roles so that both students would know how a
‘stethoscope’ is used to listen to a person’s heartbeat.

4. Think-Pair-Share
From the previous lessons, the students have gained a basic
understanding of the circulatory system and how oxygen and
carbon dioxide are carried and exchanged in the lungs. Show the
class the diagram on page 9 of the worktext, which shows the paths 21st Century Skill:
of pulmonary and systematic circulation. Then, try to recall the
various parts of the heart and lungs. After the discussion, ask the – Problem-Solving
following questions: and Thinking Skills
• How does blood get to the lungs? – Employability Skills
• Why are the arteries shown as red and the veins displayed as Integration with
blue? Language: A Trip to the
• How do you think the oxygen gets into the blood? Circulatory System

9
5. Video Clip
Integration with
Have the students watch a video on functions of the lymphatic Technology: Video Clip
system downloaded at http://education-portal.com/academy/ on lymphatic system
lesson/functions-of-the-lymphatic-system.html#lesson. From the
video, they will learn about the lymphatic system and the vital role
it plays in keeping the cardiovascular system working. They will also Integration with
discover how the lymphatic system (with its lymphatic vessels and Language and Logical/
capillaries) quietly works in the background to return leaked fluids Mathematical: “I Have
back to the blood. Who Has” Game

Conclusion:
1. “I Have Who Has” Game
Prepare two sets of flash cards to be matched and paired by
students: one set of cards will bear the ideas in column A and the
other set will bear those in column B below. Distribute three cards
to each student and have them write their names on the back of
each card. Then, they must match these with the cards of other their
classmates. They may exchange or trade one card to get another
which matches or completes their card. Give extra points to the first
one who will complete two of his/her cards. (NOTE: Make sure that
matching flash card sets are available for the entire class. Repeated
clues may be used.)

A B
Lymphatic system consists of three 1. A network of three parts
parts. 2. Lymph
3. Lymph nodes

Functions of the lymphatic system. Returns interstitial fluid and leaked


plasma proteins back to the blood

Together with lymphoid organs Immune system


and tissues, provide the structural
basis of the ______ _______.
One way system, lymph flows Lymphatic vessels
toward the heart.
Types of lymphatic vessels Lymphatic capillaries
Lymphatic collecting vessels
Lymphatic trunks and ducts
Absent from bones, teeth bone Lymphatic capillaries
marrow and the CNS
Right lymphatic duct Drains the right upper arm and the
right side of the head and thorax
Thoracic duct Arises from the cisterna chyli and
drains the rest of the body
Lymphocytes The main warriors of the immune
system
Two main types of lymphocytes T Cells and B Cells

10
Lesson 5: How the Different Organs of Respiration Work KU:
with the Circulatory System (6 days)
• The circulatory and
respiratory systems
Lesson Focus: Functions and parts of the respiratory system,
are the transport and
Respiration process, Respiratory problems
exchange systems.
Introduction (Activating Prior Knowledge)
1. Mind Pick
Ask students to take a deep breath and hold it for as long as
they can. After a couple of minutes, everyone will be gasping for • The movement
breath. Ask them why they could not go for more than a couple of of air in a body is
minutes without air. We can go days without food and water. Why accomplished by
can’t we be without air for even a couple of minutes? breathing. Different
Tell them they will be watching a video that will help them organs are involved
explain the importance of the respiratory system which supplies in the process of
our living bodies with the much-needed oxygen found in air. transporting oxygen
and carbon dioxide
2. Film Viewing through the human
Visit: www.argosymedical.com/Respiratory/samples/anima- respiratory tract.
tions/Respiration/index.html. Have the students watch the • Gas exchange or
respiration video, encouraging them to pay attention to body parts gaseous exchange
mentioned. Ask them to make notes describing the function of all occurs when we
body parts involved in the respiratory system. Ask for volunteers inhale and oxygen
to explain how air enters and leaves the body. Ask for another enters our body and
volunteer to name the two gases exchanged in the lungs during goes to the lungs by
respiration. passing through the
alveoli and when
we exhale in which
the carbon dioxide
is expelled from the
Body body system.

1. Label the Parts KQ:


Ask the students to • Why do people have
label the diagram on the different breathing
night. Use the word from capacities?
the following list: larynx, • What are the
epiglottis, trachea, nose di- structures and
aphragm, right bronchitis, functions of the
diaphragm, right bronchus, cardiovascular system
left bronchus, and nasal and the respiratory
cavity. system?
2. Library Work • How do the
Visit the American cardiovascular system
Lung Association homepage at http://www.lungusa.org/index. and respiratory system
html for information regarding pulmonary health, smoking, and coordinate their
public policy regarding air quality. functions together?

11
3. Experiential Learning
Knowledge:
Tell the students that when they inhale, muscles cause the chest
to expand, making the lungs do the same. When this happens, air • Different organs
is sucked into the lungs. In this lesson, they will make a model of composing the
the lungs using the following materials: large clear, plastic bottle, respiratory system
three-way hose connector, 2 rubber bands, modeling clay, plastic • Mechanism of
tube, 3 small balloons, and scissors. breathing
Procedure: • Adaptations of the
lungs and kidneys in
1. Push the plastic tube into one opening of the hose connector.
bringing about their
Use modeling clay, if necessary, to make an airtight seal. Fix the
functions efficiently
balloons tightly onto the other opening with rubber bands,
making sure that the joints between the connector and the • The two phases of
balloons are airtight. respiration
2. Carefully cut off the bottom 1 inch from the bottle using • The pathway of
scissors. Make sure the cut edge of the bottle is smooth. Place oxygen and carbon
the balloons and connector inside. Seal the plastic tube into dioxide through the
the neck of the bottle with the modelling clay to make an human respiratory
airtight fit. tract.
3. Tie a knot in the neck of the third balloon. Then carefully cut • Vocabulary Words:
it in half, crossways. Gently stretch the knotted part of the respiration, inhalation,
balloon over the lower end of the bottle, and pull it around exhalation, upper
the sides. Make the balloon as taut as you can-like a drum skin. respiratory tract,
Now hold it by its knot. lower respiratory
tract, influenza,
4. The lower balloon represents the diaphragm, the main
emphysema, etc.
breathing muscle. Pull it down, as though you were inhaling.
This lowers the air pressure in the bottle. Air from outside Skills:
rushes in and makes the two balloons expand just like the real
• Explains how the
lungs in your chest.
respiratory and
4. Laboratory Activity: Respiratory Rate Comparison circulatory systems
Group students in the class. Tell them that each student in are interrelated
their group will count the number of breaths per minute while • Discuss the respiration
resting. Students will record the number in the chart. Then, have process in humans
them perform two minutes of vigorous exercise, such as running in
place or jumping jacks. Have each member of the group count the
breaths per minute again and record in the chart below. 21st Century Skills:
Once this is done, find the range and mean respiratory rate of • Problem-Solving and
their group. Thinking Skills

Student’s Respiratory Rate Respiratory Rate Integration with Arts:


Name at Rest During Activity Experiential Learning

1.
Integration with
2. Technology:

3.

12
Also, have them answer the following questions:
Ø What is the range of respiratory rates of your group at rest?
After activity?
Ø What is the average respiratory rate of your group at rest?
After activity?
Ø How do these rates compare with the normal rates discussed
in your text?
Ø After reviewing the pages listed above, describe other
situations that can affect the respiratory rate.
5. Library (Research) Work
After the discussion on different respiratory ailments, tell the
students that they will compile their learning on the subject in this
activity, which involves research work.
Have the students complete the chart below by filling in the
missing information. Tell them to visit the school library or get
information using Internet resources. Include illustrations for better
discussion.

Respiratory Disease Fact Chart

Disease Signs Etiology Treatment Prevention Formative Assessment


Symptoms
Common
cold Usually viral
Red,
inflamed
throat and
painful
swallowing
Aimed at
symptoms-
quit smoking
Laryngitis
Vaccine
Chest pain,
fever, chills,
dyspnea
Mycobacte-
rium tuber-
culosis
Anti-in-
flammatory
Drugs, bron-
cho-Dilators
Emphysema

13
Conclusion
1. Graphic Organizer
Have the students complete the Venn diagram by listing the
similarities and differences between the circulatory system and the
respiratory system.

Circulatory Respiratory
System System

Lesson 6: Taking Care of Our Circulatory and Respiratory KU:


Systems (2 days) • A heart-healthy
lifestyle choices
Lesson Focus: Harmful substances that affect the circulatory and should include
respiratory systems, Taking care of the circulatory and information about
respiratory systems how proper nutrition
is balanced with
Introduction (Activating Prior Knowledge) exercise. Specific
1. KWL Chart components include
Ask the students to complete the first two columns of the KWL choosing healthy
chart. food, consuming
appropriate portion
Body sizes, understanding
calorie requirements,
1. Recall by Converging Radial
determining a
Using the graphic organizer below, have the students recall healthy weight, and
what they have learned regarding the digestive, respiratory, and establishing healthy
urinary processes. Have them relate these three concepts to the eating habits to carry
central idea—the circulatory system. into adulthood.

KQ:
• How can we maintain
healthy circulatory
and respiratory
systems?

Knowledge:
• Harmful substances
that affect the
function and health of
these systems
• Realize that the
decisions they make
now affect their future
health and well-being

14
2. Group Activity
• Vocabulary Words:
Allow the students to discover through this activity the effects digestive system,
of smoking to our transport systems. Bring to class pictures of a urinary system,
healthy lung and a cigarette smoker’s lung. Show the class these cigarette, smoking,
pictures and ask them to compare the two. (NOTE: If a human lung nicotine, tar.
can be used in this part of the lesson, explain to the class the proper
ways of handling actual specimen.)
Ask the class what they know about smoking. Explain that
cigarettes contain harmful substances that damage their lungs.
Skills:
Discuss what emphysema is and how it destroys the alveoli sacs.
• Explains how harmful
Then, have the class watch a video downloaded from WebMD substances affect
at http://www.webmd.com/lung/video/causes-symptoms-copd. the respiratory and
After watching the video, ask students to summarize what they circulatory systems
learned from the video. • Explains how lifestyle
3. Graphic Organizer (e.g., regular exercise,
smoking) affects
Guide the students as they complete the graphic organizer
the functioning of
below:
the circulatory and
respiratory systems

Collaborative Learning
Integration:
Language and Health

4. Collaborative Review: Red vs. Blue


Tell the students that you are going to play a review game Formative Assessment
using the information about the circulatory and respiratory
systems. Divide the students into teams and hand them red and
blue cards. Tell students to hold up the red card if the fact refers
to the respiratory system. Tell students to hold up a blue card if
the fact refers to the circulatory system. If a student holds up an
incorrect card have them explain their choice. Tell students that the
team that answers the most questions correctly wins.

15
5. Differentiated Activity: RAFT
Tell the class that earlier, you have related the digestive, urinary,
and respiratory systems to the circulatory system. In this activity,
ask the class to pick two systems and research how these relate
to each other. List information about the relationship of the two
systems below. For example, the circulatory system (heart, blood
vessels) moves the blood to the respiratory system (lungs) where
oxygen is picked up and carbon dioxide is removed.

R A F T
Circulatory Respira- Series of text I’m a little short
System tory messages of oxygen here,
System what can you do?
Integration with
Language: RAFT
Respira- Urinary Writing a speech Getting rid of
tory System to the rest of the waste is a big job. Differentiated By
System body about our Interest
duties

Urinary Circula- Thank-you note We would be


System tory toxic if it were not
System for you.

Circulatory Respira- Travel log When does my


System tory journey end?
System

6. Summarizing
Have the class complete the table below as a form of
assessment.

Name Func- Parts/Tis- Prob- Keep- Cause


of the tions sues lems ing and
Body of the /Organs with the Effect of
System Sys- of the System Lifestyle
tem the Sys- Sys- Healthy Choices
tem tem

Circula-
tory

Respira-
tory

16
Conclusion
1. Completion of “L” Portion of KWL Chart
Summative Assessment
Ask the students to complete the last column of the KWL chart.
They have to write the things they have learned in this lesson and
align it with what they have written in the K and W columns.
2. Portfolio Activity
As a final activity for the class, ask them to conduct a research
study based on the following facts:
Hundreds of studies have linked smoking with cardiovascular
and lung disease. According to most health authorities, smoking
is the leading cause of preventable premature death even in
countries like the Philippines. Thus, governments ban television
advertising of cigarettes and require the tobacco industry to place
health warnings on packages and in print ads. Anti-smoking and
health groups have proposed that cigarette advertising be banned
entirely. Currently our government has passed a law that imposes
higher tax for cigarettes. What are the arguments in favor and in
opposition of the total ban on cigarette use? Do you favor or oppose
such ban? What are the arguments in favor and in opposition of the
imposition of higher taxes on cigarette products? Do you favor or
oppose such measure?
3. Differentiated Summative Assessment Tasks

Circulatory and Respiratory Systems


Goal You are to display an understanding on how diet and life-
style can affect the circulatory and nervous systems.
Role You can be a:
1. dietician or nutritionist
2. visual artist
3. columnist in a daily newspaper
4. singer/composer
Audience The general public
Situation Pollution in this modern time is at its peak. Alcoholic bev-
erages and cigarettes can be bought above the counters
in all stores and supermarkets. Traffic congestion is an
everyday problem. Our daily activities cause us a lot of
stress and “instant food” can be bought everywhere. You
were tasked by the Department of Health (DOH) to con-
duct an information drive on how diet and stressful life-
style can affect the circulatory and respiratory systems.
Product/Per- 1. Make a poster with slogan about how cigarette
formance smoking and liquors can affect the respiratory and
circulatory systems.
2. Compose a jingle whose lyrics or contents talk about
the effect of stressful lifestyle on the circulatory and
respiratory systems.

17
3. Make a health advisory newsletter that will provide
information on how diet and lifestyle affect the cir-
culatory and respiratory systems.
4. Formulate activities and prepare meals with brief
and accurate explanation on how they can keep the
two organ systems healthy.
Standards Your product will be assessed based on the following cri-
teria:
1. Accuracy of content and explanation
2. Awareness of importance of regular exercise and
healthy diet
3. Organization and coherence of idea
4. Clarity of the message
5. Use of appropriate illustrations and props

Rubric for Circulatory and Respiratory Systems

Description
Criteria Score
4 3 2 1
Accuracy The The The The
of content student student student student
and expla- shows shows shows a shows
nation deep un- consider- shallow limited un-
derstand- able un- under- derstand-
ing of how derstand- standing ing of how
stressful ing of how of how stressful
lifestyle, stressful stressful lifestyle,
alcoholic lifestyle, lifestyle, alcoholic
beverages, alcoholic alcoholic beverages,
and ciga- beverages, beverages, and ciga-
rettes can and ciga- and ciga- rettes can
affect the rettes can rettes can affect the
function- affect the affect the function-
ing of the function- function- ing of the
circula- ing of the ing of the circula-
tory and circula- circula- tory and
respiratory tory and tory and respiratory
systems. respiratory respiratory systems.
systems. systems.

18
Aware- The The The The
ness of student student student student
impor- shows shows shows a shows
tance of deep consid- shallow limited un-
regular awareness erable awareness derstand-
exercise on the im- awareness on the im- ing of how
and portance on the im- portance stressful
healthy of regular portance of regular lifestyle,
diet exercise of regular exercise alcoholic
and exercise and beverages,
healthy and healthy and ciga-
diet in healthy diet in rettes can
maintain- diet in maintain- affect the
ing the maintaing ing the function-
proper the proper proper ing of the
function- function- function- circula-
ing of the ing of the ing of the tory and
circula- circula- circula- respiratory
tory and tory and tory and systems.
respiratory respiratory respiratory
systems. systems. systems.
Organiza- All ele- Most ele- There There
tion and ments in ments in is one are some
coherence the prod- the prod- missing elements
of idea uct are uct are element mentioned
logically logically in the out- in the
presented presented put, but product
and con- and con- the rest that are
sistent. sistent. of the ele- logically
ments are presented.
logically
presented.
Clarity of A very A clear There The
the mes- clear mes- message is are some message
sage sage is conveyed discrep- conveyed
conveyed to the ancies in to the au-
to the audience. conveying dience is
audience. the mes- not clear.
sage to the
audience.

Use of ap- The il- The il- There No illustra-


propriate lustrations lustrations were few tions and
illustra- and props and props illustra- prps were
tions and were used were used tions and used in the
props very ef- effectively props that output.
fectively in the are used
in the presenta- in the the
presenta- tion. presenta-
tion. tion.

Total
Score

19
KPUP Summative Assessment
Check Your Knowledge
Multiple Choice: Choose the best answer. Write the letter of your
answer on the blank before the number.
_________ 1. Which term is considered odd to the group?
a. tricuspid
b. mitral
c. aortic
d. SA node
e. pulmonic
Use the following key in answering items 2 to 6:
a. heart
b. blood Vessels
c. blood
d. valves
e. pericardium
f. mediastinum
_________ 2. Prevents the blood from back flowing.
_________ 3. The medium of circulation of the cardiovascular
system.
_________ 4. This is where the heart is located.
_________ 5. The passageways of the blood.
_________ 6. Membrane covering of the heart.
Process What You Know
1. Make a concept map that traces the path of air through the
respiratory system.
2. On the average, the heart beats 70 times per minute. How
many times does the heart beat in a person who lives for 80
years?
3. On the space provided below, sketch the position of the
diaphragm during:

Inhalation Phase Exhalation Phase

20
Check Your Understanding
A. Put a check mark (ü) in the respective column of the blood
vessel that possesses the characteristic being described in the
first column.

Description Artery Vein Capillary


1. Conveys blood away
to the heart
2. Supplies blood to or-
gans and tissues
3. Conveys blood to-
ward the heart
4. Innervated by nerves
5. With much muscles
present
6. One cell thick
7. Contains valves
8. Located near the sur-
face of the skin
B. Trace the flow of blood in the following organs by putting
number 1 on the first organ and number 9 on the last organ.
____ Aorta
____ Left Atrium
____ Right ventricle
____ Right atrium
____ Left ventricle
____ All parts of the body
____ Lungs
____ Pulmonary artery
____ Pulmonary veins
Apply What You Have Learned
Your task is to develop an informative brochure for one specific
cardio vascular disease. Imagine that this brochure will be read by
persons suffering from the same disorder and he/she wants to learn
more about the disease. Your brochure should contain pictures and the
following information about the disease:
What is this disease?
• What causes it?
• What are the symptoms?
• How is the disease treated?
• What are the health measures to be done to prevent it or lessen
its effect?
21
Unit II: Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits

Summary Grade Level Standards


Life arises from life. The perpetuation of life is based on the After learning about
reproduction of cells. In this unit, students will discover how human the digestive system,
offspring inherits half of their chromosomes from each parent. Variation learners have expanded
between individuals is due to crossing over of genes, independent their knowledge to a
assortment, and random fertilization. deeper understanding
Students will also discover that heredity events control the passages of the respiratory and
of structural and functional characteristics from one generation to the circulatory systems to
next. promote overall health.
As a final assessment, students will get the chance to demonstrate They are familiar with
deeper understanding on how organisms pass on traits to their offspring some technologies
in a predictable manner. that introduce desired
traits in economically
Content Standards important plants and
animals.
The learner:
Learners can explain
• demonstrates understanding that genetic information is
how new materials
organized in genes on chromosomes.
are formed when
• demonstrates understanding that traits of an organism are atoms are rearranged.
transmitted to the offspring through the genes found in They can recognize
chromosomes. that a wide variety
of useful compounds
Performance Standards may arise from such
The learner: rearrangements.
• illustrates how traits of economically important plants and Learners can identify
animals are improved through breeding. volcanoes and distinguish
between active and
Pre-Assessment inactive ones. They can
1. Agree-Disagree Response Chart explain how energy
Have the students respond to the following statements before from volcanoes may be
and after the unit was discussed. tapped for human use.
They are familiar with
1. Tell them to write A if they agree with the statement or write D climatic phenomena that
if they disagree with the statement. occur on a global scale.
2. Clarify to them that they will first complete the column They can explain why
on Before Unit Discussion (Pre-assessment), and once the certain constellations can
discussion on the whole unit has concluded they will revisit be seen only at certain
their answers and make necessary changes as a result of their times of the year.
learning. Learners can predict
3. They will then accomplish the third column After Unit the outcomes of
Discussion (Post-assessment) and state the reason on the interactions among
fourth column for any changes in their response in each item. objects in real life
applying the laws of
conservation of energy
and momentum.

22
Topics Before After Unit Reason Overarching KU:
Unit Dis- Discus- 1. All life on Earth is
cussion sion connected through a
A human being grows from shared genetic history.
a single fertilized cell into an 2. Speciation of all
individual containing billions organisms relies on
of cells. the idea of variation.
All of the cells in the body look 3. The study of genetic
like one another and perform history and diversity
the same jobs. can be applied to
all types of science,
All cells of the body contain
history, and cultural
the same genetic information.
development.
The genetic blue print that
makes you who you are trans- Overarching KQ:
mitted continually from one 1. Without variation,
cell to the next. what would the earth
be like?
It takes a long time for one
parent cell to become two 2. How does the study
daughter cells. of inheritance effect
human thought?
Cells are alive.
3. What can the
study of patterns
of inheritance in all
species tell us about
the earth and the
development of life?

Resources:
Madriaga, E. A. (2012),
Science Links: Biology,
Rex Book Store
www.rexinteractive.com

23
Lesson 1: The Structure of the Chromosome (4 days)
Lesson Focus: Gender Determination, The Genes, Linked Genes

Introduction (Activating Prior Knowledge) KU:


1. Quick Recall
• Chromosomes are
Ask the students to describe the following words as they have responsible for
understood it in previous lessons: somatic cells, reproductive cells, carrying genetic
diploid, haploid, mitosis, and meiosis. information in each
2. Pre-Assessment organization.
Let the students arrange the following events in chronological • Sexual reproduction
order. (NOTE: The events are already arranged chronologically. It produces offspring
depends upon your discretion how you will present these in class.) that inherit half their
genes from each
parent.
• An inherited trait can
be determined by one
or more genes.
a. Replication of the DNA and chromosomes • DNA (deoxyribonucleic
acid) is the genetic
b. Homologous chromosomes are aligned at the equatorial
material of living
plate.
organisms and
c. Crossing-over is located in the
d. Formation of two identical haploid cells chromosomes of each
cell.
e. Formation of four haploid cells
KQ:
Body • What link lies between
1. Inquiry Lab chromosomes and
Have the class work on the inquiry lab activity. Then call on genetics?
volunteers to describe their learnings from the activity.
Knowledge:
Tell the class that today you will be finding out that genetically
diverse populations are more likely to survive changing • Chromosomal basis of
environments. inheritance
• Vocabulary Words:
2. ICT Virtual Lab cell division,
Relate chromosomes and DNA with this virtual lab activity chromosomes,
found at http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/ content/labs/extraction/. haploid, diploid,
In this activity, the students will discover the process of taking a alleles, gene location,
cheek sample and breaking the cell apart so they can extract the etc.
DNA found inside.

Differentiated (Extension) Activity:


Group the students according to their readiness levels. Each
group will be given a copy of four articles at different reading Skills:
levels on how you go from DNA inside chromosomes to visible • Describe the
traits. After being given time to read their article, students will then location of genes in
come together as mixed article groups and will answer a series of chromosomes
questions about what they just read.

24
3. Tic-Tac-Toe
Give the students a copy of the activity below. Let them choose • Investigate the
and complete three activities in a row, column, or diagonally. transmission of
characteristics from
parents to off spring,
Draw some type of Write a short es- Compare and con-
and identify examples
visual that relates say explaining trast animals with
of characteristics in off
the two forms of the problems and genetic disorders.
spring.
cell division. benefits that may Identify the pat-
result from genetic terns that emerge • Describe the role
engineering. using a graphic and relationship of
organizer. chromosomes, genes,
Choose one disease Illustrate a time- and DNA.
or condition that is line of genetically
caused by genetics cloned animals.
or heredity. Write a Start with the first
newspaper article known clone and
highlighting the continue to the
Genetics Exams
most important present.
things the gen-
eral public needs to
know about it.
Create a position Draw a visual that il- Explain three differ-
statement about lustrates how genes ent treatments for
when it is not per- and chromosomes infertility. Include
mitted to practice work. statistics and the
cloning. Be sure to pros and cons of
include rationale. each.

Conclusion
1. Exit Pass
Instruct the class to complete their 3-2-1 exit card.
2. Homework
Remind the class to work on the Performance Task for the unit.

Lesson 2: Non-Mendelian Patterns of Inheritance


(4 days)
KU:
Lesson Focus: Principle of Incomplete Dominance, Principle of • That genes code
Codominance, Principle of Multiple Alleles, Sex Linked for traits and
Traits, Sex influenced Trait, Sex Limited Trait be familiar with
simple dominance
Introduction (Activating Prior Knowledge) inheritance and
1. “Say Something” Cards Punnett squares.
Ask the students to pick a card and talk about the word or • They should
phrase written on it. Below are suggested topics to be placed on understand the
the card: terms genotype and
Gregor Mendel, inheritance, dominant trait, Punnett squares, phenotype.
etc.
25
Body
1. Let the students watch a YouTube video that will begin the • Multilpe Allelism is
discussion on genetic inheritance and variation. It will open a lot a condition where
of questions, possibilities, and information about genetics and its more than two alleles
uses in the world. control a single trait,
resulting to a greater
variety of phenotypes
for the trait.
• Codominance may
result from multiple
allelism, where
neither of two alleles
is dominant over the
other, in turn, result
to the expression (or
2. Hands On – Minds On appearance) of two
phenotype influenced
With the students’ understanding of meiosis and fertilization, by the two alleles.
have them respond to the following questions and use these
concepts as basis for understanding the inheritance of X and Y
chromosomes. Tell the class that during meiosis in a female, the two
X-chromosomes separate so each egg has a single X-chromosome.
Discuss that in males, even though the X and the Y-chromosomes KQ:
are very different, they can nevertheless pair with each other and
separate from each other during meiosis. This means that males • Why are there
produce two kinds of sperm; half have an X chromosome and half inherited traits which
have a Y chromosome. are expressed in more
than two forms?
a. What will be the sex of a child produced when an egg is
• What explain the
fertilized by a sperm that has a Y chromosome? What type of
coinciding expression
sperm must fertilize an egg to result in a female child?
or appearance of
b. Draw a Punnett Square which shows the inheritance of the sex two phenotypes for
chromosomes. Use X to indicate an egg or sperm with an X a single trait in an
chromosome and Y to indicate a sperm with a Y chromosome. individual?
• How are multiple
allelism and
codominace exhibited
in the inheritance
of blood type in
humans?

Knowledge:
• Based on the Punnett square, what percent of children • Definition of
would you expect to be male? Multiple Allelism and
• To test this prediction, begin by writing down the initials Codominance
of all the children your mother has had. Arrange these • Relationships between
initials in order from the oldest to the youngest, indicating of Multiple Allelism
whether each was male or female. and Codominance in
the inheritance of a
trait which does not
follow the Mendelian

26
• Complete the following table.
pattern (i.e.,
Total Number Number % Males inheritance of ABO
of Children of Males blood types).
Your mother’s children • Possible combinations
of three alleles (i.e.,
Children of the moth- IA , IB, and i) resulting
ers of all the students
to different blood
in your class
group genotypes and
Predicted percent phenotype.
from
Punnett square Skills:
• Construct and
analyse Punnett
c. Next, compare the predicted percent male with the observed
squares showing the
percent male for your mother’s children, for the children of
inheritance of the A,
the mothers of the other members of your group, and for all
B, O blood types.
the children in the class sample. How similar to the prediction
are the observed results for individual families and for all the
families combined? Formative Assessment
3. Pair Work Integration with
Using the Internet, ask the students to study by pair the human Technology
genome project.
4. Performance Task: CSI: Who Gets The Money?
Divide the class in five teams to be Cool Science Investigators or
CSIs. Tell them that their job is to solve a mystery involving genetics.
They have been employed by the deceased persons through their
will to determine who the rightful heir of the inheritance money is.
They will need to develop a Punnett square based on the genotype
of the deceased in order to eliminate the imposters. Give the teams
the following information:
Mr. and Mrs. Ayala-Forbes died in a tragic car accident when the 21st Century Skills:
limousine they were riding rolled over in a ditch. Authorities found ten
• Problem-Solving and
million pesos hidden in their house vault, along with a few investment
Thinking Skills
bonds. The couple is known to have a son, from whom they are
estranged. This man is the sole heir to the Ayala-Forbes fortune. Before • Employability Skills
long, five people presented themselves as the couple’s lost son. They
were Dave, Dennis, Dale, Dan, and Derek.
Using the following information, eliminate the imposters and
identify the true heir.

Part One: Mr. Ayala-Forbes: Heterozygous, free


By Monohybrid earlobes, and homozygous brown-eyed.
Cross Mrs. Ayala-Forbes: Heterozygous, free
earlobes, and heterozygous brown-eyed.

27
Draw two Punnett Dave: Homozygous brown-eyed, and
squares showing the attached earlobes.
possible offspring of Dennis: Homozygous free earlobes,
Mr. and Mrs. Ayala- blue-eyed.
Forbes: one for eye
color and one for Dale Heterozygous free earlobes,
earlobes. homozygous brown-eyed.
Dan: Heterozygous free earlobes, and
heterozygous brown-eyed.
Derek: Homozygous free earlobes, blue-
eyed.
Part Two: Mr. Ayala-Forbes: Homozygous type A
Co-dominance blood, heterozygous Rh+, straight hair.
and Incomplete Mrs. Ayala-Forbes: Heterozygous type B
dominance blood, homozygous Rh+, wavy hair.
Draw three Punnett Dave: Heterozygous type A blood,
squares showing the heterozygous Rh+, wavy hair.
possible offspring of Dale: Heterozygous type A blood,
Mr. and Mrs. Ayala- homozygous Rh+, wavy hair.
Forbes: for blood
type, Rh type, and Dan: Type O blood, Rh-, straight hair.
hair textures.
Part Three: Mr. Ayala-Forbes: Color blind
Sex-linked Mrs. Ayala-Forbes: Homozygous for
Inheritance normal vision
Draw a Punnett Dave: Color blind
square showing the Dale: Normal vision
possible offspring of
Mr. and Mrs. Ayala-
Forbes: for color
blindness.

After completing Parts One, Two, and Three of the above


activity, have the students identify who was the couple’s son by
justifying how they come up with their conclusion.

Conclusion
1. Short Quiz
Let the students answer a teacher-prepared quiz.
2. Ticket-To-Leave
Ask the students to discuss briefly (in five sentences) what they Summative Assessment
have learned from the activities performed in the discussion of this
lesson.

28
3. Differentiated Summative Assessment Tasks

Non-Mendelian Patterns of Inheritance


Goal You know that genetically-modified food products are very
common in the market. Some groups of environmentalists
are opposing the idea about these genetically-modified
organisms. You would like to understand fully how these
organisms are being genetically manipulated and you
would like to share to the public the pros and cons of this
technique.
Role You can be:
1. a newscaster
2. songwriter/composer
3. a visual artist
Audience Students and teachers of your school
Situation A big percentage of underdeveloped countries are suf-
fering from hunger. Geneticists all over the world are ex-
perimenting on organisms (plants and animals) that can be
genetically manipulated so as to increase food production.
However, a group of environmentalists is opposing this
technique since the effects of this technique have not been
fully explained and understood. You were tasked by DOST
to gather data on how this genetic techniques are being
done by geneticists and interview a group of environmen-
talist to hear and take their side. With all the data on hand
you are going to communicate your findings to the public.
Product/Per- 1. Make a canvass mural with slogan on the pros and
formance cons about these genetically-modified organisms.
2. Compose a song whose lyrics are focused on the pros
and cons about genetically-modified organisms.
3. Produce a newscast about these genetically-modified
organisms and the pros and cons of this technique.
Standards Your product will be assessed based on the following cri-
teria:
1. Accuracy of content
2. Coherence
3. Organization
4. Clarify of message
5. Completeness
6. Skill to speak before an audience

29
Rubric for Information Dissemination About GMO

Description Score
Criteria
4 3 2 1
Accuracy of The The The The stu-
content student student student dent shows
shows shows shows limited un-
deep considera- shallow derstand-
under- ble under- under- ing of what
standing standing standing genetical-
of what of what of what ly-modified
genet- genet- genet- organisms
ically- ically- ically- are.
modified modified modified
organisms organisms organ-
are. are. isms are.

Coherence The The The The stu-


students student student dent shows
show shows shows limited
awareness considera- shallow awareness
on the is- ble aware- aware- on the
sues about ness on ness on issues
the effects the issues the issues about the
of ge- about the about the effects of
netically- effects of effects of genetical-
modified genet- genet- ly-modified
organisms. ically- ically- organisms.
modified modified
organisms. organ-
isms.
Organiza- The effects The effects The ef- The dis-
tion of ge- of ge- fects of cussions
netically- netically- genet- on the
modified modified ically- effects of
organisms organisms modified genetical-
to humans to humans organ- ly-modified
and the and the isms to organisms
environ- environ- humans to humans
ment were ment were and the and the en-
discussed consid- environ- vironment
in detail. erably ment are limited.
discussed. were
discussed
superfi-
cially.

30
Clarity of All ele- All ele- Most ele- Some ele-
message ments in ments in ments in ments in
the prod- the prod- the prod- the prod-
uct are uct are uct are uct are
logically logically logically logically
presented presented presented presented.
and con- and and con- The mes-
sistent. A consist- sistent. sage is
very clear ent. The The mes- vaguely
message is message is sage is conveyed
conveyed conveyed conveyed to the
to the to the to the audience.
audience. audience audience
in a con- in a shal-
siderable low.
manner.

Complete- The output The output Two Three


ness contained lacks one criteria criteria
all the criterion. were not were not
criteria followed. followed.
required.
Skill to The stu- The stu- The stu- The stu-
speak dent had dent had dent had dent had
before an presented presented presented presented
audience the infor- the infor- the infor- the infor-
mation mation mation mation
orally in an orally in a orally in a orally in
effective consider- shallow a vague
manner to able manner manner to
the audi- manner to to the the audi-
ence. the audi- audience. ence.
ence.
Total Score

KPUP Summative Assessment


Check Your Knowledge
Answer the following questions. Choose the correct answer from
the given choices.
______ 1. What structure holds the pair of chromatids together?
a. kinetochore
b. spindle
c. centromere
d. aster
______ 2. Traits controlled by the genes found in the sex
chromosomes are called ___________.
a. sex influenced trait
b. sex limited trait
c. sex linked trait
d. co-dominant trait
31
______ 3. Genes located on the same chromosomes and tend to be
inherited together are called ____________.
a. jumping genes
b. linked genes
c. allelic genes
d. heritable genes
______ 4. Which statement is true about the Law of Codominance?
a. complete masking of recessive trait in the second
generation of offspring
b. appearance of third or intermediate traits in the
offspring
c. appearance of both dominant and recessive traits in
the phenotype of offspring
d. appearance of multiple traits in the phenotype of
offspring
______ 5. Assuming that the chromosomes assort independently
during gamete formation, the phenotypic ratio that would
result when two dihybrid organisms are crossed would be
equal to
a. 9:3:3:1
b. 1:2:1:2:4:2:1:2:1
c. 1:2:1
d. 16:0
Process What You Know
1. Color of feathers in “X” bird species is determined by just two
alleles. A cross between a blue “X” bird & a white “X” bird produces
offspring that are silver.
a. What are the genotypes of the parent “X” birds in the P1 cross?
b. What is/are the genotype(s) of the silver offspring
c. If two “X” bird species were crossed, what would be the
probable phenotypic ratios of their offspring?
2. Could a man with blood type B and a woman with blood type AB
produce a child with blood type O?
3. What are the possible genotypes of the offspring when a woman
heterozygous for blood type B marries a man who is heterozygous
for blood type A? Show the cross using a Punnet square.

Check Your Understanding


1. A man is bald. But his father is not bald. From whom between the
mother and the father did the man inherit the trait? Explain?
2. How many kinds of gametes will an organism with AaBb trait
produce assuming that:
a. The genes assort independently during gamete-formation?
Enumerate the gene combination of the gametes.

32
b. The genes are linked in the chromosomes. Enumerate the
gene combinations of the gametes.
Apply What You Have Learned
The class will be grouped into five. All groups will work on the same
topic: “the hazardous effects of cigarette smoking to health.” Each group
will choose from the following activities:
a. Make a colorful poster about the topic
b. Create a rap or a jingle about the topic
c. Create a skit or a story board about the topic
d. Make a brochure which smokers can read
e. A public service announcement to people who smoke

33
Unit III: Biodiversity and Evolution

Summary
In this unit, students will learn about the biodiversity and Grade Level Standards
evolution. Particularly, the unit focuses on the systematic causes of After learning about
species extinction. Students will understand that evolution is the theme the digestive system,
that unifies all the different fields of biology and has links among to learners have expanded
biodiversity, DNA, and genetics. their knowledge to a
The unit emphasizes that healthy ecosystems depend on plant deeper understanding
and animal species as their foundations. When a species becomes of the respiratory and
endangered, it is a sign that the ecosystem is slowly falling apart. circulatory systems to
Each species that is lost may trigger the loss of other species within promote overall health.
its ecosystem. Humans depend on healthy ecosystems to purify our They are familiar with
environment. Without healthy forests, grasslands, rivers, oceans, and some technologies
other ecosystems, we will not have clean air, water, or land. If we allow that introduce desired
our environment to become contaminated, we risk our own health. traits in economically
important plants and
Students will utilize different forms of assessments like self- animals.
assessment, formative assessments, and summative assessments to
check their mastery and understanding of information, skills, and Learners can explain
concepts. As a final assessment, students will be able to showcase their how new materials
understanding of how biodiversity of life exists in one’s community are formed when
and how living things interact with one another through differentiated atoms are rearranged.
They can recognize
tasks.
that a wide variety
Content Standards of useful compounds
may arise from such
The learner: rearrangements.
1. demonstrates understanding that most species that have once Learners can identify
existed are now extinct volcanoes and distinguish
2. demonstrates understanding that species become extinct when between active and
the environment changes and they fail to adapt inactive ones. They can
explain how energy
Performance Standard from volcanoes may be
The learner: tapped for human use.
They are familiar with
1. makes multimedia presentation of a timeline of extinction of
climatic phenomena that
representative microorganisms, plants, and animals
occur on a global scale.
They can explain why
certain constellations can
be seen only at certain
times of the year.
Learners can predict
the outcomes of
interactions among
objects in real life
applying the laws of
conservation of energy
and momentum.

34
Pre-Assessment
Frayer Model
Have the students write or illustrate their ideas about biodiversity, Overarching EU:
by citing its definition, examples, importance, and the human body as Biodiversity balances
well as occupations related to biodiversity protection and conservation.
the earth. Without
biodiversity, we cannot
Definition Examples say that our planet
may exist. Diverse area
provides us our needs
to survive such as food,
clean air, medicine,
beauty and the like. It
Biodiversity
makes our environment
productive. A diverse
ecosystem is very
beneficial to humans. A
Importance Occupations diverse ecosystem can
prevent and recover from
lots of disasters.

Overarching EQ:
How important is
biodiversity?

Resources:
Madriaga, E. A. (2012),
Science Links: Biology,
Rex Book Store
www.rexinteractive.com

Lesson 1: Types of Biodiversity (6 days) KU:


Lesson Focus: Natural selection • Variation is good! If
a population loses
Introduction (Activating Prior Knowledge) some of this variation,
1. Demonstration: Natural Selection in a Candy Dish it is more vulnerable
to environmental
In this learning activity, students become unwitting subjects
changes than a
in a demonstration about natural selection. Students will select
candies from a bowl and they will have the opportunity to think population with more
about what brought about the “survival” of some candies. variation.

2. Loop KQ:
Ask students to answer the loop activity in the worktext. • How does extinction
happen?

35
3. Think-Pair-Share
Knowledge:
Play the biodiversity song downloaded from http://
billybproductions.com/lyrics-biodiversity/. Have the students form • Vocabulary Words:
pairs with their seatmates and let them listen to the lyrics of the biodiversity,
song. Then have them define biodiversity from the lyrics of the extinction, natural
song. selection, etc.

Body
1. Library Work/Investigate Activity Skills:
Breed of Organism—Research and Presentation • Explain the advantage
Students will individually select and research a breed/varietal/ of high biodiversity
cultivar of organism (e.g., Siamese cat, Hereford cattle, hybrid over low biodiversity
tea rose, cocker spaniel, hard red spring wheat). In their findings,
students should include the following: Formative Assessment
• the name of the breed/varietal/cultivar;
• the characteristics or traits selected for; and
• a picture of a representative organism.
Suggestions for Assessment
Students will prepare and present their research reports.
Research findings can be presented in a variety of formats:
• multimedia presentation (e.g., PowerPoint, video, wiki)
• written report; and/or
• visual display (poster, bulletin board).
2. 10 + 2 Note-taking
Present information for 10 minutes and then have each student
summarize or discuss the material with a partner for two minutes. Integration with:
3. Group Dynamics
Discuss what natural selection is. Reinforce this discussion Technology and Language
through the group activity below:

Procedure:
1. Divide the class into two groups of equal number.
2. Give each group a set of cards. The sets should start off the
21st Century Skills
same, and have an equal number of male and female seals if
possible (For example, male seals that eat sea urchins or female • Communication Skills
seals with thick blubber).
3. Make a table on the chalkboard with the columns: protected
population, unprotected population; sub-columns in each
column: adults, juveniles, babies; and the rows: year 1, 2, etc.
4. Have students look over their cards. Make sure they know their
traits, sex.
5. For each year, describe the environment and which traits will
lead to the death of an individual (see Example environments/
results).

36
6. Move dead students to another part of the room (such as
behind the group they worked with). They will be in charge of
the babies/juveniles for their group.
7. Remaining males and females (per group) will pair up and
produce one offspring. Make a card for this offspring by letting
students play “scissors, paper, rock” to decide which parent’s
trait will be passed on to the offspring (once per trait—do not
forget sex). Mark the offspring year in the upper right hand
corner.
8. Tally the adults and babies.
9. Give the baby cards to the dead to keep track of.
10. Kill someone from the unprotected group.
11. Repeat steps 5–9, describing the environment, pairing mates,
making baby cards, and tallying adults, babies, and now
juveniles (babies of previous years). Juveniles are subject to the
same risks as adults, they just don’t get to mate (yet).
12. Kill someone in the unprotected population every few years.
13. After four or five generations (you decide based on class size-
small class, shorter generation time), juveniles get to join the
adult population.
14. Repeat until ten minutes before class is over.
15. Count how many seals are in each population. Compare.
16. After the simulation, have a class discussion. Ask questions
like “Was there one perfect seal?” “What happened to the
unprotected population?” Try to lead the students to come
up with the ideas such as: (1) variation is good; (2) variation
is inherited; and (3) the environment changes. Discuss why
bigger populations are better, and why it is important to
protect natural populations.

Example environments/results:
1. Cold winter. Any seal with thin blubber and thin fur dies.
2. Sea urchin disease. Any seal that eats only urchins dies.
(this might be a seal that’s weak and slow and can’t catch
fish).
3. Not much food this year either. If a small female is paired
with an extra large male, then the female dies. Male
survives, no young produced by that pair. (You will now
have a skewed sex ratio, and some males will not be able
to mate during the next generations—they are still alive,
but make no babies).
4. Hot summer. Seals with thick fur and thick blubber die.
5. Anchovy population crashes (favorite food of young—
keep in mind that this is only an example), and young must
rely entirely on breast milk. Young nursed for 8 months or
less die.

37
Conclusion
1. Journal Writing
Integration with:
Provide students with the following scenario:
Language
Your friend was recently diagnosed with strep throat, an
infection that causes a sore throat and fever. Her doctor said the
infection is easily treated and cured and gave her a prescription for
an antibiotic. When you accompanied your friend to the pharmacist
to get the prescription filled, the pharmacist told her to finish all
the antibiotic pills, and not discontinue taking it even if she started
to feel better. After taking the antibiotic pills for three days, your
friend started to feel better. She is thinking about not finishing
the treatment. Explain to your friend why it is important that she
finish the entire antibiotic treatment. Refer to variation and natural
selection in your explanation.
2. Exit Cards
Ask the students at least three things they learned about the
lesson. Summative Assessment
3. Portfolio Activity (Group Work)
Tell students to prepare a Google slide presentation about
biodiversity that will be presented to the class. Remind the students
to think about the topics that interests them the most throughout
the lesson. The following are the presentation topics (for each
group):
• How do the mechanisms of change in evolution lead to species
diversity?
• How does phylogeny work?
• Why should people care about protecting species biodiversity?
• How do people in the community benefit from species
biodiversity?
• What is a biodiversity hotspot?
• Describe one of the world’s biodiversity hotspots and explain
why it is designated as a hotspot (two or more groups must
choose a different hotspot)
Students will present a discussion (in small groups of three
or four students) on an assigned biodiversity topic that contains
between 16 to 20 slides (8 to 10 picture slides and 8 to 10 text
slides). They will present the slide show to the class. Each group will
have seven minutes to present their slide show. Group members
must share the task of describing slides to the class—each member
must describe at least three slides to the class. For each text-image
slide pair, students should read the text, show the image, and
explain why the group chose that image.

38
Lesson 2: Adaptations as Key Factors for Species Survival KU:
(5 Days) • The living organisms
change over time due
Lesson Focus: Extinction and Adaptation, Adaptations and Animal to living and non-
Behavior living factors in the
environment.
Introduction (Activating Prior Knowledge)
• Organisms need to
1. Vocabulary Development
change and adapt to
Let the students connect or relate as many words as they can their environment in
think of to the following concepts: order to survive.
• Organisms are related
to each other in many
ways.
• Darwin’s theories
impacted the theory
of evolution.
• There is variation in
the genes within the
same population of
organisms.

KQ:
• How does adaptation
change the earth’s
landscape?
• What factors
affect the ability of
organisms to survive
and reproduce in an
ecosystem?

Knowledge
• Heterotroph
hypothesis
• Radiocarbon dating
• Vocabulary Words:
fossils, amber,
petrifaction,
sedimentation,
Call a volunteer to give a statement that uses all the words he/ footprints,
she has provided which are all related to the words at the center of
comparative anatomy,
the organizer. Then, define the words: adaptation and extinction.
comparative, cytology,
comparative,
embryology, etc.

39
Body
Skills
1. Model Drawings
• Relates species
Have the students each create a picture story from the point extinction to the
of view of a plant or animal (either modern or ancient). Then, have failure of populations
them answer the following questions: of organism to adapt
to abrupt changes in
• What is the environment like?
the environment.
• What other kinds of plants and animals live with you? • *conduct an electronic
• What are your special adaptations that allow you to survive search for information
in this environment? What do you like to eat? on factors that affect
the reproduction and
• Are you a carnivore, herbivore, or omnivore? survival of species
After the students have completed their drawings of their
animal or plant at home in their own environment, ask them to Resources:
do the picture story again in a “foreign” environment. Perhaps Madriaga, E. A. (2012),
they could swap environments with a classmate. Most of these Science Links: Biology,
organisms may be unhappy, to say the least. Rex Book Store
Follow up this exercise with questions, such as: (a) What are www.rexinteractive.com
your chances of survival in this foreign environment? Why do you
think so? (b) If you cannot live in this new environment what will
happen to you? Have the children discuss chances of their survival.
How likely is it that an animal would already have adaptations that
would allow it to survive in the new climate? What would those
adaptations be?
2. Video Clip Integration with
Have the class watch a video on adaptation downloaded at Technology: Video Clip
http://studyjams.scholastic.com/studyjams/jams/science/animals/ and ICT
animal-adaptations.htm
3. ICT: “Who Wants to Live a Million Years?”
Using a computer with Internet access, bring up “Darwin’s
Evolution Game” and project it for the class to see: http://www.
sciencechannel.com/games-and-interactives/charles-darwin-
game.htm.
Play the survival game and have the students brainstorm/
discuss observations made in playing the game. What did they
learn about natural selection and evolution?
How many were able to survive 1,000,000 years and what
strategies enabled them to do that?
Conclusion
1. Learning Logs
Have the students prepare a learning log, recounting the
important activities and essential discussions capsulized in one or
two sentences.

40
2. Research/Homework
The relationship of human activities and environmental
change/extinction is an important one to understand. So is the
importance of maintaining the diversity of life. The class might
discuss what their own stake in this crisis is and what they can
do to help.
3. Differentiated Summative Assessment Tasks

Biodiversity
Goal You are to display an understanding of the importance
of biodiversity and awareness about human activities
that contribute to biodiversity loss.
Role You can be any of the following:
1. visual artist
2 songwriter/composer
3. environmentalist
4. storybook writer
Audience The general public
Situation Human activities play an important role in the extinc-
tion and endangerment of various species of plants
and animals. You were tasked by DENR to conduct an
information campaign and help the agency to explain
to the public the causes and effects of biodiversity loss
and the actions to be done to preserve and conserve
the remaining critically endangered species.
Product/ 1. Make a poster with slogan on how the critically en-
Performance dangered species can be conserved.
2. Compose a song or a rap whose lyrics are focused
on the importance of biodiversity.
3. Make a brochure containing a list of five critically-
endangered species in the Philippines, citing the
causes of their endangerment and suggest some
conservation actions.
4. Make a story book with pictures about the mon-
key-eating eagle citing the causes of its endanger-
ment and the conservation action being done by
the government.
Standards Your product will be assessed based on the following
criteria:
1. Accuracy of content and explanation
2. Awareness
3. Organization and coherence of idea
4. Clarify of message

41
Rubric for Biodiversity

Criteria Description Score


4 3 2 1
Accuracy The The The The
of content student student student student
and expla- shows shows shows a shows
nation deep considera- shallow limited
under- ble under- under- under-
standing standing standing standing
about the about the about the about the
impor- impor- impor- impor-
tance of tance of tance of tance of
biodiver- biodiver- biodiver- biodiver-
sity. sity. sity. sity.
Awareness The The The The
student student student student
shows shows shows a shows a
deep considera- shallow limited
awareness ble aware- awareness aware-
about ness about about ness
human human human about
activities activities activities human
that con- that con- that con- activities
tribute to tribute to tribute to that con-
biodiver- biodiver- biodiver- tribute to
sity loss. sity loss. sity loss. biodiver-
sity loss.
Organiza- All ele- Most ele- There There
tion and ments in ments in is one are some
coherence the prod- the prod- missing elements
of Idea uct are uct are element men-
logically logically in the out- tioned
presented presented put. But in the
and con- and con- the rest product
sistent. sistent. of the ele- that are
ments are logically
logically present-
presented. ed.
Clarity of A very A clear There are The
the mes- clear mes- message is some dis- message
sage sage is conveyed crepancies conveyed
conveyed to the in convey- to the
to the audience. ing the audience
audience. message is not
to the clear.
audience.
Total
Score

42
KPUP Summative Assessment
Check Your Knowledge
_______ 1. Hibernation, migration, estivation, and burrowing are all
examples of __________ adaptation.
a. structural
b. behavioral
c. physiological
d. all of the above
_______ 2. The extinction of the Dodo bird is caused by:
a. The meteoric impact
b. Introduction of invasive species
c. Excessive hunting
d. Habitat fragmentation
_______ 3. Which of the following is not a natural cause of extinction?
a. uplift of land masses
b. meteoric impact
c. hunting for sports
d. invasive species
_______ 4. Which of the following is not a cause of biodiversity loss?
a. habitat destruction
b. increase in the number of species
c. introduction of non-native species
d. reproductive failure
_______ 5. The existence of several varieties of rice in the market is a
typical example of
a. genetic diversity
b. species diversity
c. ecosystem diversity
d. biodiversity

Process What You Know


1. Compare the eagle’s feet to the duck’s feet in the pictures
below:

Eagle’s feet Duck’ s feet

43
a. In what way are the eagle’s feet adapted for catching food?
b. In what way are the duck’s feet adapted for living in water?

Check Your Understanding


Use the food web below in answering the succeeding items. Circle
the correct answer.

1. A strong insecticide kills almost all the grasshoppers in the


area. The number of lizard in the area will ____________.
a. increase
b. decrease
c. become extinct
d. not change
2. An invasive species such as raccoons enter the place and ate all
the mice. The number of snake will ____________.
a. increase
b. decrease
c. become extinct
d. not change
3. If an effort to exterminate the hawk in the area became
successful, which organisms will be mostly favored?
a. lizard
b. rabbit
c. snake
d. all organisms

Apply What You Have Learned


Create a web tutorial about the causes of biodiversity loss. Include
information on how each cause affect specific groups of organisms.
Include a quiz with an answer key.

44
Unit IV: Flow of Energy and Life Processes in Ecosystems

Summary
Grade Level Standards
After learning how diverse life is in the previous unit, students are
now ready to be engaged in understanding the different interactions in After learning about
the ecosystem. In particular, this unit will concentrate on how energy is the digestive system,
transferred in the ecosystem, the different biogeochemical cycles, the learners have expanded
effects of human activities in the ecosystem, and how we can achieve their knowledge to a
a sustainable environment. During the course of this unit, students will deeper understanding
also revisit the concepts of food chains and food webs. of the respiratory and
circulatory systems to
Students will utilize different forms of assessments like self- promote overall health.
assessment, formative assessments, and summative assessments to They are familiar with
check their mastery and understanding of information, skills, and some technologies
concepts. As a final assessment, students are challenged to create a that introduce desired
cartoon that will make their understanding of the different interactions traits in economically
among organisms and the environment as an important factor in the important plants and
balance of nature. animals.
Content Standard Learners can explain
how new materials
The learner:
are formed when
• demonstrates understanding of photosynthesis and respiration atoms are rearranged.
as life energy processes They can recognize
that a wide variety
Performance Standards of useful compounds
The learner: may arise from such
• shows through a poster how photosynthesis and respiration rearrangements.
are related to each other in terms of feeding relationships and Learners can identify
the transfer of energy through trophic levels volcanoes and distinguish
• reports on farming practices that relate knowledge of between active and
photosynthesis that may result to increased yield inactive ones. They can
explain how energy
from volcanoes may be
tapped for human use.
They are familiar with
climatic phenomena that
occur on a global scale.
They can explain why
certain constellations can
be seen only at certain
times of the year.
Learners can predict
the outcomes of
interactions among

45
objects in real life
applying the laws of
conservation of energy
and momentum.
Pre-Assessment
1. Magnet Word Overarching KU:
Have the students accomplish the magnet word below by • Photosynthesis and
supplying their ideas on ecosystem around the magnet. cellular respiration
are complementary
processes necessary
to the survival of most
organisms on Earth.
• Cells carry
Ecosystem out chemical
transformations
that use energy for
the synthesis or
breakdown of organic
compounds.

Overarching KQs:
• How do cells
transform, store,
and use energy to
2. KWHL Chart maintain the survival
of organisms?
Let the students accomplish the KWLH chart. Remind them to
answer the first two columns of the chart and write anything they
Resources:
know about photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
Madriaga, E. A. (2012),
Science Links: Biology,
Rex Book Store
www.rexinteractive.com

Lesson 1: Organisms and How They Obtain Energy KU:


(3 days)
• Life depends on
Lesson Focus: Metabolism and Its Phases energy flow within
systems.
Introduction (Activating Prior Knowledge) • An ecosystem
Instruct the students to answer the following: transfers (and
1. Pre-Test transforms) matter
and energy from one
1. The process performed by cells to obtain energy from sugar
organism to another.
and oxygen is called _____________.
• Organisms (including
a. photosynthesis
you) and their
b. breathing environments are
c. respiration interconnected.

46
2. The process of plants that make sugars using carbon dioxide,
water, chlorophyll, and sunlight is called ___________. KQ:

a. chloroplast • How are matter and


energy connected?
b. photosynthesis
• How are organisms
c. respiration dependent on one
3. Plants ___________. another?
a. respire • How are organisms
b. photosynthesize shaped by their
environment?
c. both a and b
4. The stomata are the pores in the leaf. Their function is to take in
___________.
a. carbon dioxide for photosynthesis
b. oxygen for photosynthesis
c. carbon dioxide for respiration
5. Plants respire ___________.
a. only in sunlight
b. only at night
c. all the time

Body
Knowledge
1. Socratic Dialogue
• The difference
Show the class the between matter and
diagrams shown. From energy.
these figures, explain to
the students how organ- • The basic energy
isms obtain energy. transformations in the
environment.
• What microhabitats
are in a school yard
• What external and
internal stimuli are
and how organisms
responded differently
to their environments.

Skills
• Effectively uses
science equipment
• Accurately gathers
measurements and
other data.
• Makes quantitative
and qualitative
observations.

47
2. Web Scavenger Hunt
• Diagrams the flow of
Using a computer with Internet access, have the students visit energy in food chains,
some websites to learn more about how cells make and use energy. food webs, and energy
Be sure to ask the students to answer the following questions as pyramids.
they explore these concepts. • Compares and
contrasts internal and
a. How do plants and animals obtain energy? external stimuli.
b. In what organelle does the process of photosynthesis occur? Integration with:
c. In what organelle does the process of respiration occur? Technology
d. In what type of cells do photosynthesis and respiration take
place? For each process, describe if it is: plant, animal, both, or
neither.

e. Why are animal cells not capable of carrying out photosynthe-


sis?

f. Photosynthesis and respiration can be summarized into


equations. Write the equations and how do they relate to one
another.

g. Analyze why leaves change color in autumn.

h. Identify the parts of the plant involved in photosynthesis.

i. Describe how glucose is broken down during respiration.

j. Name three interesting facts you learned from the websites.


Conclusion
3-2-1 Exit Cards
Have the class submit their exit cards on the lesson. Tell them
to read the next lesson on photosynthesis.

Lesson 2: Photosynthesis (5 days)


Lesson Focus: Raw Materials of Photosynthesis, Other Factors Im- KU:
portant in Photosynthesis, Chloroplasts and Pig-
• Sun is the primary
ments, The light and dark reaction of photosynthesis
source of energy.
Introduction (Activating Prior Knowledge) Without energy, life is
1. Song impossible.

Play an audio clip with part of the song “The Rock and Roll of • Leaves are the
Photosynthesis” from: http://www.billybproductions.com/index. main region for
php?pageID=10&albumID=101&songID=21. Ask the students photosynthesis.
what photosynthesis is according to the song.

48
2. Comic Strip
• Photosynthesis
Challenge the students to create a three-panel comic strip happens only to the
that depicts their understanding of photosynthesis. The format is plants, a chemical
shown below. process that converts
My Take on Photosynthesis solar energy to
chemical energy while
respiration happens
in both plants and
animals. These
processes are both
associated to energy
production.

KQ:
• Why is the sun
important?
• What role do
leaves have in
photosynthesis?

Knowledge:
• Manner of organisms
in obtaining and
producing energy
from the sun and the
environment.
• Different cell parts
involved in obtaining
and producing energy.
• Vocabulary Words:
lamina, petriole,
epidermis, mesophyll,
chloroplast,
chlorophyll,
Body Glucose, oxygen,
redox reaction,
1. Direct Instruction
thermochemical
Hold a bean seed in one hand and a bean plant in the other phase, electron
hand and then ask the students, “What was required to get from transport chain,
this seed to this plant?” photosystem I and II,
2. Brainstorm photorespiration, etc.
Ask the students if all organisms perform photosynthesis. Have
them explain the process.
49
3. Collaborative Learning
Skills:
Give the students a stack of words. Tell them to lay all the words
out on your table and to sort them out. Instruct them to discuss • Provides evidence
their meanings with a partner and try to look for patterns—for that plants can
general and specific words. Then, when they have the words manufacture their
arranged in a way that sums up what they have understood so far own food
about cell energy, ask the students to record the arranged words on • Explains the
their notebooks. importance of
photosynthesis to
“A” Group Word List other organisms
photosynthesis glucose broken down
light energy energy released Integration:
respiration chloroplast Technology
glucose created mitochondrion
energy stored carbon dioxide

“B” Group Word List


stroma oxidative phosphorylation
water cytoplasm
Krebs cycle glycolysis
thylakoids oxygen
Calvin cycle light-dependent reaction

4. Concept Map
Tell the students to form concept maps using their A and B
word lists.
5. Q and A: Diagram of Photosynthesis
Discuss the process involved in photosynthesis, light
dependent, and light independent. Then, have the students
respond to the following questions: Formative Assessment
• Why is light needed in photosynthesis?
• How does light enter the plant body?
• How do leaves harness the light coming from the sun?

Conclusion
1. Exit Slip
Read the paragraph below then let the students write their
answers on a sheet of paper.
The leaves on the trees are beginning to change to red, orange,
or yellow. Eventually, the leaves will fall off the trees. Using the
information you have learned about plant cells, organelles, and
photosynthesis, describe what is happening in the leaves.
2. Portfolio Activity
Tell the students to design a brochure about one of the two
current “Hot Topics” related to photosynthesis, either deforestation
or global warming. Remind them to include the following items in
their brochure:
• Complete introduction of the topic including definition
50
• Connection to photosynthesis (how this topic is related to
photosynthesis)
• Description of how topic affects society.
• Personal recommendations of the students.
• Inclusion of one scientist and a description of their
contribution to the topic.

KU:
Lesson 3: Cellular Respiration (4 days)
• All organisms,
Lesson Focus: Mitochondria as the site of cellular respiration, including plants, use
Chemical reactions that power cellular respiration, cellular respiration to
Types of cellular respiration, Anaerobic respiration get energy from the
chemical bonds in
Introduction (Activating Prior Knowledge) food.
1. KWLH Chart • Photosynthesis and
Individually, ask the students to fill out the KWLH Chart. respiration both occur
Note: the third column “L” will be accomplished once the unit is in cellular organelles
completed. Additionally, the information gathered in the KWLH because the cells are
Chart should be compiled and become the basis in the delivery of the site for energy
the lesson. production. It is where
the energy-making
organelles are found.
The cells need energy
in order for the body
to perform well.

KQ:
What I Know What I Want What I How Can I
to Know Learned Learn More • Why do respiration
and photosynthesis
occur in cellular
organelles?
• How do plants and
animals use the
energy stored in
glucose?
Body
1. Combination Notes
Let the students read their worktext and ask them to identify
the key terminologies involve in the respiration process. Ask them Knowledge:
as well to provide a diagram of the cycle in order to easily see the • Essential processes
processes involved.
in sustaining life on
earth includes cellular
respiration and
photosynthesis.
• Vocabulary
Words: adenosine

51
triphosphate,
mitochondrion,
aerobic respiration,
glycolysis, Krebs cycle,
Respiration: ____________________ electron transport
chain, etc.
Notes Diagram Skills:
• Describes how specific
cell structures carry
out photosynthesis
and respiration.
• Differentiates
basic features of
photosynthesis and
respiration.
2. Collaborative Learning
Students will use paired reading for the content in this unit.
First, the student reads to the other student. After briefly discussing
the concepts contained in the reading, the students exchange • Explains the
places and continue reading. Students will then take notes on the importance of
reading. The next step is for the students to compare notes with photosynthesis to
another pair of students. other organism.
3. Film Viewing
Present glycolysis, Krebs cycle, and fermentation video clips
(may be repeated before the final assessment) to the students. Then, Formative Assessment
have them explain cellular respiration: glycolysis, fermentation,
the Krebs cycle, and electron transport chain as it relates to cells.
Students may use writing materials and diagrams to develop their
essay. Instruct them to use the following vocabulary words:

cellular respiration calorie glycolysis


citric acid NAD+ fermentation
anaerobic NADH Kreb’s cycle
aerobic electron transport chain FADH2
CO2 ATP Creatine
Pyruvic acid acetyl-CoA FADH
02 20-min. run vs. 20-sec. run

4. Product-making
Ask the students to answer this question: “How does exercise Integration with
affect cellular respiration?” Students will create a poster showing a Technology
30-second run versus a 20-minute run including where the energy
comes from, with regard to glycolysis, fermentation, or Krebs cycle.

52
Conclusion
1. Exit Slip
During the last five minutes of the class, have the students
complete an Exit Slip, reflecting on questions such as the following:
• What do you know now that you did not know before class
today?
• What did you already know?
• What questions do you still have?
2. KWLH Summative Assessment
Let the students complete their KWLH chart by filling out the
last two columns (L and H).
3. Exit Activity
Have the students do a verbal brainstorming of the interrela-
tionship between the circulatory and respiratory systems. Tell them
to discuss and present their ideas through any of the options be-
low:
1. Write a two to three page science fiction story.
2. Draw a cartoon strip. Differentiated by
Learning Profile
3. Perform a chant or rap.
4. Differentiated Summative Assessment Tasks

Ecosystem: Flow of Energy and Matter

Goal
You are to display an understanding of the interrelated
processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
Role You can be any of the following:
1. biochemist
2. songwriter/composer
3. multimedia developer
4. visual artist

Audience Grade 9 Science students

Situation Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are two im-


portant processes that regulate the flow of energy
between the living and non-living systems. They have
to be well understood. To asses your understanding of
the two processes you are tasked to produce an out-
put based from the role you would like to assume. Your
output will be graded based on the rubric found after
this assessment sheet.

53
Product/ 1. Make an analogy between photosynthesis and
Performance cellular respiration.
2. Compose a song or a rap where lyrics are focu-
sed on the events that take place in the cyclic and
non-cyclic light reactions of photosynthesis.
3. Summarize in bullet form by podcast the events
that happen in the electron transport chain and
chemiosmosis of aerobic cellular respiration.
4. Make a poster that illustrates photosynthesis and
cellular respiration as two factories.
Standards Your product will be assessed based on the following
criteria:
1. Accuracy of content and explanation
2. Organization and coherence of idea
3. Clarity of message
4. Creativity

Rubric for Ecosystem: Flow of Energy and Matter

Criteria Description
Score
4 3 2 1
Accuracy The The The The
of content student student student student
and expla- shows shows shows a shows
nation deep consid- shallow limited
under- erable under- under-
standing under- standing standing
about the standing about the about
photo- about the photo- the
synthetic photo- synthetic photo-
process. synthetic process. synthetic
process. process.
The The The The
student student student student
shows shows shows a shows a
deep consid- shallow limited
under- erable under- under-
standing under- standing standing
about the standing about the about
process about the process the pro-
of cellular process of cellular cess of
respira- of cellular respiration. cellular
tion. respira- respira-
tion. tion.

54
Organiza- All ele- Most ele- There There
tion and ments in ments in is one are some
coherence the prod- the prod- missing elements
of Idea uct are uct are element in men-
logically logically the output; tioned
presented present- but the in the
and con- ed and rest of product
sistent. consist- the ele- that are
ent. ments are logically
logically present-
presented. ed.
Clarity of A very A clear There The
the mes- clear mes- message are some message
sage sage is is con- discrep- con-
conveyed veyed to ancies in veyed
to the the audi- conveying to the
audience ence. the mes- audience
sage to the is not
audience. clear.
Creativity The prod- The prod- The The
uct is very uct is product is product
creative. creative. somewhat lacks
creative. creativ-
ity.
Total Score

KPUP Summative Assessment


Check Your Knowledge
Completion Type: Supply the missing term to complete the
sentence. Write your answers on the lines before each number.
_____________ 1. During glycolysis, glucose is broken down
into two molecules of _____________, a
three-carbon compound.
_____________ 2. The dark reaction of photosynthesis takes
place within the _____________ of the
chloroplast.
_____________ 3. Inside the chloroplast the chlorophyll
pigments are located within thin, flat, disc
like sacs called _____________.
_____________ 4. During the Calvin Cycle, the carbon molecule
needed in the synthesis of glucose comes
from _____________.
_____________ 5. The glycolytic process of aerobic respiration
takes place in the _____________ of cells.

Process What You Know


A. Create a jingle that explains what happen to glucose during the
glycolytic pathway of cellular respiration.
B. Make a graphic organizer that explains what happens during the
Calvin cycle of photosynthesis.
55
Check Your Understanding
Supply the missing term to have a functional understanding of the
process of photosynthesis. Get your answers from the box below. Some
terms can be used repeatedly.

ATP hydrogen ions photo PGA


NADPH2 stomata UDP5 carbon dioxide
acceptor
synthesis stroma oxygen
glucose RUDP6 Rubisco chlorophyll

During the light or __1__ reaction, light energy trapped by the


__2__ pigments is held by the molecules of __3__ and __4__. Water is
the source of __5__ needed in the synthesis of __6__ and of __7__ that
is released as by-product.
In the dark or __8__ reaction, carbon dioxide enters the leaf via the
__9__. In the __10__ that fills the entire space of the chloroplasts is a
five-carbon sugar called RUDP5 which is considered as __11__. RUDP5
changes to __12__, the chemical reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme
__13__. RUDP6, an unstable compound split instantaneously into two
molecules of __14__, a triose. One molecule of this triose forms into
__15__ and other becomes PGAL a key material in the synthesis __16__
the final product of photosynthesis.

Apply What You Have Learned


Role Playing
Three groups of students will simulate the chemical reactions that
take place during the:
1. Light reaction phase of photosynthesis
2. Calvin cycle phase of photorynthesis
3. The Glycolytic pathway of cellular respiration

56
SECOND QUARTER – MATTER
Unit V: Chemical Bonding

Summary
In the previous unit, it has been discussed that the living world has Grade Level Standards
undergone evolution and changes. Such processes and phenomenon
After learning about
do not just take place without any effect to the physical and non-living
the digestive system,
world. Indeed, the world is a complex system, one evolution or one
learners have expanded
motion affecting the others.
their knowledge to a
This unit brings learners to the understanding of the physical world deeper understanding
and the changes that occur in it in the course of time and change. of the respiratory and
This unit discusses that tiny atoms are what comprise everything circulatory systems to
in this world. The varieties of material we are enjoying right now are promote overall health.
products of the unending chemical reactions and combination of They are familiar with
different atoms. They bond with other atoms to produce new materials. some technologies
that introduce desired
The end goal of this unit is to usher learners in making students
traits in economically
interpret natural or man-made phenomena according to their study of
important plants and
chemical bonding. Hence, they will be exhibiting understanding of the
animals.
unit through a news broadcast featuring a science phenomenon that
has just taken place. Learners can explain
how new materials
Content Standards are formed when
atoms are rearranged.
The learner:
They can recognize
• demonstrates understanding of the forces that hold metals that a wide variety
together of useful compounds
• demonstrates understanding of how atoms form bonds with may arise from such
other atoms by transfer or sharing electrons rearrangements.
Performance Standards Learners can identify
volcanoes and distinguish
The learner:
between active and
• conducts a survey of organic and inorganic compounds found as inactive ones. They can
natural resources in the Philippines explain how energy
• presents data in poster, chart or multi-media the uses of from volcanoes may be
compounds based on their properties tapped for human use.
They are familiar with
Pre-Assessment climatic phenomena that
Pre-Test Instruction: Write how you understand the following occur on a global scale.
terminologies. You may define or give examples: They can explain why
certain constellations can
1. electron configuration
be seen only at certain
2. Lewis electron dot structure times of the year.
3. chemical bonding Learners can predict
4. ionic bonding the outcomes of
interactions among
5. covalent bonding
6. metallic bonding

57
objects in real life
applying the laws of
conservation of energy
and momentum.

Overarching KU:
Elements and
compounds are bonded
by forces which can
be explained by their
properties.

Overarching KQ:
What is the relationship
of the structure of
elements to the type of
bond they result in?

Resources:
• Valdoz, M., et
al. Science Links
Integrated Science.
REX Publishing. (2012)
• Bascara, M. et
al. Science Links
Chemistry. REX
Publishing. (2012)
Quick Pre-Test

KU:
Lesson 1: The Octet Rule (3 days)
• Electron configuration
Lesson Focus: Electron Configuration and Valence Electron, Lewis helps identify
Electron Dot Structure (LEDS) elements and their
arrangement in the
Introduction (Activating Prior Knowledge) periodic table.
1. Post the pre-assessment output and have the students • Stability of elements
conduct a gallery walk in the room. Process the activity and is important and is
illicit existing ideas from the students regarding chemical achieved through
bonding. chemical bonding
which causes atoms
2. Have the students do the Loop Activity. to gain, lose or share
3. Ask the Overarching Key Question. electrons.
4. Discuss the summary of this unit (see Summary on the previous KQ:
page).
• How can electron
5. Give an overview of their unit task. arrangement be

58
Body
used to identify
1. Brainstorming Activity substances?
Have the students give examples of chemical changes in their
daily lives. (If no response, continue asking the students to give Knowledge:
examples of objects that melt, objects that dissolve, and objects • Electron Configuration
that burn.) • Lewis Electron Dot
Discuss that these daily events depict chemical changes due to Structure
various chemical reactions.
2. Pre-Lab Preparation
Have the students identify and demonstrate the proper use
of the following laboratory materials: Bunsen burner, medicine Skills:
dropper/pipet, micro plate, iron ring iron stand, and conductivity • Explain chemical
tester. changes in terms of
Remind the students of the safety precautions in the use of the the breaking of bonds
materials in the laboratory. and the rearrangement
3. Investigate of atoms to form new
substances.
Have the students do Investigate activity in the worktext.
• Explain the most
Review the definition of a radius and make the correlation to atomic
important principle of
size as ions form.
chemical bonding.
While the students may understand what the charge of the ion
• Show/illustrate the
should be, remember to reinforce the definition of an ion and how
LEDS of atoms.
that is different from an atom of the same element.
4. Mnemonic
Discuss that it is important for elements and compounds to
reach the level of stability which is the strength to stand against • recognize different
physical disintegration. Unstable once are not resistant to chemical types of compounds
change hence they undergo chemical bonding. To know the stability (ionic or covalent)
of elements, they must first know the electron configuration. from their properties
Assist the students in making a diagram of the electron such as melting point,
configuration and ask them to memorize the pattern. hardness, polarity, and
electrical and thermal
5. Demo (1) conductivity
Explain how to get the correct electron configuration of the
following: Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, and Rn.
Discuss that these have eight electrons at the outermost
energy level. According to the octet rule, they are all stable. They
are also noble gases that glow brightly when an electric discharge Integration with
is passed through them. Language and Arts

6. Demo (2)
Explain how to arrive at the correct electron configuration of
the following: Na, Ca, Al, Si, and As.
Discuss that these elements have less than eight electrons at
the outermost energy level. According to the octet rule, they are all
unstable therefore, they need to react with other atoms to attain
eight valence electrons. This is achieved by chemical reaction.

59
7. Acronym
Have the students find the acronym of LEDS and discuss what
they know about it. (See worktext for discussion.)
8. Demo (3)
Explain how to do LEDS for the given elements: C, F, H, He, and
Li.
Have them explain the LEDS of the following elements: Be, B, N,
O, and Ne.
9. Practice Exercise
Have the students draw the LEDS of the following atoms: Si, Br,
I, S, and Kr.
Conclusion
1. Journal Prompt
Ask the students this prompt: Describe when and why atoms
gain or lose electrons.
2. Homework
Ask the students either individually or as a whole class to
state the octet rule and explain its relationship to the noble gases.
Ask them also to to define “valence electron” and explain the
significance of valence electrons to electron sharing/bonding.
Have the students complete a worksheet with many different Lewis
structure problems.

Lesson 2: Ionic Bond (2 Days) KU:


• The need to attain
Lesson Focus: Ionic Charges, Formation of Ionic Compounds, stability enables ions
Chemical Formula and Name of Ionic Compounds, to bond and form
Important Ions and Ionic Compounds ionic compounds
by gaining or losing
Introduction (Activating Prior Knowledge) electrons.
1. K-W-L • The type of bonds
Have the students write on their K-W-L Chart the things that they a substance has
already know about the topic, and the things they want to know about influences its
chemical and physical
the topic.
properties.
Body
After the introduction about the topic (chemical bonding), discuss
with the students what they already know about electron configuration
in atoms and the properties of noble gases. • Atomic structure
1. Double Entry Journal dictates bonding,
which in turn
Discuss the following terms to the class. After discussing each determines the
term, pause for a minute so the students can write on the right structures of
column of their double-entry journal. compounds

60
Term How You Understand the Term KQ:
• Why is stability of
Chemical bond
compounds essential?
• How are properties
Ionic bond related to bonding?
Knowledge:
Ionic compound
• Ionic Charges
Ion • Formation of Ionic
Compounds
• Chemical Formula
Cation
& Name of Covalent
Compounds
Anion • Important Ions & Ionic
Compound
2. Demo/Exercise Skills:
Discuss and show how to get the charge of Na and Cl. • explain how ions are
Draw atoms on the whiteboard and ask the students about formed
their electron configurations. Show other atoms and ask the class • recognize the
for ideas about how to make the atoms look more like noble gases. importance of ions
Explain that noble gases have their characteristic properties when humans obtain
(stability, unreactivity) because their valence shells are full, and nutrients from food
that other atoms can increase their stability by sharing electrons— • explain the formation
this is why we have covalent bonds. Show a few examples (e.g. of ionic compounds
diatomic gases). in terms of ionization
3. Practice Exercise energy and electron
affinity
Have the students do the exercise on the worktext. Discuss the
answers that follow: Mg, O, K, A, and N.
4. Discussion
Explain the formation of ionic compound NaCl and MgO.
Discuss “Chemical Formula and Name of Ionic Compounds” as well.
• infer trends in
5. Think-Pair-Share ionization energy and
Have the students get a piece of bond paper and write/ electron affinity
illustrate the formation of ionic compound. Let them choose 1 ionic • explain how
compound. Then, let them get a partner and explain it to him/her. binary and ternary
6. Practice Exercise compounds are
Write the chemical formula of the following compounds. formed and write
their chemical
1. Cupric nitrate: Cu (NO3)2 formula;
2. titanium (III) nitrate: Ti (NO3)3 • determine the uses
3. mercury (II) hypochlorite: Hg (CLO)2 of ions and ionic
7. Research compounds in the
body and in industry.
Ask the students to make a research on the following:
• research on the
a. Economic importance of some carbonates
economic importance
b. Collection of the important ions and their function to the body of some carbonates
and their other uses
61
Conclusion
Summative Assessment
1. K-W-L-H
Give back the chart to the class and have them answer the
“L” and “H” column.
2. Simile
Complete the sentence by using simile.
Ionic bonding is like…

Lesson 3: Covalent Bond (2 Days)


KU:
Lesson Focus: Formation and Naming of Covalent Compounds,
Molecular Geometry, Properties of Ionic Bond and • Stability of two non-
Covalent Compounds metals is achieved
through covalent
Introduction (Activating Prior Knowledge) bonding which
1. Anticipation Guide enable them to share
electrons.
Ask the students to read the concept on the second column.
Then have the students answer the first column of the table below • The type of element
by writing AGREE or DISAGREE. determines the type
of bond that will occur
Before the After the in chemical reaction.
CONCEPT
Lesson Lesson
KQ:
Covalent bond transfer electrons
through gaining or losing them. • What is the use
or importance of
Covalent bonding happens to 2 covalent compounds
non-metals. in our daily lives?
Molecular geometry gives the
general shape of the molecules. Knowledge:
NaCl is an example of covalent • Formation of Covalent
bond. Compounds
Covalent and Ionic bond are simi- • Chemical Formula
lar in melting point, hardness, and & Name of Covalent
electrical conductivity. Compounds
• Molecular Geometry
• Difference Between
Read Unit V Lesson 3, Covalent Bond, in the worktext to confirm
Ionic Bond & Covalent
the students’ answers.
Bond
Guided by input and suggestions from the students draw Lewis
structures for ionic compounds and for more complicated covalent
compounds, include simple carbon chains and polyatomic ions.
Body Skills:
1. Socialized Recitation • explain/illustrate the
Ask the students the following questions: formation of covalent
• What type of elements can undergo covalent bonding? compounds

62
• What transpires within the electrons of atoms in a covalent
bond? • explain the molecular
Consider oxygen as an example. Have somebody make the geometry through
electron configuration of oxygen. Analyze it using the octet rule. VSEPR
What does one atom of oxygen need to do? (expected answer • differentiate ionic and
is since oxygen atom is not stable, it has to go through chemical covalent bonding
bonding)
Explain that since oxygen is non-metal and that we are bonding
two atoms of oxygen, covalent bonding takes place.
Discuss the three types of covalent bonding.
Formative Assessment
2. Demo (1)
Ask somebody from the class to try illustrating the bonding of
two oxygen atoms through LEDS.
Demonstrate/illustrate the covalent bonding of: NH3 and N2. Differentiated Instruction
3. Practice Exercise (1) Drills
Ask one representative to draw the covalent bonds formed in
the following molecules: H2O, CCl4 and NF3.
4. Game Using Readiness Grouping Integration with Language
Show the table of prefixes in naming covalent compounds. Double Entry Journal
Then divide the class according to readiness grouping. Give manila
paper to each group and have them write all chemical compounds
they know that use any of the prefixes from the table.
5. Practice Exercise (2)
Name the following covalent compounds: CCl4, N2O, NBr3,
As2O5 and NO.
6. Double Entry Journal
Have the students prepare their two-column note. Do a
discussion of the Molecular Geometry as they take notes. Their
notes must reflect their understanding of VSEPR and the different
molecular geometry.
7. Enrichment Activity
Integration with Arts
Have the students go to their groupings according to
readiness. In a manila paper, each group will have to give examples Differentiated Instruction
of covalent bonding and illustrate them using molecular geometry. Gallery Walk
Remind the class to refrain from using the examples given in the
worktext.
8. Gallery Walk

Have the students post their work inside the classroom. Ask
them to prepare the chart below as their tool for the gallery walk.

Poster Examples I have Examples I Don’t Have

63
9. Differentiated Activity
Differentiated Instruction
Have the students go to their Modality Grouping. Ask the
students read the Difference Between Ionic Bond and Covalent
Bond. After reading, tell them to answer this question: What are
the differences between ionic and covalent bond? As you give Summative Assessment
the instruction, inform the students that their answer must be
complete, correct, and creative. They may choose one from the
suggestions below:
• Visual Group – Draw/Illustrate the difference
• Audio Group – Compose a song or a jingle
• Kinesthetic – Do a pantomime.
10. Short Quiz
Conduct a short quiz on covalent bonding.
Conclusion
1. Anticipation Guide
Give back the Anticipation Guide. Have them answer the final
column.
2. Exit Pass
Give an example of a covalent compound. State its importance
to society.

KU:
Lesson 4: Metallic Bonds (2 Days)
• Metals have
Lesson Focus: Metallic Properties properties which
determine their
Introduction (Activating Prior Knowledge) uses to industry and
society
Tell the class to configure electron dot diagrams for selected
molecules that include: CO2, SiO2, MgF2. As they prepare their diagrams, KQ:
tell them to indicate the energy levels, the number of electron in the • Why do metals have
outermost shell, the dot diagram, molecule diagram and the completed high melting point?
diagram. Let them complete and arrange these information in a table • Why are metals
like the one below. To help them with their answers, give them the first good conductors of
molecule (H2O) as an example. electricity?
Knowledge:
• Metallic Properties
Skills:
• Explain properties of
metals in terms of their
structure.
• Create a scrapbook
showing metals and
their uses.

64
Body
Integration with Arts
1. Graphic Organizer
Differentiated By
Write as many metals as you can remember from the periodic Readiness (All for
table. Creative Students)

2. Practice Activity
Have the students go to their Modality grouping and have them
answer the KQ: “Why are metals good conductors of electricity?” In
order for them to answer the questions, assign the tasks for each:
– make a poster or illustration or a comic strip
– make a jazz chant, a rap or a song.
– make a mime
3. Two-Column Chart
Ask the students to read about the metallic properties in as
discussed in the worktext. As they read, have them fill out the two-
column chart.

Properties of Metal
Properties Description
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

4. Enrichment Activity
Create a 10-page scrapbook showing the different malleable
and ductile metals and their uses.
5. Template Creation
Design templates for an atom with two energy levels for each
student. Using the template and clay, ask the students to fashion
models of the atoms for any of the elements in the first two periods.
Have the students attempt to join atoms with incomplete outer
energy levels. Then, ask them to draw a template for an atom with
three energy levels.
Place a small cup in the center to be used as the nucleus. Use
two candies for protons and neutrons with a smaller type of candy
as electrons. As atomic numbers are given, ask students to place
protons and electrons on the atom. Next, give the atomic mass and
allow students to figure the number of neutrons to be placed in the
nucleus.
65
6. Flash cards
Ask the students to make pairs of flash cards showing elements
in electron dot diagrams. Students can play a matching game to pair
up elements that would bond because of their metallic properties.
7. 4-Box Syndetic
Complete the phrases below by using similes. Connect them
to unrelated objects and write the reason. For example, “Solving
equation is like eating oranges because…”

Bonding is… Ionic Bonding is…

Covalent Bonding is… Metallic Bonding is…

Conclusion
1. 3-2-1 Exit Card
• 3 things I learned about this lesson.
• 2 things I can do about this in real life.
• 1 question I still have.
2. Unit Performance Task
The goal is for the students to survey their community and list
the chemical compounds available around them. Let them make
a presentation of these compounds together with their uses and
effects to human life.
3. Differentiated Summative Assessment Task

Chemical Bonding
Goal You are to display understanding of the different types of
chemical bonding, how they happen, and how their products
(chemical compounds) become useful to human life and en-
vironment.
Role You can either be a:
1. researcher
2. web designer
3. photographer

Audience
High school students
Situation The Association of Chemistry Teachers of the Philippines is
sponsoring an event that will highlight the different chemical
compounds. They have invited researchers, web designers,
and photographers to submit entries of their favorite
chemical compounds. The entries of the participants will be
displayed in the gallery for viewing by high school students.

66
Product/
Perfor- 1. Researcher
mance Interview fellow students about their understand-
ing of chemical bonding or reaction. Interview at least 6
people. Include also a list of chemical compounds that
they know and how they are being used. Summarize the
results of your interviews. Design a 3-5 minute presenta-
tion regarding the results.
2. Web-designer
Create an informative media project (brochure,
PowerPoint presentation, etc…) about chemical bond-
ing and chemical compounds. Explain the topic, how/
where they are commonly used and how they are im-
portant for everyone to understand.
3. Photographer
Make a photo album of chemical compounds. In-
clude a caption for each. It must include the history, for-
mation, significance, and products produced from these
compounds through the years as well as the possible
things that can still be developed from them.
Standards
Your product will be assessed based on the following criteria:
1. Accuracy
2. Creativity
3. Engaging to the audience

Rubric for Chemical Bonding

Description
Criteria Score
4 3 2 1
Accuracy Shows Shows Shows Shows
extensive accurate few errors some
accuracy concepts. in con- erroneous
of con- cept. concepts.
cepts.
Engaging Perfor- Perfor- Perfor- Perfor-
to the mance/ mance/ mance/ mance/
audience Product Product is Product is Product is
is very engaging some- ineffec-
engag- and mind- what tive and
ing and ful of the engag- unmind-
sincerely audience. ing but ful of the
mindful of doesn’t audience.
audience. seem
mindful of
the audi-
ence.

67
Creativ- Perfor- Perfor- Perfor- Perfor-
ity mance/ mance/ mance/ mance/
Product Product Product is Product is
is highly is crea- some- unpol-
creative tive and what ished and
and shows shows crea- obviously
unusual good tive but with very
crafts- prepara- doesn’t little
manship. tion. reflect prepara-
good tion.
prepara-
tion.
Total
Score

KPUP Summative Assessment


Check Your Knowledge
Fill in the blank with the correct word to complete the
statement.
1. The Lewis Electron __________ Structure (LEDS), proposed
by G.N. Lewis, was used to emphasize the atom’s valence
electrons.
2. Stability in atoms involves the possession of _________ valence
electrons.
3. An atom that loses an electron becomes _________ charged
ion called cation.
4. Elements in group _______ of the periodic table are called
noble gases, in exemption of helium.
5. Ionization energy generally _________ from left to right of the
periodic table.
Process What You Know
1. Write down the chemical of the compound formed from the
combination of the following ions:
a. Li+ + N3-
b. Mg2+ + O2-
c. Fe2+ + Cl-
d. Ca2+ + F-
e. Al3+ + S2-
2. Classify the following compounds as to ionic or covalent.
a. BaCl2
b. SO2
c. NF3
d. SF6
e. SnCl4

68
Check Your Understanding
1. How will you know if an atom is likely to form bonds?
2. Create a Venn-diagram to compare and contrast ionic bond
and covalent bond.
Apply What You Have Learned
1. Create a Frayer model each for ionic and covalent bond. Use
the template below.
• formation
• description
• example
• non-example
• ionic

formation description

ionic

example non-example

2. Compose a jingle that summarizes the concepts about bonding


and the need to bond. Concentration of the lyrics should be
about togetherness.

69
Unit VI: The Variety of Carbon Compounds

Summary
Key Stage Standards:
The previous unit introduced us to the physical world and the
changes that occur in it during the course of time. It discussed that The learners should
tiny atoms are what comprise everything in this world. The varieties have developed
of material we are enjoying right now are products of the unending scientific, technological,
chemical reactions and combination of different atoms. They bond with and environmental
other atoms to produce new materials. literacy and can make
rational choices on
This unit pushes us deeper in the understanding of life through issues confronting them.
the understanding of organic chemistry. When we talk about Having been exposed to
organic chemistry, we are actually talking about carbon compounds. scientific investigations
Organic chemistry involves the scientific study of the composition, related to real life, they
structure, properties, and preparation of carbon-based compounds, should recognize that
hydrocarbons, and their derivatives. the central feature of an
The end goal of this unit is to usher learners in analyzing carbon investigation is that if
compounds as to their importance to society and industry, their one variable is changed
harmful effects, and to strike a balance. (while controlling all
others), the effect
Content Standard of the change on
another variable can be
The learner: measured. The context
• demonstrates understanding of the type of bond that carbon of the investigation can
forms resulting to the diversity of carbon compounds be problems at the local
Performance Standard or national level to allow
them to communicate
The learner: with learners in other
• creates a database of the organic compounds surveyed, parts of the Philippines
indicating their structure, properties, and uses or even from other
countries using
appropriate technology.
Pre-Assessment The learners should
demonstrate an
understanding of science
Definition Information concepts and apply
science inquiry skills in
addressing real-world
problems through
Carbon scientific investigations.
Compounds
Overarching KU:
Example Non-example Carbon compounds
characterize life.

70
Overarching KQ:
• Why is the study of
organic compounds
important to our
lives?
• How do carbon
compounds benefit
and harm the
human health and
environment?
Resources:
• Valdoz, M., et
al. Science Links
Integrated Science,
REX Publishing, (2012)
• Madriaga, E. et
al. Science Links
– Biology, REX
Publishing, (2012)
• Bascara, M. et
al. Science Links
Chemistry, REX
Publishing, (2012)
• Aquino, M., et al.
Science Links-Physics,
Rex Publishing, 2012

Frayer Model

71
Lesson 1: The Carbon Atom (4 days) KU:
Lesson Focus: Carbon Structure, Organic vs. Inorganic • To understand life is
to understand organic
Introduction (Activating Prior Knowledge) chemistry which
1. Description Wheel is all about carbon
Let the students read the importance of carbon and have them fill compounds.
out this description wheel as they read. Recall the chemical properties
KQ:
of carbon based on the information the students can get from the
periodic table of elements. Then ask the students what they know • Why is the study of
about carbon atoms and its compounds. organic compounds
important to our
lives?
• How do organic
compounds benefit
and harm the
human health and
environment?

Knowledge:
• Organic vs. Inorganic
Body
• Importance of Organic
1. Jigsaw Cooperative Learning
Compounds
Group students with five members each. Set up five stations
where you can post five important characteristics of carbon and
organic molecules. Send each member to these stations and have
them study the contents for 5 to 10 minutes. After the allotted
time, ask them to return to their group and share what they have Skills:
learned from the stations they have visited. Again, give them 5 to
• explain the
10 minutes to evaluate the activity.
importance of carbon
NOTE: These are the concepts found on the five stations: and how the structure
a. Carbon atom can share four valence electrons (tetravalent). of carbon atom affects
b. Carbon atoms can form long chains of molecules. This ability of the type of bonds it
carbon is called catenation. forms;
c. Carbon atoms can form ring-like structures. • research on different
d. Carbon can form multiple bonds with another carbon atom or allotropes of carbon,
with other elements by sharing two or more valence electron. their properties
This multiple bonds cause the bending of the shape of chains and structure, and
or rings of organic molecules. their biological and
e. Carbon uses hybridized atomic orbitals, where the s and p economic importance.
orbitals mix together to form hybrid orbitals. The s orbital has • differentiate organic
a lower energy compared to the p orbital, thus, if we draw the and inorganic
structure of methane with unhibridized orbitals, their shape compounds
could become unstable or irregular. But if the s and p orbitals
mix, forming hybrid orbitals, the bonds that they form will have • recognize the general
the same energy, thus having a more stable configuration. classes of organic
compounds and their
2. Research Work uses
Have your students go to the library and look for other
allotropes of carbon. Have them look at their properties and
structure and their biological and economic importance.

72
3. Differentiated Activity
Integrated with:
Have their research presented through their MI. Before you give
this assignment, explain that their presentation of their research Technology and Language
should be with accuracy of information. Differentiated by interest
• Verbal: Write a story or poem about your research.
• Musical: Compose a song to present your research.
• Spatial: Draw or illustrate your research.
Extension: Have the output produced in this activity displayed
in the hall. Have the songs of the students be played and the story
or poem be posted on the board as well. Students from other levels
may be invited to check out the output of their schoolmates.
4. Venn Diagram
As you discuss the differences between organic and inorganic
compounds, have them fill in a Venn diagram. Discuss also the
importance of organic and inorganic compounds.
Conclusion
1. Quick Quiz
Conduct a short quiz with the class.
2. Journal Prompt
Ask the students to make a stand on this: “Carbon Compounds:
Boon or Bane?”
3. Homework
Ask the students to read about hydrocarbons and share their
thoughts in class.

KU:
Lesson 2: Hydrocarbons (2 Days)
• Properties of carbon
Lesson Focus: Isomerism, Classes of Hydrocarbons, Uses of Hydro- determine their
carbons, Effects of Hydrocarbons to Health and Envi- functions.
ronment • Isomers are differing
arrangements of the
Introduction (Activating Prior Knowledge)
same atoms
Prepare your KWHL Chart. Have the class accomplish the first
two columns (K and W) of the graphic organizer for hydrocarbons.
Body KQ:
1. Double Entry Journal
Discuss isomerism and the different ways carbon compounds
bond. Ask the students to use the double entry journal below for
• What are the effects
you to gauge their understanding of the lesson.
of hydrocarbons to
How You Understand the humans, environment
Ways and other
Term
compounds?
Molecular formula
Knowledge:
Expanded structural formula
• Isomerism
Condensed structural formula
73
2. Discuss (1)
• Types of Hydrocarbons
Discuss the types of hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, alkynes,
• Uses of Hydrocarbons
and aromatic). Tell the students to go to their readiness grouping.
Ask them to explain and interpret the organizational chart on • Effects of
hydrocarbons from the worktext. Give drills of illustrating each Hydrocarbons
type of hydrocarbon through chemical (molecular) formula and to health and
structural formula. environment

3. Research Work Skills:


Have your students find out how gas is produced out of wastes. • explain/illustrate
Let them make a schematic diagram or cycle diagram to show the different isomers of an
procedure. Remind the students that the output will be checked atom.
according to its accuracy. • research on how
4. Discussion (2) methane is produces
out of wastes.
Discuss the uses and effects of hydrocarbons. • name different types
5. Quick Quiz of hydrocarbons, give
examples and their
Have the students answer this: “Are hydrocarbons helpful or uses and effects in
harmful? Why?” daily life.
Conclusion
Integration with
1. Reflection Language
Ask the students to complete the sentence:
Hydrocarbons are important in today’s society because __________.
2. KWHL
Have the students complete the KWHL graphic organizer by
filling in the H and L columns.

Lesson 3: Functional Groups (2 Days)


KU:
Lesson Focus: Hydroxyl Group, Carbonyl Group, Carboxyl Group, • Functional groups
Amines and Amides determine chemical
properties of organic
Introduction (Activating Prior Knowledge)
substances.
1. Simile
Complete the sentence by using simile.
“Hydrocarbons are _________________.”
2. Springboard Questions
a. What functional group of organic compounds is responsible
for the curling of the hair?
b. What substance in rotten eggs is responsible for its bad odor?

74
Body
1. Socialized Recitation
Discuss Functional Groups to the class (hydroxyl, carbonyl,
carboxyl, amines, and amides). Have the students determine their • The presence of
structure, uses, and names. functional groups can
2. Structural Analysis be used to predict the
Show the students the structure of an organic compound with products of a reaction.
many functional groups and tell them some trivia about it. Then, KQ:
let them analyze the structure and ask them to draw the parts that
they see from it. * What characterizes
the different
3. Checklist
functional groups
Ask the students to check the following functional groups if and what are their
they are present in the compounds listed below: effects to humans,
environment?
Compound Ethanol Lysine Cholesterol Methionine
Functional Group
Alcohol (-OH)
Amine (-NH2)
Sulfide (-S-)
Thiol (-SH) Knowledge:
Carboxyclic (COOH) • Hydroxyl Group
• Carbonyl Group
4. Quick Quiz • Carboxyl Group
Ask them, “Why is the study of organic compounds important Amines & Amides
to our lives?”
Skills:
5. Cooperative Learning
• Explain the functional
Prepare four to six visual aids containing the functional groups groups, their
and their examples. Group the students with four to six members examples, and their
depending on the number of your visual aids. During class, have uses in daily life.
your visual aids posted on separate parts of the room. Instruct
• Develop ways of
the group leaders to assign a particular member to study the
how people can
functional group in the station assigned to them. Have them study
the contents for 5 to 10 minutes. After the allotted time, ask them be protected from
to return to their group and share what they have learned from harmful carbon
the stations they have visited. Again, give them 5 to 10 minutes to compounds.
evaluate the activity.
Formative Assessment
Conclusion
1. Frayer Model
Let them accomplish the Frayer Model on each type of
functional groups.
2. Challenge
Have the students design a scavenger hunt by collecting
samples of materials related to the concepts discussed in this
unit. Group students into six and ask each group to prepare a list
of materials to be hunted by other groups. The materials may be
actual or just representations as available in the class or in the
school.
75
3. Exit Activity
Get the students to perform the following tasks:
a. Ask the students answer the Unit Test.
b. Have them do the Unit Performance Task. Let the students
develop ways of how people can be protected from harmful
carbon compounds.
• analytic: make a Q&A flyer about carbon compounds
Differentiated by:
• creative: make a 1-2 minute-commercial script of DOH
Interest
• practical: make a brochure with “protection tips”
4. Differentiated Summative Assessment Tasks

Carbon Compounds

Goal You are to display understanding of the different organic


compounds that benefit and harm humans and the en-
vironment.

Role You can either be a/an:


1. web designer
2. songwriter/singer
3. environmentalist

Audience The general public

Situation There are reports that hydrocarbon derivatives are very


hazardous to one’s health. A group of anti-hydrocarbon
wants to ban all substances that are derived from hydro-
carbons. You were asked by the Department of Science
and Technology (DOST) to do an information drive and
help them explain to the public the significance of hy-
drocarbons amidst their harmful effects.

Product/ 1. Product 1 (Web Designer)


Performance A webpage, blog, or Facebook fan page that
will inform web visitors about three different hy-
drocarbons, their benefits and risks. There should
be notes, images, and a space for frequently asked
questions. It must also be interactive where visitors
can pose comments, questions, and suggestions.
2. Product 2 (Songwriter)
A 2- to 3-minute song with lyrics that reflect
the understanding that hydrocarbon derivatives
are all around us. There should be at least three dif-
ferent hydrocarbons in the song. The song must be
recorded and will be uploaded in the DOST website/
web designer’s page. It should have a title and must
be accompanied by at least one musical instrument.

76
3. Product 3 (Environmentalist)
An open letter to the public that will discuss
the need for hydrocarbon derivatives in the fields
of medicine, cosmetics, and food industry. It should
justify the use of hydrocarbon derivatives and pre-
sent safety precautions to reduce their hazards. The
open letter will be uploaded in the DOST website or
web designer’s page. The letter should be 300–500
words only.

Standards Your product will be assessed based on the following


criteria:
1. Accuracy of content
2. Organization/clarity of message
3. Completeness

Rubric for Campaign on Hydrocarbons

Description Score
Criteria
4 3 2 1
Accuracy The student The student The student The student
of shows deep shows con- shows shal- shows lim-
Content under- siderable low under- ited under-
standing under- standing standing
of different standing of different of different
hydrocar- of different hydrocar- hydrocar-
bons. The hydrocar- bons. The bons. The
structures, bons. The structures, structures,
properties, structures, properties, properties,
uses, and properties, uses, and uses, and
effects of uses, and effects of effects of
hydrocar- effects of hydrocar- hydrocar-
bons to hydrocar- bons to bons to
humans bons to humans humans
and the humans and the and the en-
environ- and the environ- vironment
ment were environ- ment were were not
discussed ment were mentioned mentioned
in detail. discussed but not to all.
in part. discussed.
Organi- All ele- All ele- Most Some
zation/ ments in ments in elements in elements in
Clarity of the product the product the product the product
Message are logically logically are logically are logically
present- presented presented present-
ed and and con- and consis- ed. The
consistent. sistent. The tent. A clear message
A very clear message is message is conveyed
message is conveyed conveyed to the audi-
conveyed to the to the audi- ence is not
to the audi- audience in ence clear.
ence a con-
sidreable
manner

77
The output The output Tthere is There
contains all contains at one missing are two
the criteria least three element in or more
required hydrocar- the output. missing
bons and Most of the elements in
follows the mechan- the output.
mechanics ics were Few of the
completely followed mechan-
ics were
followed
Total
Score

KPUP Summative Assessment


Check Your Knowledge
Identify the term being described.
1. Chemical compound consisting mainly of hydrogen and
carbon
2. Chemical formula of methane, a constituent of LPG
3. Other term for alkenes
4. General formula for alkynes
5. First aromatic hydrocarbons
Process What You Know
Modified True or False. Write True if the statement is correct. If not,
underline the word that makes it false and write the correct answer.
1. Organic compounds are those that contain carbon, thus, a
carbon monoxide is considered as organic compound.
2. Organic compounds have lower boiling point and melting
points than inorganic.
3. Cyclic hydrocarbons are those that are closed-chain in
structure.
4. Alkane is a saturated hydrocarbon containing a double-bond.
5. Isomers are compounds with the same molecular formula but
with different structure.
Check Your Understanding
1. Why one should limit exposure to benzene?
2. Why is carbon considered as life’s most essential element?
Apply What You Have Learned
Create a poster/slogan campaign to inform the people about the
effects of hydrocarbons to health and environment. Have it posted
within school vicinity.

78
Unit VII: Mole Concept
Grade Level Standards:
Summary After learning about
the digestive system,
The previous unit pushed us deeper in the understanding of life learners have expanded
through the understanding of organic compounds. Organic chemistry their knowledge to a
involves the scientific study of the composition, structure, properties, deeper understanding
and preparation of carbon-based compounds, hydrocarbons, and their of the respiratory and
derivatives. circulatory systems to
Such truth led scientists to find ways on how to conveniently count promote overall health.
even minute particles which may seem impossible to count. They are familiar with
some technologies
The end goal of this unit is to usher learners in calculating these that introduce desired
small molecules and atom. traits in economically
important plants and
Content Standard animals.
The learner: Learners can explain
• demonstrates understanding that matter consists of an how new materials
extremely large number of very small particles which can be are formed when
quantitatively measured by the unit, mole. atoms are rearranged.
They can recognize
Performance Standard that a wide variety
of useful compounds
The learner:
may arise from such
• designs an educational game involving mole concepts rearrangements.
Learners can identify
Pre-Assessment volcanoes and distinguish
SPLASH between active and
Ask the students to form sentences by relating the words below to inactive ones. They can
the words at the center. explain how energy
from volcanoes may be
tapped for human use.
Avogadro’s number molar mass formula mass They are familiar with
climatic phenomena that
occur on a global scale.
Percentage composition stoichiometry They can explain why
certain constellations can
be seen only at certain
Empirical formula MOLE molecular formula times of the year.
Learners can predict
1. _________________________________________________ the outcomes of
interactions among
2. _________________________________________________ objects in real life
3. _________________________________________________ applying the laws of
conservation of energy
4. _________________________________________________
and momentum
5. _________________________________________________
Overarching KU:
Even the most minute
atom or element has a
system of measurement
in science.

79
Overarching KQ:
1. Why use moles to
know the number
of molecules you
have in a sample of a
substance?
2. How is Avogadro’s
mole essential to
understanding
stoichiometry?
3. How can the mole
of substances be
calculated?
Resources:
• Valdoz, M., et
al. Science Links
Integrated Science.
REX Publishing. (2012)
• Madriaga, E. et
al. Science Links
– Biology. REX
Publishing. (2012)
• Bascara, M. et
al. Science Links
Chemistry. REX
Publishing. (2012)
• Aquino, M.. et
al. Science Links
– Physics. REX
Publishing. (2012)

Lesson 1: Mole and Mass Relationship (4 days) KU:


• Understanding moles
Lesson Focus: The Avogadro’s Number, Molar Mass, Formula Mass or
leads to a better
Molecular Mass, Stoichiometric Conversions
understanding of
Introduction (Activating Prior Knowledge) molecules.
• The mole is an
Do the following:
essential concept
1. Have the students do the loop: Who Am I? in understanding
2. Ask the Overarching Key Question. the mechanisms of
chemistry.
3. Discuss the Summary of this unit (see Summary above).
KQ:
4. Give an overview of their Unit Task. Discuss that they will design an
educational game involving mole concepts • Why use moles to
know the number
Body of molecules you
1. Brainstorming Activity have in a sample of a
substance?
Have the students imagine how to count molecules and atoms.
80
2. Experiential Learning: Investigate Activity
• How is Avogadro’s
Pre-Lab Discussion: Have the students identify and
mole essential to
demonstrate the proper use of the following laboratory materials:
understanding
Platform balance or triple beam balance.
stoichiometry?
Then, have the students do Investigate activity on the worktext.
Let the students discuss their analysis and conclusion with
their learning buddies.
3. Class Discussion
• What are its
Recall the following concepts: Molar Mass, Formula Mass, and applications to our
Molecular Mass. Then ask the students: What is the Avogadro’s daily lives?
number and what is its importance to chemistry?
Knowledge:
Have the students describe how to convert moles to amount of
substance in grams and Number of particles. • The Avogrado’s
Number
Discuss sample Problems in the worktext. Then, have the • Molar Mass
students solve problems involving:
• Formula Mass or
• mole to mass relationship Molecular Weight
• mole to mole relationship Skills:
• mass to mass relationship • define mole and its
• mass to number of particles use in chemistry;
• mole to number of particles • solve for molar mass
and formula mass.
4. Instruct the students go to their MI group. Using their MI profile,
have them produce ways of teaching Mole relationships to other
chemistry students.

Conclusion
1. Simile
Have the students complete the sentence by making similes.
1. Moles are like…
2. Mass is like…
3. Moles and Mass are like…
2. SPLASH Pre-Assessment
Have the students correct their work or let them add more
sentences to those they have made already. Give drills to students
on solving formula mass and molar mass.

81
Lesson 2: Percentage-by-Mass Composition of a KU:
Compound (2 Days)
Elements and
compounds have a
Lesson Focus: Computing percentage composition of a compound counting system to attain
more information and
Introduction (Activating Prior Knowledge) understanding.
Read the exit pass to the class. Make sure to correct the KQ:
misconceptions made in the exit pass. Commend students’ correct
What is the significance
answers as well.
of getting percentage
composition from
Body
formulas?
Do the following:
1. Ask the students of the role of Antoine Laurent Lavoisier in science.
2. Discuss percentage composition.
Knowledge:
3. Do sample problems.
4. Give some practice exercises.
5. Conduct a quick quiz
Percentage Composition
Conclusion Stoichiometry
1. Simile Skills:
Ask the students to complete the sentence below by using simile. • describe the
composition of
“Finding percentage composition is like…” a compound by
2. Homework percentage mass.
• determine the
Have the students read about Empirical and Molecular Formula. percentage of
composition of a
compound given its
chemical formula and
vice versa

KU:
Lesson 3: Empirical Formula and
The formulas manifest
Molecular Formula (4 Days) the changes occurring in
elements and compounds
Lesson Focus: Computing empirical and molecular formula of and can help express
compounds these changes in scientific
and precise manner
Introduction (Activating Prior Knowledge)
Ask the students to compare empirical and molecular formula.
Have them answer it by pairs.
KQ:
Body • What is the
significance of
Do the following:
getting percentage
1. Discuss empirical formula. Give sample problems. Then, have the composition from
students do Practice Exercises. formulas?
• What is the
2. Discuss molecular formula. Give sample problems. Then, have the significance of
students do Practice Exercises. empirical and
3. Conduct a quick quiz. molecular formulas?
82
Conclusion
Knowledge:
1. Simile
• Empirical Formula
Complete the sentences below by using simile.
• Molecular Formula
• “Empirical Formula is like…”
Skills:
• “Molecular Formula are like…”
• differentiate empirical
2. Differentiated Summative Assessment Tasks and molecular formula
• compute the empirical
The Mole
and the molecular
formula of compounds
You are to display understanding of the mole as a
Goal unit for counting number and its importance to vari-
ous stoichiometric calculations.

You can either be a/an:


1. athlete
Role
2. juggler
3. artist

Audience The general public

Every October 23 from 6:02 a.m. to 6:02 p.m., stu-


dents, teachers, and chemists celebrate the Mole Day
to commemorate the basic measuring unit in chemis-
try known as the mole as represented by Avogadro’s
number (6.02 x 1023).
Situation
As Stochiometry deals mainly with a mole, stu-
dents shall launch an activity with the theme “Mole
Street on Mole Day!” With the permission from the
school principal, choose a spot inside the campus
which shall be named Mole Street.

1. Athlete
Conduct a Mole Olympics that will highlight mole-
related sports such as mole relay, shoot the atoms,
etc.
2. Juggler
Product/
Performance Display your balancing skills through juggling
presentation. You may use props such as balls, rings,
and clubs.
3. Artists
Set up a gallery that exhibits artworks giving
importance to stoichiometry.

Your product will be assessed based on the follow-


ing criteria:
Standards 1. Presentation/Execution
2. Organization/Correctness of Idea
3. Creativity

83
Rubric for Mole Street on Mole Day

Description
Criteria Score
4 3 2 1
Presenta- The The The The
tion/Ex- student student student student
ecution shows shows shows shows
deep un- consider- shallow limited un-
derstand- able un- under- derstand-
ing of derstand- standing ing of the
the mole ing of the of the mole con-
concept mole con- mole cept and
and all cept and concept none of
the given most of and only the given
tasks were the given a little of tasks were
executed tasks were the given executed.
perfectly. executed. tasks were
executed.
Organiza- All ele- All ele- Most ele- Some ele-
tion/ Cor- ments in ments in ments in ments in
rectness the prod- the prod- the prod- the prod-
of Idea uct are uct are uct are uct are
logically logically logically logically
presented presented presented presented.
and con- and and The
sistent. A consist- consistent. message
very clear ent. The A clear conveyed
message is message is message is to the au-
conveyed conveyed conveyed dience is
to the to the to the not clear.
audience audience audience.
in a con-
siderable
manner.
Creativity The The The The prod-
product product product uct did
displays displays displays not dis-
a very moderate- a little play and
creative ly creative creative creativity
output. output. output.
All the Most Few of the
mechanics of the mechanics
were fol- mechanics were fol-
lowed. were fol- lowed.
lowed.
Total
Score

84
KPUP Summative Assessment
Check Your Knowledge
1. Which of the following has a molar mass equal to about 32 g/
mol?
a. Cl2 b. F2 c. O2 d. Br2
2. The scientist who is credited for the value of 6.02 x 1023 is
______.
a. Amado Avogadro
b. Amadeo Avogadro
c. Amedeo Avogadro
d. Armando Avogadro
3. Empirical formula is the formula of a substance written with
lowest integer subscripts.
a. true
b. false
c. cannot be determined
d. none of these
4. Glucose, a simple sugar, has a molecular formula of C6H12O6. Its
empirical formula would be ________.
a. C2H2O2
b. CH2O
c. CHO
d. CH2O2
5. Mole is a counting unit which came from a Latin word meaning
_______.
a. heap b. bulk c. large d. minute
Process What You Know
Determine the percentage composition of chlorine in the following
compounds.
1. BaCl2
2. CHCl3
3. KCl
4. LiCl
Check Your Understanding
How does the concept of mole help in calculating stoichiometric
problems?
Apply What You Have Learned
Make an investigation on how breathalyzer is used in our country.
You may also conduct an interview to proper authorities and officials
who are knowledgeable in using it. Prepare a narrative report of your
investigation.

85
THIRD QUARTER – EARTH AND SPACE
Unit VIII: Volcanoes

Summary
Grade Level Standards:
In the previous unit, it has been discussed that even minute particles
and molecules may be counted, measured and studied. We have also After learning about
discussed how changes and reactions occur to even small atoms. the digestive system,
learners have expanded
True enough, there are many occurrences in the living world that their knowledge to a
science has explored. The earth itself is comprised of a large chemical deeper understanding
system. Everything there is in this planet react and change according to of the respiratory and
the properties of things in it. circulatory systems to
promote overall health.
This unit discusses the volcanoes and the interior of the Earth. They are familiar with
This unit aims to develop among students the love for Mother Earth, some technologies
preparedness for natural calamities, and responsibility for nature. that introduce desired
traits in economically
Content Standard important plants and
animals.
The learner: Learners can explain
• demonstrates understanding of the interior of the Earth using how new materials
are formed when
information from volcanoes atoms are rearranged.
They can recognize
Performance Standards that a wide variety
The learner: of useful compounds
may arise from such
• makes informed decisions based on identified permanent danger rearrangements.
zones around active volcanoes Learners can identify
• shows emergency preparedness before, during and after a volcanic volcanoes and distinguish
eruption between active and
inactive ones. They can
• includes following advisories regarding alert levels and calls for explain how energy
evacuation given by responsible government agencies from volcanoes may be
tapped for human use.
• gives his/her stand for or against mining through a debate
They are familiar with
climatic phenomena that
Pre-Assessment occur on a global scale.
Word Splash They can explain why
certain constellations can
Ask the students to create sentences from the words in the box. Be be seen only at certain
able to relate it to the main topic at the middle of the box. times of the year.
Learners can predict
Theories of volcanism Crust Geothermal energy the outcomes of
interactions among
Alert level VOLCANO Plate tectonics objects in real life
Domes supernatural beliefs cylinder cones applying the laws of
conservation of energy
and momentum.
1. _______________________________________________________ Overarching KU:
2. _______________________________________________________ Volcanoes and earth’s
3. _______________________________________________________ interior is part of one big
chemical system. It has a
4. _______________________________________________________ purpose and properties
useful for the earth
5. _______________________________________________________
system.
6. _______________________________________________________
86
Overarching KQ:
1. How do you
describe the ideas of
continental drift?
2. Why are volcanoes
prevalent in certain
parts of the Earth?
3. Can we utilize the
energy coming from
volcanoes?
Resources:
• Valdoz, M., et
al. Science Links
Integrated Science.
REX Publishing. (2012)
• Madriaga, E. et
al. Science Links
– Biology. REX
Publishing. (2012)
• Bascara, M. et
al. Science Links
Chemistry. REX
Publishing. (2012)
• Aquino, M.. et
al. Science Links
– Physics. REX
Publishing. (2012)

Lesson 1: Introduction to Volcanoes (2 days) KU:


Volcanoes are part of this
Lesson Focus: Supernatural Beliefs, Theories of Volcanism, Features world which proves that
of a Volcano it has a purpose in this
system.
Introduction (Activating Prior Knowledge)
KQ:
1. Differentiated Activity using Sternberg’s Triarchic Intelligence • What is the role of
Have the students answer the overarching question: Can we volcanoes in this
utilize the energy coming from the volcanoes? Why? earth’s system?
• How do you
Practical: have the students make a list of the ways we can or cannot describe the ideas of
utilize the energy from volcanoes. continental drift?
Analytic: have the students explain why we can or cannot utilize Knowledge:
the energy from volcanoes by writing a paragraph/essay.
• Supernatural Beliefs
Creative: have the students illustrate how we can or cannot utilize
• Theories of Volcanism
the energy from the volcanoes.
Skills:
Process the activity and illicit existing ideas on volcanoes.
• identify volcanoes
2. Discussion in the community or
Discuss the Summary of this unit. region;

87
3. Debate
Give an overview of their Unit Task. • analyze the
supernatural beliefs
Body relating to volcanoes
1. Loop Activity • explain the nature and
theories of volcanoes
Have the students do the Loop Activity.
2. Pre-Lab Preparation
Have the students identify the materials. Ask them their
expectations on this experiment given the materials stated in the
worktext.
Remind the students of the safety precautions in the use of the
materials in the laboratory.
3. Investigate
Have the students do the Let’s Investigate activity in the
worktext where they will:
Integration with Arts and
a. create a model volcano using basic tools and ingredients; Language
b. illustrate the processes involved in volcanic eruption; and “Investigate and
c. compare and contrast the volcanic eruptions produced by Socialized Recitation”
different substances.
4. Post Lab Activity: Think Pair Share
What triggers volcanic eruptions?
5. Socialized Recitation
Discuss with your students:
1. volcanoes in the Philippines;
2. supernatural beliefs; and
3. theories of volcanism.
6. Tiered Task
Have the students go to their Readiness Group. Their task is to
present and explain the theories of volcanism:
a. At-Level Group: through stories for Primary Schoolers (Grades
1–3)
b. Mid-Level Group: through stories for Intermediate Level
(Grades 4–6)
c. High Level Group: through stories for Grade 7–8.
Explain to the students that their product must be accurate in
details and appropriate for their audience.

Conclusion
1. Exit Pass
How can you prove that Pangaea really existed 225 milion
years ago?
2. Homework
Read about Formation of Volcanoes, Pacific Ring of Fire, and
Tectonic Plates.
88
Lesson 2: Types of Volcanoes (4 days)
KU:
Lesson Focus: Cylinder Cones, Composite Volcanoes, Shield • The type of volcano
Volcanoes, Volcanic Domes, Super volcanoes, also determines a
Submarine volcanoes, Subglacial Volcano volcano eruption and
type of magma it
Introduction (Activating Prior Knowledge) expels.
Have the students name as many volcanoes they know. Let each of
them share information they gathered about them.

Body
1. Socialized Recitation • Proper
Discuss the different type of volcanoes and the activities that implementation of
take place in such types. rules and regulations
in the activities near
2. Two-Column Note volcanoes will protect
the locals.
Complete the organizer below.

Type of Volcano Details

1.

KQ:

What controls the shape


2. of a volcano?

Knowledge:

• Cylinder Cones
3.
• Composite Volcanoes
• Shield Volcanoes
• Volcanic Domes
4. • Super Volcanoes
• Submarine Volcanoes
• Subglacial Volcano

5.

6.

7.

89
3. Quick Quiz
Conduct a quick quiz with the class. Skills:
• compare and contrast
Conclusion
the characteristics and
1. Exit Pass behaviour of different
types of volcanoes
Ask the students to give at least three types of volcanoes and
• describe the different
the details about it.
types of volcanoes
2. Homework • explains what happens
Instruct the students to read the recent news. Research on the when volcanoes
erupt using models or
latest volcanic activity in the country or somewhere else.
illustration

Lesson 3: Volcanic Eruption (2 Days) KU:


Proper information and
Lesson Focus: Process involved in Volcanic Eruption, Classification emergency preparedness
of Volcanic Eruptions, Volcano Alert Levels in the will help keep a society
Philippines and in other Countries safe from volcanic activity.
Introduction (Activating Prior Knowledge)
Prepare three manila paper (at most) with the names of volcanoes
with recent volcanic activity. Have the students write on it all the
information they have gathered about the activities in it. KQ:
Body • Why are volcanoes
prevalent in certain
1. Socialized Recitation
parts of the Earth?
Discuss the different classification of volcanoes and the
activities that take place in such types.
2. Venn Diagram
Have the students complete the diagram to differentiate
active, dormant and extinct volcanoes. • Can we utilize the
energy coming from
volcanoes?
Knowledge:
• Classification of
Volcanic Activity
Active
• Process Involved in
Volcanic Eruption

Dormant Extinct
• Volcano Alert Levels in
the Philippines and in
other Countries

90
3. Cycle Map
• Magmatic eruption
Have the students make a cycle map about the processes
• Phreatomagmatic
involved in volcanic eruption. Discuss the different volcanic eruption
materials, alert levels, and do’s and don’ts. Skills:
4. Disaster Preparedness • distinguish between
active, dormant and
Have the class go to their Sternberg Grouping. Let each group extinct;
prepare volcanic Disaster preparedness campaign. • classify volcanic
activities, processes,
a. creative: make a poster or a jingle and alerts;
b. analytic: make a QA flyer • participate on making
informed decisions
c. practical: make a brochure based on identified
permanent danger
Conclusion zones around active
volcanoes;
Answer the following: • show emergency
preparedness during
1. What did you learn?
and after a volcanic
2. What is its relevance to you? eruption including
following advisories
3. What is your life’s action plan? regarding alert levels.

KU:
Lesson 4: Energy from Volcanoes (3 days)
Despite their effects,
Lesson Focus: Geothermal Energy and ways to harness it volcanoes are important
dynamic in the planet.
Introduction (Activating Prior Knowledge) KQ:
Study the picture on Lesson 5. Have the students explain the In what ways are
picture. volcanoes beneficial to
us?
Body
1. Discuss Geothermal Energy.
2. Discuss Life Lessons and Science Links. Knowledge:

Conclusion Geothermal energy


Skills:
1. Do the following
• explain how volcano
a. Have the students check their own work in the Pre-assessment. provides information
Let them add more sentences using the given words in the about the interior of
box. the Earth;
b. Let the students do the Unit Test.
c. Ask the students to prepare for a debate on whether to
continue mining or not.

91
2. Differentiated Summative Assessment Tasks
• illustrates how energy
from volcanoes maybe
VOLCANOES
tapped for human use
Generate an informative material that is focused on through diagrams;
Goal what really transpired during a phenomenal volcanic
eruption dating back to 1900s.

You are part of the Philippine Institute of Volcanology


and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) and you are tasked to launch
Role
a campaign on volcano, earthquake and tsunami disaster
preparedness and risk reduction.

Audience for this activity is composed of the high


Audience school students (from Freshmen to Senior level), adminis-
tration, teaching staff, and non-teaching personnel

In response to the government’s call to launch orienta-


tion on disaster preparedness, your school has invited a
number of experts from the PHIVOLCS who will talk about
Situation the said program. As majority of the audience come from
student population, the PHIVOLCS Team is encouraged
to utilize a medium that would catch the interest and the
comprehension level of the students.

As part of the Team, you have to conduct a research


on a phenomenal volcanic eruption (e.g. Mt. Pinatubo in
1991) Using the gathered data, your team has to come up
with a any of the following that would dramatize what
happened during the eruption based on the recorded ex-
periences of the people.
Product/
Performance Product 1: A theatrical dramatization of the eruption
which shall be participated in by select students.

Product 2: A puppet show

It is also expected that your team should enumerate


the Dos and Don’ts during volcanic eruption.

Your product/performance will be evaluated based on


criteria:

1. Creativity/Originality
Standards
2. Appropriateness

3. Characterization

4. Audience Appeal

92
Description
Criteria Score
4 3 2 1

Creativi- Play shows Play shows Play shows Play shows


ty/Origi- excellent good use adequate poor use
nality use of origi- of original use of origi- of original
(Theme, nal ideas. ideas. nal ideas. ideas.
Plot)

Charac- Characters Characters Characters Characters


terization employed employed employed employed
in the play in the play in the play in the play
exhibit all exhibit exhibit exhibit
of their most of some of none of
normal their nor- their nor- their nor-
mal char-
character- mal charac- mal charac-
acteristics
istics (i.e. teristics (i.e. (i.e. they teristics (i.e.
they act, they gener- sometimes they don’t
talk, and ally act, talk, act, talk, act, talk,
seem like and seem and seem and seem
them- like them- like them- like them-
selves). selves). selves). selves).

Appropri- Reader There is Storyline is There is


ate use of easily un- an evident somewhat no real
storytell- derstands storyline difficult to storyline;
ing tech- and relates that can be understand; conflict
niques with the understood conflict is is either
(plot, storyline; with little introduced absent or
conflict trouble;
conflict, but not unclear;
is clearly conflict
setting, intro- is intro- entirely the comic
character- duced and duced and resolved bears little
ization, resolved resolved by the end or no re-
dialogue) by the end by the end of the play; semblance
of the play; of the play; the setting to the
the setting the setting is similar novel; poor
is compliant is compli- to that of character
with that of ant with the novel; interaction.
the novel; that of the adequate
excellent novel; good character
character character interaction.
interaction. interaction.

Conven- Conven- Conven- Conven- Conven-


tions tional tional tional tional
techniques techniques techniques techniques
for showing for showing for showing for showing
thought, thought, thought, thought,
speech, and speech, and speech, and speech,
action are action are action are and action
effectively generally sometimes are not
employed. employed. employed. employed.

93
Audience The perfor- The perfor- The perfor- The per-
Appeal mance is mance is mance is formance
interesting, interesting, somewhat is a little
engaging engaging interesting, interesting,
and visually and visually engaging engaging
stimulating. stimulating and visually and visually
It is aes- but failed stimulating. stimulating.
thetically to use a It used a It did not
appealing variety of very limited use a vari-
with the visual aids amount of ety of visual
use of vari- and materi- visual aids aids and
ety of aids als. and materi- materials.
and other als.
materials.
Total
Score

KPUP Summative Test


Check Your Knowledge
Supply the blanks with the correct terms to come up with a logical
relationship in each item.
1. Submarine volcanoes: sea flat-topped seamounts:
knolls __________________
2. PHIVOLCS: JMA : Japan Meteorological Agency
__________________
3. tiltmeter: volcano _______________ : earthquake
4. Subglacial : composite : lahar
__________________
5. Smallest terrestrial biome: largest terrestrial biome:
chaparral _______________

Process What You Know


Answer the following questions
1. How are lava plateaus formed?
2. In what conditions do hot springs and geysers form?
Check Your Understanding
1. Compare and contrast the different branches of climatology
2. Where and how often do earthquakes occur and how are they
related to volcanoes?
Apply What You Have Learned
1. Create a simple illustration that will show the different types of
terrestrial biomes in relation to moisture and temperature.
2. Document one historical volcanic eruption which happened during
the period 1500s–2010s. Is it possible that the eruption, including
its effects, will happen again in the future?

94
Unit IX: Climate
Grade Level Standards:
After learning about
Summary
the digestive system,
The previous unit discussed the volcanoes and the interior of learners have expanded
the Earth. It developed among students the love for mother earth, their knowledge to a
preparedness for natural calamities, and responsibility for nature. deeper understanding
Another condition that we must be prepared about is climate. of the respiratory and
circulatory systems to
Weather and climate affect men and the environment, hence, it is
promote overall health.
important that the students know the factors that affect each condition.
They are familiar with
This unit will discuss climate and the recent changes. It brings the some technologies
learners to reflect on ways that reduce risks and lessen effects of climate that introduce desired
change. traits in economically
important plants and
Content Standard animals.
The learner: Learners can explain
how new materials
• demonstrates understanding of the factors that affect climate, the
are formed when
effects of changing climate, and how to adapt to them
atoms are rearranged.
They can recognize
Performance Standard
that a wide variety
The learner: of useful compounds
• participates in activities that reduce risks and lessen effects of may arise from such
climate change rearrangements.
Learners can identify
Pre-Assessment volcanoes and distinguish
Rating Chart between active and
inactive ones. They can
Rate the following phrases 1–3. 1 means you have not learned or explain how energy
heard about it and 3 means you have thorough understanding about it. from volcanoes may be
1. Classification of climate tapped for human use.
They are familiar with
2. World climate zones climatic phenomena that
3. Biome occur on a global scale.
4. Factors that affect climate They can explain why
certain constellations can
5. Global Climate Change Phenomenon be seen only at certain
6. Ways to mitigate the effects of climate change times of the year.
Learners can predict
the outcomes of
interactions among
objects in real life
applying the laws of
conservation of energy
and momentum.
Overarching KU:
Climate is influenced
by several factors and its
change has a direct effect
to earth and everything
in it.

95
Overarching KQ:
1. Why is climate
changing?
2. Can mankind adapt
to the changes in
environment caused
by global climate
change?
Resources:
• Valdoz, M., et
al. Science Links
Integrated Science.
REX Publishing. (2012)
• Madriaga, E. et
al. Science Links
– Biology. REX
Publishing. (2012)
• Bascara, M. et
al. Science Links
Chemistry. REX
Publishing. (2012)
• Aquino, M.. et
al. Science Links
– Physics. REX
Publishing. (2012)

KU:
Lesson 1: Introduction to Climate (3 days) • Climate awareness
prepares people on
Lesson Focus: Meteorology vs. Climatology, Branches of Climatology, proper response to
Climate Classification Systems, World Climate Zones climatic activities.
Introduction (Activating Prior Knowledge) KQ:
• How is weather
1. Video Presentation different from
Show a video/documentary on climate change. Ask the climate?
students about their understanding of the video. • Why is it important
to study the climates
a. Ask the Overarching Key Question.
that occurred millions
b. Discuss the summary of this unit (see Summary on the previous of years now?
page).
c. Give an overview of the Unit Task.

Body
Knowledge:
1. Loop Activity • Meteorology vs.
Ask the students to do the Loop Activity. Have them answer Climatology
the questions that follow.

96
2. Pre-Lab Preparation
• Weather and Climate
Have the students identify and demonstrate the proper use of • Classifying Climates of
the laboratory materials to be used: the World
Remind the students of the Safety precautions in the use of the • World Climate Zones
materials in the laboratory. Skills:
Explain the objectives of the experiment: • compare & contrast
weather from climate
• Observe and explain the phenomenon called greenhouse
• classify climates of the
effect. world
• Identify the role of different substances in the present • explain different
condition of the atmosphere. climate classification
system;
• Realize the impacts of human activities in the occurrence
of climate change.
3. Investigate
Have the students do Investigate of the worktext.
4. Post Lab Activity. Think-Pair-Share
Share your analysis and conclusion to your partner.
5. Socialized Discussion
Have the students read on and discuss:
1. meteorology vs. climatology
2. weather and climate
6. Fish Bowl
Read about the branches of climatology and climate
classification system. Write 10 questions on 10 cards (one question
on each card). Have the class make two circles (an inner circle facing
outside and an outer circle facing inside). Make sure everybody is
in front of somebody. Exchange questions and have you r partner
answer it. After the first question is answered, instruct the class to
move to their right and find their next partner to which they will
give the 2nd question and so on!
7. Discuss World Climate Zone and Biomes
Have the students determine the biomes in their locality and
how it affects climate. Give other places in the Philippines or abroad
that they have visited.

Conclusion
Exit Pass
Explain the climate in the Philippines—its factors and classification.

97
Lesson 2: Factors that Affect Climate (3 days)

Lesson Focus: Latitude, Ocean Currents, Winds, Elevation, Relief,


Proximity to Water
KU:
Introduction (Activating Prior Knowledge)
1. K-W-L-H Human life style and
environmental conditions
Have the students write on their K-W-L chart the things that they adapt to a certain climate
already read about the topic and things they want to know more about of a region.
the topic.
KQ:
Body
• What geographic
1. Two-Column Note Pad features and climatic
Discuss the factors that affect climate. As the discussion takes elements will you
place, have the students take down notes. choose in deciding for
a particular place to
Factors Description settle?

• How does the global


water affect the
climate in different
continents?

Knowledge:
• Latitude
• Ocean Currents
• Winds
• Elevation
• Relief
2. Research • Near Water
Ask the students to make a research about the different
countries and their climate. Write about the lifestyle of the people Skills:
in those areas. • Explain how the
Let them analyze the effect of climate to the lifestyle (food, different factors affect
fashion, time of job, etc.) climate of an area.
3. Quick Quiz • Explain how living
things adapt to certain
Conclusion climate.
1. K-W-L-H
Give back the chart to the class and have them answer the “L”
column and “H” column.

98
Lesson 3: Global Climate Change
Phenomenon (4 days) KU:
• Climate change is
Lesson Focus: Main Indicators of Climate Change, Causes of global problem caused
Climate Change, Climate Change in Focus: Impacts by anthropogenic
and Threats, Ways to Mitigate the Effects of Climate activities associated
Change with industrialization
and population
Introduction (Activating Prior Knowledge) growth.
Show a video/documentary to the class about the icebergs which
are breaking down and melting from the north pole. Ask the students
about what they understood from the video.

Body
KQ:
1. Concept Web Design
• Why is climate
Have the students read the lesson on global climate change changing?
phenomenon. As they are reading, instruct them to take down
notes through concept web or any organizer they think is most
effective. An example of a concept web design is given below.
Example topics:
• Indicators of Climate Change • Has the world really
• Causes of Climate Change warmed?
• Five Gases Responsible for Greenhouse Effect • When did climate
• Depletion of Ozone Layer become a global
• Effects of Climate Change problem?
Knowledge:
• Introduction to
Climate Change
• Climate Change in
Focus: Impacts and
Threats
• Ways to Mitigate the
Indicators Effects of Climate
of Climate
Change
Change
Skills:
• demonstrate
understanding of
the global climate
phenomenon;
• explain the main
2. Activities indicators and causes
Ask the students to design ways on how to protect our planet of climate change;
and ourselves from the global climate change phenomenon. They • justify how human
can choose one from the strategies below: activities contribute to
• analytic: Make a letter to the Principal stating your analysis of climate change; and
the situation and the proper measures that should be taken by
the school and its children.
99
• practical: Make a brochure with tips on reducing risks of climate
change. • participate in activities
that reduce risks and
• creative: Make a story. lessen climate change.
3. Life Lessons
Discuss Life Lessons and Science Links from the worktext.

Conclusion
1. Simile
Have the students complete the sentences below by using simile.
a. Climate change is like…
b. Global Warming is like…
2. Differentiated Summative Assessment Tasks

CLIMATE

Make your own travel brochure or poster advertising a


Goal
vacation to a specific biome.

You are a travel agent and you contacted the head of


Role the high school to allow you to have a simple presentation
regarding the biomes of your own choice.

Audience for this activity are the Grade 9 students and


Audience
their faculty advisers.

The Department of Tourism is on its peak of its cam-


paign “It’s More Fun in the Philippines”. To support this
program, you are tasked to promote the different places in
Situation
the country and you can do it by encouraging the Filipinos
living in the country and abroad to take a visit and experi-
ence the fun that can only be found in our native land.

Make a comprehensive research on any of the follow-


ing biomes (desert, chapparal, tundra, taiga, temperate
deciduous forest, tropical rainforest, grassland, swamp,
cave, freshwater, marine).
After the research, make your own travel brochure or
Product/ a poster advertising a vacation to your biome. The mate-
Performance rial must include the following:
1. the biodiversity in that area
2. the uniqueness of the place
3. the different experiences brought about by biotic and
abiotic factors in that biome

Your product/performance will be evaluated based on


Standard criteria: Display, Mechanics and Spelling, Lay out, Accuracy
of Content, Presentation and Audience Appeal

100
Rubric for Travel Brochure or Poster of a Biome

Description
Criteria Score
4 3 2 1
Display All parts Many parts Some parts The parts
are clearly are clearly are clearly were not
labeled. labeled. labeled. clearly
labeled.
Mechan- The bro- The bro- There are There
ics and chure has chure con- several are many
Spelling no mistakes tains minor mistakes in mistakes in
in mechan- mistakes in mechan- mechan-
ics and/or mechan- ics and/or ics and/or
spelling. ics and/ spelling. spelling.
or spelling
but such
mistakes
do not
significantly
the entire
presenta-
tion.
Layout Lay-out is Lay-out is Lay-out is Lay-out is
well organ- organized. somewhat confusing.
ized. There Most com- organized. Compo-
is consist- ponents are Most of the nents are
ency in its consistent compo- inconsist-
compo- within the nents are ent and
nents that publication. not consist- most off the
allows the Informa- ent. Partial information
reader too tion can be information are missing.
easily locate located. can be
informa- located.
tion.
Conven- Conven- Conven- Conven- Conven-
tions tional tional tional tional
techniques techniques techniques techniques
for showing for showing for showing for showing
thought, thought, thought, thought,
speech, and speech, and speech, and speech,
action are action are action are and action
effectively generally sometimes are not
employed. employed. employed. employed.
Accuracy Concepts Conven- Conven- Conven-
of Con- were tional tional tional
tent relevant, ac- techniques techniques techniques
curate, and for showing for showing for showing
effective in thought, thought, thought,
conveying speech, and speech, and speech,
the infor- action are action are and action
mation. generally sometimes are not
employed. employed. employed.

101
Presenta- The bro- The bro- The bro- The bro-
tion and chure was chure was chure was chure was
Audience presented presented presented presented
Appeal with an with a with a with an
expressive fluent choppy inaudible
and fluent voice. The voice. The voice.. The
voice. The presenter presenter presenter
presenter has a con- made an failed to
has strong siderable attempt to establish
connection connection establish connection
with his/her with his/her connection with his/her
audience. audience. with his/her audience
audience
through
eye contact.
Total
Score

KPUP Summative Assessment

Check Your Knowledge


Enumerate the following:
1–4 Different meteorological scale
1–10 Indicators of Climate Change

Process What You Know


Compare and contrast the different branches of climatology.

Check Your Understanding


Create a simple illustration that will show the different types of
terrestrial biomes in relation to moisture and temperature.

Apply What You Have Learned


Conceptualize and make your own design on how to combat
the impacts of climate change in the Philippines. Use powerpoint
presentations to create awareness on the topic.

102
Unit X: Stars and Constellations
Grade Level Standards:
Summary After learning about
Another condition that we must be prepared about is climate. the digestive system,
learners have expanded
Weather and climate affect men and the environment; hence, it is
their knowledge to a
important that you know the factors that affect each condition. This has deeper understanding
been the focus of the previous unit. of the respiratory and
After the discussion on climate, this unit will discuss stars and circulatory systems to
constellations. This unit informs us about scientists’ exploration about promote overall health.
the world beyond the planet earth. They are familiar with
some technologies
The end goal of this unit is to make the students understand the that introduce desired
world beyond our planet. traits in economically
important plants and
Content Standard animals.
The learner: Learners can explain
how new materials
• demonstrates understanding of the relationship between the are formed when
visible constellations in the sky and Earth’s position along its orbit atoms are rearranged.
They can recognize
Performance Standard that a wide variety
The learner: of useful compounds
may arise from such
• discusses whether or not beliefs and practices about constellations rearrangements.
and astrology have scientific basis
Learners can identify
volcanoes and distinguish
Pre-Assessment
between active and
Have your students answer the questions in the Loop Activity of inactive ones. They can
the worktext. explain how energy
from volcanoes may be
tapped for human use.
They are familiar with
climatic phenomena that
occur on a global scale.
They can explain why
certain constellations can
be seen only at certain
times of the year.
Learners can predict
the outcomes of
interactions among
objects in real life
applying the laws of
conservation of energy
and momentum.
Overarching KU:
Stars and
constellations have no
relationship to each
other but may relate to
us in some way.

103
Overarching KQ:
1. How do the stars and
constellations affect
conditions of life on
our planet?
2. Why do we need to
study about the stars
and constellations?
Resources:
• Valdoz, M., et
al. Science Links
Integrated Science.
REX Publishing. (2012)
• Madriaga, E. et
al. Science Links
– Biology. REX
Publishing. (2012)
• Bascara, M. et
al. Science Links
Chemistry. REX
Publishing. (2012)
• Aquino, M.. et
al. Science Links
– Physics. REX
Publishing. (2012)

104
Lesson 1: Characteristics of Stars (3 days)
KU:
Lesson Focus: Introduction on Stars, The Evolution of Stars, Other
The distance of the
Classes of Stars
sun and the stars to the
Introduction (Activating Prior Knowledge) earth makes life possible
in our planet.
1. Yes – No Flashcards
Show a video of stars and constellations, their characteristics,
compositions, and direction. After the video presentation, test the
students’ knowledge by having them flash either a Yes card or a No card Stars look different
in response to the following prompts: because of their
temperature, luminosity,
Yes Questions No and stage of their life’s
Do stars fall from heaven and land on the ground? cycle. They have different
Is it possible to catch a falling star? colors based upon their
stage in the life cycle.
Are all stars warm?
KQ:
Do stars only come out at night?
Is the sun a star? • How do we know the
type of a star (young
Do stars really twinkle? vesus old, low mass
Can a single star be a constellation? versus big mass, hot
Can two smaller constellations form a major constella- or cold) by looking at
tion? a H-R diagram?
• What factors
Body determine the
characteristics of a
1. Investigate
star?
Have the students do the Investigate activity in the worktext. • How do the stars
2. Post Lab Activity – Think-Pair-Share affect conditions of
life on our planet?
Ask students to give their idea of what a star is. Possible answers
include:
• A star is a big ball of extremely hot gases in outer space,
made mostly of hydrogen and a little bit of helium plus other Knowledge:
elements.
• Hertzsprung-Russel
• Stars can be classified by their size, color, temperature, and diagrams allow us to
age. analyze and identify
• The Sun is a star. the life cycle of a star.
Next, elicit students ideas on what constellations are. • Stars have a life cycle,
Write their responses on the board, then explain to them that a starting from birth to
constellation is a group of stars visible within a particular region their death - Our Sun
of the night sky. Relate to the class how some of the constellations is 4.6 billion old, and it
were named after animals and some mythological characters, while passed its middle age.
some were named after scientific instruments. As an activity, have • Universe is so vast
them identify these constellations. that no one could
tell where it starts
3. Discussion and where it ends -
Discuss the following subtopics: Universe is expanding.
• Properties of stars
• Determining stellar color and temperature
105
• H-R Diagram
Skills:
• Evolution of Stars
• explain the properties
Note: Explain to the students that the stars are not actually moving and evolution of stars;
across the sky each night, but the Earth is rotating, which
• infers the
causes them to appear like they’re moving.
characteristics of
Discuss how this is similar to how the Sun moves across the sky. stars based on the
Discuss, explain about how far away stars are, and that when characteristics of the
we look at them, we are seeing them as they were millions of Sun
years ago, because that’s how long it takes their light to reach • demonstrate
the Earth. understanding
on astronomical
Conclusion instruments.
1. Journal Prompt
Ask the students to answer this prompt, “Why do we need to study
about stars and constellations?”

Lesson 2: Arrangement of Stars in a Group (3 Days)

Lesson Focus: Introduction about Constellations, Astronomical KU:


Instruments, Constellations in Focus, Different
• The system that
Constellations in the Sky, Some Famous Constellations
governs stars and
Introduction (Activating Prior Knowledge) constellations also
gives data on earth’s
1. Frayer Model time, date, and
Have students complete the graphic organizer below regarding direction.
constellations. KQ:
• How do the
Definition Characteristic constellations affect
conditions of life on
our planet?
Constellation
• Why do we need
to study about the
constellations?
Example Illustration
Knowledge:
Then ask the students to answer the following questions: • Naming Constellations
• What do you know about the arrangements of the stars on the *Constellations in the
sky? Night Sky
• How old are the stars? • Some Famous
Constellations
• How many constellations can you name?
• The Changing
Body Constellations
• Zodiac Constellations
1. Two-Column Note
• Unique Culture and
Discuss the constellations. After discussing each constellation, Belief System
pause for a minute for the students to write on the right column of
• Astronomy and the
their double-entry journal.
Scientific Method

106
Constellations How You Understand The Term
• Uses of Constellation
to People Today
Skills:
• Observes that
2. Discussion the position of a
constellation changes
Discuss the unique belief system, astronomy, and the use of
in the course of a
constellations.
night.
3. Quick Quiz • Using models, shows
Create your own constellation flashcards or download copies which constellations
from: http://www.science-teachers.com/constellation_flashcards. may be observed at
htm. Show students one flashcard at a time and have them identify different times of the
the name of the constellation and tell 2 other things they know year
about this constellation.
4. Constellation Game (Go fish!)
Have students play a constellation guessing game following
the format of Go fish! You can turn this into a friendly competition • Infers that the
between girls and boys. One violation would be to name arrangement of
constellations in random. stars in a group
(constellation) does
Conclusion not change
1. K-W-L
Give back the chart to the class and have them answer the “L”
column.
2. Homework
Have the students visit the site: http://www.comfychair.
org/~cmbell/myth/myth.html and from there read up on a few of
the major constellations: Andromeda, Cassiopeia, Corona Borealis,
Leo, Ursa Major, Ursa Minor, and Scorpius. Tell them that what they
have learned from the website will be retold in class the next day.
KU:
Lesson 3: Changing Position of Constellations
The families of
Lesson 4: Beliefs and Practices About Constellations constellations are either
close to one another
and Astrology (6 days) in our view of the sky
or have some other
Lesson Focus: The Changing Constellations, Zodiac Constellations, relationship (for example,
Factors the Cause the Changing, Positions of depicting figures from a
Constellations, Astronomy vs. Astrology, Unique particular ancient myth).
Culture and Belief System, Uses of Constellations to KQ:
People Today
1. Why are constellations
Introduction (Activating Prior Knowledge) important for
astronomers and for
1. K-W-L us?
Have students complete the K and W columns of their chart 2. Why does a
about the myths and legends regarding constellations. constellation look
2. Ask the Overarching Key Question. different during
different seasons
3. Give an overview of their unit task. (winter vs. summer)?

107
Body
1. Story Relay
Knowledge:
Tell the class that you will be having a story relay about their • The Changing
homework. Ask for a volunteer and have him/her begin the story, Constellations
make sure you interrupt a student after a having narrated few facts. • Zodiac Constellations
(NOTE: In a story relay, one student begins a story and another
• Unique Culture and
student can pick up the story where the previous student left off, Belief System
followed by another student until the end of the story.)
• Astronomy and the
2. Journal Writing Scientific Method
Tell the class that they will write a myth about their own • Uses of Constellation
constellation to explain how it came to be in the sky. Tell them to to People Today
use a story pyramid like the one below to help them develop their Skills:
story. • using models, shows
which constellations
Write the name of the main character. may be observed at
different times of the
Write two words describing the main character. year
Write three words describing the setting. • analyze the unique
culture and belief
Write four words stating the story problem. system that come
with the study of
Write five words describing one event in the story. constellations
• demonstrate
Write six words describing a second event. understanding on the
use of constellations
Write seven words describing a third event. to people today.
Write eight words describing the solution to the problem. Integration with
Language

3. Constellation Design (Individual)


Have each student prepare the following materials: black
poster board (or construction paper), a bag of glow in the dark
stars, a piece of white chalk, and tape. Each student will be asked to
construct his/her own constellation in any shape he/she chooses.
Tell them to use tape in applying the stars to the paper, name their
constellation, and describe what they created with their shape.
After they have completed their design, each one will present
his/her constellation to the class with an explanation and brief
summary of the legend or myth behind his/her constellation.
4. Constellation Design (Group)
Group students into five, have each group prepare the
following materials: LED lights (or old Christmas lights), soldering
wire, soldering iron, switch, copper wire, fluorescent markers or
paint, pictures of at least 3 constellations that they have randomly
picked from a bowl containing the 88 names of constellations. Each
group will be asked to construct these constellations. The groups
will use their knowledge of circuits and wiring for electric elements
so that when the switch is turned ON, the light bulbs (or LEDs) will
light representing the constellation.

108
Conclusion
1. K-W-L
Give back the chart to the class and have them answer the “L”
column.
2. Differentiated Summative Assessment Task

CONSTELLATIONS
Demonstrate understanding of the terms used in
Goal
astronomy.
You are a cruciverbalist who specializes in the construc-
Role tion of crossword puzzles or the solving of crossword
puzzles and related word games.
Participants for this activity high school students and
Participants
faculty advisers.
The English and Science Department, through the
effort of their student organizations and advisers, have
decided to launch a collaborative program which will
highlight Science concepts or principles the methodolo-
gies of English teaching.
Situation For this event, you are tasked to generate a compila-
tion of crossword puzzles or word games that are focused
on the topic: Stars and Constellations. Cruciverbalism was
preferred because like the astronomers studying the mat-
ters in space, a cruciverbalist also utilizes grids and creates
clues to help people fill in the spaces in the crossword
puzzle.
You may create any of the following:
Product/Per- a. a crossword puzzle
formance b. a word cage
c. word search
Your product/performance will be evaluated based on
criteria:
1. Display, Mechanics
Standard 2. Spelling, Layout
3. Accuracy of Content
4. Presentation
5. Audience Appeal

Rubric for Constellations

Description
Criteria Score
4 3 2 1
Spelling At least At least At least At least
95% of the 85% of the 70% of the 60% of the
missing words are words are words are
words are correctly correctly correctly
correctly spelled. spelled. spelled.
spelled.

109
Vocabu- All the Almost Most of Some of
lary words in all of the the words the words
the puzzle words come from come from
come from come from the book the book
the book the book and are and are
and are and are appropri- appropri-
appropri- appropri- ately and ately and
ately and ately and correctly correctly
correctly correctly defined. defined.
defined. defined.
Puzzle No errors in One or two A few errors Significant
construc- numbering errors in in number- errors in
tion or layout. numbering ing or lay- numbering
All numbers or layout. out. Most and/or lay-
on puzzle All numbers numbers on out. Clues
grid and on puzzle puzzle grid not ap-
answer key grid and and answer propriately
correspond answer key key cor- arranged
to numbers correspond respond to in across/
on clue to numbers numbers on down col-
sheet. on clue clue sheet. umns and
sheet. numbered
according
to the puz-
zle layout.
Appear- Puzzle grid Puzzle grid Work is Work is
ance is neatly is neatly legible careless
blocked blocked but messy. with little
out and out and Significant evidence
numbers numbers difficulty in of the
are clearly are clearly clues layout audience in
legible. legible. makes use mind.
Clues are Clues are of puzzle
organized organized unfriendly.
under the under the
headings headings
“across” and “across” and
“down” and “down” and
are neatly are neatly
arranged arranged
on one on one
side of side of
one page. one page.
Lettering of Lettering
answer key of answer
is legible key is leg-
and unam- ible and
biguous. unambigu-
ous. Some
smudges
show eras-
ures.

110
Relevance Established Established Attempted Failed to
a clear purpose to establish establish
purpose that is quite a purpose a purpose
that is very relevant to but was not that is
relevant to the goal relevant to relevant to
the goal and dem- the goal the goal
and dem- onstrated a or did not and did
onstrated a clear under- show a not show a
clear under- standing of clear under- clear under-
standing of the topic. standing of standing of
the topic. the topic. the topic.
Total
Score

KPUP Summative Assessment

Check Your Knowledge


Enumerate the following:
1. Three basic properties of stars
2. Three types of binary stars
3. Uses of Constellations to people today

Process What You Know


Modified True or False. Check the True column if the statement is
correct. If it is a fallacy, underline the term that made it incorrect and
supply the column False with the correct answer.

True False Statement


Apparent brightness is how bright a stars appears to
be, whether or not it is a nearby star or extremely distant.
For the nearest stars where the distance is known,
luminosity can be calculated as the apparent brightness
increases with the square of the distance.
In 1905, Henry Russell a theory stating that mass can
be converted into energy
During the stage when the nebula begins to contract,
temperature increases as the particles in the cloud move
closer together
Astrology is a branch of science that is based on
scientific method of observation, deduction and experi-
ment.

Check Your Understanding


1. Is it proper to use the term Astronomy and Astrology
interchangeably in any academic discussion? Justify your
answer.

111
2. Why do stars seem to twinkle in the sky and do their positions
in the sky affect their twinkling effect?
3. Would you rather write a true scientific journal about the stars
or write a legend about a constellation? Support your answer.
(Answers may vary)

Apply What You Have Learned


Make a research on the specific dates and times of the next
equinoxes and solstices beginning 2014 up to 2020. Illustrate the
position of the Earth relative to the Sun during those periods.

112
FOURTH QUARTER – FORCE, MOTION, AND ENERGY
Unit XI: Mechanics of Motion

Summary
In this unit, students will explore how force and motion affect Grade Level Standards:
everything we do. Students will begin this unit by recalling what one- After learning about
dimensional motion is and its relation to force. Students will also learn the digestive system,
about two-dimensional motion. Students will investigate, describe, learners have expanded
and analyse concepts of energy and momentum through participating their knowledge to a
in class discussion/lecture, and completing the student activity and deeper understanding
written assignments. of the respiratory and
As a result of learning, the students will create multimedia projects circulatory systems to
that show how Newton’s three laws of motion are related to a “real- promote overall health.
life” event in their experience. In small groups, students will choose They are familiar with
one product using technology, i.e. web site, brochure, or multimedia some technologies
presentation. The culminating activity will require students to create a that introduce desired
traits in economically
fan-powered vehicle
important plants and
Content Standard animals.
Learners can explain
The learner:
how new materials
• demonstrates understanding of projectile motion, impulse and are formed when
momentum, and conservation of linear momentum atoms are rearranged.
They can recognize
Performance Standards that a wide variety
The learner: of useful compounds
may arise from such
• advocates road safety through various media focusing on vehicular rearrangements.
collisions
Learners can identify
• proposes ways to enhance sports related to projectile motion volcanoes and distinguish
between active and
Pre-Assessment inactive ones. They can
Have the students accomplish the pre-assessment models to check explain how energy
their understanding about motion and two-dimensional motion to from volcanoes may be
prepare them for the unit. tapped for human use.
They are familiar with
1. Frayer Model climatic phenomena that
Ask the students write or illustrate their ideas about motion, its occur on a global scale.
types, examples, and how its study benefits man. They can explain why
certain constellations can
Definition Types be seen only at certain
times of the year.
Learners can predict
the outcomes of
Motion interactions among
objects in real life
applying the laws of
conservation of energy
and momentum.
Examples Benefits

113
2. Agree-Disagree Response Chart
Overarching KU:
Have the students respond to these statements before and
after the unit was discussed. Everything in the
universe is moving.
Tell them to write A if they agree with the statement or write D
Motion is a fact of life.
if they disagree with the statement.
Overarching KQ:
Clarify to them that they will first complete the column on
Before Unit Discussion (Pre-assessment), and once the discussion How can we use our
on the whole unit has concluded they will revisit their answers and understanding of motion
make necessary changes as a result of their learning. to improve our lives?
They will then accomplish the third column After Unit Resources:
Discussion (Post-assessment) and state the reason on the fourth Aquino, M.D. (2012),
column for any changes in their response in each item. Science Links: Physics,
Rex Book Store
Before Unit After Unit www.rexinteractive.com
Force and Motion Reason
Discussion Discussion
The motion of an object is in
the direction of the applied
force.
A stationary object is in a
natural state and does not
have force.
Motion is proportional to the
force acting and a constant
speed results from a constant
force.
Moving objects come to a
stop due to no friction.
There is no motion without
force, and without motion,
force does not exists also.

Lesson 1: Projectile Motion: A Two-Dimension KU:


Motion (5 days) • Many human activities
are manifestations
Lesson Focus: Types of Projectile Motion, Elements of Projectile that objects do not fall
Motion, Conditions of Projectile Motion from a moving target
straight to the ground.
Introduction: (Activating Prior Knowledge) KQ:
1. Picture Analysis • How do 2-D (and/or
Ask students: What do a volleyball, baseball, tennis ball, 3-D) motion concepts
basketball, and football have in common? related to real life
events?
Show them pictures of sports events as these objects are hit,
spiked thrown, kicked, passed, dunked, etc. Knowledge:
• When a force is
2. Idea Bulb applied to an object
Provide students with idea bulbs. Have Motion in 2-D perpendicular to the
students name or illustrate a thing/object that direction of its motion
describes motion in two dimensions. it causes the object to

114
Body

1. Socratic Dialogue and Demonstration


Prepare the following materials: an air table inclined at an
change direction but
angle and can demonstrate the motion of a projectile (a stream
not speed.
of water can also demonstrate trajectories associated with initial
angles of launch). • A relationship exists
between the universal
Place two coins on the edge of a table, with one placed above law of gravitation and
the other (see diagram below). Launch objects simultaneously off the effect of gravity
the edge of a table using a flexible ruler. Have students observe this on an object at the
demonstration visually and by listening to the sound of the ruler surface of Earth.
striking the coins and the coins striking the ground. Ask students • Circular motion
which coin will travel farther and why. requires the
application of a
Clamp to stop rules constant force
directed toward the
center of the circle.
ruler
2 • Vocabulary Words:
projectiles, vertical
coins motion, horizontal
motion, trajectory,
1 angle, etc.
Skills:
• describes the
horizontal and vertical
motions of a projectile
• investigates the
relationship between
the angle of release
2. Experiential Learning
and the height and
Have the students answer the Investigate activity in the worktext. range of the projectile
• display an
3. Homework (1): Student Demo understanding of the
Ask the students to access videos on projectile motion independence of the
uploaded at www.youtube.com. Tell them to watch one of these vertical and horizontal
videos and write an explanation of how this demonstration helped velocities of a
them understand projectile motion. Remind them that their report projectile. Apply this
should be accompanied by a copy of the video on a CD or the knowledge in solving
URL of video so that you may access the videos they watch when problems involving
checking their reports. As an extension, tell them to prepare and projectiles.
perform their version of this presentation to the class either by an • create a device to
actual or recorded demonstration. measure the speed of
the ball as it passes
4. Pencil-and-Paper Tasks through each
Have students solve kinematics equations for projectile problems.

5. Problem-Based Learning: “Catapult Contest”


Have the students use the design process to build a catapult ring showing that it
or trebuchet to launch a marshmallow. Discuss to the students the increases at equal
components of the SIP report as applied to this PBL activity. rates.

115
6. Homework (2): RAFT
• iIllustrate an
Distribute a copy of the Projectile Motion RAFT template understanding of
to each student. Explain to the students that the purpose of the projectiles fired at
writing assignment is for them to explore the concept of projectile an angle by solving
motion. Go over the directions of the assignment and discuss what problems associated
the RAFT acronym stands for: with such projectiles.
Role Audience Format Topic • identify equations
for centripetal
a sports
the baseball the batter
commentary
acceleration and
centripetal force.
the a crowd of All students
a travel guide • solve problems on
skateboarder onlookers must focus
the person a person outside on the topic two-dimensional
inside a flight the flight advice column of projectile motion in the
simulator simulator motion horizontal plane.
a letter of 21st Century Skills
a frog a lily pad
complaint
• Developing strategies
7. Field Trip to address problems
(Thinking/Problem-
Have the students go around the school or in a community Solving skills)
and look for two examples that depicts circular motion. Instruct the
students list these scenes in the template below.
Formative Assessment
Example 1 Example 2
Differentiated by
Example 3 Example 4 Interest

Then have them answer the following questions: Formative Assessment


• How did these examples depict circular motion?
• How does centripetal force affect us? Integration: Internet
technology
8. Short Quiz
A short quiz will be taken up in the class.
21st Century Skills
9. Web Connection • Using language
accurately
Ask the students to visit the
web page below and let them play • Organizing and
a game called Moon Olympics. relating ideas when
Tell the students that the site will writing (Language
help them identify the effects of Skills - Writing)
gravity on playing several popular
sports. The game will also enhance Summative Assessment
students’ understanding of gravity,
forces, and motion. The website
below may be accessed on a free-trial basis and the game was
last played July 9, 2013. http://teacher.scholastic.com/activities/
explorations/space/level1/interactive.htm
After the game, ask the students to answer the question below:
How did this activity enhance your understanding of gravity
and motion?
116
Note: If the suggested site is no longer available, the activity may
be replaced.

Conclusion

1. Whip Around
By tossing a ball and passing it around, the class will quickly
share one thing they learned in the lesson as the ball fall into their
hands.

2. Friendly Letter
Ask the students to write a letter to a friend describing how
you learned about two-dimensional motion.

3. Hallway Exhibit
Have the students create various pop art cartoons that will
depict a variety of cartoon characters who will run off a cliff, go so
far out horizontally and then fall straight down. The caption: ONLY
IN CARTOONS!
Act like a museum curator and explain to the audience why
these situations only happen in cartoons.

KU:
Lesson 2: Impulse and Momentum (6 days) • Momentum plays
many roles in our
Lesson Focus: Impulse-Momentum Theorem, Law of Conservation lives.
of Momentum, Types of Collisions • Momentum, like
energy, is also
Introduction (Activating Prior Knowledge) conserved.

1. Video Analysis KQ:


How can you
Let the class observe video clips of a football game to illustrate
apply the concept
momentum in each direction, change in momentum (impulse),
of momentum
conservation of momentum, and types of collisions.
to everyday life
situations?
2. Flash Card Knowledge:
Write the following words on a flash card: Styrofoam, wood, • The momentum
cheese, clay, flower vase, bowling ball, paper, Physics book. Tell the before the collision
students to categorize these words as either floaters or sinkers. and after the collision
is the same, as long as
Body there are no external
forces. This is called
1. Lecture/Discussion conservation of
Inquire for volunteers who will define momentum. Ask them: momentum.
Does anyone know what the word momentum means?
After they came up with the correct definition of the concept,
ask them to ponder on these questions:
• Colliding bodies are
Which has more momentum? A bus at rest or the student
parted after the
running to catch it? Which has greater momentum when they
collision.
move at the same speed? A truck or a student running beside it?
117
2. Concept Check: Quiz
Ask them to explain how it is possible for a small child and large Skills:
football player to have the same momentum. If the small child and • Perform
the large football player were running side-by-side (same velocity) measurements
which would take more force to stop? Why? and calculations to
describe momentum
3. Socratic Dialogue of an object
Using their responses in the concept check, ask the class what • Compare momentum
is the relationship between inertia and momentum. Tell them that of various moving
a direct quote from the worktext is not enough; have them use objects, of different
their own words to explain the relationship. weights and speeds

4. Think-Pair-Share
Have the students think of one situation in their daily life that
is an example of impulse. • Construct charts and
graphs to summarize
5. Short Quiz the speed of a ball
A short quiz will be taken up in the class. or car rolling down a
ramp by both distance
Conclusion and time
1. Journal Writing • Evaluate how
Ask the students to explain the following in their journal momentum affects a
collision
• Why are airbags and seatbelts considered life-saving necessities
• Understand
when riding cars and other automobiles?
how concept of
• Cars are meant to crumple in the front and the back upon momentum relates to
impact. Explain the physics of crumple zones in cars. real-word situations
2. Homework
Have the students research on the variety of sports that use the Self-assessment
principles of impulse and momentum. Let them choose one option
below in demonstrating their research:
• visual display
• poem Differentiated by interest
• music jingle

3. Varied Activities

Get the students to complete the following:


Have the students do a verbal brainstorming of how things on Summative Assessment
earth would be different if we lived under the reverse of Newton’s
laws of motion. Describe what differences would be observed if the
opposite of Newton’s three laws were true on earth. For example,
guns would not have recoil, and a cannon’s mass would not have
to be greater than a cannon ball. As a simple example, tell students
how they would also not be pushed back in their seat when
undergoing acceleration in a car. Tell them to discuss and present
their ideas in one of these options below: Integration: Language

Option 1: Write a two to three page science fiction story.


Option 2: Draw a cartoon strip.
Option 3: Perform a chant or rap.
118
4. Differentiated Summative Assessment Tasks

Differentiated by Interest
MECHANICS OF MOTION

You are to create a product that demonstrates your


Goal creativity to depict your understanding of Motion in Two-
21st Century Skills
dimensions as observed in nature. • Explaining a
concept to others
Role You are a Physics student belonging to the honors’ class.
(Communication skills)
You will present your output to the sophomore stu-
Audience
dents in your school.

The school is about to celebrate Teacher’s day next


week. Your beloved teachers will be given a day to unwind
and enjoy their day. With the series of suspended classes
lately, the school cannot cancel classes anymore. The Stu-
dent Government proposed that honor students from the
Situation higher level would teach students from the lower levels.
You have volunteered yourself to be a science teacher.
You are requested to coordinate with the Grade 8 Science
teacher and prepare a plan for the Teacher’s day. You will
need to convince your partner teacher that you are capable
to replace him/her at least for a day.

You can choose from the following strategies to teach


your class:
Product 1 – Using your camera, take a picture of some-
thing that exhibits Two-dimensional Motion. If a camera is
not available, browse magazines and newspapers and cut
out your chosen picture. Analyze and figure out the differ-
ent forces observed in the picture. Also, identify which of
the three Laws of Motion is best represented. This will be
the basis for discussion.
Product/Per- Product 2 – Talk about rides in amusement parks and dem-
formance onstrate how different safety measures apply the Laws of
Motion. Identify the different forces involved as you do the
reenactment in class on different situations where forces
are beneficial or detrimental. Discuss also how two-dimen-
sional motion explains how amusement park riders are
kept safe and properly thrilled!
Product 3 – Write an article about the relevance of know-
ing the different types of motion and forces in certain situ-
ations. Specifically, you may focus on the following fields:
Sports, Travel and Leisure, and Engineering. Read this aloud
in class.

Your product will be assessed based on the following


criteria:
Standard 1. Accuracy of content
2. Organization of idea
3. Enthusiasm

119
Rubric on Mechanics of Motion
Description
Criteria Score
4 3 2 1
The student The student The student The student
shows deep shows con- shows shows
understand- siderable shallow un- limited un-
ing of dif- understand- derstanding derstanding
ferent types ing of dif- of differ- of differ-
of motion ferent types ent types ent types
of motion of motion
and forces of motion
and forces and forces
acting on a acting on a acting on a and forces
Accuracy body. The body. The body. The acting on a
of Content discussion discussion discussion body. The
on how on how on how discussion
Two- Two- Two- on how
dimensional dimensional dimensional Two-
Motion is Motion is Motion is dimensional
observed in observed in observed Motion is
nature was nature was in nature observed in
discussed in discussed in was lacking nature was
detail. part. important inaccurate.
concepts.
All elements All ele- Most ele- Some ele-
in the per- ments in ments in the ments in the
formance the product perfor- perfor-
are logically are logically mance are mance are
presented presented logically logically
Organiza- and con- and consist- presented presented
and consist-
tion of sistent. A ent. The and consist-
ent. The
idea very clear message is ent. A clear message
message is conveyed message is conveyed
conveyed to the conveyed to the audi-
to the audi- audience in to the audi- ence is not
ence. a consider- ence. clear.
able manner
Enthusi- The student The student The student The student
asm demon- demon- demon- demon-
strates a strates posi- strates posi- strates posi-
tive feeling
strong posi- tive feeling tive feeling about the
tive feeling about the about the topic at cer-
about the topic during topic during tain times
topic during the presen- the presen- during the
the entire tation tation. presenta-
tion.
presenta-
tion.
Total
Score

120
KPUP Summative Assessment
Check Your Knowledge
1. What is the value of the acceleration due to gravity near the surface
of earth?
a. -9.8 ft/s2
b. 9.8 m/s
c. -9.8 m/s2
d. 32.2 ft/s
2. The acceleration due to gravity acts:
a. upward
b. downward
c. depending on the motion of the object
d. toward outer space
3. A bullet is fired at an angle of 45°. Neglecting air resistance, what is
the direction of acceleration during the flight of the bullet?
a. upward
b. downward
c. dependent on the initial velocity
d. at a 45° angle
4. For a projectile, what is the acceleration in the x-direction?
a. depends on initial velocity
b. 0 m/s2
c. depends on how long it is in the air
d. depends on y-acceleration
5. A golfer drives her golf ball from the tee down the fairway in a high
arcing shot. When the ball is at the highest point of its flight:
a. the velocity and acceleration are both zero
b. the x-velocity is zero and the y-velocity is zero
c. the x-velocity is non-zero and the y-velocity is zero
d. the velocity is non-zero and the acceleration is zero

Process What You Know


1. A marble, rolling with speed 20 cm/s, rolls off the edge of a table
that is 80 cm high. (a) How long does it take to drop to the floor? (b)
How far, horizontally, from the table edge does the marble strike
the floor?
a. (a) 4.0 s, (b) 4.0 cm
b. (a) 0.16 s, (b) 3.2 cm
c. (a) 8.2 s, (b) 0.8 cm
d. (a) 0.40 s, (b) 8.1 cm

121
2. A body projected upward from the level ground at an angle of 50°
with the horizontal has an initial speed of 40 m/s. (a) How long will
it take to hit the ground? (b) How far from the starting point will it
strike? (c) At what angle with the horizontal will it strike?
a. (a) 3.1 s, (b) 0.19 km, (c) 90°
b. (a) 4.1 s, (b) 0.25 km, (c) 40°
c. (a) 6.3 s, (b) 0.16 km, (c) 50°
d. (a) 9.2 s, (b) 0.08 km, (c) 45°
3. A body is projected downward at an angle of 30° with the horizontal
from the top of a building 170 m high. Its initial speed is 40 m/s.
(a) How long will it take before striking the ground? (b) How far
from the foot of the building will it strike? (c) At what angle with the
horizontal will it strike?
a. (a) 8.3 s, (b) 0.084 km, (c) 90°
b. (a) 3.1 s, (b) 0.086 km, (c) 30°
c. (a) 4.4 s, (b) 0.167 km, (c) 45°
d. (a) 4.2 s, (b) 0.15 km, (c) 60°
4. Make a list of the following:
a. sports
b. non-sports related examples of projectile motion.

Check Your Understanding


1. A ball is thrown from a height of 2 meters at an angle of 30° with
an initial velocity of 30 m/s toward a building 65 meters away. How
high from the base of the building does the ball hit? Is the ball
rising or falling as it hits the building?
2. A baseball is hit foul into stands at the former Pac Bell Park. The ball
leaves the bat at 40 m/s at an angle of 70º from horizontal. Ball is hit
1 meter above the playing field. The ball lands in seats 11 meters
higher than playing field. What is the maximum height reached by
the ball? How long does it take from the time the ball leaves the bat
until it lands in the stands?
3. What do tennis and basket balls have in common with kangaroos
and grasshopper?

Apply What You Have Learned


Police Accident Investigation Units use the projectile model to
estimate speeds of vehicles involved in accidents or the trajectory of
bullets recovered in crime scenes. Research how police investigators
apply the principles you have learned in this unit in solving these cases.

122
Unit XII: Work, Power, and Energy
Grade Level Standards:
Summary
After learning about
In Unit XI, you have studied about objects moving in two- the digestive system,
dimensions. You have learned that these moving objects possess learners have expanded
momentum and experience impulses during interactions with other their knowledge to a
objects. In this unit, you will discover that these objects also possess deeper understanding
mechanical energy. On their own or during interactions, there are of the respiratory and
energy transfers and/or transformations. circulatory systems to
In this unit, the transformations of mechanical energy and its promote overall health.
conservation will be studied conceptually and mathematically as They are familiar with
applied in many natural events as well as in the working principles of some technologies
man-made structures such as amusement rides. that introduce desired
traits in economically
As an assessment, students will create different outputs to show
important plants and
how the two concepts are involved in real life events and examples.
animals.
Content Standard Learners can explain
The learner: how new materials
are formed when
• demonstrates understanding of the conservation of mechanical
atoms are rearranged.
energy
They can recognize
Performance Standard that a wide variety
of useful compounds
The learner: may arise from such
• practices safety in amusement rides rearrangements.

Pre-Assessment Learners can identify


volcanoes and distinguish
Have students accomplish the pre-assessment models to check between active and
their understanding about energy to prepare them for the unit. inactive ones. They can
explain how energy
1. KWL Chart on Energy
from volcanoes may be
Get the students ideas about energy transformation and tapped for human use.
conservation. They are familiar with
Through Think-Pair-Share, ask students to think about the climatic phenomena that
topics presented in the chart. In pairs, let them discuss their ideas occur on a global scale.
about the topics. Then, get them to share their ideas with the other They can explain why
pairs by writing it in the K and W column in the chart. certain constellations can
be seen only at certain
What I Want times of the year.
What I Know What I Have
Topics to Know
About Learned Learners can predict
About
Forms of the outcomes of
Energy interactions among
objects in real life
Energy
Conversions applying the laws of
conservation of energy
Conservation
and momentum.
of Energy

2. Teacher Prepared Diagnostic Test


Have the students take a multiple choice test which cover
electricity concepts and principles.
123
Overarching KU:
• Technological
applications that
involve energy can
affect society and
environment in
positive and negative
ways.

Overarching KQ:
• How does an
understanding of
energy help save
lives?

Resources:
Aquino, M.D. (2012),
Science Links: Physics,
Rex Book Store
www.rexinteractive.com

Lesson 1: Energy Transformation (3 days) KU:


There are many forms
Lesson Focus: Forms of Energy, Energy Conversions of energy that affect how
mankind lives.
Introduction (Activating Prior Knowledge) Energy transmission
is the process of moving
1. Graphic Organizer
electrical energy or a
Have the students complete the graphic organizer below on gas or liquid energy
forms of energy by indicating on the spokes each of these forms. source from its point
of generation or
extraction to its point
of distribution or
consumption. Electrical
energy is transmitted
via transmission lines,
Energy
while liquids and gases
are transmitted through
pipelines.
KQ:
How does an
understanding of the
Body forms energy and energy
conversions help society?
1. Brainstorming
Knowledge:
Ask students the following questions so that they can
brainstorm about the concept of energy and its many forms. • Energy
transformations and
• What do students think about when they hear the term conversions
“Energy?”
124
• Where/how do you use energy in your lives? • Vocabulary Words
• Can you name a few things that we do that use energy? (Can Skills:
use examples from game.) • Explain the
• What happens when we do not have access to energy (electric relationship between
power) (due to blackout or thunder storms)? work and power.
• Identify the different
2. Frayer Model types of machines.
Have the students write or illustrate their ideas about energy
by citing its varied kinds, sources, uses, or applications in industry,
homes, environment, and the human body as well as occupations
related to energy.
• Discuss how machines
Kinds Sources
work.
• Explain how machines
are applied and
Energy combined in familiar
tools that help man
21st Century Skills
Persisting until
Applications Occupations job is completed
(Employability skills)

3. Collaborative Activity
Tell students to form groups to identify energy transformations in:
• Home
• Farm Integration with Drama
Arts
• Car
• County fair 21st Century Skills
• Evaluating results
• Ecosystem
(Thinking/Problem-
4. Picture/Video Presentation Solving Skills)

Introduce the Alternative Energy Project by showing video


or pictures of facilities that use wind, solar, hydrogen, fuel cells, Integration with
geothermal, tidal, nuclear, bio-fuels, and hydroelectric to produce Technology
heat and electricity instead of burning fossil fuels.

Conclusion

Performance Task
By groups, have the students design and build roller coaster rides
that demonstrate the concepts of physics, specifically energy and
momentum. Consider these guidelines:
a. Use of recyclable materials for the project, examples, cardboard
tubes, strings, plastic bags, rubber bands, ketchup caps, etc.
b. Passengers will be marbles
c. Creative designs may include making use of movie-inspired
“themes.”
125
Lesson 2: Conservation of Energy (6 days)
KU:
Lesson Focus: Potential Energy, Kinetic Energy, Work-Energy • Man depends on
Theorem, Law of Conservation of Energy energy in many
aspects of his life.
Introduction (Activating Prior Knowledge) • It is important to
recognize the major
1. Video Presentation: “Energy on Demand!” energy sources
Look for appropriate videos from the Internet that will show people use today to
the different forms of energy. Present the video to the class and meet their energy
have them watch the video. After watching the video, have them needs and the effects
brainstorm the importance of the many forms of energy in their human beings have
lives. on pollution and the
environment.
2. Individual Activity KQ:
Instruct the students to use an online news portal or a • What benefits do the
newspaper in finding two articles about energy sources that contain study of energy and
information about the impacts of these sources of energy and how its conservation gives
they exemplify energy transformation. Ask them to highlight or mankind?
underline the passages of the article that contain the impact and Knowledge:
transformation. Ask them as well to explain why it is important
• Mechanical energy
to explore this source of energy and how energy transformation
is elastic, kinetic
benefits mankind.
and potential or
Body gravitational.
• Many common other
1. Demonstration (1) examples of energy
sources help provides
Hold a rubber ball and ask the students what will happen if you
fuel to man’s daily
drop it? Will it bounce? How high will it bounce? Does the height
energy needs.
you drop if from make a difference? Does the type of ball make a
• Vocabulary Words:
difference?
velocity, position,
Tell them today you will be using bouncing balls to find out. work-energy
First, you need to talk about energy. equivalence, law
of conservation of
2. Socratic Dialogue energy
Solicit response from the class on their concept of work and
energy. Ask: How are these concepts related?
Show a large pendulum and let it swing back and forth. Discuss
potential and kinetic energy.
Skills:
3. Demonstration (2)
• Distinguish between
Examine the Newtonian cradle and let the students observe kinetic and potential
the swing of the metal balls back and forth as they collide with each energy.
other. Apply the Law of Conservation of Energy to explain what is • Identify things that
happening. individuals can do to
conserve energy.
4. Video Presentation
Show pictures or video of an amusement park to the class and
talk about different rides and how potential and kinetic energies
are used.

126
5. Show and Tell
• Defines and
Ask the students to bring some toys and everyday objects that
investigates energy
use potential and kinetic energy to work. Examples could include
sources such as solar,
wrecking balls, Focault’s pendulum, child’s swing, acrobat (trapeze
wind, geothermal
artist) at the circus, and sports toys.
heat, nuclear,
• Discuss how some these toys make use of energy fossil fuels, and
transformations. hydroelectric power.
• Explain that their next activity will also apply the law of • Identify and describe
conservation of energy. various sources of
energy not dependent
6. Experiential Learning: Investigate Activity on fossil fuels.
Have the students perform the Investigate activity found on • perform activities
the worktext. to demonstrate
conservation of
7. Journal Writing mechanical energy
Ask the students to make their own news flash article that talks 21st Century Skills
about how energy conservation is a natural phenomenon. Persisting until job is
completed
Conclusion (Employability skills)
1. Odd One Out Formative Assessment
Prepare a list of four words with three words related to each Integration with:
other. Have the students circle the odd one out from the each word Technology
list. Tell them to explain why they think it is the odd one out.

2. Short Answer 21st Century Skills


Ask the students to answer the following: Evaluating results
(Thinking/Problem-
a. List three choice you can make to reduce the amount of energy
Solving Skills)
you use in your life.
b. Explain why it is important to think about how much energy
you use in your life. Self-assessment

3. Differentiated Summative Assessment Tasks

WORK, POWER, AND ENERGY


The goal is to campaign about enhancing awareness
Goal
for energy transformation and conservation.
You are a first year engineering student aspiring to be a
Role
contributor to your college news magazine.
You have to convince the editor-in-chief of the College
Audience
of Engineering publication.
Your college news magazine is putting up a new science
section called ENERGY in the News, designed to enhance
the students’ perception of Physics by highlighting the real
world applications of electrical energy as well as the issues
Situation
riding on its heels, which include: renewable or alternative
energy sources, environmental concerns involving
maintaining power plant, energy production, generation,
and transmission, efficient energy use, etc.

127
You have learned that the paper’s editor is opening
up the invitations for contributions to include articles
and poster (graphics) for this new section. To make it in
the cover of the College’s quarterly news magazine, your
campaign must be visually engaging and must cultivate
the interest of the readers.
You will create one of the following outputs:
Option 1: A computer graphic or poster with campaign
slogan that promotes the principles of efficient use of
electrical energy, adopting renewable or alternative
energy sources, mitigating environmental concerns
involving maintaining power plant, and enhancing
Product/Per- awareness of energy conservation.
formance Option 2: An essay or news feature about existing real
world applications of energy conservation, the article
must capture the reader’s attention and accurately explain
the principles of efficient use of electrical energy, adopting
renewable or alternative energy sources, mitigating
environmental concerns involving maintaining power
plant, and enhancing awareness of energy conservation.
Your product will be evaluated using the following
criteria
1. Content Accuracy
Standards 2. Relevance
3. Organization
4. Creativity and audience appeal
5. Originality

Rubric for Work, Power, and Energy

Description
Criteria Score
4 3 2 1
Concepts Concepts Concepts Concept
were were ap- were usually were lacking
evident parent: all apparent; most of the
Content
throughout; but one (1) used some time; very
accuracy
all terms or two (2) terms ac- few terms
used ac- terms used curately. used ac-
curately. accurately. curately.
Established Established Attempted Failed to
a clear a purpose to establish establish
purpose that is quite a purpose, a purpose
that is very relevant to but was not that is rel-
relevant to the goal and relevant to evant to the
Relevance the goal and demon- the goal goal and did
demonstrat- strated an or did not not dem-
ed a clear understand- show a clear onstrate an
understand- ing of the understand- understand-
ing of the topic. ing of the ing of the
topic. topic. topic.

128
Well-pre- Prepared Not com- Not
pared and and made pletely prepared
made no a few prepared and made
mechani- mechanical and made- mechanical
cal errors: errors that mechanical errors; some
Organiza-
the overall did not in- errors that interfered
tion
presenta- terfere with did not did with presen-
tion was effective- not interfere tation.
effective. ness of the with the
presenta- presenta-
tion. tion.
Interesting, Interest, Some use Bland, no
engaging, motivation, of props, variabil-
visually effort and colors, ity; did not
stimulating; time obvi- graphics, use props,
aesthetically ously pre- language, colors,
appealing sent; very and humor; graphics,
language,
use of props, little use will engage
Creativ- and humor;
colors, of props, but will notboring to
ity and graphics, colors, stimulate. watch, does
audience language, graphics, not catch
appeal and humor. language, audience
and humor attention;
but enough interest,
to engage motiva-
and hold tion, effort
attention. and time
obviously
absent.
Product is Product is Product is Product
an origi- an original patterned is copied
nal work, work, but 1 from other from other
novelty in or 2 ideas in sources, but sources.
Original- the pres- the presen- is different
ity entation is tation are in some
very much rehash of aspects,
evident. other ideas. there was an
attempt at
originality.
Total
Score:

KPUP Summative Assessment

Check Your Knowledge


1. A doll can walk and talk and runs on batteries. What type of
energy is stored in the batteries?
a. chemical c. nuclear
b. kinetic d. thermal
2. Which type of energy is a form of electromagnetic energy?
a. chemical c. nuclear
b. light d. sound

129
3. When the space shuttle launched, the audience at the launch
site felt the heat produced. Which form of energy was released
during the launch?
a. kinetic c. sound
b. light d. thermal
4. Lightning is a common occurrence particularly in rainy months.
Which form of energy does a bolt of lightning produce?
a. light c. nuclear
b. mechanical d. potential
5. A group of sheep are grazing in a field. As they eat, the sheep
break down the molecules in the grass, which releases energy.
Which form of energy is stored in the grass?
a. chemical energy c. nuclear energy
b. elastic energy d. thermal energy

Process What You Know


1. When a hand-held fan is turned on, the blades spin. Draw a
diagram that shows the energy conversion that is required to
make the fan work.
2. List three examples of energy transformation. For each
example, explain the energy transformation that is occurring
in each.
3. Draw how the a hydroelectric power plant, a nuclear power
plant, or a wind farm makes electricity, label ALL of the energy
conversions.

Check Your Understanding


Humans rely on energy transfers and transformations to meet our
daily energy needs.
a. Describe the energy transformations that occur when a
television is used.
b. Create a food chain, starting with the sun, which shows the
energy transfers and transformations that occur for humans to
get our energy to live.
c. Describe the energy transformations that occur in mammals.

Apply What You Have Learned


In 1998, the government created the Nuclear Power Steering
Committee to provide for the direction of the country’s nuclear power
program during this period. It identified numerous sites throughout the
country as possible future sites for nuclear power plants as shown in the
figure below. Pick a side on this NIMBY (Not-in-my-backyard) scenario
and defend your ideas in a class debate. Are you in favor of maintaining
and operating a nuclear power plant in your community? Why or why
not?

130
CANDIDATE SITES FOR THE
NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

131
Unit XIII: Heat, Work, and Efficiency
Grade Level Standards
Summary
After learning about
In this unit, students will explore the difference between heat and the digestive system,
temperature—a basic understanding of these concepts are of universal learners have expanded
importance in all fields of science. They will describe temperature their knowledge to a
as a measure of average kinetic energy of a substance while heat deeper understanding
is the disorderly motion of molecules in a substance. Investigating of the respiratory and
heat and temperature provides a way for students to explore energy circulatory systems to
interactions and to see how thermal energy is transferred. Through their promote overall health.
investigations, students can learn the larger concept of conservation of They are familiar with
energy. some technologies
This unit also aims to develop among students the ability to that introduce desired
discuss how energy changes usually result in work being done by traits in economically
the system and to apply the laws of thermodynamics to everyday life important plants and
situations. The laws of thermodynamics provide the basic theories from animals.
constructing heat and steam engines to manufacturing refrigerators Learners can explain
and heat pumps. The applications of these devices are far reaching— how new materials
from ordinary households to industrial companies. are formed when
atoms are rearranged.
As a result of learning, the students will investigate the significance They can recognize
of heat engines in today’s society, its effects to the environment, and that a wide variety
the latest trends in engine design and construction that will address of useful compounds
these effects. may arise from such
rearrangements.
Content Standard
Learners can identify
The learner: volcanoes and distinguish
• demonstrates understanding of the relationship among heat, work, between active and
and efficiency inactive ones. They can
explain how energy
Performance Standard from volcanoes may be
tapped for human use.
The learner: They are familiar with
• practices wise choice of electrical appliances based on its energy climatic phenomena that
efficiency occur on a global scale.
They can explain why
Pre-Assessment certain constellations can
Have the students accomplish the pre-assessment models to check be seen only at certain
their understanding about heat and temperature and thermodynamics times of the year.
to prepare them for the unit. Learners can predict
the outcomes of
1. Agree-Disagree Response Chart interactions among
objects in real life
Have the students respond to the following statements before
applying the laws of
and after the unit was discussed.
conservation of energy
• Tell them to write A if they agree with the statement in the and momentum.
table or D if they disagree with the statement.
Overarching KU:
• Clarify to them that they will first complete the column Heat is everywhere.
on Before Unit Discussion (Pre-assessment), and once the All matter contains heat.
discussion on the whole unit has concluded they will revisit
their answers and make necessary changes as a result of their
learning.
132
• They will then accomplish the third column After Unit
Discussion (Post-assessment) and state the reason on the Overarching KQ:
fourth column for any changes in their response in each item.
• Why is heat important
Before Unit After Unit in our daily life?
Heat and Temperature Reason • How can we use our
Discussion Discussion
Heat and temperature are not understanding of heat
the same. and thermodynamics
to improve our lives?
There is only one kind of
thermal energy not two (hot Resources:
and cold). Aquino, M.D. (2012),
Specific heat capacity can Science Links: Physics,
make things feel hotter or Rex Book Store
colder than their temperature. www.rexinteractive.com
Water can be liquid, gas or
solid.
Ice cubes do not cool drinks –
drinks transfer thermal energy
to drinks.
Heat doesn’t rise – hot air
rises.

2. SAFI (Select-and-Fill-in)
Show to the class the incomplete statements below and let the
students complete them by filling in the appropriate words that
will make the statement true and correct. Tell them to choose from
the words in the box.

heat thermal energy total


average kinetic energy temperature

1. ___________ represents the ______ movement of all the


molecules of a substance (also known as the ________ of a
substance).
2. ___________ is the __________ movement or ______________
of the molecules in a substance.

Lesson 1: Heat and Work (4 days) KU:


• Temperature and heat
Lesson Focus: Introduction to Thermodynamics and Thermodynamic prescribe the activities
processes of solids, liquids and
gases in their applied
Introduction (Activating Prior Knowledge) states.
• Heat flow and work
1. Who Am I?
are two forms of
Group students into four. Assign each group a word/concept energy transfer
or object but do not tell them what it is. From each group, choose between systems

133
a representative (or a group leader) and taped the name of their
group’s object at the back of this student (or to his forehead, like in • Thermodynamics
the famous TV game). The students take turns in finding out who involve the effects
they are (the word/concept or object they represent). of heat and work
The leader asks yes/no questions to his group mates in an that accompany all
attempt to determine “his” identity. Each group is given five changes in matter.
minutes per turn. The group with the first representative to guess KQ:
his/her identity wins. How do changes
Suggested words: work, energy, process, refrigerator, heat in matter relate to
pump, hot air balloon, and calorimeter—these are vocabulary thermodynamics?
words that will be used in the unit.

2. Video Presentation
Download a video on James Joule’s paddle wheel experiment Knowledge:
that led to the calculation of the mechanical equivalence
Thermodynamic
between heat energy and work. A sample video may be found at processes that occur
http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_ in nature are all
embedded&v=5yOhSIAIPRE#t=4. irreversible processes.
Have the students explain how the work done on the system
was used to increase the system’s internal energy by raising its Skills:
temperature. • Explain how most
processes tend to
Body
decrease the order
1. Experiential Learning of a system over
time and that energy
Ask the students to rub their hands together vigorously. Ask levels are eventually
for a volunteer to describe what happens. Tell the class that work is distributed uniformly.
being done to overcome the frictional forces between their hands. • constructs a model to
Explain that the internal energy of the molecules in their hands is demonstrate that heat
increased due to work as evidenced by their hands getting warmer. can do work
Next, have the students hold their hands apart and ask them
what they observed. Explain that the heat energy is transferred
from their hands to the air.

2. Demonstration Integration with Earth


Refer to the James Joule video and tell the students that Science
the process Joule had shown from his experiments that as
work decreases, the system’s internal energy increases, may be
reversed—that is as work increases the internal energy decreases.
Conduct this short demonstration in class using materials such as
an Erlenmeyer flask, balloon, water, and Bunsen burner.
Procedure:
a. Put a small amount of water in the flask.
b. Attach the balloon on the lid of the flask; the balloon must
hang outside the flask.
c. Hold the flask with a secured balloon on its tip over a small
flame.
d. Continuously hold the flask over the flame; wait for the water
to boil and become steam.
134
e. Ask the students to describe what happens.
Tell the students that as the burner transferred heat energy to
the system, the system’s internal energy is increased. The expanding
steam did work on the air outside the balloon by pushing it back;
hence, the system’s internal energy is decreased. Integration with:
Language
3. Journal Writing
Tell the students to make a list of five chemical and physical
changes that they have observed in their surroundings recently.
Have them identity these changes as releasing heat or absorbing
heat. After this section is completed, have the students go back to
their lists and see if they identified the processes correctly.

4. Investigation
Have the students design their own investigation that will Integration with:
allow them to measure the maximum temperatures of a hot and
Chemistry
cold pack using a thermometer. Have them answer the following:
a. Which pack produced a greater change in the surrounding
temperature?
b. What principle is this reaction based on?
c. What are the advantages of these hot and cold packs over ice
packs and hot water bottles?
Integration with:
5. Practice Calculations Mathematics
Ask the students to solve related problems on work and heat
energy.
Formative Assessment
Conclusion

Report Writing
Have the students discuss their understanding regarding
thermodynamic process by answering these questions:
a. Is cloud formation an exothermic or endothermic process?
Explain.
b. What happens when raindrops form from clouds?

Lesson 2: Heat and the Conservation of Energy KU:


Principle • The work done by a
heat engine that is
Lesson 3: Second Law of Thermodynamics working in a cycle
is the difference
(8 days) between the heat
flow into the engine at
Lesson Focus: Heat Engine, Carnot Engine, Refrigerators and Heat high temperature and
Pumps, and Heat Engines as Used in Electricity the heat flow out at a
Production lower temperature.
• The internal energy
of an object includes

135
Introduction (Activating Prior Knowledge)

1. Spider Map
From the previous lesson, ask the students write or illustrate
their ideas about thermodynamics—its examples and/or the energy of random
applications using the graphic organizer below. motion of the object’s
atoms and molecules.
The greater the
temperature of the
object, the greater
the energy of motion
of the atoms and
molecules that make
Benefits of up the object.
Thermodynamics
KQ
• How do the laws of
conservation apply to
energy and work?
• Why does thermal
expansion play such
Body an important role in
engineering design?
1. Visual Strategy
Show the class a picture of a roller coaster and tell them it
operates without friction. Tell them that once the car, which is
raised against gravity, moves freely, the car will both have kinetic
and potential energies. Explain that from these KE and PE values, Knowledge:
the ME is conserved. On the other hand, if friction is taken into • Heat Engine
account, ME does not remain constant. Its value is less at points • Carnot Engine
when work is done against friction between the car’s axles and it • Refrigerators and Heat
bearings and between the car’s wheels and the coaster track. ME Pumps
is transferred to the atoms and molecules throughout the entire • Heat Engines as
roller coaster. This transferred energy is the roller coaster’s internal Used in Electricity
energy, equal to the amount of decrease in the ME, and is dissipated Production
to the surrounding air as heat.
Skills:
2. Discussion Using Models And Analogies • Examine how steam
Relate the discussion on the internal and mechanical energies generators and
in the system using a hot air balloon as an example. From here, turbines produce
electricity.
discuss how the principle of conservation of energy that takes into
account the system’s internal energy (U), work (W) and heat (Q) is • Discuss how the
called the first law of thermodynamics. Show the class these simple equations of heat
examples to model the signs of Q and W in typical situations: transfer affect the
design of efficient
Heating Cooling devices and home
construction.
• Demonstrate how
thermal energy affects
100 oc 30 oc the characteristics of
30 oc 100 oc
matter
U=Q U=Q
(Q > 0) (Q < 0)

136
Compression Expansion
50 Pa
W 20 Pa

20 Pa W
50 Pa
U=W U = -W
(W < 0) (W > 0)

3. Discovery Learning
Have the students relate the first law of thermodynamics to the
special processes they have learned in the previous lesson. Then
ask them to complete the table below:

First Law of
Process Conditions Interpretation
Thermodynamics
Isovolumetric No work done
Isothermal No change in
temperature or
internal energy
Adiabatic No energy
transferred as
heat
Isolated No energy
system transferred as
heat and no work
done on or by
the system

4. Practice Calculations
Instruct the students to solve related problems on work and
heat energy as applied in the first law of thermodynamics:
ΔU = Q – W.

Conclusion

Exit Pass
Have the students submit their 3-2-1s for these lessons.

Lesson 4: Heat Engines as Used in Electricity KU:


Production (6 days)
• Kinetic theory and
thermodynamics
Lesson Focus: Entropy and Applications of the Laws of
show the relationship
Thermodynamics
of energy transfer
between one form of
Introduction (Activating Prior Knowledge)
energy and another.
1. Demonstration • The study of
thermodynamics and
Place food coloring in three different beakers containing water
its laws helps unravel
of various temperatures. Observe what happens. Then ask the and predict numerous
students: mysteries of nature.
How is entropy influenced by temperature?
137
Body

1. Analogy Organizer
Recall: (1) Boyle’s law and use it to calculate volume-pressure
changes at a fixed temperature and number of molecules; (2) • Thermodynamics
has its roots in
Charles’ law and use it to calculate pressure-temperature changes
many practical
at a fixed volume and number of molecules; (3) Gay-Lussac’s law
problems such as
and use it to calculate pressure-temperature changes at a fixed
transportation,
volume and number of molecules; and (4) the combined gas law
refrigeration,
and use it to calculate pressure-volume-temperature changes air conditioning,
when the number of molecules stays constant. renewable energies,
Have the students answer these questions: etc.
a. How are these laws similar? How are they different? • Most processes tend
to decrease the order
b. Why are these laws significant in thermodynamics? of a system over
Then, present to them the graphic organizer below. Ask them time, so that energy
to compare the concepts of Kinetic Molecular Theory (Gas Laws) levels eventually are
with thermodynamics and its laws. distributed more
uniformly
New Concept: New Concept:
Thermodynamics Kinetic Molecular
and Its Laws Theory (Gas Laws)

KQ:
• How can entropy
allow us to interpret
Similarities: Differences: the behavior of the
natural world?
• How can the study
of thermodynamics
make a positive
difference on the
worsening climate
situation?
Knowledge:
• Thermodynamics is
Categories of comparison: the study of heat and
its transformation into
work.
2. Homework: Narrative Frame
Skills:
Have the students research the life of Sadi Carnot and answer
the questions below after reading the narrative piece: • Solve problems
involving the laws of
a. How will you describe Sadi Carnot? thermodynamics
b. How did Carnot’s origin influenced his growing up years? • Compare and contrast
c. What was Sadi Carnot’s contribution to science? heat engines and heat
pumps.
d. How did his death affect the plight of engines?
• Apply the laws of
e. Whom did Sadi Carnot influenced by his scientific thermodynamics to
breakthrough? daily life.
(See http://ffden-2.phys.uaf.edu/212_fall2003.web.dir/ben_
townsend/biography.htm)
138
3. Lecture and Clustering
• Design an experiment
Tell the class what a heat engine is. Describe to them how this
showing the
device converts internal energy into mechanical work. Explain application of any or
that all heat engines—steam engines, jet engines, and internal all of these laws to
combustion engines—extract useful energy as heat flows from daily life.
a higher temperature to a lower temperature. As the second law
• infers that heat
of thermodynamics states, while it is possible to convert work
transfer can be used
completely into heat, it is not possible to convert heat completely to do work and that
into useful work. work involves the
After the lecture, instruct students to cluster their ideas related release of heat
to heat engines using the graphic organizer below. When they have • infers that heat
finished, ask them to write a poem, a jingle or one paragraph about transfer can be used
heat engines. to do work and that
work involves the
release of heat
• explains why
machines are never
Engines 100% efficient
• explains how heat
transfer and energy
transformation make
heat engines like
4. Short Quiz
geothermal plants
A short quiz will be taken up in the class. work

5. Experiential Learning: “Improvisation: Hero’s Engine” 21st Century Skills


• Summarizing main
Perform the Investigate activity (Activity 13.1) in the worktext. points after reading
(Language Skills -
6. Tiered Activity: “Applications of Thermodynamics” Reading)
Refer to the table below for different tasks for the students
Level 2:
Level 1:
Intelligence Type On or Above Target
Below Target Level Level
Linguistic Write an essay about What causes the Formative Assessment
how different modes emission problem
of transportation make of vehicles? Write a
use of thermodynamic recommendation based
principles. on thermodynamic
principles that will
solve the problem.
Logical/Mathematical Explain the Someone wants you Differentiated By interest
thermodynamic to invest money in an and by Readiness
process involved in automobile engine
waterbeds. Discuss why that will produce more
waterbeds use heaters energy than the energy 21st Century Skills
to warm the water so in the fuel (such as
you do not feel chilled gasoline or electricity)
• Developing strategies
as you use them. used to run the motor. to address problems
What is your response? (Thinking/Problem-
Hint: Second law of Solving Skills)
thermodynamics

139
Spatial From outside, you came Create a cartoon strip
in to an air conditioned or computer graphics
room. Illustrate using a animation to show why
comic strip or computer heaters are/are not
graphics animation marketable here in the
how your body reacts Philippines. What role
from a change in does thermodynamics
temperature as though play in the operation of
it was a thermodynamic heaters?
system.
Musical Compose and perform Compose and perform
a music jingle or a music jingle or rap
rap music about music about the latest
the applications of trends on the study of
thermodynamics. thermodynamics. Self-Assessment

Explain their understanding of the laws of thermodynamics and


rephrase these laws in a manner similar to how the British scientist and
author C. P. Snow remembers these laws:
First Law: You cannot win.
Second Law: You cannot break even.
Third Law: You cannot get out of the game. Summative Assessment
Conclusion
1. Journal Writing
Ask the students this question:
How can I use the knowledge on thermodynamics in my daily life?

2. 3-2-1 Exit card Integration with:


Let the students submit their 3-2-1 Exit Card on thermodynamics: Environment
Conservation
Three new ideas that they learned from the unit.
Two things that reinforces (coincides with) what they know
about the topic.
One question they still have about thermodynamics.

3. Varied Tasks

Ask the students to complete the following: Differentiated by:


a. Have students in groups of five perform an infomercial Interest
about the latest trends on enviro-friendly thermodynamics
applications or one that the students themselves designed
and investigated in the unit that shows the importance of heat
and thermodynamics to our daily activities.
b. Imagine that your improvisation of Hero’s engine is the greatest
invention of all time; create one of the following outputs to
promote the engine and encourage possible financial ”backers”
for mass production of your device:
• a campaign poster
• a brochure
• a commercial jingle
140
4. Differentiated Summative Assessment Tasks

WORK, HEAT, AND EFFICIENCY

The goal is to demonstrate understanding of thermo-


Goal
dynamics.

You are a college student who is majoring in humani-


Role ties and is asked to incorporate the study of physics to your
course.

You will present your output to your humanities profes-


Audience
sor and your classmates.

In one of your class discussions, your professor men-


tioned that Art and Physics do intertwine. He gave an
example of commercially available merchandizes that ca-
tered to the odd humor of people in the science commu-
nity. There is the poet Allen Ginsberg who wrote a parody
of the laws of thermodynamics and Sir Charles Percy Snow,
who wrote an aphorism about Shakespeare and the sec-
ond law of thermodynamics and whose plain restatements
Situation of these laws have come to include a more general adage
about life.
To veer away from a heavy discussion of physics con-
cepts, the professor asked your class to relate a specific
branch of physics called thermodynamics and how this
branch is used as a theme by artists and writers to relieve
them of the seriousness of creating their masterpieces. You
have been asked to lay credence to the claim that humani-
ties and thermodynamics do mix.

You may create any one of these products:


Product 1 - create a collection of thermodynamic gift ideas
– such as mugs, hats, pillows, campaign t-shirts, decorative
stamps, pins, etc.—emblazoned with motto or campaign
slogans related to thermodynamics and its laws.
Product 2 - create a video demonstration discussing the
three laws of thermodynamics according to the writer C. P.
Snow: (1) You can’t win!, (2) You can’t break even!, and (3)
Product/Per- You can’t give up! Explain in your video demo how these
formance theorems are not only restatements of the laws of thermo-
dynamics, but are also the physical laws that govern the
transfer of energy.
Product 3 – research and prepare a Powerpoint presenta-
tion with 15-20 slides that presents investigation on the
emergence of structures, particularly living organisms,
and the relationship of this process to the Second Law of
Thermodynamics. Discuss also why the laws of thermody-
namics are said to be the important unifying principles of
biology.

Your product will be evaluated based on the following:


1. Content accuracy
Standard 2. Organization
3. Graphics/pictures
4. Completeness

141
Rubric for Work, Heat, and Efficiency
Description
Criteria Score
4 3 2 1
Content is Appropriate Poor expla- No analysis
accurate, details are nation; of topic;
compre- included;
hensive, Inaccurate No explana-
Adequate Thermody- tion;
and well
supported; explanation; namics con-
Thermo- No Thermo-
concepts nection;
are fully and dynamics dynamics
properly connection Misinter- specific
Content explained. is present prets the connection;
accuracy but could be science No use of
Insights
present; developed concepts; resources.
Thermo- further. One re-
dynamics source for
specific con- More
than one sure
nection is
made. Excel- resource
lent use of present.
resources.
Uses an Uses a Uses an Uses an
exceptional logical, adequate inadequate
logical and effective or- logical and organi-
effective or- ganizational effective or- zational
ganizational strategy; ganizational strategy;
strategy; almost all strategy; less than
Organiza-
each sec- sections of most sec- half of the
tion
tion of the the product tions of the sections of
product have a clear product the product
has a clear beginning, have a clear have a clear
beginning, middle, and beginning, beginning,
middle, and end. middle, and middle, and
end. end. end.
Graphics go Graphics go Graphics go Graphics do
well with well with well with not go with
the text and the text, but the text, the accom-
Graphics/ there is a there are so but there panying text
Pictures good mix many that are too few or appear to
of text and they distract and the bro- be randomly
chure seems
graphics. from the chosen.
“text-heavy.”
text.
Totally Finishes Partially Fails to
attains the substantially attains the attain the
purpose of the purpose purpose of significant
the work of the task; the task, purpose of
and insight- needs the task,
shows com- further work may
fully ex- prehension explana-
plains at the need to be
of major tions, some refocused;
same time,
Complete- concepts approaches strategy
reaches out
ness beyond the although may be inef- used may
some less fective or lead to
task to make
significant not relevant, incomple-
provocative has defec- tion; shows
queries; ideas may
tive assump- partial
shows be lacking. tions about understand-
thorough the purpose; ing of the
comprehen- shows gaps concepts,
sion of the in concep results

142
concepts tual under- may not be
and context. standing complete
or involved
weak
arguments.
Total
Score

KPUP Summative Assessment

Check Your Knowledge


1. Energy added to a cyclical heat engine ___________.
a. is completely converted to external work.
b. is converted to increased internal energy in the engine plus
external work.
c. is used to generate work that is greater than the added energy.
d. is converted to work and to waste heat.
2. The primary function of any heat engine is to ___________.
a. convert work into heat.
b. create energy.
c. convert heat into work
d. destroy energy and replace it with work
3. The work performed by a heat engine ___________.
a. equals the heat energy exhausted from the engine.
b. equals the heat energy entering the engine.
c. the change in the internal energy of the engine.
d. equals the net heat flow into the engine.
4. The change in internal energy during one complete cycle of a heat
engine ___________.
a. equals the net heat flow into the engine.
b. equals zero.
c. the heat energy exhausted from the engine.
d. equals the heat energy entering the engine.
5. One important feature of the Carnot cycle is that it ___________.
a. predicts the maximum efficiency of any engine operating
between two temperatures.
b. predicts the maximum work output from any real engine.
c. predicts the maximum heat exhausted from any real engine.
d. is the only real complete cycle which produces work.

Process What You Know


1. Shown on the next page are four figures that represent the heat
flow in a heat engine. The thickness of the arrows represents the
amount of heat flow. Which figure best represents a real heat

143
engine?
2. A Carnot engine operating between reservoirs at 227°C and 27°C
would have an efficiency of approximately:
a. 0.11 c. 0.60
b. 0.88 d. 0.40
3. A heat engine having an efficiency of 0.40 takes in 1000 J of energy
from the hot reservoir in one cycle. In the same time, how much
work will it perform?
a. 400 J c. 600 J
b. 500 J d. 800 J
4. A heat engine takes in 500 J of energy from the hot reservoir in
one cycle while performing 200 J of work. The amount of heat
transferred to the cold reservoir in the same time is __________.
a. 500 J. c. 300 J.
b. 400 J. d. 200 J.
5. A heat pump is capable of delivering more energy to the home
than goes into the operation of the pump itself, when conditions
are favorable. Which of the following statements is correct?
a. A heat pump violates the first law of thermodynamics.
b. A heat pump violates the second law of thermodynamics.
c. A heat pump transfers some energy from the outdoors.
d. A heat pump, like the Carnot engine, is a theoretical device
that is not useful in practice.

Check Your Understanding


1. Why couldn’t you use an electric motor to turn an electrical
generator that in turn provides the electrical energy for the motor?

144
2. An inventor claims to have created a heat engine that extracts
energy from the ocean and turns it all into work. Is such a device
even feasible?
3. A heat engine that converts all the heat taken in from a single
temperature source to work would be in violation of what natural
law?

Apply What You Have Learned


Exhausts from vehicles and industries are major contributors to air
pollution and thermal pollution. Create a pamphlet warning people of
the negative effects of pollution in the ecology. Discuss how proper
engine maintenance will help ease the effects of this environmental
strain.

UNIT XIV: Electricity and Magnetism Grade Level Standards


After learning about
Summary the digestive system,
In this unit, students will demonstrate understanding of the basic learners have expanded
principles of electricity and also develop understanding of magnetism. their knowledge to a
deeper understanding
The students will start the unit with a study of static electricity and
of the respiratory and
quickly moves towards the understanding of charge and current. In
circulatory systems to
this unit, the energy conservation theorem is used to help explain the
promote overall health.
behavior of current and voltage in parallel and series circuits. At the same They are familiar with
time, an elemental discussion of how matter responds to the presence some technologies
of a current is given with the introduction of the concept of resistance. that introduce desired
Next, the students explore the connections between electricity and traits in economically
magnetism through a study the macroscopic effects that magnets have important plants and
on each other and on magnetic materials. Then, the students will study animals.
the connection between a moving charged particle and the presence Learners can explain
of a magnetic field. how new materials
As a result of learning, the students will evaluate their school’s are formed when
energy use (or abuse) as they prepare to develop ways to encourage atoms are rearranged.
responsible production and use of energy. Also, students will have They can recognize
an opportunity to educate their schoolmates about electricity and to that a wide variety
present an energy audit of the school to school authorities. of useful compounds
may arise from such
Content Standards rearrangements.
The learner: Learners can identify
volcanoes and distinguish
• develops an awareness of measuring quantities associated with between active and
energy forms, comparing series and parallel circuits, using various inactive ones. They can
materials in a simple circuit and showing the difference between explain how energy
conductors and insulators from volcanoes may be
• understands and cites practical applications of the connection tapped for human use.
between electricity and magnetism They are familiar with
climatic phenomena that
• solves problems involving electricity and magnetism
occur on a global scale.
They can explain why

145
Performance Standards
certain constellations can
The learner:
be seen only at certain
• conducts independent investigations to acquire knowledge about times of the year.
electricity and magnetism Learners can predict
• designs a method for evaluating some aspect of energy production the outcomes of
and use in their respective school or community interactions among
objects in real life
• makes recommendations regarding plans for electrical use in their
applying the laws of
respective school or community conservation of energy
• applies his/her knowledge on electromagnetism to provide devices and momentum.
or apparatus that are independent of electrical energy Overarching KU:
Pre-Assessment The principles
of electricity and
Have the students accomplish the pre-assessment models to check magnetism are behind
their understanding about generating electricity power transmission many important aspects
and to prepare them for the unit. of modern civilization,
including the essential
1. Teacher-Prepared Diagnostic Test
concept of energy
Have the students take a multiple choice test which cover conservation.
electricity generation and power concepts and principles. Overarching KQ:
2. KWHL Chart on Power Transmission • How important
are the principles
Have the students accomplish the K and W column of the chart.
of magnetism and
electricity in your life?
• How can you use
your understanding
of electricity and
magnetism to improve
your life and that of
others in your school
or community?
Resources:
worktext, pictures,
diagrams, charts,
maps, flash cards, mind
thoughts, real objects,
etc.

Lesson 1: Power Generation and Energy Differentiation to check


Losses (5 days) students’ Readiness

Lesson Focus: Power and Energy, Power Rating, Power Cost, and
Watt Meters

Introduction (Activating Prior Knowledge)


1. Diagnostic Test
Ask the students to take a diagnostic test on energy (teacher-
prepared and only if necessary).
146
2. Minds On/Pre-Assessment Graffiti
Group the class into three and provide groups with a large sheet
of paper and markers. Have the group members think for one minute
about what they know concerning how electricity reaches their home.
After thinking, students have one minute to record what they know or
think they know. Post the collection of knowledge on the wall to be
added to or revised as needed.

Body

1. Picture Analysis KU:


Present the class with this picture of a power station. Unlock • Electrical energy
the difficulties they may have about the following vocabularies: undergoes several
processes before
boiler, cooling tower, turbine, generator, and transformer.
it can be brought
to our home for
consumption.
• Electric power is
generated by rotating
a coil in a magnetic
field.
• Conserving energy
does not only
benefit us through a
decrease of energy
cost but also through
protecting the
environment we live
in.

Elicit responses from the class regarding the forms of energy KQ:
that they know of. Ask them to inspect the picture above and • Where does electricity
have them identify the energy changes that occur in the process come from and how
as shown. As an extension ask them how they feel about this type does it reach our
of power station. Do they agree that the benefits of its operation home?
outweigh the negative implications that it may present for society • How does an
and the environment? improper use of
electricity affect
2. Quick Recall nature?
Have a short discussion on electric power using the concepts • How will you use
learned in grade 8 science specifically on the electric circuit and your understanding
Ohm’s law. of electricity and
magnetism to improve
3. Experiential Activity: Power Rating (Electrical Appliances) your life and that of
others in your school
Ask the students to answer the Q and A about working on their
or community?
latest electric bill. Have them research what it would cost and their
yearly savings if they were to replace their appliances with energy
efficient ones. Visit
http://www.smartenergyliving.org/ecm/Energy_Efficiency/
Appliances.html for reference. Knowledge:
Power generation and
energy losses

147
4. Extension: Audit on Daily Energy Used
Skills:
Have the students determine their household energy consumption,
understand how appliances and devices use varying amounts of • explains energy
electricity, and identify ways to conserve and use energy more efficiently. transformation in
various activities/
a. Ask them to audit their daily household energy consumption.
events (e.g. waterfalls,
Tell them to list all of the devices and appliances in their homes archery, amusement
that use electricity. rides)
b. Ask them to visit this website: www.michaelbluejay.com/ • explains generation
electricity/howmuch.html. Here, they will enter each item and and transmission of
the frequency that it is used each day into the electric cost electricity through
calculator. (Note: Local energy providers also have the same power stations
worksheet in their website, but it is very difficult to access the • explains the
worksheet needed. Before using the above site cited, please importance of a
check the websites of DOST and Meralco for a more localized national grid system
information on the matter.)
21st Century Skills
c. The students will receive the average kWh/month that each • Summarizing main
item uses and can enter it into the worksheet. The worksheet points after reading
will automatically total the watt hours for the month and will (Language Skills -
calculate their electric bill based on foreign currency rating. Reading)
(Note: Adjust the rate based on your local electric rate.)
• Organizing and
d. Ask the students to answer the following questions: relating ideas when
• Which of your devices uses the most power? writing
• Using language
• How might you conserve energy or use energy more
accurately (Language
efficiently?
Skills - Writing)
• What have you learned about your personal consumption
of energy that surprised you?

5. Library Work
Assign students to research the What to Do activity for this
lesson on the worktext and share their answers to the class. Summative Assessment

6. Short Quiz
A short quiz will be taken up in the class.

Conclusion

1. Exit Pass
Provide the students with various vocabulary they have
encountered in the lesson. Let them define or describe the terms
in their own way. The students’ definition of these key vocabularies
will serve as their exit pass.

148
Lesson 2: Energy Production, Transmission, and
Distribution (5 days) KU:
Electrical current and
Lesson Focus: Electricity, Transmitting Energy, Electricity Generation, magnetic fields interact
Energy Demand, Legal, Ethical and Environmental to power electric motors
Issues vs. Electricity Generation, and Energy Agenda or generate electric
power.
Introduction (Activating Prior Knowledge)
KQ:
KWHL Chart on Power Transmission • How can electric
Have the students accomplish the K and W column of the chart. power be generated
and transported over
Body the transmission
lines from the power
1. Motivation: Fossil Fuel Extraction generation facility to
homes?
Have the students work in cooperative groups to complete this
activity using the materials supplied to them. Provide the cookies, Knowledge:
toothpicks, paper clips, and the hand outs for the groups to use • Transmission and
while working on the task. Students will show understanding of the distribution of
topic as they answer the questions on the worksheet. electrical energy
a. Provide the class with a cookie. This cookie represents a from power plants to
land area that may contain deposits of coal (represented by homes
raisins), oil (represented by pieces of nuts), and/or natural gas Skills:
(represented by chocolate pieces). You will also be provided • Examine how steam
with a toothpick, which represents the mining and drilling generators and
equipment used in obtaining the coal, oil, and natural gas. turbines produce
b. Tell the students that it is their job to try to remove as much of electricity.
the coal, oil, and natural gas as possible with as little damage • enumerates various
to the environment as possible. Have them imagine that the ways of generating
top surface of the original cookie is an area of land on which electricity in the
various kinds of plants and animals live. Philippines and state
the transformation
c. Then in the space below, have them sketch the cookie surface of energy for each
before and after “mining.” Lastly, ask them to record the (e.g. hydroelectric,
amounts of the various resources that they were able to obtain geothermal or wind
and the amount of “waste” generated. power plant)
(Estimate: about _______ % of the original cookie.)
Resources recovered (as % of the original cookie):
___________% coal (raisins)
• describes energy loss
___________% natural gas (chocolate) in transmission cables
___________% oil (nut pieces) and explain how these
can be prevented
___________% waste (crumbs and pieces)

2. Think-Pair-Share
Have the students discuss the results of their fossil fuel 21st Century Skills
extraction activity. The following are some questions for discussion: • Summarizing main
a. What are some problems associated with obtaining and using points after reading
coal? (Language Skills -
Reading)
b. What can be done to reduce or avoid these problems?
149
c. What are some problems associated with obtaining and using
oil?
d. What can be done to reduce or avoid these problems?
e. How can saving electricity help reduce the need for mining
and shipping coal?
f. List some ways that you could reduce your electricity use.
g. How can reducing gasoline consumption reduce the need for
mining, shipping, and refining oil?
h. List some ways that you could reduce the need for oil?
i. What are some advantages and disadvantages of natural gas
as an energy source? Formative Assessment

3. Q and A
Tell the class that we are highly dependent on fossil fuels for
most of our energy supply. However, the supply of non-renewable
energy is being depleted and it may even reach the point where
there is only limited supply; such situation will have adverse effects
in our lives. And so, we must all do our part in ensuring that the
rapid depletion of fossil fuels is discontinued by reflecting on our
current energy use habits.
Explain to them that this lesson will help them understand
where energy can be wasted in the home, how to rectify this and
come up with a plan to improve their homes. To start the discussion, Integration: History
have them ponder on the following questions: Connections
a. How much energy does your home use? (pesos or kW-hours)
b. Where does this energy come from?
c. How much energy does your home waste?
d. Can you really cut your energy bills by hundreds of dollars by
making your home more energy efficient?
After listening on what they have to say regarding the above 21st Century Skills
questions, tell them that the last two lessons in this unit will help Evaluating results
them understand how energy reaches their home and how they (Thinking/Problem-
can use this energy efficiently to lower the cost of electricity they Solving Skills)
consume in their homes.

4. Note-Taking
Have the students read the lesson on Energy Production in the
worktext. Ask them to organize their thoughts using the graphic
organizer below:
BEFORE DURING AFTER
Prepare to Read Question and Summarize and
Comment Synthesize
Make predictions This is important What comes next
because… is…

150
5. Minds On
Ask the students to brainstorm for a list of energy sources used
to generate electricity in the country (and in the world). As students
identify these energy sources, the teacher will write these sources
on the board. This list should include renewable (hydro, wind) and
non-renewable (nuclear, natural gas, coal) energy sources. Allow
students to discuss where they have seen examples of each.
Students will then be completing a cost-benefit analysis of one
Integration: Technology
energy source from a given point of view. Assign students in groups
of three or four to each of the topics (energy type) on the chart 21st Century Skills
below: • Searching for
information via
ENERGY TYPE SOCIAL ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENTAL computer
Coal (Information-retrieval
Skills)
Hydro • Evaluating results
Natural (Thinking/Problem-
Solving Skills)
Nuclear

Wind Self Assessment

Solar

Have the students discuss the cost benefit of each of the above 21st Century Skills
energy type. Below are some suggested questions for probing:
• Explaining concepts to
• Why do you think coal, hydro, nuclear and natural gas power others
plants only run at their nameplate capacity 90% of the time?
(Communication Skills)
Power plants are sometimes shut down for routine maintenance,
• Identifying
upgrades, etc.
cause-and=effect
• Why do you think wind turbines have a 25% capacity factor? relationship (Language
Wind turbines can only run when the wind is at the right speed Skills - Writing)
(cannot run if the wind is too strong or not strong enough, or
not blowing), turbines can also be shut down for maintenance,
upgrades, cleaning, etc.
• Why do you think solar panels only have a 10–15% capacity
factor? Solar panels only run on sunny days and cannot run at
night. They also need to be cleaned on a regular basis. Formative Assessment
6. Video Presentation
Prepare a one-minute presentation or play for your class on the Integration with:
basics of how electricity travels from the power plant to appliances
in people’s homes. Arts

7. Library Work
Assign students to research the energy demand here in the
Philippines.

151
8. Role Play
Have the students research and report how electricity is
generated and produced in the country. Make the presentation
more analytical by having them relate the energy industry to all of
man’s activities.
Self-Assessment
9. Short Quiz
A short quiz will be taken up in the class.

10. Concept Map


Instruct the students to create a concept map to explore what
factors influence the size of an ecological footprint for a specific
item, understand the interconnection between lifestyle choices
and the ramifications on the environment and society, and identify
ways that negative effects from their consumption of material
goods can be minimized.
Ask the students to make a list of all the items they consume and
use in a day, including personal hygiene products (i.e., shampoo,
toothpaste, etc.), food clothing, appliances, etc. Let them choose
one of these items and create a concept map of all the resources
and energy input that went into producing and transporting it.
As a class, they need to create a sample concept map using
coffee to explore what it is made of, where the resources came
from, where it was transported from, environmental and social
impacts, etc.
Tell them to be creative in making their concept maps that will
show the energy and resources used to make and transport such
item.

11. 20 Questions: Electrical Safety Questions


Have the students answer the following questions about key
safety principles that will serve as review of basic electrical safety
information.
1. What is electricity a form of? (Energy.)
2. What does electricity travel on to get from the power plant to
people’s houses? (Overhead and underground power lines.)
3. What other equipment is involved in getting electricity to
where it can be used by people? (Some or all of the following
are correct: substations, pole-mounted and pad-mounted
transformers, service drops, meter boxes, electrical wiring, and
appliance cords.)
4. How fast does electricity travel? (At the speed of light, 186,000
miles per second.)
5. Could you move faster than electricity? (No!)
6. List some good conductors of electricity. (Metal, water)
7. Is the human body a good conductor of electricity? Why/why
not? (Yes, because it is mostly water.)

152
8. What will happen if electricity travels through you? (You will be
shocked and could be badly hurt or even killed.)
9. List some good insulators. (Special rubber, glass.)
10. Why are insulators important? (They keep electricity from leaving
wires.)
11. What would happen if a power line were to fall from the power
pole to the ground? (It would energize the area around it with
a lot of electricity and people touching the line or coming near it
would be hurt or killed.)
12. If you overload an outlet by plugging in too many things, what
can happen? (Cord insulation can overheat and melt, causing a
shock and fire hazard.)
13. Why are people good conductors of electricity? (Our bodies are
mostly water, and water conducts electricity.)
14. Do you have to be touching the ground directly to conduct
electricity? (No, you could be touching something that is touching
the ground, like a ladder.)
15. Why should you never touch anything electrical while you
have wet hands or while standing in water? (Water conducts
electricity and you could be shocked.)
16. What is the purpose of rubber or plastic insulation around
appliance cords? (It keeps the electricity in the wires and prevents
you from getting a shock.)
17. If a person is shocked, what can happen? (Muscle spasms,
weakness, rapid pulse, severe burns, unconsciousness, or death.)
18. Why can birds sit on power lines without being shocked? (The
birds do not touch the ground or anything in contact with the
ground.)
19. Why could a kite caught in a power line be dangerous to try to
retrieve? (If you touch the kite while you are in contact with the
ground or anything touching the ground, like a ladder, electricity
will travel from the power lines down the kite and into you, and
you will be shocked.)
20. What three ways you can you think of to convince your friends Summative Assessment
to be safe around electricity. (Answers may vary.) Integration with
Language
Conclusion

1. KWHL
Have the class complete their KWHL chart by filling in the H
and L columns.

2. Examples/Reflection
Have the students reflect on their understanding by proving
examples (parts of the discussion) that answers the following
prompts.

153
This point is really clear because…

One thing that squares with things I already know is…

An idea that is still going around in my head is…

This idea made me wiggle because…

3. Differentiated Activity
Let the students pick one activity for them to complete. A
poster should be colored and labeled neatly. Follow all instructions
completely for the activity you have selected.
a. Trash Artist: Make a sculpture, a musical instrument, or a toy
out of trash. Use only recyclable items, no food that can spoil.
b. Poster Artist: Design a poster that makes people realize that
they can save energy by recycling.
c. City Planner: Many people do not want to live near a landfill.
Design a city with all the necessary structures such as schools,
houses, a water treatment plant, roads, landfill, and anything
else that you think is necessary. Will your city needs an
incinerator? Use poster board to draw your city on OR make a
model.

4. Varied Task

Get the students to complete the following:


A. Unit test
B. Science Investigatory Project

5. Differentiated Summative Assessment Tasks

ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM

Your challenge is to discuss how the world would be


Goal
different if we could efficiently harness the energy of fusion.

You are a fresh graduate who majored in Nuclear Phys-


Role
ics in search of a job.

Your paper or presentation will be submitted for evalu-


Audience ation and facts validation to the review committee of the
Human Resources Department in a multinational company.

You are applying for a job in a multinational company


that is conducting experimental research to other possible
applications of fusion in the world today. As part of the
application process, you are requested to present your
Situation ideas on the said topic before they could consider your
application (along with your other credentials). Difficult
as it may seem, but the HR manager, hinted that IF such
output passes the review committee, then you are good as
hired!

154
You may either write a research paper or create a Power
point presentation on “Our world with Fusion”.
Product 1 – write a research paper evaluating the role of
nuclear fission in today’s world situation.
Product 2 – create a Powerpoint presentation on “Our
Product/Per- world with Fusion”. Your presentation must examine the
formance changes that fusion energy could bring to our world. You
will look at economic, social, military, recreational, and
environmental issues that could be influenced through the
utilization of fusion-produced energy.
Product 3 – in a four-paged essay, relate the principles of
other areas of nuclear science such as the uses of radiation
for power, medicine, industrial applications, etc.

The output will be evaluated based on the following:


1. Content Accuracy
Standard 2. Organization
3. Spelling and grammar
4. Idea development

Rubric for Electricity and Magnetism

Description
Criteria Score
4 3 2 1
Content is Appropriate Poor expla- No analysis
accurate, details are nation; of topic;
compre- included;
hensive Inaccurate No explana-
and well- Adequate circular mo- tion;
supported; explana- tion con-
concepts tion; Elec- No electric-
nection; ity and
are tricity and
fully and magnetism Misinter- magnetism
properly prets the specific
explained. connec-
Content electric- connection;
tion is
Accuracy Insights ity and No use of
present; present but
could be magnetism resources.
Electric-
ity and developed concepts;
magnetism further. One re-
specific source for
connection More
is made. than one sure.
Excellent resource
use of present.
resources.
Uses an Uses a Uses an Uses an
exceptional logical, adequate inadequate
logical and effective or- logical and organi-
effective ganization- effective zational
organiza- al strategy; organiza- strategy;
tional strat- almost all tional strat- less than
Organiza-
egy; each egy; most half of the
tion sections of
section of sections of sections of
the product the product the product the product
has a clear have a clear have a clear have a clear
beginning, beginning, beginning, beginning,
mid