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Week 1: Worldview (Definition and B) Other worldviews defined by western

necessity) scholars
i) Paul Herbert: The concepts developed
by human intellect on the basis of
A) Meanings of “Worldview” assumptions pertaining to human cultures,
deal with the nature of reality, the
 An English translation of the
organization of the universe, the ends and
German term “weltanschauung”.
purposes of human life.
 Arabic: “ru’yat lil- wujud” ‫رؤية‬
‫ للوجود‬, or ii) James Sire: A set of presuppositions
 “al-naẓrat al-‘ālamiyyah” ‫النظرة‬ and assumptions which may be true,
‫العالمية‬ partially true or entirely false that provides
 Malay: pandangan alam / a basic constitution of reality and the
pandangan semesta foundation on which we live, move and
have our being.
 A set of beliefs on fundamental
aspects of reality surrounding us: iii) Edmund Husserl: An individual
oriented accomplishment as a sort of
- One’s perceiving, knowing personal religious belief in construction,
and doing. internationalization and implementation of
- Study of the world and its worldview, which differentiate between
aspects. traditional dogma and faith.
- A view of life. iv) Martin: A self-realized, productive as
- A perception of the world. well as conscious way of apprehending
- A particular philosophy of and interpreting the universe of beings.
life.
v) Ken Funk: A set of beliefs about
 A concept of the world held by fundamental aspects of reality that ground
individuals & groups. and influence one’s perceiving, thinking,
 A philosophy of life. knowing and doing or one’s philosophy,
 A mind-set and outlook on life. philosophy of life, mindset, outlook on
 A formula for life. life, formula for life, ideology, faith, or
 An ideology for faith. religion.
 A set of attitudes on a wide range
of fundamental matters.
 A comprehensive set of C) Necessity of Understanding
propositions about various aspects Worldviews
of the world.
 A unified and comprehensive view 1. Human life:
of the world around us and man’s - Knowing about the world’s
place within it. different people, cultures and
 Basic assumptions and images civilization
toward understanding all existing
things and beings. 2. Human behaviour:
 A guide or a map toward realizing
one’s religious, social, political, - Assists in interacting with nature,
economic and cultural views and individuals, peoples, nations,
relationships. cultures and civilizations.

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- Guides in correcting our
perceptions, ideas, values,
perspectives, attitudes and
behaviour

- Formulates theories of politics,


society, culture, and civilization

D) Fundamental matters and queries


(James Seri)

 How far out does the universe go?


Did it have a beginning and will it
have an end?
 How was it that we humans came
about here on earth?
 Does life have a purpose? If it
does, what can give meaning to my
life?
 Does my daily conduct matter in
the long run?
 What happens to me at my death?
 Does God exist? What is God?
 What is good and what is bad?
How can I know the good and the
bad?

1 a) Religious worldview
E) Objectives of the Worldview
 There is a universal spirit, god,
 A model of the world. deity or divine entity.
 Ability to explain and answer the
questions.  This divinity has established an
 Ability to see through good and eternal moral order that, in part at
bad values and answer the least, can be known to human
questions. beings.
 Ability to know how to act
properly.  People have the duty to follow
 Ability to construct people eternal moral dictates.
knowledge about existence and
truth.  This human conduct has long-term
 Ability to develop a set of (beyond individual death)
philosophical premises adhered to significance.
in life.
F) Classification of worldview

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b) Characteristic of Religious worldview instils in ourselves a sense and
meaning.
 The Religious worldview considers
both the world of seen and unseen.  Its results and findings are not
It is comprehensive in its precise and measurable like
perception of the world. It does not scientific worldview but they open
undermine any dimension of reality new ways for human beings to
and existence think beyond their physical world.

 Its basis is on the scripture or


‘sacred’, revealed or non-revealed
text. b) Its characteristics

 It is more comprehensive than the


 It is more stable than the scientific
and philosophical worldview, in scientific worldview, because it
terms of having certain and deals with physical and
unchangeable principles of belief metaphysical realties.
system and ethical system.
 If scientific worldview deals only
 The Religious worldview in with certain part of the universe,
general imparts to our life the sense
of responsibility, meaning, and the Philosophical worldview deals
purpose. This means that life and with the entire existence and the
the existence has a meaning and a universe.
purpose. Therefore, it makes our
life as a responsibility towards
God, and towards other people.

2 a) Philosophical worldview

 It derives from philosophy and it


means to deal with fundamental
questions of life.

 It uses logical reasoning,


deduction, induction, mathematic
and speculation.

 The Philosophical worldview is


wider in its scope than the
scientific worldview. It deals with
issues of philosophical and
metaphysical world.

 It attempts to give a meaning to


creation and life. It does not have
the exactness of sciences but it

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Week 2: Other worldviews  Like positivism, materialism lays
(Materialism, Secularism, Post- stress on science as the only
Modernism) legitimate source of knowledge
about the causalities of the world

i) Materialism
ii) Postmodernism
 Materialism is a theory that
 Belief that individuals are merely
physical matter is the only or
constructs of social forces, that
fundamental reality and that all
there is no transcendent truth that
beings and processes and
can be known; a rejection of any
phenomena can be explained as
one worldview or explanation of
manifestations or results of matter.
reality as well as a rejection of the
reality of objective truth.
 Materialism excludes the existence
of entities that are radically
 Skepticism: the essence & innate
different from or superior to the
nature of Postmodernism.
matter of our ordinary experience.
- Truth as a subjective matter.
 In materialistic worldview, only - All worldviews to be deconstructed
matter matters. Everything that is & re-evaluated to trace the lies &
not physical and material is not bias within.
accepted.
 Anti-dualistic: appreciations of
 It rejects, therefore, the existence various perspectives rather than
of God or gods on whom the conflicts.
universe would depend for its
existence or mode of operation; it - Pluralistic co-existence rather than
denies the existence of angels or dualistic approach.
spirit; it questions the notion of a
soul, if taken to be immaterial  Questioning texts: no inherent
entity separable, in principle, from authority or objectivity of texts
the human body. either historical or literal.

 Its two main targets are therefore - Textual information partly true to a
theism and dualistic views of particular group but not to others.
human nature. - Uncertain, no authority knows
what really happened.
 It negates the existence of all that - Must re-evaluate otherwise the text
doesn’t fall within the framework is not relevant.
of change and transformation and
is not perceivable by sense organs.  Truth is perspective: a matter of
context rather than universal.
 All knowledge of the world and of
society must be based on sense - Man only has access to reality
experience and ultimately on the way it appears to us.
science. - Must acknowledge that
thinking is shaped by forces
beyond their control.

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- In order to diminish bias in science. However highly developed
judgment cannot claim that a culture’s powers of observation,
truth exclusively belongs to however refined its equipment for
them, that is a false statement. measuring, no real scientific
- Hence, truth is just mere breakthrough is possible until man
reflection based on one’s belief can face the natural world unafraid.
or perception.

 Principles of Post-Modernism 2) Desacralization of politics


- No one rules by divine right.
- No absolute truth, truth is - Significant political and social
relative, contingency is change is almost impossible in
everything. societies in which the ruling regime
- No reality. is directly legitimated by religious
- Simulacrum: Imagination symbols.
and speculation.
- Meaningless and valueless.
- Total Doubt.
- Multiplicities of truth, 3) Deconsecration (relativization) of
ethnicities, diversities, and values
cultures.
- The disappearance of securely
- Equal representation for
grounded values.
class gender sexual
- There are no longer the direct
orientation.
expressions of the divine will.
- They have ceased to be values and
iii) Secularism have become valuations.

 The English word secular derives


from the Latin word saeculum,
meaning “this present age”, “this
world” of change as opposed to the
eternal “religious world”.

 It is defined as “the liberation of


man from religious and
metaphysical tutelage, the turning
of his attention away from other
worlds and towards this one.”

 Components of secularization

1) Disenchantment of nature
- freeing of nature from its religious
overtones. Nature is not a divine
entity.
- This provides an absolute condition
for the development of natural

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Week 3: Islamic Worldview (Definitions which the latter has ultimate and
and characteristics) final significance.

B) Definitions by selected
A) Definitions Muslim scholars

 A set of beliefs about fundamental  Abdul Hamid Abu Sulayman


aspects of Reality such as God, - A perception or an idea on
man, universe, life after death & issues pertaining to the
their relations that influence all Creator, universe and its
one’s perceiving, thinking, purposes, functions,
knowing & doing. Prophethood, man, society,
and the hereafter as
 A theistic & ethical worldview that opposed by other
contrasts with secularistic, worldviews.
materialistic, naturalistic & post-
modernistic worldviews.  M. Kamal Hassan
- A comprehensive
 A study of the world, perception of conception of the Allah swt,
the universe, a philosophy of life, universe and man and their
outlook on life, & formula for life, relations from the Tawhidic
ideology & faith based on authentic perspective, based on al-
Revelation. Qur’an & Prophetic
tradition, intellect & senses.
 A set of beliefs that life &
existence came into being as a  S. M. Naquib Al-Attas
result of the will, desire & design - The vision of reality and
of the Creator. truth that appears before our
mind's eye revealing the
 A comprehensive conception of the world of existence in its
universe & man’s relation to it, the totality, a metaphysical
vision of the reality and truth that survey of the visible and
appears before one mind’s eye invisible worlds including
revealing what existence is all the perspective of life as a
about. whole derived from the
Divine source.
 Understanding the fundamental
questions pertaining to the issues of  Alparslan Acikgenc
God, the existence of the seen and - A mental framework,
unseen, universe, man, life, belief, mental attitude, a totality of
khilafah, ethical values and concepts, ultimate
standard norms, history and foundation of all human
Shari‘ah. conduct, scientific,
philosophical and
 A guidance for a balanced technological activities
approach between worldly life and developed by the individual
al-akhirah in which aspects of the throughout his/her life.
former must be inextricably linked
to the those of the latter, and in

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 Choudhury Sustainer/Nourisher (Al-Mughith),
- A comprehensive Islamic Cherisher, Provider (Al-Razzaq),
design of reality relating to Granter of security (Al-Mu’min),
human life, the Protector (Al-Waliyy, Al-Walῑ, Al-
epistemology of the Divine Muhaymin), Planner/Disposer of
Unity, the world reality and affairs (Al-Wakil)
the world system derived
from divine source.  Rabbaniyyah means ‘Lordship’,
Cherishing, sustaining and bringing
to maturity, and Godliness.
C) Scope of Islamic Worldview
 Allah’s Lordship therefore,
▪ Metaphysics: the nature or reality and encompasses everything that He
being creates, which includes bringing
humanity to maturity through each
▪ Theology: the study of God aspect of the different
developments and growths –
▪ Cosmology: the origin and development physical, affectional, intellectual,
of the cosmos spiritual, social and civilizational –
▪Anthropology: the origin of human, by way of the tests, trials and
societies, their functioning & development tribulations that human ploughs
through in history.
▪ Ontology: the nature of being
▪ Epistemology: the nature of knowledge ii) The Oneness of Allah (Al-Tawhid)
▪ Teleology: the explanation of phenomena  Al-Tawḥid: The absolute and
uncompromising Oneness of Allah
▪ Axiology: the nature of value and
– the central creed, core of Islam.
valuation
▪ Eschatology: the study of death,  La Ilaha illa’Llah: There is no God
judgment and the final destiny of the soul (Ilah) but The God, i.e. there is no
one worthy of worship, veneration
and obedience except The One
True God—Allah.
D) Characteristics of the Islamic
Worldview  Whatever that goes on in the
i) Divine Origin (Al-Rabbaniyyah) Cosmos, all in the heavens & on
the Earth, & everything in between
 Divinely-revealed guidance resound with signs pointing to al-
originated from divine source and Tawḥid.
ordained by Allah with all its
constituents and characteristics.
iii) Permanent (Al-Thabut)
 Rabb contextually means Lord for  The manifested laws created by the
all creatures, its Creator (Al- command of Allah are
Khaliq); Owner (Al-Malik), unchangeable, in proportion and
King/Master (Al-Malik), permanent. No one is able to
Originator (Al-Mubdi’), modify or codify His creations.
Carer/Subsister (Al-Qayyum),

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iv) Comprehensives (Shumul)
- Unchangeable fundamentals (uṣūl)
 Islam is a complete way of life, - all development and changes
which contains comprehensive must be within the framework of
views about the outlook of life. these permanent realities.
- Branching issues (al-furū‘) - take
into consideration realities &
 It covers all aspects of human life circumstances.
such as family, social, political,
economic, education and moral.  Remains practical & applicable
throughout the ages, not static
 It provides complete laws of (jumud)
shariah in order to attain success of
worldly life and the Hereafter with  Practical ‘Aqidah (belief system),
a balance and integrated approach. Ibadah (worship & servitude),
Akhlaq (morality) & Shari‘ah
(Islamic normative way)
v) Rightful Balance (Tawazun)

 Balanced creation of the entire vii) Dynamism (Al-Ijabiyyah)


Cosmos.
 Ḥabl min Allāh wa ḥabl min al-nas
 ‘Alam al-shahadah: Physical
universes, micro & macrocosm-  Expressed in the active and
humans, flora, fauna, inanimate ongoing relationships
environments. - of Allah with His creations,
the universe, life, and man.
 ‘Alam al-ghayb: Unseen universe- - of man’s activities in his
‘Arash, Kursy, angels, heaven, hell, own spheres
jinn, satan - man with self, humanity
(personal, social, global)
 EXCELLENCE, RIGHTFUL - man and his environments
BALANCE, JUSTICE in all (immediate, extended,
aspects includes: universal)

- Aqidah (belief, thought)


- Shariah (Islamic normative
way)
- Ibadah (worship,servitude)
- Akhlaq (Ethics and
morality)
- Amal (action)

vi) Realism / practicality (Al-Waqi‘iyyah)

 Relevant throughout the different


periods of human development, in
line with human nature (fiṭrah)

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Week 4: The elements of Islamic subservience to the greatness and
Worldview wondrous forces of nature.

 It does not permit any mortal being


A) Definition of Al-Tawhid the dignity of godhead, or being a
master of the earth or in the
 Al-Tawhid derived from Arabic Hereafter.
roots ahad or wahdah which
means, unity or the One.
iii) Symbol of unity between human
 Ahad (the One) is oneness of Allah,
functions and laws of the universe.
which implies the essence of all
reality, as stated by Ismail R. al-  The phrase ‘Rabb al-Alamin”
Faruqi. (Lord of the Worlds) symbolize the
 Al-Tawhid is a general view of unity between the function of
reality, of truth, of the world, of human life and the manifested laws
space and time, of human history of the universe.
and destiny.
 The unity is also shown within the
pattern of Shari’ah laws and laws
B) The Significance of Al-Tawhid in of nature, which are sent through
Islam all prophets for guiding humanity.

 Allah hears the prayer of all


mankind, regardless of his religion.
i) Comprehensiveness and meaningful
His mercy, forgiveness, rewards,
 The meaning of Lailaha punishment and commands are all
illallah is comprehensive and equal for all nations regardless of
meaningful, which carries their colour, race and status.
wildest, greatest and richest
meaning of Islam. iv) Signifying the relationship between
Allah, man and universe.
 It includes a whole belief, value
and morality, spirit and matter,  Man is His vicegerent and servant,
culture, civilization, society, entrusted with His power and
politics and economy. whose duty is to worship Him.

 I also compasses all aspects of  Man as His representative on earth,


human life i.e. family, society, are given intellectual and sensual
morality and ethics education, capabilities in order to lead the
technology and etc. earth and to utilize it for his
survival as well as to understand
His glory and power.
ii) Freeing a man from slavery and
subservience.
v) The common messages of all prophets.
 The kalimah as a powerful
statement as it frees a man from  Without this kalimah, the Sunnah
slavery to freedom and from of our prophet becomes unsteady,

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and the believers will doubt the events, because it is the demand of
institutions of prophecy. man’s inborn nature.

 The Quran says:


iv) Man’s covenant to Allah in His
“Those who believed and mixed primordial existence
not their iman with injustice, to
 Man is indebted to Allah for his
them belong security. They are
existence and sustenance.
rightly guided”. This is the ultimate
Therefore, the believer should
principle of humanlife, of all
realize that his spirit has made
creations, of all beings, of all
covenant with Allah in his
things, if all religions and of
primordial service.
everything.
 He must return his debt to his Lord
through service and through
C) Why do we need to believe in Al- submission to Him.
Tawhid?
 This return implies in fulfilling
i) The essence of Islam man’s inherent spiritual nature,
 Tawhid is an act of affirming Allah which is the purpose of his creation
as the One, the absolute, on the earth as His servant and
transcendent Creator, the Lord and caliph.
the Master of the universe.

 Believing in all prophets of Islam D) Tawhid: His Essence and Attributes


is part of our Iman and Ibadah. It
determines the degrees of a i) His Essence
believer.
 He is The One & Only (Ahad),
Eternal (Ajaliyyun), Endless
 This faith commands a man to
(Abadiyyun), and Unseen (Ghayb).
fulfil his obligations purposes of
his creations, to observe the
 The Creator (Al-Khaliq), Judge
commandments and prohibitions of
(Al-Hakim), Omnipotent (Al-
Allah in his everyday life.
Jabbar), Merciful (Al-Rahim),
Gracious (Al-Rahman), Cherisher
ii) The fundamental teaching of all the of the Worlds (Rabb al-‘Alamin),
prophets. and the authority of the Day of
Judgment (Al-Mālik yaum al-Din)
 Tawhid contains Shariah (laws of
the shariah) and Minhaj (the way of  His existence encompasses all, yet
life) brought by all prophets. nothing is like Him.

 All goodness and prosperity are by


iii) Man’s innate quality His hands
 It must be transformed immediately
into actions and it must become a  Allah as the Ultimate Cause of all
concrete reality in the world of the causes.

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 His essence is as absolute, eternal who has entrusted him with
and infinite, certain powers to govern
the world.

- Equipped with facilities of


ii) His Attributes
knowledge to preserve right
 Al-Asma Al-Husna: 99 most balance, & establish
beautiful names of Allah. excellence & justice.

 The utmost Beauty (Al-Jamal): - Sent Messengers to guide


- In Sustaining: Al-Wahhab mankind.
(The Giver of all), Al-Muqit
(The Nourisher), - Given freedom of action,
- In Nurturing: Al-Nur (The choose right over wrong.
Light), Al-Hadi (He Who
Guides). - Have duties and
responsibilities to His
 He is Rewarding, Forgiving and Creator; to himself, to his
fellow men and to other
Compassionate:
creatures of Allah.
- Al-Shakur (The Grateful),
Al-Tawwab (The Ever
- Held responsible and
Accepting of Repentance).
accountable for all his
- Al-Ḥalim (The Forbearing,
actions on the Day of
The Indulgent), Al-Wadud
Judgment.
(The Loving and Kind).
- Promised Paradise if he
 His Majesty (Dhu Al-Jalal wa Al-
succeeds in fulfilling his
Ikram) includes:
responsibilities; hell-fire if
- Al-Muqtadir (The One with
fails.
Full Power), Al-‘Adl (The
Just); Al-Ḥasīb (The
Reckoner of Judgement),
 Among the duties of Khalifah
Al-‘Aziz (The Almighty),
Al-Malik Al-Mulk (The
- To safeguard balance in
Owner of all Sovereignty).
society and environment.
 Laila hailallah: There is no God
- To protect from aggression
but Allah. Allah is The One True
and punish evildoers.
God, with no partners or associates.
- To sustain public fund.

E) Meaning of Khalifah - To head political


institutions and guide
 The one who exercises delegated people.
power on behalf of the Supreme
Authority. - To safeguard citizens of the
land.
- He is NOT the master but
the slave-servant of the One

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- To protect the territory of  “Is not He who created the
Islam. heavens and the earth able to
create the likes of them? Yes;
- To defend and maintain the and He is the Knowing Creator.
religion. His command is only when He
intends a thing that He says to
it, ‘Be,’ and it is.” (Q. 36:81-
F) Tawhid: Man and the Universe 82)

i) Concept and purpose of the universe in  “Have those who disbelieved


Islam not considered that the heavens
and the earth were a joined
 Allah (swt) fashions the universe in entity, then We separated them,
the most perfect way. Everything is and made from water every
in harmonious balance, a perfectly living thing? Then will they
orchestrated equilibrium. not believe?” (Q. 21:30)

 Everything has a role to play in the


workings of this universe. iii) Cosmos signs (Ayat kawniyyah)

 From sub-nucleic particles to  “Do they not look into the realm of
galaxies. the heavens and the earth and
everything that Allah has created
and [think] that perhaps their
 From tiniest of bacteria to majestic
appointed time has come near? So
mountains.
in what statement hereafter will
they believe?” (Q. 7:185)
ii) Universe as Allah’s creation

 “The sun and the moon [move]


 “Then do they not look at the
by precise calculation, and the
camels - how they are created?” -
stars and trees prostrate. And
“And at the sky - how it is raised?”
the heaven He raised and
- “And at the mountains - how they
imposed the balance, which
are erected?” - And at the earth -
you not transgress within the
how it is spread out? (Q. 88:17-20)
balance.” (Q. 55:5-8)

 “Also, it is not allowable for


the sun to reach the moon, nor iv) Qaddara Allah(The Divine Pre-
does the night overtake the day, Measurement & Pre-Judgement of Allah)
but each, in an orbit, is
swimming.” (Q. 36:38-40)  Taqdir: The belief that everything
happens according to the
knowledge, will and command of
Allah (swt) clearly says in the Quran about Allah.
the purpose of the creation of mankind:
 Demonstrates that power is an
 “And I did not create the jinn attribute of Allah and that He has
and mankind except to worship absolute Power. He is the One who
Me.”(Q. 51:56) is capable of doing everything, who
has perfect power over creation,

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who measures everything with  This glorification is inherent in the
perfection. very nature of created things.

 His ability combined with His


infinite Knowledge makes Him Al-
Qadir and in control of His
creation’s destiny.

 Each of the objects that constitute


nature has a purpose, its measure,
destiny, and role.

v) Taskhir (Subjugation) the universe

 Refers to the high degree of fine-


tuning of the design-parameters of
the universe for the support of life
on earth, and ultimately, conscious
and intelligent human life.

 Everything that exists in the


universe has been subjected to
serve man and for human
utilization.

 Man are well-equipped to interact


with the universe in a way that
actualizes the duties of being
khalifah on earth and is responsible
of creating harmony between
human beings and the universe.

vi. Tasbih of nature

 Tasbiḥ means venerating Allah’s


glory, power and signs, which
reflect the uniformity of tawḥid.

 All creation (every animate &


inanimate object in the heavens and
the Earth) by their very nature,
participates in tasbiḥ.

 We also participate in this


glorification. Each limb of our
physical bodies extols Allah’s
praises, as does every cell and atom
from which they are composed.

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Week 5: Al-Nubuwwah and Al-Akhirah  Prophets and messengers are
the transmitters of the message
of the Allah and model
A) Definition of Prophethood representatives (paragon) for
their society.
 Literally, prophethood or Al-
Nubuwwah from naba’a means to
inform. Nabwa means an elevated C) Definition of Al-Akhirah
or a protuberant, or gibbous place.
 According to Abdul Kabir Hussain
 In the hadith, the prophet is called Solihu, Al-Akhirah means “the
‘nabiyy’ for his high status among last” or “the end”.
people which the Quran confirms
in Surat Maryam and Surat Al-  In Islamic belief system, al-
Sharh. Akhirah specifically refers to the
‘Hereafter’
 Technically, prophethood refers to
God’s main mean of  It signifies both “the other and
communication with mankind ultimate state of existence in the
through selected and special people world to come and the life of
to deliver His message of Tawhid everlasting duration”, and “the
(monotheism), practical rules and good or blessing of the ultimate
teachings, which regulates human state of the other world.”
life and encourages the practice of
virtue.  In both senses, it is opposed to al-
Dunya, which means the “here-
and-now” of life and immediate
B) Necessity of Prophethood for and transient values.
human society.

 Prophets reveal thee mercy and D) Why do we need to believe Al-


justice of Allah the Exalted for Akhirah?
if there was no message sent by
God that guides to the path of  A manifestation of divine justice.
guidance, people may then Some criminals and oppressed
argue on the Day of Judgement rulers may enjoy opulence and
and try to defend and justify luxury until the end of their life.
their disobedience to Allah. On the other hand, other people
might be righteous and lead a
 Carries a comprehensive virtuous life but did not survive to
message to mankind that covers reap the fruits of their labors.
social and real-world, as well as Instead, they had been made a
other aspects which affect scapegoat for all sorts of crimes.
them.
 The ends of the life must be
 Carries out the task of clarified beyond any doubt, so that
explaining the content of men may see what they have been
scripture in more detail for the striving for and what the true
people. purpose of life.

14
 Life indeed is incomplete if
considered from the perspective of
this world alone, where values are
grounded in the transitory rather
than the immutable.

E) The benefits of Al-Akhirah


i) Individual Benefits

 Gives man a unique and valuable


advantage with a greater choice
that has an eternal implication.

 Prevents the young from wasting


their lives in transitory and trivial
things, encourages people to live a
responsible life, in peace and
tranquillity.

 Helps to endure death of loved


ones, prevents man from fearing
difficulties of life.

ii) Social Benefits

 Preserves social security, prevents


the spread of corruption, crime and
violation of law. It is a force
capable of taming the rebellious
desires of the soul.

 Produces good citizens. Anyone


seriously concerned with his
eternal abode, will accustom
himself with good behaviours and
the society will thus be protected
from crimes or immoralities.

iii) Civilizational benefits

 Everyone’s ultimate accountability


for his actions imbues a deep sense
of responsibility, which is a
condition for sustainable horizontal
& transcendental development.
Man will consequently choose the
right course of action.

15
Week 6: Knowledge in Islam: Concept  Seeking knowledge is the way to
& Classification recognize Allah and discover the
truth.

A) DEFINITION of Knowledge (‘Ilm)  Knowledge is a prerequisite for


Literally from Arabic word ‘ilm, which authentic peace.
means:
 Allah created and provided man
 Al- Marifah : knowing by with all the tools for acquiring
experiment.
knowledge.
 Al- Fiqh : Understanding
 Tadabbur : Observation
 Basiran : Mental perception
 Tadhakkur : Remembrance C) The PURPOSE of seeking ‘Ilm
 Tafakkur : Thought
 To practice with it. This is what
Prophet Muhammad asked in
Technically:
His prayers:
 Realization of the meanings of
things (Al-Ghazali) “O Allah! Make my ‘ilm profitable for
me, give me knowledge which is
 The obtainment of the ma’na profitable and add in my knowledge.”
(meaning) of an object in the soul (Tirmidhi, Da’awat, 128)
and its arrival at the meaning (Al-
Attas)

 Realization of something in its  To achieve the happiness of


nature. both worlds (hasanah fi al-
Dunya wa al-Akhirah).
B) The IMPORTANCE of ‘Ilm
 To distinguish between right
 Knowledge is the basis of faith and wrong.
(iman) and virtuous deeds, it is the
basis of spiritual enlightment.  To get Allah’s pleasure, to gain
nearness to Him.
 The Quran as the book of
knowledge – proof of authenticity
of Muhammad SAW’s D) ‘ADAB in seeking ‘Ilm
prophethood.
Al-Ghazali:
 The Quran is inviting man to
 Purify the heart from impure
observe, think, ponder, contemplate
traits and blameworthy
and learn.
charactheristics.

 Minimize affairs of the world.

16
F) CLASSIFICATION of ‘ilm
 Be humble towards teachers.

 Not to be so affected by
different opinions among
people.

 Examine any branch of


praiseworthy knowledge
carefully.

 Start learning on the most


important ones.

 Master one knowledge before


proceeding to the next.

 Ascertain the noble nature of


one knowledge and the others.

 Beautify inner-self with virtue. G) Al-Ghazali’s Classification

 He is the greatest theologian of


E) DEGREES of ‘ilm Islam and one of its noblest and
 Knowledge by inference (‘Ilm al- most original thinkers who has
Yaqin) been acclaimed by both Muslim
- Implication, extrapolation, and European scholars as the
interpretation greatest Muslim after Muhammad.

 Knowledge by perception and


observation (‘Ayn al-Yaqin)  His classification are divided into 4
- Insight, awareness, acuity, categories:-
discernment
1) Theoretical & Practical
 Knowledge by inner experience 2) Presential & Acquired
(Haqq al-Yaqin) 3) Religious & Intellectual
4) Fard Ayn & Fard Kifayah

17
2. Transmitted Knowledge:-

 Al-Quran
 Al-Hadith
 Jurisprudence
- The Sacred Law
 Theology
- Dialectics, or Kalam
 Sufism
 Linguistic Sciences
Grammar, lexicography, literature

H) Ibn Khaldun’s Classification

1. Intellectual Knowledge:-

 Logic
 Natural sciences:
- Physical sciences, medicine,
agriculture.
 Sciences of Beings beyond
Nature/Metaphysics:
- Magic, talismans, science of the
occult properties of the
alphabet, alchemy.
 Sciences Dealing with Quantity:
- Geometry, arithmetic,
astronomy, music

18
Week 7: The means of A) Reason (Al-Aql)
Knowledge:
i) The senses (Al-Hawwas), With the criteria and guidance set by Al-
ii) Reason (Al-Aql), Wahy:
iii) True report (Al-Khabar Al-  The rational is also the basis of
Siddiq) iman (faith), thus it is given the
authority to examine the
 The discourse on man is authenticity of Prophets and the
incomplete without knowing the revelation they claim to bring from
means through which the God.
knowledge about man is derived. - i.e. The prohibition of taqlid
There are 3 means which is the (blind faith)
senses, reason and true report.
 Man discovers unknown realities
 Senses and reason are the basic (Alam Ghayb)
reasons to know about man.
 ‘Aql is the rational faculty that
 Observation, experimentation and assist in understanding the
stuff to help understanding human unknown from the known, and
nature and his needs, and thus helps to discern which of the things
providing him rooms for future we desire are good and useful and
progress and development. which are bad and harmful.

 These two tools only deals with


physical and cognitive aspects of B) The Quran encourage people to use
man and therefore his real nature their ‘Aql
(haqiqat)
 Because Allah dignifies the
intellect as a tool for us to gain
 The reality of man is the soul (ruh)
knowledge, therefore He highly
which is spiritual in nature, while
command people to think, ponder
the physical and the cognitive in
and contemplate over their affairs.
many situations are the result of the
spiritual.
 Several verses describe those who
do not think and do not use their
 Knowledge about the spiritual
‘aql as deaf or dumb or blind. In
should be sought through another
case of blindness the Quran
means of knowledge which is
clarifies the meaning:
termed as “Al-khabar Al-sadiq”

 The knowledge is derived from the “Do they not travel through the land that
true sources = Quran and Sunnah they may have hearts with which to reason
and ears with which to hear? (in most

19
cases), it is not the eyes that become blind through learning and practicing the
but the hearts that are in the breasts” Quran and Sunnah.

(Q. Surah Al-Hajj, verse 46)


D) Al-Khabar Al-Siddiq: True Report

 Knowledge is also attained from


 The Quran equates those who go scholars who are authorities in their
astray with those who cannot use fields.
their intellect are those who have
denied themselves access to one of
 The most authoritative are
the highest aspects of their
information / reports / knowledge
humanity.
that have been verified
independently and established by
different scholars at different times
C) Senses and Sensibilities (Al-Hawwas) and places.

 The Quran mentions physical


 These have undergone the test of
senses through which reliable
time, and have been proven as
knowledge is obtained. They are:-
correct, accurate and valid.
- Ears for hearing, eyes for
seeing.
 Even so, to avoid taqlid (the
“And Allah has brought you forth from the conformity of one person to the
wombs of your mothers – you did not teachings of others), any piece of
know anything and He gave you the information, no matter how
hearing and the sight and the heart.” established, must pass every
element of Quranic criterion.
(Q. Surah Al-Nahl, verse 78)

 The Quran also urges us to use the


faculties of senses which will bear
witness for or against one on the
Day of Judgement.

 According to Al-Ghazali: The


physical senses are inlets to the
qalb (heart) – thus the need to keep
them purified.

 This is because true knowledge can


only be unveiled once the heart is
cleansed and the veils removed
through tazkiyat Al-Nafs (the
purification of oneself) and the
self-disciplined and cultivated

20
Week 8: Sources of knowledge in Islam  Huda (a Guide) and Raḥmah
(Mercy)
The sources of knowledge: the “two
 Shifā’ (Healing from all that ails)
books”

 Divine revelation (Al-wahy): Al-  Kitāb huwa al-Ḥaqq (the Book


Quran & Al-Sunnah which is the Truth, testifying
 Nature / Physical (Al-Kawn) Prophethood

 Bashīran wa Nadhīr (Giving Good


News and Admonition)
A) Al-Wahy: Divine Revelation

1.1) Al-Quran  Al-Kitāb al-Mubīn (things made


clear)
 The Quran is the book revealed by
Allah to His Messenger
Muhammad SAW through Jibril, 2.1) The Sunnah of Muhammad
then written in Masahif and
transmitted to us through an  Literally: A clear path, an
authentic continuous narration. established course of conduct, the
pattern of life, a precedent &
- The pure speech of Allah, the custom.
only revealed speech of Allah
to Muhammad SAW  Technically: The acts, sayings &
- An exposition of all things approvals of the Messenger (s) as
- As guidance and mercy the seal of Prophethood with the
- Nothing is neglected Final Message (al-Risālah al-
nihā’iyyah)

1.2) its charactheristics  The opposite : bid‘ah


(innovation); negates
 Qur’ān (to be read, recited or
transcendentalism & religious
proclaimed)
pluralism.

 Al-Kitāb al-Ḥakīm (The Book of


Wisdom) 2.2) Types of Sunnah

 Revealing reality & clarifying  Sunnah of binding law


doubts - E.g Sunnah Allah(Allah’s way
in dealing with people’s
 Preacher for believers, bearing persistent behaviours)
Raḥmah (Mercy) and Dhikra (a
Reminder)  The specific Sunnah of the Prophet
(Hadith)
- His deeds, sayings, his silence

21
- Normal physical acts of every format of ‫شورى‬, government are
human being, human on people’s choice & open for
experience. development.

 History and civilization


B) Types of Knowledge in the Quran &
Sunnah
 The origin of universe: The
i) In the Quran origin of mankind.

 Religious sciences: Tawhid,  History of the Messengers of


prophethood, angels, paradise, Allah.
hell, etc.

 Prophecies. Wisdom ii) In the Sunnah

 Worship (‘ibadah): The rulings &


 Physical & Natural Sciences:
teachings related to ‘ibadah.
Astronomy, geology,
embryology, botany, zoology,
 Halal and haram: In food, drinks,
etc.
clothes, transactions, etc.

 Human, Social Relations &


 Laws: family, criminal,
Ethics: Relationships: family,
commercial, procedural,
relatives, neighbours, different
international.
genders, non-Muslims, animals,
ethics, etiquettes & manners,
 Manner of conduct: The Prophet
etc.
SAW is the model of individual
moral conduct.
 Halal & haram: Food, drinks,
clothes, etc.
 Leadership: Learnt the
requirements of a successful leader
 Laws & commandments:
from him.
Family, criminal, procedural,
commercial, international.
 Da‘wah: He started from nothing
and ended with remarkable
 Economic systems: Usury,
followers.
loan, zakat, social welfare,
measure & weight
 Nation building and social
reformation: Establishing a nation
 Political systems: A
& changed a primitive society by
governmental/ central authority
unity, cooperation & brotherhood,
& the subjects’ duties, based on
eliminating social bias.
consultation ‫ & )شورى‬the right
of people to select leaders, the

22
 Theology: Eliminating idolatry &  The cosmos is to be studied,
establishing Tawhid observed and contemplated upon,
to know Allah, understand the
purpose of creation and attain
C) The FUNCTION of the Sunnah in closeness to Him.
relation to the Quran

 The second source after the Qur’an. E) The Characteristics of Nature


 No Islam without the adoption of
the Sunnah. 1. Profane
 An elaboration & commentary on - i.e Not sacred or divine in itself
the Qur’an . (rejects Pantheism)
 Deals with some general, - the worship and tolerance of
undetermined or unelaborated many Gods
ahkam in the Qur’an. - Belief that the nature and
 The concrete implementation & universe are divine.
actual embodiment of the Qur’an
 May contain some unmentioned 2. Created by Allah out of nothing
rules in the Qur’an (rejects deism).
- Belief in the existence of a
supreme being, specifically of a
D) Al-Kawn : The Cosmos (Allah’s signs creator who does not intervene
in Nature) in the universe.
- Rejects revelation at a source of
 Nature is along with the symphony religious knowledge.
of unity in creation, reflecting the - He creates, destroys and
tawhid of Allah, the Author, the recreates.
Creator and Sustainer of all.
3. Orderly by Allah’s law through
 The Cosmos is brimming with His Tadbir (regulation and
Ayat Allah Al-Kawniyyah (Allah’s administration) and Taqdir (Hid
signs in nature) determination and decree).
- Rejects naturalism, mechanism
 It is also mention in Al-Quran - Naturalism is the idea or belief
“pointing to aspects of nature to that only natural (as opposed to
draw our attention to Him” supernatural or spiritual laws
and forces operates in the
“Soon will We show them our signs in the
world)
(furthest) regions (of the earth), and in
their own souls. Until it becomes manifest
4. Purposive: not for idle play but
to them that this is the truth. Is it not
as Allah’s signs and to serve
enough that thy Lord doth witness all
Him (rejects atheism).
things?”
- Lack of belief in the existence
(Q. Fussilat:53) of God.

23
5. Subservient to Allah and made 10. On the study of nature, man
pliant to man (rejects - Should be guided by the words
positivism) of the Author of both Books,
- Means that all creatures are i.e. guided by the Qur’an
commanded by Allah to serve - Should proceed in line with the
man because he is the central Worldview of Tawhid
being.

6. Knowledge of nature is infinite


at both microcosmic &
macrocosmic levels, of which
Allah gives man only a little.

7. Not everything is knowable


through science.
- Science as human intellectual
activity is limited, contingent &
subjective to human terms
- The Quran as the word of Allah
is permanent, objective and
absolute.

8. Allah’s tadbir & taqdir set the


perpetual nature and
constancies of things in nature,
resulting in physical
phenomena and predictability
in the Cosmos.
- Laws set by Allah in Nature
- Scientific theories/laws – are
those that man has thus far
discovered & understood from
studying nature through
observation & experimentation,
and the patterns expressed in
human terms

9. Natural science (al-‘ilm al-


tabi‘iyyah) is a study of Allah’s
Signs in nature
- To discover & understand
patterns in phenomena of
nature.

24
Chapter 9: Islamic Civilization guaranteed safe livelihood and estate and
(Overview and characteristics) so on, such that gives them opportunities
to be successful in various kind of human
life.
A) Definition and overview of Islamic iii. Madaniah: According to Abu Nasir
Civilization Al-Farabi it refers to the way of life, on the
 Civilization derives from the basis of one’s ethics, shariah and akhlaq
Latin word ‘civis’ means ‘city- (conduct and attitude)
state’. Islam derives from the iv. Al-Hadharah: It is a culture or the way
word ‘silm’ means ‘peace’. of life, which can be achieved on the basis
of spiritual, material and intellectual
 The Islamic civilization aspects that should be related to one’s
signifies the combination of belief system, moral and ethical systems in
religious value and city culture accordance with the guidance of the
and relates to the entire human revelations.
life.
v. Ummah: It refers to the Islamic
 It signifies the ideology that civilization, which has been made up of
shapes the structure of a society free men, with their households, under the
and the formation of social protection of Allah. People are living
institutions in accordance with together under this civilization who are
religious guidance. bound by a brotherhood, united more
clearly by religion than by blood.
 It sets up the goals for which
individual strive to achieve it
and develop different social C) Characteristics of Islamic
mechanisms and organisations. Civilizations

i. Based on the foundation of absolute


B) Meaning and origin of terms oneness in belief.

 It is the first civilization that


proclaimed the message of one
Derives from Arabic terms:-
God who has no partners and
i. Tamaddun: Derives from the word ‘din’ associates in His rule and that He is
which means ‘religion’ and it is also the only one who is worshipped.
derives from the word ‘Madinah’ means
‘city’.
ii. Universality
ii. Umran: The term ‘umran’ is used by
 Islam confirmed equality, justice,
Ibn Khaldun who defined civilization as a
dignity and goodness as
group of human being who live on a plot
establishing factors of its
of land, have a stable economic situation, a
civilizations. This message

25
attracted the attention of brilliant one religion yet it welcomed and
minds across the globe from invited all other religious groups
different nations and various ethnic and people.
origins who contributed
significantly in the intellectual
output produced by the Islamic
civilization.

iii. Strong moral principles

 Which form the foundational base


in all its systems be it political,
economic or family. Moral and
ethical principles were an integral
part in both legislation and in the
implementation of these laws.
Therefore, the Islamic civilization
left a unique moral legacy which
never supported that the ends
justify the means.

iv. Is its keenness on the pursuit of


knowledge in every field.

 The value of the pursuit of


knowledge led to the establishment
of an intellectual system which was
based on principles of truth and
justice, religion and belief without
religion being an obstacle to the
development of the state or the
progress of the civilization.

v. Its unique sense of religious tolerance


which treated people who have different or
no belief equally and justly.

 No religious prosecution took


place, no discrimination based on
religious adherence and no
oppression of non-Muslims. The
greatness of the Islamic civilization
was manifested with being of only

26
Week 10: Western civilization
(Overview & Characteristics)  Different scholars describe
civilization for different aims
which include:
A) Overview
1) To show the superiority of a
 Civilization relates to a ‘complex particular races or ethnicities over
society’. A society is complex other races or ethnicities.
when its individual live in groups
of ‘settled dwellings comprising 2) To show how the different
cities’ and engage in specialised nations act in their interactions
activities. with one another.

 The elements of a complex society


include: B) Characteristics of Western
civilization
1) Moral and legal systems to
govern human conduct. 1. Religionsity

2) Advanced technology to fasten - No civilization is known to


communication and produce have existed without religious
consumer items among others. activities. Some civilizations
were monotheistic while others
3) Government to establish justice were polytheistic. The former
and protect individual’s rights. are civilizations that believed in
the existence of one God such
4) Food surplus to sustain the as Islamic civilizations. The
growing population. latter are civilizations which
believed in many gods and
5) Culture. engaged in ancestral worship.
They also believed in
 According to Edward Burnett superstitions.
Tylor, culture is everything
“acquired by man as a member of - Most civilizations were
society”. It encapsulates polytheistic. For example, they
“knowledge, belief, art, morals, believed that invincible forces
law, custom and any other caused natural disasters such as
capabilities and habits”. flood, earthquakes, volcanos,
etc.
 By defining culture as such, Tylor
regarded culture and civilization as - Despite the differences among
interchangeable concepts. civilizations in beliefs and
practices religion continues to
be central to the lives of the

27
people as if provides answers to
the ultimate question of life, the
universe and everything.

2. Worldview

- A worldview of a civilization refers


to the set of beliefs held by a
particular nation or community
about fundamental aspects of
reality that ground and influence all
their perceiving, thinking,
knowing, and doing. It is the
overall perspective from which the
members of a nation or community
see and interpret the world.

3. Dynamism

- Civilizations are not static. They


are dynamic, which means they are
forever changing, absorbing new
nutrients such as culture and
religion and advancing with time.

4. Heterogeneity

- By heterogeneity, means they are


multicultural, multi-religious and
multi- ethnical. Therefore, the
benefits of civilization “cannot be
restricted to few individuals or be
limited to certain groups”. They are
“a collective effort by the whole
society”.

28
Week 11: Rise and Decline of Islamic 5) Propagation of sciences / knowledge.
civilization
- The spirit of seeking knowledge
pushed the Muslims to advance
science. Thus, the level of
A) The rise factors knowledge in the Umayyad and
1) Iman, faith in Allah as a driving force Abbasid periods reached its heights
for the rise of the Islamic civilization. and Muslims used them to establish
the great Islamic civilization.
- Iman is the belief in the oneness of
Allah. The Prophet Muhammad 6) Al-Wasat
SAW exemplified Islamic faith: his - Wasatiyyah does not necessarily
life is an example of Islam and means one has to compromise his
Iman. Hundreds and thousands of position, belief or right; rather it
people of his time were to ready to allows holding on to their belief
follow his way of life, and they while also accepting the others.
were able to establish a small
Islamic state to a vast empire or an
Islamic civilization which lasted 7) Realisation of virtues creates noble and
for thousands of years. strong Muslims.

- The propagation of Islam was


2) High spirit to spread the word of Allah. successful because the Prophet
repeatedly inculcated ethical and
- A tremendous impulse was given moral values in the hearts.
to the Muslim community to
explore life and the world around
them (life and world created for a 8) The best judiciary system makes nations
purpose). The Muslims spread the successful.
word of Allah. Islam – way to save
people and liberate them. - Based on Shariah law of Islam
- It becomes great assets promoting
the establishment of the Islamic
civilization.
3) Transformation of Quranic ideals into - The Islamic judicial system ensures
daily conduct and reality. the basic needs of people including
their life, religion, honour,
education and property which lead
4) High levels spiritual and intellectual to the incline of peace and justice.
culture.

- Humility and sincerity in seeking 9) Political freedom


knowledge and all matters.
- Equality between the rulers &
people.

29
B) Factors of Decline 5) Weakening hold on Tawhid, on Quran
and Sunnah.
1) Weakening of Islamic brotherhood
- Diseases of the heart
- Tribalism, ethnocentrism,
sectarianism.
- Unaltered lifestyle of new comers
to Islam.

2) Obsession over power, wealth and


prestige.

- Dictatorship, political injustice and


the changing of political system.

3) Weakness of central authority –


revolutions and insurgencies.

- For most of the last three centuries


of the Abbasid rule, the rulers
(Caliphs) became nominal.

- The real sovereign power had


passed already to the Turks.

- The rulers became rulers under


their direct influence and they were
frequently changed or murdered
one after another.

4) Declining of intellectual activities,


knowledge propagation.

- Islamic sciences reached the stage


of stagnation.

- Ijtihad was virtually stopped.

- Fanaticism to juridical as well as


theological schools of thought
became widespread.

30
Week 12: The Contribution of Muslims
Scholars
ii) Al-Kindi (Al-Kindus):

 Abu Yusuf Ya’qub ibn Ishaq (801-


A) Natural Sciences 873 CE).

i) Al-Khawarizmi (Algorizam):  Philosopher, physician, pharmacist


 Abu Abdallah Muhammad ibn & contributed to physics,
Musa Al-Khawarizmi (780-850 mathematics, geography,
CE). astronomy & chemistry.

 Mathematician, astronomer & iii) Al-Razi (Rhazes):


geographer. He was the founder of
several branches and basic  Abu Bakr Muhammad b. Zakariyya
concepts of Mathematics and (854-925/935 CE).
founder of Algebra.
 Physician, philosopher and
 His work on algebra was alchemist.
outstanding, as he not only initiated
the subject in a systematic form but  He was the first to draw clear
he also developed it to the extent of comparisons between smallpox and
giving analytical solutions of linear chicken-pox
and quadratic equations, which
established him as the founder of  This book was the first book on
Algebra. smallpox, and was translated over a
dozen times into Latin and other
 He also gives geometrical solutions European languages.
(with figures) of quadratic
equations.  He was also an expert surgeon and
was the first to use opium for
 In the twelfth century Gerard if anaesthesia.
Cremona and Roberts of Chester
translated the “Algebra” of Al-
Khawarizmi into Latin. iv) Al-Biruni:

 Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Abul-


 Mathematicians used it all over the Rayhan Al-Biruni (973-1050 AD).
world until the sixteenth century.
 Production exceeds 146 titles in
 He also perfected the geometric more than 20 disciplines from
representation of comic sections astronomy to mathematics,
and developed the calculus of two mathematical geography, religion
errors, which practically led him to & philosophy.
the concept of differentiation.

31
v) Al-Zahrawi (Albucasis):  Physician, philosopher & jurist.

 Abu-Qasim Khalaf ibn Abbas  He wrote a 7-volume medical


(936-1013 AD). encyclopedia, Kitab al-Kulliyat
fi al-Tibb (Latin name Colliget,
 Greatest surgeon of his time. a corruption of the word
kulliyat = generalities), used at
 His encyclopaedia of surgery was European universities until the
used as standard reference work in eighteenth century.
the subject in all universities of
Europe for over five hundred years.  Ibn Rushd’s philosophy was an
attempt to synthesize Islamic
 This encyclopaedia was intended faith and reason in light of the
for medical students and practicing available Greek heritage.
physician, for whom it was ready
and useful companion in a  He asserted the “primacy of
multitude of situations since it reason”, or a purely
answers all kinds of clinical philosophical rationalism.
problems.
 For him, the primacy of reason
 It contained the earliest picture of is unquestioned but compatible
surgical instruments in history, with Islamic faith.
about 200 instruments are
described and illustrated.
ii) Ibnu Sina (Avicenna).

vi) Ibnu Sina (Avicenna):  Was born in Asfahan near


Bukhara (central Asia)
 Abu Ali Al-Hassan ibn Abdullah
ibn Sina (981-1037 AD).  By the age of ten he had
become well versed in the
 Most famous physician, study of the Holy Quran and
philosopher, encyclopaedist, basic sciences.
mathematician, and astronomer of
his time.  Known in the West by the
name Avicenna.

B) Humanities  Was the most famous


physician, philosopher,
i) Ibn Rushd (Averroes):
encyclopaedist, mathematician
 Abu al-Walid Muhammad Ibn and astronomer of his time.
Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn
Rushd (1126-1198 AD).

32
ii) Al-Farabi (Alpharabius): philosophy of history and
sociology.
 Abu Nasr Muhammad Ibn al-
Farakh al-Farabi (870 – 950
A.D.). D) Religious sciences (Law &
Jurisprdence)
 Encyclopedist & philosopher.
contributed to science, i) Imam Malik (93 AH - 179 AH/715 - 795
philosophy, logic, sociology, AD)
medicine, mathematics &  Spent whole life in Madinah where
music. much of the Qur’an was revealed &
most of the legal practices of Islam
 and Sufism. established.
iii) Al-Ghazzali (Algazel):
 Lifetime of studying, recording &
 Abu Hamid Muhammad Ibn clarifying the legal parameters &
Muhammad Ibn Muhammad al- precedents passed down to him by
Tusi al-Shafi'i al-Ghazali  (1058- the first two generations of
1128). Muslims who were the direct
inheritors of the perfected form of
 Major contribution in religion, Islam after Prophet (saw).
philosophy
 Wrote numerous books: most
important is Kitab al-Muwatta’
C) Social sciences

i) Ibn Khaldun:  deals with Islamic Law based on


Ahadith and Sunnah – the earliest
 Abd al-Rahman bin Muhammad surviving book of its kind - written
(1332-1395 C.E.). around 150 A.H.

 Father of sociology, philosophy,  Malik was the first who compiled a


economic science & a historian. book formed exclusively of sound
narrations (Ibn Abd al-Barr)
 Muqaddimah (philosophy of
history & sociology); Kitab al-I'bar  “The Muwatta’ is the 1st
(the history of Arabs, foundation and the core, while al-
contemporary Muslim & European Bukhari’s book is the 2nd
rulers, ancient history of Arabs, foundation in this respect. Upon
Jews, Greeks, Romans, Persians; these two all the rest have built,
Al-Tasrif: his life. such as Muslim and al-Tirmidhi.”
(Abu Bakr ibn al-‘Arabi)
 He is best known for his famous
Muqaddimah which is a  It is the principal authority of all
masterpiece in literature on four Schools of Law, which stand

33
in relation to it like the  He was a man of few words and
commentary stands in relation to never took part in idle talk. In his
the main text. Malik composed it in classroom, he would sit quietly,
the course of forty years, having letting his pupils freely debate
started with ten thousand narrations among themselves, and would
until he reduced them to their speak only when the discussion had
present number of under 2,000. become long and drawn-out
(Shah Wali Allah) without any conclusion being
reached. He would then give his
 Imam Malik held the hadith of the decision, which would satisfy all
Prophet in such reverence that he present.
never narrated anything nor gave a
fatwa unless in a state of ritual  Despite the fact that Abu Hanifa’s
purity. school of thought is the last to
emerge, it is the most widely
followed.
ii) Imam Abu Haneefa (80 AH - 150 A.H.
699 AD - 767 AD)  He left behind him three works
namely (1) ‘Fiqh-i-Akbar’, (2) ‘Al
 Was extremely pious, avoided Alim Wal Mutaam’ and (3)
forbidden things, remained silent ‘Musnad’.
and absorbed in his thoughts most
of the time, and answered a
question only if he knew the iii) Imam Shafi‘i (150 AH - 204
answer. A.H/767 - 820 AD)

 very generous and self-respecting,  Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn


never asked a favour from anybody Idris al-Shafi‘i was a
descendant from the Quraysh
 Shunned the company of the tribe, and thus, he is the only
worldly-minded and held worldly Imam who is related to the
power and position in contempt, Prophet (saw).
avoided slander and only talked The most important of books is
well of people. the Kitab al-Umm which
contains his rulings of on
 A man of profound learning and almost all subjects of Islamic
was as generous with his Law.
knowledge as with his money.
 He is known as Nasir al Sunnah
 Despite his wealth and high (one who saved the sunnah).
position in society, the Imam was
extremely gentle and polite.  He was honoured as al-Imam al
Mujaddid in that he is the
Mujaddid of the 2nd century.

34
 He was a student of Imam E) Impact of Islamic Civilization on the
Malik with whom he spent world
eight months.

 Imam Malik made this


comment: “No scholar more
brilliant than Muhammad ibn
Idris al-Shafi‘i ever came to me
as a pupil.”

 He is said to have divided


innovation (al-bid‘ah) into
good and bad on the basis of
‘Umar’s words about the
tarawih : “What a fine
innovation this is!”

 Among his sayings is: “The


study of hadith is better than
supererogatory prayer, and the
pursuit of knowledge is better
than supererogatory prayer.”

iv) Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (164 AH -


241/780 AD. 855 AD)

 Chronologically, he was the last of


the four imams.

 He was a very pious scholar who


devoted all his life in the Science
of Ahadith and Fiqh.

 It is said that he learnt almost a


million Ahadith by heart.

 He was probably the most learned


in the sciences of hadith of the four
great Imams of Sacred Law, and
his students included many of the
foremost scholars of hadith. Week 13: The future of the Ummah:
Challenges and Prospects.

35
A) Intellectual challenge o The lack of hold on reality in
traditionally educated teachers of
o Islamic Educational institutions
Islam causes failures in imparting
lost their Tawhidic soul, legacy & the relevance of Islamic sciences &
style. understanding on pressing
contemporary issues.
o Muslim educational systems mould
consciousness of Muslim youths o In the race to gain global
into caricatures of the West, recognition, Muslim nations adopt
becoming Western instruments & embrace Western precepts,
. standards, criteria, measurements,
1. The Present State of Education in the with colossal building programs
Muslim World: serving the secularist cause.

o Institutions been more daring in o Muslim students are fed with alien
advocating their un-Islamic themes, ideologies in textbooks,
assumed tremendous proportions in classrooms.
pushing out the Islamic system.
o Industrialization of education:
o Islamic education mostly remains a Islamic vision & civilizational
private / unconventional affair / not attitude are not ingrained in
mainstream. students, education as a conveyer
belt producing workers, not
o The Islamic component of the thinkers/ leaders.
curriculum remains static, loses
relevance.
B) Political challenge
o Greatest support by National o “Divide & Rule” - The division of
governments for secularist the ummah & the set up of one
educational system / endeavours. against another by colonial power
internally & externally.
2. Lack of Clear Vision & Polarity:
o The colonial schemes:
o The subjects and methodologies
presently taught are Western - Imported outsiders into the
copies, devoid of vision & mission. Muslim world.

o The lack of Islamic vision in - Carving out Muslim lands into


Western educated Muslim teachers hostile "foreign" states within
causes failures in imparting the the Ummah.
totality of knowledge. - Muslim governments spend
much of their resources &

36
energy on nationalistic power o Manipulations that succeed in
& sovereignty. forcing local Muslim productivity
out of the market, whilst
- Destruction of political capitalizing on their raw or finished
institutions in the Muslim materials.
world through various means –
“diplomacy”, bribes, false o New Muslim industries are not
promises, sowing internal designed to meet the demands
discords. created by colonialist / capitalists.

- Entrusting power to o Lack of agricultural, industrial,


Westernized native elites. economic & financial self-
sufficiency.
- Majority of Muslim countries
are ruled differently from o The oil wealth within some Muslim
centuries before. countries is not being used smartly.

- Creation of a stiff Western


hegemony D) Cultural challenge

o The spread of illiteracy, ignorance


C) Economic challenge & superstition after centuries of the
decline.
o No Muslim state is fully self-
sufficient even in basic / strategic o The panic upon a modern world
necessities, trapped within took Muslims to Westernization
capitalist hegemony. without thinking about the effects
on the faith & culture.
o Production of goods & services far
below the needs. o A secular system of education that
ingrains Western worldviews,
o Imposition of shortages & values and methods – producing
embargoes for Muslim states that Eastern people that are Western in
show attempts to solve the unfair ideologies, perspectives, culture,
trade. conducts.

o Creation of consumer markets & o Muslims' daily life is influenced by


demands for colonialists / the various expressions of Western
capitalist’ products (e.g. culture, hedonism, liberalism,
advertisements, promotion of soy / LGBT.
demotion of palm, wholesale o Muslim governments are proud of
institutionalization of drugs that Western-style buildings but not
don’t heal). ashamed of the degradation of their
towns and villages – Loss of

37
Islamic architecture & town
planning.

o Western social institutions &


customs were introduced into
Muslim lives – Western music,
movies, cartoons, operas, concerts,
dramas – Hollywood [Bollywood,
Dangdut, K-Pop].

o Muslims became obsessive over


Western decadence instead of
building Islamic virtue & societal
efficacy.

Week 14: Islamization of Human


Knowledge (the meaning, history and

38
institutions and integration of  To create an Islamic environment
knowledge). & conducive conditions for the
above.

A) Definition  To provide Islamic ethical, moral


& spiritual inputs& injunctions for
i) Imad al-Din Khalil: Involvement in a holistic personality development
intellectual pursuits from the Islamic & community well-being.
perspective on life, humanity & the
universe.  To instil, strengthen & sustain
ii) Naqib al-Attas: The deliverance of Qur’anic & Sunnatic values &
knowledge based on secular ideology & principals in all human endeavours
from meanings and expressions of the .
secular.  To solve problems brought upon by
the securalistic, agnostic &
iii) Al-Alwani: It’s a methodology rather atheistic philosophies of the
than an ideology. contemporary western learning.

iv) Abdul Hamid A. Sulayman:


Islamization of Knowledge is concerned
with thought, ideology & a normative C) The importance
human pattern.
 To create an awareness on the
v) Sidek: A process of infusing an Islamic crises of the Ummah.
worldview into an existing body of
knowledge.  To foster a deeper understanding of
the crisis using Islamic methods.

 To define the failures of the


B) The Goals
Ummah for a more progressive
 To return acquired human future.
knowledge to the realm of
Tawhidic value system.  To revive Islamic ideals & bring
them to contemporary relevance.
 To bring an interplay between the
reading of Qur’anic Revelation &  To implement the requisite steps in
the reading of phenomena in the developing contemporary Islamic
cosmos. culture & methodology.

 To apply, disseminate &  To provide help related to the


implement Islamic perspectives, methodology & its presentation.
values, norms & ethics
 To help solve contemporary
problems as the world today is in

39
need of viable and sustainable
solutions that Islam, as rahmatan
llil-’alamin is able to offer.

F) The Integration of Knowledge

 From the Tawhidic worldview,


there is unity in Truth, unity in
Knowledge, Unity in creation.

 Since the Modern period, religion


has been separated from
knowledge, science, the state,
politics, economics etc. Religion
has been confined to private
personal matter.

 Therefore, there is a need for RE-


INTEGRATION, as one of the
agenda of Islamisation.

- Abu Sulayman: a union between


religious sciences and non-
religious sciences.

- Sidek: a harmonization process


between triadic concepts in the
educational system of
contemporary Muslims..

 However, after more than 300


years, re-integration is not an easy
task.

 It is not accurate for Islamically


integrated education system to

- just combine the Islamic & secular.

- take the secular body of knowledge


& paste Islamic concepts

40