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Krisztinaváros

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Contents
Articles
Krisztina Téri Iskola 1
Krisztinaváros 6
Tabán 9
Naphegy 11
Gellérthegy 15
Buda Castle 17

References
Article Sources and Contributors 25
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 26

Article Licenses
License 28
Krisztina Téri Iskola 1

Krisztina Téri Iskola


Krisztina Téri Iskola a 220 years old historic school in the I. district of Budapest, Krisztinaváros, Hungary (in
2007).
"The school started after vintage in 1787".
(historic document [1] Hofecker, Ferencz 1887)

School building in 1883 to the right from the church

History
1783 Krisztinaváros quarter had 730 inhabitants. By such a number of
inhabitants the authority of Buda city found it necessary to provide for
a school, in 1787 "after the vintage it started tbe norma1 education".
(Quotation by Ferencz Hofecker 1887).
The first school bui1ding was a pub building on the site of present 1–3
Gellérthegy Street. The first teacher of Krisztinaváros was Ferenc
Zonner. The school had been running in this building until l810.
1810 The school was moved into a new building built in 1772 on the
Krisztina tér around 1872. First school building
site of the present 63. Krisztina Boulevard. from 1772 on the right side of the church
1883 The present building was built on the ground enlarged towards
the church. In 1883 education started in the school building which is still existing.
1887 The one hundredth anniversary of the school. Ferencz Hofecker 1887, Budapest Hundred-year-old History of
the school of Krisztinaváros.
1945 In January 1945 the Tabán school in the Czakó Street was destroyed by a bomb. The inhabitants of Naphegy
attended the school on Krisztina Square.
"… we placed our cannons in firing position on the highest part of Tabán, the Czakó Street was right behind us . …
The troops took cover in the uninhabited villas in Czakó Street and" put our unlucky, exhausted horses into the
garden. … We placed our observation post a little bit lower, into the school Tabán. … my commander told me he
would replace the observation post to the house number 2 in Hegyalja Street because the school was striking too
much, it could be bombed. He told us we would shoot the northern corner of the Margaret island over the castle area
during the crossing trial of the Soviets. … In the meantime we learned that the school of Tabán, where we had our
previous observation post, was hit by a chain-bomb, everybody died in the cellar. The Russians haven't got such
large bombs, so it was clear tc that the attack was executed by the Eng1ish." (history, see also Naphegy, Taban,
Krisztina Téri Iskola 2

Krisztinaváros)
Between 1945 and 1958 instead of the demolished Tabán school, the inhabitants of Naphegy attended the school on
Krisztina Square. In August 1958 the school in Lisznyai Street was completed on Naphegy, right near the former
Tabán school.
1955 The outside renovation of the main facade of the building on Krisztina Square, the remains of the war, 1945
disappear.
1958 Larger modifications inside the building on Krisztina Square.
1958 In August 1958 the construction of the school in Lisznyai Street
was completed. The inhabitants of Naphegy got an own school. [2]
The education in Lisznyai began in September 1958 with 7 c1asses of
elementary school and c1asses of secondary school.
1970 – Central heating was laid into the school on Krisztina Square.
The laboratories of Biology, Geology and practical teaching were
formed.
1987 – The two hundredth anniversary of the school. The album of the Soccer team Krisztina Téri Iskola on Margaret
Island 1955
two hundredth anniversary 1787–1987, Mária Ákosné Jobb
headmaster.
1993 – Szent Gellért school, founded by the perish of Krisztinavárosi Havasboldogasszony.
1997 – The elementary school of eight c1asses was enlarged with a secondary school of four c1asses.
2007 – The 220th anniversary of the school. The beginning of the Wikipédia website of the school on 2 January
2007.

1887–1987

100 years around 1958 200 years


anniversary 1887 anniversary 1987
(Hungarian)[1] (Hungarian) [3]

Alumni
• Széchényi prize March 15. 2007 hungarian [4] and Wikipedia .hu
• 2 fellows of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and professors on Budapest University of Technology and
Economics
• Professor at Eötvös Loránd University
• Director of German Cancer Research Center Heidelberg
• 2 directors on research institutes of Hungarian Academy of Sciences
Krisztina Téri Iskola 3

In the middle of the last century (1950)

1950/51 I. a / Dr. Koczab 1951/52 II. a 1952/53 III. a / Kocsis Edit 1953/54 IV. a
Frigyesné more than 30 years in this
school

On the picture 1951/52 the traces of World War II, 1945. Renew first in 1955, 10 years after war.

1954/55 V. a 1955/56 VI. a 1956/57 VII. a - Nagy 1957/58 VIII. a -


Lajosné, around 1960 to Schoolboys started
the school Naphegy, exactly in the middle of
Lisznyai utca the last century, in 1950

classmates in Hungary 1955; living in three


different countries in 2007 (from the left): 1.
Heidelberg, German Cancer Research Center, 2.
Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest 3.
Sao-Paulo, Brasil, 4. Munich, Germany
Krisztina Téri Iskola 4

Photographs today

Szent Gellért Katolikus Általános Iskola és


Gimnázium

Front side with 200 years memorial


200 years of history (1787–1987).

200 years history

Staircase chapell school room today, 2007


Krisztina Téri Iskola 5

Literature
• Hofecker Ferencz 1887, Budapest Krisztinavárosi Iskola Százéves Története (120 years old book, Hungarian)[1]
• Emlékkönyv a 200. éves èvfordulóra 1787 - 1987, Ákosné Jobb Mária igazgató (Hungarian) [3]

External links
• Meyers Lexikon — Krisztinaváros 1905 [5]
• A Krisztinaváros és a Philadelphia, SALY NOÉMI [6]
• Digitális képarchívum [7]
• Szent Gellért Katolikus Általános Iskola és Gimnázium [8]
Location on Google Maps
• Krisztina tér, near to Krisztina Church [9]
• Near View [10]

References
[1] http:/ / picasaweb. google. com/ dbforum01/ KrisztinavarosIskola100Eves
[2] http:/ / www. lisznyai. hu/
[3] http:/ / picasaweb. google. com/ dbforum01/ KrisztinavarosiIskola200Eves
[4] http:/ / www. sztaki. hu/ hir/ ket_ujabb_szechenyi_dij_a_sztaki_ban/ ?no_cache=1& cHash=d1551acd93
[5] http:/ / www. flickr. com/ photos/ dbforum/ 310883508/
[6] http:/ / www. bparchiv. hu/ magyar/ kiadvany/ bpn/ 12_13/ phila. html
[7] http:/ / database. fszek. hu:2006/ ftopt/ ft0301. htm?v=fototar& a=start& a1=
[8] http:/ / sztg. info/ suli/ index. htm
[9] http:/ / maps. google. de/ maps?ie=UTF8& om=1& z=17& ll=47. 496328,19. 033256& spn=0. 004617,0. 010042& t=h
[10] http:/ / maps. google. de/ maps?ie=UTF8& om=1& z=18& ll=47. 496952,19. 031754& spn=0. 002309,0. 005021& t=h
Krisztinaváros 6

Krisztinaváros
Krisztinaváros (German: Christinenstadt) is a neighbourhood in
central Budapest, situated just west of Castle Hill, north of Tabán. It is
named after Archduchess Maria Christina, daughter of Maria Theresa,
who interceded for buildings to be erected in this area. The history of
Krisztinaváros is inseparable from that of the neighboring old Tabán,
Naphegy and Gellérthegy.

The central features are Krisztina tér and the entrance to the Castle Hill
tunnel. It is also home to the Tabán Cinema [1], a small cinema that
presents art films and documentaries. (Despite its name, this cinema Church and School building around 1883

belongs to Krisztinaváros, not Tabán.)

Maps
• Neighbourhood on Google Map (streets): [2] The center of
Krisztinaváros is Krisztina Tér, Krisztina Körút
• near view, Krisztina Téri Church with old, 220 years school: [10]

Church around 2000, view from Castle Hill

• historic Map 1905


• old Krisztinaváros Cemetery, today an old
chesnut-park (Gesztenyés), hotel and modern
technology center (Mom park)

History
1787 Krisztina Téri Iskola a 220 years old
historic school in the I. district of Budapest,
Krisztinaváros, Hungary (in 2007). "The school
started after vintage in 1787". (historic document
[1] Hofecker, Ferencz 1887)

historic map, Krisztinaváros 1905, old Krisztinaváros Cemetery, today an old historic Coffeehouses and Restaurants
chesnut-park (Gesztenyés), hotel and modern technology center (Mom park)
• Philadelphia Kávéház
• Source: [6]
Text to translate: historic coffeehouses on Talk:Krisztinaváros
Krisztinaváros 7

People

Sándor Márai in Budapest, Krisztinaváros


• Sándor Márai (originally Sándor Károly Henrik Grosschmied
de Mára) (April 11, 1900 – February 22, 1989) was a
Hungarian writer and journalist.

Vilmos Aba Novák painter-s home Budapest, Zsolt


utca 7

Géza Ottlik Ottlik Géza, Attila út 45.

Szabó Dezsõ, Horvátkert, A Krisztinaváros és a


Philadelphia, SALY NOÉMI [6].
Krisztinaváros 8

Statue of Sándor Márai Márai‘s memorial on his former home in Krisztinaváros


in Budapest Mikó utca,
Krisztinaváros

Sources
• historic document 1887 [1] Hofecker, Ferencz
• A Krisztinaváros és a Philadelphia, SALY NOÉMI [6]
Geographical coordinates: 47°29′48″N 19°1′55″E

References
[1] http:/ / www. artmozi. hu/
[2] http:/ / maps. google. de/ maps?ie=UTF8& om=1& z=16& ll=47. 496198,19. 03317& spn=0. 009235,0. 020084& t=h
Tabán 9

Tabán
Tabán usually refers to an area within the 11th district (Újbuda) of Budapest, the capital of Hungary. It lies on the
Buda (i.e. Western) side of the Danube, to the south of György Dózsa Square, on the northern side of Elisabeth
Bridge and to the east of Naphegy. Outside of Budapest, several other Hungarian cities and towns also have districts
called Tabán.

Maps
• Meyers Lexikon (1905) on the right:
• Google-Maps Satellite [1] - streets on the Map:
• Kereszt Street was the center of old Tabán.
• near Naphegy Street and Kereszt Street Memorial 1956
Hungarian Revolution
• near Hadnagy Street Rácz fürdő.
• near Apród Street museum: Semmelweiss Orvostöténeti
Múzeum.
Naphegy and Tabán in Budapest. Meyers
Lexikon (1905)

History
The Tabán has been inhabited since
Neolithic times, due to its location in a
protected valley, the thermal waters at
the bottom of the Gellért Hill and the
ford over the Danube. In the Iron Age,
it was inhabited by a tribe of Celts,
who were replaced by the Romans in
the 1st Century BC.

In the Middle Ages, the Tabán was a Tabán after its demolition in the 1930s

village right under the Buda Castle.


The Turks developed the thermal
medicinal baths in the area and brought
immigrants from the Balkans. The
population increased after the
liberation of Hungary from the Turks
as refugees came from Greece, Bosnia
and Serbia. The Franciscans from
Bosnia established the parish church in
Tabán mid 1800s
the 17th Century which still exists
today and the Orthodox inhabitants
established their own parish. In the 18th Century, the town was inhabited by Serbs, Greeks, Vlachs, Germans,
Croats, Slovaks and Gypsies.
Tabán 10

In the 19th Century, the Tabán became known as a Bohemian quarter of Budapest with many restaurants, bars and
bordellos. Its narrow streets on the hillsides echoed a Mediterranean atmosphere.
In the 1930s, the Tabán was demolished in order to facilitate urban planning in Budapest. Today, it is a park very
popular with the population of the capital.
The history of Tabán is inseparable from that of the neighboring Naphegy and Gellérthegy districts. After the 1930
urban planning in Budapest, only a few old Tabán houses were left in the Naphegy district; one of them was the
Tabán school, which was destroyed in January 1945, during the battle of Budapest. Today a sports field can be found
where the school once stood. The only original streets remaining are Orom Street in Gellérthegy and Tabán Czakó
Street in Naphegy.

Tabán-s historic places 1945 - 2003

The old Tabán school was here, today sports field Naphegy near Czakó The last Tabán house; Czakó Street–Aladár Street in 2003
Street

Tabán in literature
The poet Dezső Kosztolányi wrote:
"Köröttem - esõs akvarell - Tabán.
Nyugodt lennék itt s boldog is talán..."
"I crossed Tabán - a rainy watercolour.
I would be at peace here and maybe happy too..."

Tabán park today


2003 - 2004

Tabán Springtime 2003 May 1. 2003 Memorial 1956 - 1956 Playground, Naphegy
Hungarian Revolution utca - Hadnagy utca
Tabán 11

Sights
Its major sights include
• Rác Thermal Baths (opening 2010)
• Rudas Medicinal Baths

Sources
• Budapest Lexikon (Second edition, revised and expanded). 2 volumes. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 1993.
• Narodni Kalendar 1990, Aqua Kiadó és Nyomda, Budapest, 1990.
• Antal Szerb: Budapesti kalauz Marslakók számára (A Guide to Budapest for Martians)

See also
The following are near Tabán:
• Gellert Hill
• Naphegy
• Krisztinaváros
• Buda Castle
Geographical coordinates: 47°29′30″N 19°2′19″E

References
[1] http:/ / maps. google. de/ maps?ie=UTF8& om=1& z=17& ll=47. 491667,19. 040766& spn=0. 004821,0. 009559& t=h

Naphegy
Naphegy (German: Sonnenberg,
meaning "Sun Hill") is a hill and
neighbourhood in Budapest, Hungary.
It is part of Krisztinaváros and
administratively belongs to the 1st
District. Panorama of Naphegy and Buda Castle from Gellért Hill.
Naphegy 12

Location
Naphegy is rising south of the center of Krisztinaváros, between Gellérthegy and Tabán. Its boundaries are Hegyalja
út, Naphegy utca, Gellérthegy utca and Mészáros utca.
The highest point (154 m) is on Naphegy tér (Naphegy Circus).

History
The history of Naphegy is inseparable from that of the neighboring
Tabán and Gellérthegy. In the Middle Ages the hill was called
Nyárshegy ("Stake Hill"), probably referring to its function as a
scaffold. (The name is preserved in the name of today's Nyárs Street,
where the traitor Lieutenant Conrad Fink – who, during the 1686 siege
of Buda, planned to surrender the Castle of Buda to the Pasha of
Fehérvár – was executed in 1687.)
Naphegy and Tabán in 1905.
In 1686 Buda was freed from the Turks. Naphegy played a vital role in
this: from the hill the castle walls could be kept under incessant
cannonfire. In the 17th–18th centuries newly settled Serbs resurrected viticulture in the area. (The fyloxera epidemic
of the 1880s brought vinegrowing to the end.) The slopes of the hill remained unbuilt for centuries. A map by
Benedict J. from 1896 shows the hill still unbuilt at that time.
On a map from 1885 five streets of Naphegy are mentioned: Mészáros (Butcher), Gellérthegy ("Gellért Hill"),
Naphegy, Lisznyai and Czakó Streets. The area bordered by these streets was still unbuilt. The immediate
surroundings of today's Naphegy tér were still empty according to the Meyers Konversations-Lexikon, published in
1905, but the Révai Lexicon published between 1910–1914 shows the whole area built up. Most of the buildings on
Naphegy today were built between 1910–1939.
The history of Naphegy is inseparable from that of the neighboring Tabán district. After the 1930 urban planning in
Budapest, only a few old Tabán houses were left in the Naphegy area; one of them was the Tabán school, destroyed
during the battle of Budapest, January 1945. Today a sports field is found where once the school had been.
The events of World War II in this area can be followed from the diaries and memoirs of its inhabitants. László
Deseő, who was 15 years old in 1944, lived in 32 Mészáros Street with his family. This was one of the most heavily
attacked areas because of its proximity to the Southern Railway Station and the strategical importance of the hill.
Deseő kept a diary throughout the siege.[1] The memoirs of András Németh also describe the siege and the bombing
of the empty school building which he and his fellow soldiers used as an observation post shortly before.[2]
After 1945 the pupils from Naphegy attended the Krisztina Téri Iskola (Christina Square Grade School), while the
new school in Lisznyai Street was under construction. In 1953 the MTI (Hungarian News Agency) moved to its new
headquarters atop Naphegy.
One of the houses typical of old Tabán can be seen on the corner of Czakó and Aladár Streets. Before 1953 there was
a similar house in place of today's Lisznyai Street School.
Duna TV, the first satellite TV channel of Hungary began broadcasting on December 24, 1992. Originally based in
the Róna Street building of Mafilm, the staff moved to the Mészáros Street of Naphegy in 1994.
Naphegy 13

Famous people
See also the related Category:People from Buda.
• János Fadrusz, sculptor (built his villa and study on the south slopes of
the hill)
• Péter Gárdos, journalist (a memorial plaque of him is placed on the wall
of the Naphegy Square building of MTI Hungarian News Agency)
• Margit Kaffka, writer (lived in 15 Naphegy Street from July 1915 to her
death in December 1918)
• Józsi Jenő Tersánszky (lived in 9 Avar Street)
• Endre Vészi (lived in Angelikaváros)

Plaque to Margit Kaffka, Naphegy street 15.

Institutions
• Magyar Távirati Iroda (Hungarian News Agency, MTI)
• Duna Televízió
• Lisznyai Street School

Vilmos Aba Novák painter-s home Budapest,


Zsolt utca 7.

List of streets and squares in Naphegy


• Aladár Street • Naphegy Square 47°29′35″N 19°01′57″E
• Ág Street • Naphegy Street
• Czakó Street • Nyárs Street
• Derék Street • Orvos Street
• Dezső Street • Párduc Street
• Fenyő Street • Piroska Street
• Fém Street • Róka Street
• Galeotti Street • Tibor Street
• Gellérthegy Street • Tigris Street
• Lisznyai Street • Zsolt Street
Naphegy 14

Sources
[1] Deseő László naplója (http:/ / www. rev. hu/ html/ hu/ tanulmanyok/ 1945elott/ bpostroma. htm) (Hungarian)
[2] Németh András – Mostohafiak (http:/ / mek. oszk. hu/ 02800/ 02801/ 02801. htm#7) (Hungarian)

• Meyers Konversations-Lexikon 1905


(http://lexikon.meyers.de/index.php/Meyers-Meyers_Lexikon_online)
• Révai Lexicon 1910
• Élet és Tudomány – Szablyár Péter: A Nap-hegy (http://www.eletestudomany.hu/hirek/622.html) text in
Hungarian, with rare old maps of Naphegy

External links
• Tabáni Hírmondó – news in Hungarian (http://taban.sda.bme.hu/tabanihirmondo/)
• Tabán homepage (http://taban.sda.bme.hu/)

Pictures and maps


• Photo archive (http://database.fszek.hu:2006/ftopt/ft0301.htm?v=fototar&a=start&a1=)

Institutions
• museum, Tabán Museum (http://taban.sda.bme.hu/tabanimuzeum/index.htm)
• museum, Semmelweis Museum of Medicine (http://www.semmelweis.museum.hu/index.html)
• Lisznyai Street Grade School (http://wcs.oisz.hu/?p1166/lhu)
• Lisznyai Street Grade School (http://www.lisznyai.hu/)
Geographical coordinates: 47°29′35″N 19°01′55″E
Gellérthegy 15

Gellérthegy
Gellért Hill (Hungarian: Gellért-hegy; German:
Blocksberg; Latin: Mons Sancti Gerhardi; Turkish:
Gürz Elyas bayiri) is a 235 m (771 ft) high hill
overlooking the Danube in Budapest, Hungary. It is
part of the 1st and 11th Districts. Gellért Hill was
named after Saint Gerard who was thrown to death
from the hill. The famous Hotel Gellért and the Gellért
Baths can be found in Gellért Square at the foot of the
hill, next to Liberty Bridge. The Gellért Hill Cave is
located within the hill, facing toward Hotel Gellért and
the Danube River.

At the top of the hill is the Citadella (Citadel), from


View from the Gellért Hill.
which a view is available down both directions of the
Danube.

Name
The first recorded names of the hill in the Middle Ages
were Kelen-hegy, Pesti-hegy and Blocksberg. It was
called Szent Gellért hegye (lit. the hill of St. Gerard)
from the 15th century onwards, referring to the legend
about the death of St. Gerard. The saintly bishop was
killed by the pagans during the great pagan rebellion in
1046. He was put in a barrel and rolled down into the
deep from the top of the hill. The Citadel.

The former name, Pesti-hegy (Latin: Mons Pestiensis)


referred the large cave (now Gellért Hill Cave) in the hillside. The word is of Slavic origin and means oven or
cave.[1]
The Ottoman Turks called the hill Gürz Elyas bayiri.[2] Gürz Elyas was a holy man from the Bektashi order whose
shrine and grave on top of the hill was a place of pilgrimage in the 17th century.[3]

History
In the 18th century the hillsides of Gellért Hill were covered with
vineyards. The Tabán district at the foot of the hill was an important
centre of wine-making in Buda. According to the 1789 land register
vineyards covered 128 hectares (316 ac) on the hill (only 7.62 hectares
or 18.8 ac were used as pastures). [4]
In the 18th century a small calvary was built on the top of the hill
which was rebuilt around 1820. On Easter Mondays a procession
Naphegy and Tabán in Budapest 1905 Meyers
climbed the steep road leading to the calvary to celebrate the
Lexikon
Gellérthegy 16

resurrection of Christ. Many tents and vendors were erected on the nearby meadow. The emmausjárás
(Emmaus-walk) or tojásbúcsú (egg feast) was one of the most popular Catholic holidays of the year during the
18th–19th centuries.[5]
The Citadel was built after the 1848–49 Hungarian uprising by the ruling Habsburg Austrians, as it was a prime,
strategic site for shelling both Buda and Pest in the event of a future revolt.
Gellért Hill also saw action in the Second World War and the 1956 Hungarian Revolution, when Soviet tanks fired
down into the city from the hill. Indeed, battle scars still pockmark some buildings in Budapest. There is a small
military museum in the Citadel’s grounds. At the end of Citadella is the Liberty Statue (Szabadság Szobor in
Hungarian), a large monument erected by the Soviet Red Army to commemorate their victory in World War II.

Today
Now an affluent residential area, a number of embassies and ambassadorial residences line the streets which wind up
the hill. Since 1987, the area is listed as a world heritage site as part of "the Banks of the Danube".
A large proportion of the hill consists of parkland. Bats and hedgehogs are commonly observed on summer nights.
In January 2007 a new cave was discovered under Gellért Hill during a private construction. The cave is 60 m long
and 18 m deep with 3 rooms. The interior is covered with dazzling white crystals composed of gypsum, calcite and
aragonite. The cave was created 300,000–500,000 years ago by a now disappeared thermal spring. The crystal cave
was immediately placed under legal protection.[6]

See also
• Naphegy
• Tabán
• Gellért Hill Calvary

Notes
[1] A Rend külföldön (http:/ / www. palosrend. hu/ szikla/ szikla. htm)
[2] http:/ / geo. organic. hu/ index. php?option=com_docman& task=doc_view& gid=37
[3] MN Magyar Nemzet (http:/ / www. mno. hu/ portal/ 81309)
[4] Eltűnt budai szőlők nyomában, in: Borbarát, 2007/3, p. 52
[5] Népszabadság Online: A vén Gellért-hegy oldalán… (http:/ / nol. hu/ cikk/ 79615/ )
[6] Index - Új barlangot találtak a Gellért-hegy alatt (http:/ / index. hu/ tech/ tudomany/ ujbarl0214/ )

External links
• Gellérthegy a Vendégvárón (http://www.vendegvaro.hu/6-3133)
• www.Gellerthegy.hu (Budapesti XI district homepage) (http://www.gellerthegy.hu/)
• Map (http://korlat.bmknet.hu/vakbarat/gellerthegy/terkep_nagy.gif)
• Google (http://maps.google.com/maps?ll=47.486644,19.046742&spn=0.007907,0.010664&t=k&hl=en)
• Panoramic Virtual Tour (http://www.360travelguide.com/360VirtualTour.asp?iCode=bud06)
Geographical coordinates: 47°29′11″N 19°02′45″E
Buda Castle 17

Buda Castle
Budapest, including the Banks of the Danube, the Buda Castle
Quarter and Andrássy Avenue*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

State Party  Hungary

Type Cultural

Criteria ii, iv

Reference [1]
400

Region** Europe and North America

Inscription history
Inscription 1987  (11th Session)

Extensions 2002
[2]
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
[3]
** Region as classified by UNESCO.

Buda Castle (Hungarian: Budai Vár, Turkish: Budin Kalesi, Slovak: Budínsky hrad) is the historical castle complex
of the Hungarian kings in Budapest, Hungary, first completed in 1265. In the past, it was also called Royal Palace
(Hungarian: Királyi-palota) and Royal Castle (Hungarian: Királyi Vár).
Buda Castle was built on the southern tip of Castle Hill, surrounded by what is known as the Castle District (Hun:
Várnegyed), famous for its Medieval, Baroque and 19th century living quarters and public buildings. It is linked to
Adam Clark Square and the Széchenyi Chain Bridge by the Castle Hill Funicular.
Buda Castle is part of the Budapest World Heritage Site[4] , declared in 1987.
Buda Castle 18

Maps
• near view Castle: [5]

History
The first royal residence on the Castle Hill was built by King Béla IV between 1247 and 1265[6] .
The oldest part of the present-day
palace was built in the 14th century by
Prince Stephen, Duke of Slavonia[7] ,
the younger brother of King Louis I of
Hungary. The Gothic palace of King
Louis I was arranged around a narrow
courtyard next to Stephen's Tower.

King Sigismund of Hungary greatly


enlarged the palace. During his long
Buda Castle during the Middle Ages. From the Chronicles of Hartmann Schedel reign it became probably the largest
Gothic palace of the late Middle Ages.
Buda was also an important artistic centre of the International Gothic style.
The last phase of grand-scale building activity happened under King Matthias Corvinus, when Italian humanists,
artists and craftsmen arrived at Buda. The Hungarian capital became the first centre of Renaissance north of the
Alps.
After the Battle of Mohács the medieval Kingdom of Hungary collapsed. On 29 August 1541 Buda was occupied
again by the Ottomans without any resistance. The Hungarian capital became part of the Ottoman Empire as the seat
of the Eyalet of Budin.
The new Ottoman government left the palace decaying. It was partially used as barracks, a storage place and stables,
otherwise it stood empty.
The medieval palace was destroyed in the great siege of 1686 when Buda was captured by the allied Christian forces.
In the heavy artillery bombardment many buildings collapsed and burned out.
In 1715 King Charles III ordered the demolition of the ruins. Luckily the southern fortifications, zwingers and rooms
were only buried under tons of rubbish and earth.
In 1715 a small Baroque palace was built which is identical with the core of the present-day palace.
Buda Castle 19

In 1748 Count Antal Grassalkovich, President of the Hungarian


Chamber appealed to the public to finish the derelict palace by means
of public subscription. The new Royal Palace became the symbol of
peace and friendship between the Habsburg dynasty and the nation.
The plans of the splendid, U-shaped Baroque palace with a cour
d'honneur were drawn by Jean Nicolas Jadot, chief architect of the
Viennese court. They were later modified by his successor, Nicolaus
Pacassi. The foundation stone of the palace was laid on 13 May 1749.
In 1769 the palace was finished.
In 1791 the palace became the residence of the Habsburg Palatines of
the Kingdom of Hungary. The palatinal court in Buda Castle was the
centre of fashionable life and high society in the Hungarian capital.
On 4 May 1849 the Hungarian revolutionary army of Artúr Görgey
laid siege on Buda Castle. The Hungarians captured Buda with a great
The Hillebrandt-façade of the cour d'honneur assault, but the palace completely burned out.
The palace was soon rebuilt between 1850 and 1856. Later in 1867
after the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 Franz Joseph was crowned to the king of Hungary. The palace
played an important part in the lavish ceremony, symbolizing peace between the dynasty and the nation.
In the last decades of the 19th century the autonomous Hungarian government intended to create a royal palace that
matches any famous European royal residence. The process of rebuilding lasted about forty years between 1875 and
1912, and caused sweeping changes in topography of the whole area.
The new Royal Palace, designed by Alajos Hauszmann, was officially inaugurated in 1912. Contemporary critics
praised it as the most outstanding Hungarian building of the turn of the century. Indeed it was a magnificent
Gesamtkunstwerk of architecture, sculpture, applied arts and gardening.
After the 1918 revolution and the dethronization of the Habsburg dynasty the Royal Palace became the seat of the
new regent of the Kingdom of Hungary, Miklós Horthy
Buda Castle was the last major strongpoint of Budapest held by Axis forces during the siege of Budapest between 29
December 1944 and 13 February 1945. Heavy fights and artillery fire rendered the palace once again into a heap of
ruins.
Immediately after the war archeological
research was begun to unearth the remains
of the medieval castle. It came out that
important parts of the former Sigismund and
Matthias palace survived under the thick
level of earth fill.
The grand-scale reconstruction of the
medieval fortifications substantially
changed the cityscape of Budapest. It is
considered a highly successful project which
managed to reconcile historical authenticity
with urban planning demands.
Aerial view of the Castle
Buda Castle 20

The fate of the ruined Neo-Baroque palace


was different. The new Communist
government of Hungary considered the
Royal Palace a symbol of the former regime.
During the 1950s the palace was gutted and
all the interiors were destroyed. Important
exterior details were also demolished. Buda
Castle became a cultural centre with three
museums and the home of the National
Széchényi Library.

The modernist dome was designed by Lajos


Hidasi in 1961. The palace was rebuilt by
1966 but the interior spaces were completed
only in the 1980s.
Buda Castle by night

In March 2006 the National Office of


Cultural Heritage finalized the long term
development plan of Buda Castle. Asserting
that the modernization in 1952-66 caused
irreversible damage they proposed the
partial reconstruction of the outer façades
including the dome and the Habsburg Steps.
[8] There is no decision about the realization
of the management plan.

In 2008 the building of an underground


garage for 700 cars was began by an
international consortium under the former
Csikós Court. The developer was granted
West side of the Castle permission to demolish a 4,5 m long section
of the 15th century castle wall. The
agreement was criticized by archeologists and the public alike but the demolition was carried out. [9] Previously the
whole area was excavated by archeologists. The garage project was suspended at the end of 2008 due to financial
difficulties leaving a big hole on the side of Castle Hill.
Buda Castle 21

Interiors
The lavishly decorated interiors of the palace were all destroyed
during WW2 and the post-war reconstruction (except the Palatinal
Crypt). There is very little data about the interiors of the medieval
and Baroque era. The Hauszmann palace was meticulously
recorded with detailed descriptions, photographic documentation
and groundplans. Hauszmann himself said about the royal
apartments: "I created a 200 m long series of rooms, longer than
any similar royal apartments in continental Europe except
Versailles." The most important rooms were as follows:
Church

Garden

• Ballroom (Nagyterem) - The Ballroom on the first floor of the


Baroque wing had several layers of Baroque decoration from
the second half of the 18th and the 19th century. In
Hauszmann's time the room had a Rococo white-golden stucco
decoration with three huge chandeliers. During the post-war
reconstruction Vinzenz Fischer's original Baroque frescoes
were re-discovered in 1953. In spite of this all the decoration
layers were destroyed. Today it houses the Gothic altar
collection of the Hungarian National Gallery.

• St. Sigismund Chapel or Castle Church (Szent Ballroom (ca. 1894)

Zsigmond-kápolna, Vártemplom) - The palace chapel in the


western end of this wing had no façades, only a door opening onto Lions Court. The church was consecrated in
1769. The ground plan was drawn by Nicolaus Pacassi but the interior was designed by his follower, Franz Anton
Hillebrandt. The groundplan followed a typical "violin" form, favoured in the Baroque church architecture of
Central Europe that time. In 1957 the ruined church was totally destroyed and converted to exhibition spaces.

• Palatinal Crypt (Nádori kripta) - The Palatinal Crypt under the former palace chapel is now the only surviving
room of the whole Royal Castle. The crypt was continuously used by the Hungarian branch of the Habsburg
family from 1820 until 1927. It was repeatedly restored and enriched with new works of art, frescoes, statues and
ornate stone sarcophagi, made by the best artists of the 19th century.
• Great Ballroom (Nagy bálterem) - The Great Ballroom in the middle part of the Northern Wing took over the
function of the smaller old Ballroom. It was the most splendid room of the palace, designed by Hauszmann. The
two-storeys high, airy room was lavishly decorated with stuccoes, half columns, trabeation, balconies and six
Buda Castle 22

huge crystal chandeliers in Neo-Baroque style. Photos made after the war show the room with its vaulted ceiling
collapsed. In the course of the reconstruction the ballroom was totally destroyed.
• Main staircase (Főlépcsőház) - The monumental main staircase of the Krisztinaváros Wing with three flights
was leading up from to the first floor in an airy, glass-roofed hall. The side walls of the hall were decorated in
Italian Renaissance style. At the ground-floor colossal Atlas statues stood beside the side pillars. The marble
statues were the works of János Fadrusz from 1897. During the post-war reconstruction the main staircase was
radically modernized. Only the two colossal Atlas statues survived.
• Habsburg Room (Habsburg terem) - The Habsburg Room was situated right in the middle of the long palace
complex, under Hauszmann's (false) dome. The room had a lavish Baroque decoration with half-pillars and gilded
stuccoes. The vaulted ceiling was decorated with Károly Lotz's huge fresco: Apotheosis of the Habsburg Dynasty.
Károly Senyei's four Carrara marble busts stood in front of the sidewalls representing Habsburg kings and queens.
The Habsburg Room survived WW2 unscathed but in the 1950s it was deliberately destroyed for political
reasons.

Medieval palace
A series of rooms from the medieval palace of the Hungarian kings were unearthed and reconstructed during the
postwar rebuilding of Buda Castle in 1958-62. They are now part of the permanent exhibition of the Budapest
History Museum in "Building E" of Buda Castle.
Only a fragment of the medieval palace survived the destruction of 1686-1715 and the surviving rooms were not the
most important ones of the original building. They were only saved by the chances of destruction and their
geographical position, situated on a lower level then the newly created Baroque terrace.
The rib vaulted Gothic Hall is one of the most important surviving example of secular Gothic architecture in Central
Europe. It was built by King Sigismund Luxemburg of Hungary in the early 15th century. The three interconnected,
barrel-vaulted rooms belong to the oldest part of the palace, the Stephen's Castle. A great underground cistern under
the - now disappeared - northern zwinger (giardino segreto), the Cisterna Regia, survived the centuries of destruction
as a cellar. The 7 m high basement section of the eastern façade with the lower part of a fine Gothic balcony survived
inside the later King's Cellar.

Works of art
The Royal Palace and its gardens were decorated with statues, many of
which survived:
• Matthias Fountain (Mátyás-kút) - The spectacular fountain is
decorating the western forecourt of the palace. It shows a group of
hunters lead by King Matthias Corvinus together with hounds, a
killed deer, Galeotto Marzio with a hawk and Szép Ilonka with a
doe. The fountain was made by sculptor Alajos Stróbl. Nowadays it
is probably the most photographed object in the palace.

• Monument of Prince Eugene of Savoy - The equestrian statue of


Matthias Fountain decorating the western
Prince Eugene of Savoy is standing on the Danube terrace, in a forecourt of the palace
prominent position, high above Budapest. The Neo-Baroque statue
was made by sculptor József Róna for the town of Zenta. The
monument was bought in 1900 as a temporary solution until the planned equestrian statue of King Franz Joseph
will be completed. This never happened so Prince Eugen remained on his plinth.
Buda Castle 23

• Horse Wrangler - The statue of the Hortobágy horse wrangler taming a wild horse originally stood in front of the
Riding School in the former Újvilág terrace. It is the work of György Vastagh from 1901. The damaged statue
was removed during the 1960s but it was later re-erected in the western forecourt of the palace in 1983.
• Turulbird - The mythological Turul, high above the Danube, was made by Gyula Donáth in 1905. The plinth and
the ornate Neo-Baroque rail (Gyula Jungfer's work) was damaged during the siege of Buda but they were restored
in 1981.

Museums
The Budapest History Museum is located in the southern wing of Buda Castle, in "Building E", boasting over 4
floors. This museum presents the history of Budapest from the beginnings until the end of the Communist era. There
is also the restored part of the Medieval Royal Palace including the Royal Chapel and vaulted Gothic Hall. Outside
one can see the small gardens in the medieval "zwingers" (walled enclosures). There is also a closed-off well, and a
magnificent view of the surrounding area, the Castle District. There is a tower which can easily be accessed in the
outdoor area, and a walkway on the same level. Both the tower and the walkway boast shocking panoramas of
Budapest, especially the Parliament building, the Danube, the nearby streets, and, on a clear day, the Freedom
Statue.
The castle also houses the Hungarian National Gallery. As part of the castle, there are excavations and smaller ruins.
Many of these can be walked in.

See also
• Tabán historic Neighbourhood
• Naphegy best near, panoramic view to Buda Castle west side
• Krisztinaváros historic Neighbourhood

References
[1] http:/ / whc. unesco. org/ en/ list/ 400
[2] http:/ / whc. unesco. org/ en/ list
[3] http:/ / whc. unesco. org/ en/ list/ ?search=& search_by_country=& type=& media=& region=& order=region
[4] Budapest, including the Banks of the Danube, the Buda Castle Quarter and Andrássy Avenue - UNESCO World Heritage Centre (http:/ /
whc. unesco. org/ en/ list/ 400)
[5] http:/ / maps. google. de/ maps?ie=UTF8& om=1& z=18& ll=47. 495908,19. 039789& spn=0. 002309,0. 005021& t=h
[6] Bela IV: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library (http:/ / www. questia. com/ library/ encyclopedia/ 101232058)
[7] Knight Kings (http:/ / mek. oszk. hu/ 01900/ 01949/ html/ index6. html)
[8] http:/ / www. nol. hu/ cikk/ 390037/
[9] Védett falat bont a beruházó a budai Várban — KÖH: elfogadható a fal bontása | építészfórum | építészet . város . vizuális kultúra (http:/ /
epiteszforum. hu/ node/ 9068)

• History section: Miklós Horler: Budapest műemlékei I, Bp: 1955, pp. 259—307
• Baroque palace: György Kelényi: A királyi udvar építkezései Pest-Budán a XVIII. században, Bp: Akadémiai
Kiadó, 2005, pp. 27—34
• Nuns and scholars: György Kelényi: A királyi udvar építkezései Pest-Budán a XVIII. században, Bp: Akadémiai
Kiadó, 2005, pp. 34-38
• Post-war reconstruction: László Gerő: A helyreállított budai vár, Bp, 1980, pp. 11—60.
• Interiors: Architectura Hungariae 8(2006), 1 (http://arch.eptort.bme.hu/29/29fekete.html) – with groundplans
and photos.
• Works of art: László Prohászka: Szoborhistóriák, Bp, 2004, pp. 145-150.
Buda Castle 24

External links
• Media related to Buda Castle at Wikimedia Commons
Geographical coordinates: 47°29′46″N 19°02′23″E
Article Sources and Contributors 25

Article Sources and Contributors


Krisztina Téri Iskola  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=349151758  Contributors: Gaius Cornelius, Intgr, Jason Quinn, Jpbowen, Kuteni, MECU, Mild Bill Hiccup, Tabletop,
Tamas Szabo, Themightyquill, Woohookitty, Zello, 7 anonymous edits

Krisztinaváros  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=387093696  Contributors: Adam78, Alai, Belovedfreak, Bender235, Eugene van der Pijll, Gvarady, Justin Custer, Kiwikibble,
Rhollenton, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Tamas Szabo, X42bn6, Yupik, Zello, 2 anonymous edits

Tabán  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=388266035  Contributors: Adam300, Adam78, BokicaK, Cbdorsett, CommonsDelinker, D6, Dcalvelo, Deville, Emika22, Eugene van
der Pijll, Fiet Nam, Folantin, Gvarady, Gyurika, IeieieieFrenchenenenene, J04n, Jeepday, Jpbowen, Lumendelumine, Mmounties, N-true, Power.corrupts, Rhollenton, Rosh2610, Slon02, Tamas
Szabo, Themightyquill, TimBentley, Xlien, 12 anonymous edits

Naphegy  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=387086926  Contributors: Alensha, Attilios, Dimitrii, Downwards, MECU, Oftess, Poisonborz, Rich Farmbrough, ST47, Sfan00
IMG, Tamas Szabo, The Anome, Thiseye, Torzsmokus, Zello, 1 anonymous edits

Gellérthegy  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=25004320  Contributors: Adam78, Aetil, Alan.ca, Attilios, Axeman89, Bronks, Civertan, Dimitrii, Eugene van der Pijll,
Explendido Rocha, Gene Nygaard, Grutness, Kerowyn, Linathrash, Mapmap, Math2000, Matt91486, Pearle, Rhollenton, Tamas Szabo, Tanár, Thadius856, Thisisbossi, Woohookitty, Yerpo,
Zello, 17 anonymous edits

Buda Castle  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=400744908  Contributors: 1111tomica, AVM, Adam78, Alensha, Algebraist, Biruitorul, D6, Dina, Dr. Blofeld, Egrian, Eleassar,
Everyking, Evrik, GTBacchus, Galactygon, Gregorik, Gryffindor, Irate velociraptor, Jalo, Joey80, Jorunn, KIDB, Kummi, Like tears in rain, LilHelpa, Mapmap, Mattisse, Neurolysis-Auto,
PhilBroadway, Prof saxx, Qorilla, RexNL, Rhollenton, Rjwilmsi, Robby, SDC, SchuminWeb, Siggiboy81, Skapur, Squash Racket, Surtsicna, T-1, Tamas Szabo, Thiseye, TimBentley, Túrelio,
Uzo20, V79benno, Vegaswikian, Wai Hong, Waterstones, WereSpielChequers, WurmWoode, YeSioTR, Zello, 41 anonymous edits
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 26

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Image:Buda Schedel.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Buda_Schedel.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Antissimo, Fransvannes, Liondancer, Pe-Jo, Shizhao,
ThomasPusch, 1 anonymous edits
Image:Budapest Budai Várpalota.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Budapest_Budai_Várpalota.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Adam78, Fransvannes,
Karelj, Lepeltier.ludovic, Red devil 666, 1 anonymous edits
Image:Budaivar08jul0005.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Budaivar08jul0005.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Daniel Somogyi-Tóth,
www.legifotok.hu
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 27

Image:Budacastle.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Budacastle.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.5  Contributors: uzo19
Image:Buda--Castles01.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Buda--Castles01.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: Adam78,
Civertan, Csanády, 1 anonymous edits
Image:Buda castle interior church.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Buda_castle_interior_church.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: C1815
Image:Buda castle garden.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Buda_castle_garden.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: C1815
Image:Buda Castle nagyterem.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Buda_Castle_nagyterem.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: ChristophT, Gryffindor,
V79benno
File:Lovski_vodnjak1.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Lovski_vodnjak1.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: Ines Zgonc
Image:commons-logo.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Commons-logo.svg  License: logo  Contributors: User:3247, User:Grunt
License 28

License
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported
http:/ / creativecommons. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. 0/