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Name : Ansi Pinanta

NIM : A1M217002
Class : B

Discourse Analysis

This is a conversation text between Ami and Riza.

Text:

Ami : Riza, look, that heroic monumental stands high and strong.
Riza : Hmm.... It is a remembrance for us to our heroes' struggle on this country.
Ami : Yeah, many of them became casualties of the war.
Riza : I had an unforgettable experience there.
Ami : Really? What was it?
Riza : When I was in Junior High School, my school held a program called "Keep our city clean
and green!"
Ami : What did you do?
Riza : My schoolmates, my teachers, and I rallied in the monument area at 6 a.m and began to
clean the area around the monument until it, clean and tidy.
Ami : That's a very good program.
Riza : Yes, it was. We also planted some trees around it.

(This text is retrieved from page 129 of 10th Grade English Book for Senior High School
published by Ministry of Education 2017 Revised Edition)

A. Analysis of Reference, Presupposition, Implicature and Inference

1. Reference

There are some references in this text:

- Dialogue:
Ami : Riza, look, that heroic monumental stands high and strong.
Riza : Hmm.... It is a remembrance for us to our heroes' struggle on this country.
Ami : Yeah, many of them became casualties of the war.

- Reference:

a. It refers to the heroic monumental

b. Us refers to Ami and Riza

c. Them refers to the heroes

- Analysis:

In this dialogue, the word ‘It' is a reference that refers to the heroic monumental. We can
see that in the first line, Ami asks Riza to look at the monument. The word 'us' refers to Ami and
Riza, after Ami asks Riza to look at the monument, Riza directly answered that the monument is
place for them to always remember the struggle of the heroes (second line). The word 'them'
refers to the heroes itself. In the second line, Riza directly said 'heroes' and Ami answered by
using 'them'. Ami said that the heroes become casualties of the war.

We can conclude that all the references above is Anaphoric Reference that refers to
something mentioned earlier in the text.

2. Presupposition

We can see a presupposition in the dialogue between Ami and Riza.

- Dialogue:
Riza : Hmm.... It is a remembrance for us to our heroes' struggle on this country.
Ami : Yeah, many of them became casualties of the war.

- Presupposition:
There is a heroic monumental that represent heroes' struggle.
- Analysis:

In the dialogue between Ami and Riza, after Ami asks Riza to look at the heroic
monument, Riza responded by saying that the monumental is a remembrance for them to their
heroes' struggle (presupposition). Riza asserted the informatian that there are many people who
fight in the past by saying 'heroes' struggle', fight with the colonization, and the monument is the
representation for their struggle. Ami directly accept the presuppositon uttered by Riza without
asking any question.

3. Implicature

- Dialogue:
Riza : I had an unforgettable experience there.
Ami : Really? What was it?

- Implicature:
Riza has visited the monument.
- Analysis:
In the dialogue between Riza and Ami, after their talking about the monument, Riza said
that he has unforgettable experience there. It is implied that Riza has visited the monument and
it's unforgettable moment for him. After that, Ami responded and Riza explain to her about his
experience.

4. Inference

- Dialogue:
Ami : Riza, look, that heroic monumental stands high and strong.
- Inference:
Ami and Riza are friends, they were walking around and seeing the monument.
- Analysis:
The line above shows that Ami and Riza were walking around and seeing the monument. We can
see in the first line. It infers that Ami and Riza are friends. In the sixth line explains that Riza
told Ami about his experience when he was in Junior High School. It infers that Ami and Riza
not in the same school when they was in Junior High School. But, we can see from the text that
Ami and Riza are good friends.
Text Source:

Kemendikbud, RI. 2017. Bahasa Inggris SMA/SMK/MAK Kelas X. Jakarta : Kementerian


Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.

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