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9/25/2019 AP World History Chapter 10 Notecards Flashcards | Quizlet

AP World History Chapter 10 Notecards


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Terms in this set (27)

Middle Ages Period in western Europe between fall of


Roman Empire and 15th century.

The Middle Ages were the point between


the past glorious age of Rome and the
modern glorious age of Modern Europe.

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The Middle Ages were a lower point


compared to others in Western European
history.

Vikings Scandinavian raiders who primarily stayed


on the sea.

Raided Western European cities and towns,


slowing down their evolution.

Slowed down Western European cultural


development overall, which is part of the
reason why the Middle Ages happened.

Manorialism Economic system in which peasants work


the land on a manor in exchange for
protection.

Primary economic system in Western


Europe for most of the Middle Ages.

Significant in shaping future systems.

Serfs Peasants in the manorial system.

Manorialism was the primary economic


system in Western Europe for most of the
Middle Ages.

Manorialism, being the primary system for


so long, was very significant in shaping the
future systems.

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Moldboard Heavy plow developed during the Middles


Ages.

Sped up agricultural work significantly by


allowing deeper cultivation of heavier soils.

Helped to increase the quality of life for


serfs.

Three-Field System Agricultural system developed in the


middle ages in which one third of a field is
left unplanted each year.

Sped up agricultural work significantly by


allowing soil to regain its nutrition for the
plants.

Helped to increase the quality of life for


serfs.

Clovis Early Frankish king.

Converted the Franks to Christians.

Christianity became the ruling religion of


Western Europe throughout the Middle
Ages, providing cultural and religious unity
as well as an all-powerful group (the
church).

Carolingians Family controlling the royal house of the


Franks from the 8th to 10th centuries.

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Charlemagne was a member of this family.

Charlemagne established a ruling in


France and Germany, and this was split into
three regions after his death.

Martel, Charles Frankish king, member of the Carolingians

Defeated the Muslims in the battle of Tours


in 732.

Stopped Muslim expansion into Western


Europe.

Holy Roman Emperors Name given to rulers of regions after


Charlemagne's split.

Name merged Christian and Classical


Claims.

Showed the power of the Romans, with


their name still holding power.

Vassals Members of military elite who served a


feudal lord in exchange for land.

Vassals were the linking factor between


higher and lower classes in feudal
relationships.

Feudal relationships dominated the


economic and political relationships in
Western Europe during the Middle Ages.

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William the Conqueror Ruler of Normandy in 1066.

Invaded England.

Established a centralized monarchy in


England, as well as a tight feudal system.

Magna Carta Great Charter confirming feudal rights


against monarchical claims.

Protected the power of feudal lords in


Western Europe.

Kept feudal relationships dominant in


Western Europe throughout the Middle
Ages.

Parliaments Bodies representing privileged groups.

Institutionalized the ideal that rulers should


consult with Vassals on decisions.

Gave vassals more political power.

Three Estates Three most socially powerful organizations


in Western countries: church, nobles, and
urban leaders.

Controlled social structure of Western


countries.

Had nearly complete dominance over the

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social structure, giving them large


influence.
Hundred Years War War between England and France over
French territories controlled by the English
and feudal rights versus emerging claims
of national states.

Military weaponry, structure, and system all


developed quickly as a result.

More destructive wars could be fought


later.

Urban II Pope in 1095.

Called for the first Crusade in 1095.

The crusades resulted in a temporary


return of control over Jerusalem to the
West.

Gregory VII Pope during 11th century.

Freed church from feudal and state


control/influence.

Prevented feudal lords and the state from


acquiring religious power.

Investiture Practice of state appointment of bishops.

Conflicted over whether or not this should


exist in Western Europe.

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Resulted in war between Pope Gregory VII


and HRE Henry IV.

Abelard, Peter University scholar in Paris.

Wrote Yes or No, which showed a blend of


logic and theology.

This philosophy was followed in Western


Europe.

Bernard of Clairvaux Powerful monk in Paris who lived at the


same time as Abelard.

Challenged Abelard's ideas, stating that


theology was far more important.

Had Abelard driven out of university and


had his own philosophy become far more
popular.

Aquinas, Thomas Italian monk who taught at the University of


Paris.

Held and taught the belief that faith should


be put first, but logic should also be
important.

Vastly increased the importance given to


logic.

Scholasticism Medieval philosophy which used logic to


solve theological problems.

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Dominant philosophy throughout Western


Europe.

Great influence on population due to


popularity.

Gothic Architectural style in Western Europe.

Developed due to increase in technical


skill.

Represented the level of technical skill and


popular devotion by the creation.

Hanseatic League Organization of cities in Northern Germany


and Southern Scandinavia.

Established commercial alliance to


encourage trade.

Cities and states still group together to


accomplish this same goal today.

Guilds Sworn associations of people in the same


trade in a city.

Grouped people based on their skill or


ability.

Prevented poor service, helped in teaching


the skill, and established franchise within
cities.

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Black Death Plague in Europe in 14th century.

Reduced population by a significant


amount.

Changed social structure and allowed


peasants/serfs to gain power.

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