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Liza Nur Alfina Farhani / 204180047

The Function–Form Interface

A. Function-Form Relationship
1. How is the function of each constituent realized in a sentence?
2. That is, to what form is the function of each phrase realized in a sentence?
3. This is the function-form relationship.

B. Realizations of the Subject


1. NPs functioning as Subject
e.g. [NP The hedgehog] ate the cream cake.
[NP A rat] bit my toe.

2. PPs functioning as Subject


e.g. [PP Between eleven and midnight] suits me alright.
[PP Outside the fridge] is not a good place to keep milk.

3. AP functioning as Subject
e.g. [AP Restless] is what I would call him.

4. AdvP functioning as Subject


e.g. [AdvP Coutiously] is how I would suggest you do it.

5. Finite clauses functioning as Subject


e.g. [That he will go to New York soon] is obvious.
[Because he is generous] doesn’t mean that he is rich.

6. Non-finite clauses functioning as Subject


 To-infinitive clause functioning as Subject
a. With a Subject of their own :
e.g. [For Judith to buy that house] would spell disaster.
b. Without a Subject of their own :
e.g. [To be a good teacher] is more difficult than people think.

c. Without a Subject of their own, introduced by Wh-word :


e.g. [What to read during the holidays] is the question all students are asking.

 Bare infinitive clause functioning as Subject


e.g. [Party the night away] is a nice thing to do.

 –ing participle clause functioning as Subject


a. With a Subject of their own :
e.g. [Pate breaking the rules] is unacceptable.

b. Without a Subject of their own :


e.g. [Going on holiday] always creates tensions.

 Small clause functioning as Subject


e.g. [The kitchen free of cockroaches] is a welcome prospect.

C. Realization of the predicate and predicator


1. Predicates are verb phrases.

2. Predicators are always main verbs.


e.g. Erick lost his keys yesterday.
Predicate
Predicator

D. Realizations of the Direct Object


1. NPs functioning as Direct Object
e.g. Sarah admires [NP the President].
William lit [NP the barbecue].

2. PPs functioning as Direct Object


e.g. Speaker A : Where will the new discotheque be built?
Speaker B : I don’t know, but the council rejected [PP behind the church].
3. Finite clause functioning as Direct Object
 That-clause functioning as Direct Object
e.g. The government believes [that the voters are stupid].

 Finite Wh-clause functioning as Direct Object


e.g. He knows [what she means].

4. Nonfinite clause functioning as Direct Object


 To-infinitive clause functioning as Direct Object
a. With a Subject of their own :
e.g. Ann considers [Helen to be an excellent director].

b. Without a Subject of their own :


e.g. Gary wants [to leave].

c. Without a Subject of their own, introduced by a Wh-word :


e.g He forgot [what to say to the examiners].

 Bare infinitive clause functioning as Direct Object


e.g. We saw [the sun rise].

 –ing participle clause functioning as Direct Object


a. With a Subject of their own :
e.g. I heard [Jamie singing in the bath].

b. Without a Subject of their own :


e.g. She abhors [eating meat].

 –ed participle clause functioning as Direct Object


e.g. We had [the prisoners jailed].

 Small clause functioning as Direct Object


e.g. Martin considers [Tim a creep].
E.Realizations of the Indirect Object
1. NPs functioning as Indirect Object
e.g. She told [NP her brother] a lie.

2. Wh-clause functioning as Indirect Object


e.g. Sean told [whoever wanted to hear it] his story.

F. Realizations of Adjuncts
1. AdvPs functioning as Adjunct
e.g. He cleaned the house [AdvP quite cheerfully].
He [AdvP urgently] needed to see a doctor.

2. PPs functioning as Adjunct


e.g. Otto cooked his evening meal [PP in a rush].
We met [PP outside Paris].

3. NPs functioning as Adjunct


e.g. Hellen discovered the Italian restaurant [NP yesterday].
The crisis began [NP the month before last].

4. Finite clause functioning as Adjunct


e.g. They will be cooking the meal, [when we arrive].
[While Francis was watching tv], Paul was reading the potatoes.