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Materials Today: Proceedings xxx (xxxx) xxx

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Experimental investigation on bacterial concrete strength with Bacillus


subtilis and crushed stone dust aggregate based on ultrasonic pulse
velocity
C. Venkata Siva Rama Prasad a,⇑, T.V.S. Vara Lakshmi b
a
Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology (Autonomous), Aushapur, Ghatkesar, R.R. District, Hyderabad, Telangana 501301, India
b
Department of Civil Engineering, University College of Engineering & Technology, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar, Guntur Dist., Andhra Pradesh 522510, India

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: The healing proportion of strengthening cracks in buildings such as Reinforced cement concrete (RCC)
Received 28 November 2019 Houses, RCC Pipes, Canal Lining, Pavement etc. has been increased in the ongoing bacterial concrete. In
Received in revised form 24 January 2020 order to fix the cracks in the concrete, it needs ordinary maintenance and exceptional treatment that
Accepted 25 January 2020
can be terribly expensive. This is another method adopted by the use of microbiologically actuated calcite
Available online xxxx
(CaCO3) precipitation in the arrangement of concrete. In this paper, an experimental study carried out
using Bacillus subtilis bacteria and calcium lactate to heal the cracks in the concrete at different percent-
Keywords:
ages such as 5%, 10% and 15% of cement weight for concrete grade M40. This paper presents the exper-
Bacterial concrete
Compressive strength
imental results of the Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) test carried out on Bacterial Concrete. From the
UPV Ultra sonic pulse velocity, dynamic modulus of elasticity and quality of concrete was determined at dif-
Flexural strength ferent ages. Relationships have been proposed between the strength of Bacterial concrete and UPV.
Bacillus subtilis Scanning Electronic Microscopy analysis carried out on convention and bacterial concrete. Finally the
maximum strength attain at 10% bacterial replacement in concrete and Scanning electronic microscopy
shows the calcium carbonate formation in concrete which is healing the cracks.
Ó 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the First International con-
ference on Advanced Lightweight Materials and Structures.

1. Introduction able to heal on its own, normally search for to repair this imperfec-
tion, so as to increase the repair lifetime of any specified concrete
For any building construction, cement concrete is a primary structure. There is a substance within the area of self-healing con-
material in the present modern era of infrastructural projects crete in growth. At the present, this will resolve several of the
across the world. As this material is prone to crack owing to its issues usually related to normal concrete. Self-healing concrete
inelastic and less resistant to straining demands the practice of contains a mixture through microorganism (Bacillus subtilis) fused
steel reinforcement or rebar in it. Since its bond with steel bars, keen on the concrete and calcium lactate and nutrient broth food-
concrete becomes most effective in resisting tension than when stuff to sustain those microorganisms once they turn into vigorous
it does not contain any reinforcement, and the tensile strength of [2].
concrete is relatively lower than compressive strength. The cracks The microorganism, nourish on the providing foodstuff supply,
that have been formed allow the reinforcement to expose outside heals the crack. This paper also will make a case for, in-depth,
and thus effecting structural integrity and leads to the corrosion. the method that extent part behind microorganism that helps to
It splinter and endures genuine wear and rip throughout the years heal the concrete and can describe the various parts that extent
of its predictable time of examine [1]. It’s not versatile and can’t part enclosed within the progression as well as the way they exer-
switch important quantity of damage. Ordinary concrete can toler- tion severally in addition to put together. This manuscript deals
ate to nearly zero to 1% strain earlier giving out. Concrete that is with the sensible applications of this type of self-curing concrete,
as well as its real-world integrations in present structures. It is
vital to hustle what forms of microorganisms can survive in the
⇑ Corresponding author.
concrete, however they effort to rise the durability of structures,
E-mail address: cvsrprasad90@gmail.com (C. Venkata Siva Rama Prasad).

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2020.01.478
2214-7853/Ó 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the First International conference on Advanced Lightweight Materials and Structures.

Please cite this article as: C. Venkata Siva Rama Prasad and T. V. S. Vara Lakshmi, Experimental investigation on bacterial concrete strength with Bacillus
subtilis and crushed stone dust aggregate based on ultrasonic pulse velocity, Materials Today: Proceedings, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2020.01.478
2 C. Venkata Siva Rama Prasad, T.V.S. Vara Lakshmi / Materials Today: Proceedings xxx (xxxx) xxx

what the chemical agent are that origin the biochemical process cement association leading to matrix pore-diameter widths gener-
with in the microorganism, what take place to the precise forms ally a considerable measure of less significant than the 1 mm
of particular microorganism once unprotected to the substance, microorganism spores. A further worry is whether or not direct
and the way they work along to not solely seal the cracks earlier accumulation of organic bio-mineral pioneer composites to the con-
than they appearance, however additionally toughen the taken as crete won’t lead to surplus loss of alternative concrete properties.
a whole formation they’re integrated into. Once the microorgan- The sole exception perceived to be calcium lactate what really
isms is uncovered to the environment and therefore the ‘‘food- consequence in a 10% growth in vigor contrast to regular speci-
stuff,” the microorganism stand a action that sources them to mens. Once mixing of concrete and bacteria is done, the bacteria
stabilize and wrath, substantial within the fracture that has undergo inactive state. When it is unprotected to the environment
occurred. This method makes longer the durability of the forma- (air), then all their functions are stimulated. When the crack
tion whereas additionally putting in place the cracks caused. The occurred in concrete, the bacteria starts bring on calcite minerals
method of remedial a crack will capture as around 28 days [3]. at the crack [10]. At the point when the microorganisms interac-
Concrete structures are presently designed in keeping with set tion with water and calcium lactate, the bacteria spores start ger-
standards that enable cracks to create up to 2 mm wide. Such small minating. The bacterial starts feed calcium lactate. This kind of
cracks are usually thought-about tolerable, as these don’t directly pores is available in concrete up to two hundred years [11]. As
weaken the structure. Moreover, small cracks generally patch up the microorganism nourishes oxygen, the dissolvable calcium lac-
themselves as numerous varieties of concrete highlight an explicit tate is changed over to limestone which is insoluble. The limestone
crack-healing capability. Analysis has discovered that this is known heals the cracks happened in concrete. By consuming the oxygen,
as ‘autonomous’ healing capability is essentially associated with corrosion of steel decreases and the stability to structures of rein-
the quantity of non-responded cement elements ability in the forced concrete. The procedure in preparing synthetic calcium car-
material. On fracture development, water act in response with bonate response from fractured calcium hydroxide can be
these elements, leading to closure of small cracks. However, owing identified properly [12]. In this paper, the crushed sand is used
to the unpredictability of self-directed crack remedial of concrete as replaced by river sand and the dynamic modulus of elasticity
buildings, water run as a results of negligible crack creation in was determined by ultrasonic pulse velocity test. The quality of
underpass and subversive structures will happen 0.2 mm [4] concrete was tested by non destructive method by using ultra
wide-ranging cracks were observed to be self-healed in the con- sonic pulse velocity test. The SEM analysis was done on bacterial
ventional samples, all cracks were healed in the samples that con- concrete to determine the calcium carbonate formation.
tain bacteria. The fundamental idea after our precise edition of this
technique is exploit sure categories of microorganisms (in this case
CO2 + Ca(OH)2 ! CaCO3 + H2 O ð1Þ
Bacillus subtilis) and approach of operate to closure tiny cracks
within the concrete earlier they develop into bigger and further CaC6 H10 O6 + 6O2 ! CaCO3 + 5CO2 + 5H2 O ð2Þ
durable to manage cracks and fissures. This bio calcification
method involves many parts, to complete these tasks [5–7].
Trendy techniques like X-ray diffraction tests and Scanning 2. Materials and testing methods
electron microscopy (SEM) analysis are worn to enumerate the
study of period of spar authentication on the exterior and in cracks 2.1. Cement
[8]. The bacterium is ready to perform durable crack protection,
until the end of the life of the structure. A curing compound that 53 grade OPC used in this experimental work. This OPC was
is produced due to this precursor agent is a good filler material tested as per IS 4031-1996 [13] and the physical properties shown
and also helps in healing the cracks that are produced. The precip- Table 1.
itates formed also have the properties of cement for the reason that From the above table the physical properties of Portland cement
of the calcium compound present in it also acts as curing com- were determined such as specific gravity, Blaine’s fineness, sound-
pound [9]. Therefore, for operative self-healing, each bacterium ness and compressive strength of cement.
and a bio-cement pioneer composite ought to be combined within
the material medium. Also the existence of the embedded bac- 2.2. Fine aggregate
terium and pioneer composites should not harmfully have an effect
on alternative needed concrete characteristics. Bacterium that may Local available river sand and crushed stone sand was used as
counterattack concrete matrix assimilation to be present in envi- fine aggregates in this work. For the fine aggregate, the distribution
ronment, and these seem associated with a specific cluster of anta- of particle size is presented in Fig. 1. The specific gravity of river
cid safe spore-shaping bacterium. Arresting feature of that sand and crushed stone sand 2.68 and 2.77 respectively.
bacterium is that they’re ready to kind spores, that part specified
sphere-shaped cells with thick walls might have the similar prop- 2.3. Coarse aggregate
erties as seeds of a plant. However inactive cells and may stance up
and about to mechanical stresses as well as chemical stresses and Crushed granite broken stone of 20 mm nominal size is used as
stay in arid state feasible for periods more than fifty years. Though, coarse aggregate in this work. The particle size distribution curves
once microorganism spores be unswervingly supplemental to of coarse aggregates were presented in Fig. 2 and properties of
concrete mixture, their lifespan perceived to be restricted to coarse aggregates were presented in Table 2.
1–2 months. The lessening in living age of the microorganism From the above table the properties of Properties of coarse
spores from many decades once in dry state to solely some months. aggregate were determined such as specific gravity, Water absorp-
Once entrenched with the concrete is also because of continued tion, AIV and ACV.

Table 1
Physical properties of Portland cement (53 grade).

Property Blaine’s fineness Specific gravity Soundness (Le-Chatlier Exp.) 7 days Compressive strength 28 days Compressive strength
2
Test Value 285 m /kg 3.01 2 mm 41 MPa 56 MPa

Please cite this article as: C. Venkata Siva Rama Prasad and T. V. S. Vara Lakshmi, Experimental investigation on bacterial concrete strength with Bacillus
subtilis and crushed stone dust aggregate based on ultrasonic pulse velocity, Materials Today: Proceedings, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2020.01.478
C. Venkata Siva Rama Prasad, T.V.S. Vara Lakshmi / Materials Today: Proceedings xxx (xxxx) xxx 3

IS: 516-1959 specifications. All the concrete cubes were casted at


room temperature. Compressive strength of bacterial concrete
specimens was measured at 3, 7, 28, 90 days of curing age as per
IS 516-1959 [14].

2.7. Flexural strength test

Flexural strength of concrete test was on


100 mm  100 mm  500 mm. all the specimens casting was done
according to IS: 516-1959 specifications.

Fig. 1. Grading Curve of Fine aggregate. 2.8. Mix design

The mix proportions for M40 grade concrete are considered


using IS: 10262-2009 [15]. Materials required per one m3 of con-
crete are presented in Table 3.

2.9. Test on compression

Compression test on bacterial concrete specimens of size


150  150  150 mm was done as per IS: 516-1959 specifications.
Theses specimens were prepared and cured at 3 d, 7 d, 28 d and
90 days as per IS:456-2000 [16] standards. The test data is pre-
sented in Table 4.

Fig. 2. Grading curve of coarse aggregate. 2.10. Flexural test

Flexural test on bacterial concrete prism specimens of size


Table 2 500  100  100 mm were tested as per IS:516-1959. Test results
Test Properties of coarse aggregate. presented in Table 5.
Test Property Specific gravity Water absorption AIV ACV
2.11. Ultrasonic pulse velocity test
Test Value 2.71 0.5% 21.5% 20.4%

AIV = Aggregate impact value, ACV = Aggregate crushing value. The Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) technique is the most
advantageous way to test the quality of the concrete and also to
check the cracks and voids in the concrete. The frequencies of
2.4. Water
the ultrasonic wave are in the range of 20 kHz–150 kHz, which is
higher than the upper limit capable of being detected (20 kHz
Locally available potable drinking water used in the experimen-
[17]). Once the frequency is calculated, the concrete performance,
tal work for all mixes.
uniformity, power, density and condition can be achieved. Table 6
is suggested by IS 13311(Part 1): 1992 [18] and demonstrates the
2.5. Bacteria use of the speed obtained from the test to assess the quality of the
concrete.
In this research, Bacillus subtilis bacteria used which is cultured UPV testing (Fig. 4) of all seven mixtures on cube specimens
at DVS Bio life Pvt. Ltd. Laboratory, Hyderabad, India. was performed as per IS: 13311(Part 1): 1992. The PUNDIT
(Fig. 3) UPV tester equipment is made up of an ultrasonic tester,
2.5.1. Culture of microorganisms two transducers, i.e. one 54 kHz receiver head and one transmitter.
The culture of microorganism was isolated from DVS BIO LIFE Tests were conducted on each cube specimen on three facets
Pvt. Ltd. laboratory and it was maintained on nutrient agar slants namely Facet 1(F1) i.e. casting direction, Facet 2(F2) and Facet 3
constantly. The uneven white colonies formed on the nutrient agar. (F3) for all specimens.
When we require a solitary colony of the culture, it was immunize
into nutrient broth of 25 ml in 100 ml tapering flask. This set up is 3. Discussion of test results
sustain at 37 °C temperature and positioned on orbital shaker at
125 rpm. Peptone: 5 g/lt, NaCl: 5 g/lt, Yeast extract: 3 g/lt. were 3.1. Effect of bacterial solution on compressive strength
used for growth of bacteria culture.
The test results on the consequence of microorganisms solution
2.5.2. Calcium lactate on compressive strength was shown in Table 7 for river sand and
Calcium lactate (C6H10CaO6) used for this experimental work crushed stone sand mixes of M40 grade concrete. From these
along with Bacillus subtilis bacteria as nutrient broth. It is available results, it came to notice that the strength of crushed sand mixes
in powder form having white colour. is higher in comparison with all ages of river sand mixes, irrespec-
tive of percentage of bacterial solution because of cubical shaped
2.6. Compressive strength test sharp edges of crushed stone sand assists in attaining more
strength than river sand mixes. The percent enhance in compres-
The compressive strength of concrete test was carry out on sive strength for BC-5%, BC-10% and BC-15% are 8.98%, 17.02%
15 cm  15 cm  15 cm cubes and casting was done according to and 4.65% respectively at 28 days, which is very good when evalu-

Please cite this article as: C. Venkata Siva Rama Prasad and T. V. S. Vara Lakshmi, Experimental investigation on bacterial concrete strength with Bacillus
subtilis and crushed stone dust aggregate based on ultrasonic pulse velocity, Materials Today: Proceedings, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2020.01.478
4 C. Venkata Siva Rama Prasad, T.V.S. Vara Lakshmi / Materials Today: Proceedings xxx (xxxx) xxx

Table 3
Concrete mix proportions.

Mixture No RBC0 RBC5 RBC10 RBC15 CBC0 CBC05 CBC10 CBC15


3
Cement (kg/m ) 390 390 390 390 390 390 390 390
River Sand (kg/m3) 642 642 642 642 – – – –
Crushed stone Sand (kg/m3) – – – – 642 642 642 642
Coarse Aggregate (kg/m3) 1261 1261 1261 1261 1261 1261 1261 1261
w/c ratio 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45
Bacterial Cells (cfu/ml) 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105
Percent of bacterial solution 00 05 10 15 00 05 10 15

RBC: Bacterial concrete with river sand, CBC: Bacterial concrete with crushed stone sand.

Table 4
Compression test results (fc).

Mix fc, MPa


3d 7d 28 d 90 d
RBC00 28.24 33.26 44.28 52.48
RBC05 32.24 38.24 48.26 56.94
RBC10 34.46 39.46 51.82 58.92
RBC15 29.36 34.16 46.34 53.84
CBC00 32.82 36.26 48.12 55.21
CBC05 36.74 41.64 51.46 60.18
CBC10 38.64 42.84 54.86 63.44
CBC15 34.42 36.86 49.22 56.92

Table 5
Flexural test results.

Mix ft, MPa

3d 7d 28 d 90 d
RBC00 2.96 3.82 4.42 4.72
RBC05 3.24 4.46 4.64 4.98
RBC10 3.88 4.58 4.82 5.32 Fig. 3. Direct Transmission (Tx = emitter; Rx = Receiver).
RBC15 3.14 3.94 4.52 4.84
CBC00 3.34 4.62 5.26 5.58
CBC05 4.12 5.26 5.46 5.84
CBC10 4.94 5.38 5.62 6.14
CBC15 3.86 4.74 5.32 5.66

Table 6
Quality of concrete in UPV.

S. No Pulse Velocity, km/sec Concrete Quality


1 >4.5 Excellent
2 3.5–4.5 Good
3 3.0–3.5 Medium
4 <3.0 Doubtful

ate to control mix concrete. Similarly, the percent enhance in com-


pressive strength at 90 days is 8.49%, 12.27% and 2.59% respec-
tively. Whereas the percent enhance in compressive strength of
crushed stone sand mixes at 28 days for BC-5%, BC-10% and BC-
15% are 6.94%, 14% and 2.28% respectively. Similarly, the percent
enhance in compressive strength at 90 days is 9.0%, 14.9% and Fig. 4. Cube Specimens Facets (F, F2, F3).
3.09% respectively. From the above it was perceive that the gain
in compressive strength at 90 days is higher than the compressive
strength at 28 days because of contribution of Bacillus subtilis bac- results than river sand mixes due to the cubical sharp edged faces
teria along with calcium lactate to compressive strength is promi- of grains in rock.
nent at ages more than 28 days for river sand mixes and crushed
stone sand mixes. With the increase in the percentage of bacteria 3.2. Variation of flexural strength with bacterial solution
in concrete ranging between 0% and 10% the compressive strength
has also increased, but at 15% the compressive strength is reduced, The variation of flexural strength of bacterial concrete with cur-
this is because of the way that the hydration products are satu- ing age is existing in Table 8 for river sand and crushed stone sand
rated at 10% bacterial solution, with further increase in bacterial mixes. The flexural strength of bacterial concrete increases with
solution does not contribute to strength and hence there is reduc- increasing curing age. From these results, it came to notice that
tion in strength. Crushed stone sand mixes showed promising the flexural strength of crushed stone sand mixes is higher when

Please cite this article as: C. Venkata Siva Rama Prasad and T. V. S. Vara Lakshmi, Experimental investigation on bacterial concrete strength with Bacillus
subtilis and crushed stone dust aggregate based on ultrasonic pulse velocity, Materials Today: Proceedings, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2020.01.478
C. Venkata Siva Rama Prasad, T.V.S. Vara Lakshmi / Materials Today: Proceedings xxx (xxxx) xxx 5

Table 7
Compression test results (fc).

Mix fc, MPa


3d 7d 28 d 90 d
RBC00 28.24 33.26 44.28 52.48
RBC05 32.24 38.24 48.26 56.94
RBC10 34.46 39.46 51.82 58.92
RBC15 29.36 34.16 46.34 53.84
CBC00 32.82 36.26 48.12 55.21
CBC05 36.74 41.64 51.46 60.18
CBC10 38.64 42.84 54.86 63.44
CBC15 34.42 36.86 49.22 56.92

Table 8
Flexural test results.

Mix ft, MPa


Fig. 5. Micro structure of Conventional concrete.
3d 7d 28 d 90 d
RBC00 2.96 3.82 4.42 4.72
RBC05 3.24 4.46 4.64 4.98
RBC10 3.88 4.58 4.82 5.32
RBC15 3.14 3.94 4.52 4.84
CBC00 3.34 4.62 5.26 5.58
CBC05 4.12 5.26 5.46 5.84
CBC10 4.94 5.38 5.62 6.14
CBC15 3.86 4.74 5.32 5.66

compared to river sand mixes at all ages, irrespective of percentage


of bacterial solution. The percent enhance in flexural strength of
river sand mixes for BC-5%, BC-10% and BC-15% are 4.97%, 9.04%
and 2.26% respectively at 28 days. Similarly, the percent enhance
in flexural strength at 90 days is 5.5%, 12.71% and 2.54% respec-
tively. In crushed stone sand mixes, the percent enhance in flexural
strength at 28 days for BC-5%, BC-10% and BC-15% are 3.8%, 6.84% Fig. 6. Micro structure of Bacterial concrete.
and 1.14% respectively. Similarly, the percent enhance in flexural
strength at 90 days is 4.65%, 10.03% and 1.43% respectively. Also,
the percentage of bacterial concrete increased from 0% to 10% the
flexural strength also increased, but at 15% the flexural strength
is reduced, this is because of the way that the hydration products
are saturated at 10% bacterial solution, with further increase in
bacterial solution does not contribute to strength and hence there
is reduction in strength.

3.3. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM)

The SEM analysis image for control concrete with a magnifica-


tion of 16,000, Sub acceleration voltage 20,000 V. Fig. 5 shows
the micro structure of the conventional concrete. The SEM analysis
image for Bacterial concrete with a magnification of 16,000, Sub Fig. 7. Empirical relation between UPV and Compressive strength.

acceleration voltage 20,000 V. Fig. 6 shows the micro structure of


the Bacterial concrete. The SEM analysis images show the occur- The quality assessment of conventional concrete and bacterial
rence of calcite precipitation in the bacterial concrete. CSH, CH concrete with age for river sand mixes shows that, at three days
and pores occurred in all samples. Calcite observed in pores, in case of curing, concrete with doubtful quality. At 7 days river sand
of bacterial concrete. It clearly shows that the porosity decreases mixes are medium quality concrete. At 28 days, conventional con-
and gain in strength and the cracks also healed due to calcite for- crete and bacterial concrete for river sand mixes produced good
mation (Fig. 7). quality of concrete. At 60 days of curing concrete mixes produced
good quality. However, at 90 days of curing 10% bacterial solution
3.4. Effect of bacterial solution on UPV of bacterial concrete concrete mixes produced excellent quality for M40 grade concrete.
The quality assessment of conventional concrete and bacterial
The experimental investigations of ultrasonic pulse velocity of concrete with age for crushed stone sand mixes shows that, at
control mixes and bacterial concrete mixes are presented in below three days of curing, concrete with medium quality. At the ages
Tables 9–11. The results are taken at three faces of cube at different of 7, 28 & 60 days of curing 10% bacterial solution of crushed stone
ages. The crushed sand mixes shown favorable results comparing sand mixes are having good quality of concrete. However, at
with the river sand mixes. The quality of concrete shown in below 90 days of curing 10% bacterial solution concrete mixes produced
Table 12. excellent quality for M40 grade concrete.

Please cite this article as: C. Venkata Siva Rama Prasad and T. V. S. Vara Lakshmi, Experimental investigation on bacterial concrete strength with Bacillus
subtilis and crushed stone dust aggregate based on ultrasonic pulse velocity, Materials Today: Proceedings, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2020.01.478
6 C. Venkata Siva Rama Prasad, T.V.S. Vara Lakshmi / Materials Today: Proceedings xxx (xxxx) xxx

Table 9
Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Test results (3, 7 Days).

Concrete Mix UPV, km/s


3 Days 7 Days
F1 F2 F3 Avg F1 F2 F3 Avg
RBC00 2.56 2.92 3.02 2.84 2.78 3.06 3.22 3.02
RBC05 2.64 3.08 3.12 2.95 2.9 3.18 3.37 3.15
RBC10 2.78 3.12 3.18 3.02 3.22 3.5 3.65 3.46
RBC15 2.04 2.3 2.41 2.25 2.14 2.42 2.6 2.39
CBC00 2.82 3.09 3.28 3.06 2.92 3.22 3.41 3.18
CBC05 2.94 3.15 3.35 3.14 2.98 3.32 3.48 3.26
CBC10 3.31 3.54 3.7 3.52 3.52 3.78 3.92 3.74
CBC15 2.41 2.58 2.86 2.62 2.42 2.67 2.88 2.65

Table 10 Table 12
Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Test results (28 Days). Quality of Control and bacterial concrete mixes.

Concrete Mix UPV, km/s Concrete Mix Quality of All Mixes


28 Days 3 Days 7 Days 28 Days 60 Days 90 Days
F1 F2 F3 Avg RBC00 D M M G G
RBC05 D M G G G
RBC00 3.24 3.5 3.65 3.47
RBC10 M M G G E
RBC05 3.45 3.66 3.82 3.64
RBC15 D D D M M
RBC10 3.64 3.88 4.02 3.85
CBC00 M M G G E
RBC15 2.54 2.76 2.9 2.73
CBC05 M M G G E
CBC00 3.54 3.78 3.95 3.76
CBC10 G G G G E
CBC05 3.66 3.85 4.02 3.84
CBC15 D D D M G
CBC10 3.75 3.99 4.15 3.96
CBC15 2.74 2.97 3.14 2.95

for M40 grade concrete. The percentage gain in UPV of bacterial


In river sand mixes the UPV values of conventional concrete concrete at 90 days in comparison with 3 days is 47.38%, 47.77%,
(RBC00) varied from 2.84 to 4.18 km/s with curing age from 3 days 38.06% and 39.31% for CBC00, CBC05, CBC10 and CBC15 with
to 90 days. When concrete with 5% bacterial solution (RBC05), the crushed stone sand mixes for M40 grade concrete.
UPV values varied from 2.95 to 4.32 km/s. Similarly, for RBC10 and From Table 12, D = Doubtful, G = Good, M = Medium, E = Excel-
RBC15 mixes the UPV values varied from 3.02 to 4.58 km/s, 2.25 to lent. The quality of concrete shown in Table 12 based on the UPV
3.32 km/s, respectively at the ages from 3 days to 90 days for M40 test results as per the Table 6.
grade concrete. In crushed stone sand mixes the UPV values of con-
ventional concrete (CBC00) varied from 3.06 to 4.51 km/s with cur- 3.5. Relation between UPV and compressive strength for crushed sand
ing age from 3 days to 90 days. When concrete with 5% bacterial mixes
solution (CBC05), the UPV values varied from 3.14 to 4.64 km/s.
Similarly, for CBC10 and CBC15 mixes the UPV values varied from The empirical relation proposed in this below.
3.52 to 4.86 km/s, 2.62 to 3.65 km/s, respectively at the ages from
3 days to 90 days for M40 grade concrete. The ultrasonic pulse f ck ¼ 42:291nðUPVÞ  6:251; R2 ¼ 0:656
velocity of Bacterial concrete increases with increase in curing
age for river sand and crushed stone sand mixes are observed. f ck ¼ Compressive strength of concrete; MPa
The UPV of crushed stone sand mixes was found higher than the
conventional concrete for all replacement levels of bacterial solu- 3.6. Influence of bacterial solution on strength different types of
tion at all ages. The increase in UPV from 3 days to 7 days is at aggregates
slower rate, but beyond 7 days to 90 days the UPV increases
rapidly. This is due to the fact that the hydration rate is slow at ini- Bacterial solutions have not shown any significant improve-
tial ages with Bacteria solution and calcium lactate and faster at ment on mechanical properties of concrete. Therefore its influence
later ages. The percentage gain in UPV of bacterial concrete at in marginal, however crushed stone sand mixes have shown con-
90 days in comparison with 3 days is 47.18%, 46.44%, 51.65% and siderable improvement in strength attainment owed to the fact
47.55% for RBC00, RBC05, RBC10 and RBC15 with river sand mixes that the element shape is cubical and prickly.

Table 11
Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Test results (60, 90 Days).

Concrete Mix UPV, km/s


60 Days 90 Days
F1 F2 F3 Avg F1 F2 F3 Avg
RBC00 3.62 3.85 4.02 3.83 3.98 4.2 4.38 4.18
RBC05 4.01 4.22 4.36 4.19 4.1 4.34 4.52 4.32
RBC10 4.02 4.26 4.46 4.25 4.34 4.62 4.8 4.58
RBC15 2.82 3.08 3.28 3.06 3.11 3.31 3.56 3.32
CBC00 4.02 4.26 4.45 4.24 4.28 4.55 4.72 4.51
CBC05 4.14 4.39 4.52 4.35 4.41 4.65 4.88 4.64
CBC10 4.2 4.48 4.65 4.44 4.65 4.87 5.08 4.86
CBC15 2.89 3.15 3.34 3.12 3.42 3.68 3.87 3.65

Please cite this article as: C. Venkata Siva Rama Prasad and T. V. S. Vara Lakshmi, Experimental investigation on bacterial concrete strength with Bacillus
subtilis and crushed stone dust aggregate based on ultrasonic pulse velocity, Materials Today: Proceedings, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2020.01.478
C. Venkata Siva Rama Prasad, T.V.S. Vara Lakshmi / Materials Today: Proceedings xxx (xxxx) xxx 7

4. Conclusions References

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Please cite this article as: C. Venkata Siva Rama Prasad and T. V. S. Vara Lakshmi, Experimental investigation on bacterial concrete strength with Bacillus
subtilis and crushed stone dust aggregate based on ultrasonic pulse velocity, Materials Today: Proceedings, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2020.01.478

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