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ББК 81.2Анrл
У84

По вопросам приобретения
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тел.: (812) 328-14-41
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Огромный выбор учебной и методи•fеской литературы


в интернет-магазине:

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Утевская Н. Л.
У84 Englisl1 Grammar Book. Version 2.0 = Грамматика английского языка. Вер-
сия2.0: Учебное пособие.- СПб.: Антология, 2011.-480 с.
ISBN 978-5-94962-182-0
Пособие по грамматике современного английского языка предназначе­
но для учащихся школ с углубленным изучением английского языка, а так­
же для студентов университетов.

Цель пособия - помочь учащимся выработать навыки грамматически


правильной английской речи.
Ответы-ключи к большинству упражнений изданы отдельной книгой,
что позволит работать с пособием самостоятельно.

ББК 81.2Анrл

© Утевская Н. Л., 2011


ISBN 978-5-94962-182-0 © 000 <<АНТОЛОГИЯ», 2011
От автора

Настоящее пособие представляет собой полное и систематизированное


описание морфологического строя современного английского языка и узло­
вых тем синтаксического строя, часто представляющих значительные труд­

ности при изучении. Оно предназначено для учащихся школ с углубленным


изучением английского языка, гимназий, лицеев, колледжей, а также для сту­
дентов университетов и лиц, занимающихся английским языком на курсах
или самостоятельно.

Цель пособия - познакомить изучающих английский язык с системой грам­


матических правил, чтобы способствовать улучшению навыков правильной
устной и письменной речи. При составлении пособия использовался тради­
ционный подход, но при этом учитывались последние достижения грамма­
тической мысли. Описывая грамматические явления, их формы и функции,
автор стремился представить самую современную языковую норму, исполь­

зуемую в новейшей английской учебной литературе.


Каждой новой теме предпослана краткая характеристика описываемого
грамматического явления. Пройденный материал закрепляется упражнения­
ми. Основные виды упражнений: анализ грамматической формы, определе­
ние её функций и значений, перевод с английского языка на русский и с
русского на английский. Характер упражнений определяется как общими це­
лями пособия, так и спецификой каждой конкретной формы. Упражнения типа
"Traпslate into English", имеющие целью контроль усвоения грамматического
материала, предусматривает уnотребление лексики, доступной учащимся,
на которых рассчитано данное nособие. Все упражнения направлены на прак­
тическое и активное владение английской грамматикой. Ответы-ключи к боль­
шинству из них изданы отдельной книгой.
Пособие состоит из основной части и приложений, которые включают крат­
кое изложение глагольных времен, сведения о сокращенных формах глаголов
в разговорной речи, таблицу неправильных глаголов, список выражений с
предлогами, список соединительных слов и фраз, список фразовых глаголов
и упражнения на их использование, сведения по словообразованию, список
идиом, материал о различиях в грамматике английского языка в Великобри­
тании и США и другие материалы.
В книге также имеется алфавитный словарь грамматических терминов и
основных слов nособия.
:.::
с
о
Contents
~

с:::::
<
~ TheWord
~ The Parts of Speech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1О
<
с!

с The Noun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1О
=
и
Kinds of Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
.....j Proper Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
~ Common Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2 Class Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
~
Collective Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Mass Nouns. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Abstract Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Gender ........................................................... 16
Masculine Gender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Feminine Gender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Neuter Gender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Ways of lndicating Gender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Number ........................................................... 17
The Formation of the PltJral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Nouns Used Only in the Singular or in the Plural,
or in 8oth Singular and Plural . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
The Plural of the Compound Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
The Plural of Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
The Plural of Foreign Words ..................................... о 21
Nouns with Two Plurals, Each with а Different Meaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Nouns Having One Meaning in the Singular and Another in the Plural . . . . 22
Case ............................................................. 26
The Use of the Possessive Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

The Article . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
The Use of the lndefinite Article . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
The Use of the lndefinite Article with Nouns in Set Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . 32
The Use of the Definite Article . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
The Use of the Definite Article with Nouns in Set Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
The Absence of the Article . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Nouns Used in Set Expressions without an Article . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

The Adjective ............................... о • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 45


Word Order of Adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Comparison of Adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Two Ways of Forming the Comparative and the Superlative Degrees . . . . . . 52
Adjectives of One SyllaЫe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

1
•J)
Adjectives of Two SyllaЫes ......................................... . 53 г
Adjectives of Three and More SyllaЫes .............................. . 54 7
(,Ц
lrregular Forms of Comparison ...................................... . 54 г
Constructions with Comparisons .................................... . 55 7
.""'
....,
The Use of Some Adjectives ........................................ . 57 u
TheAdverb ......................................................... . 63
The Formation of Adverbs .......................................... . 63
Adverbs with Two Forms and Differences in Meaning .................. . 64
Kinds of Adverbs .................................................. . 65
Comparison of Adverbs ............................................ . 66
Word Order of Adverbs in the Sentence .............................. . 66
The Use of Adverbs ................................................ . 68

The Numeral ........................................................ . 74


Cardinal Numerals ................................................ . 74
Ordinal Numerals ................................................. . 75
Words and Expressions Used in Mathematics ......................... . 76

The Pronoun ........................................................ . 78


Personal Pronouns ................................................ . 79
Possessive AdjectivesjPronouns .................................... . 79
Demonstrative Pronouns ........................................... . 84
lnterrogative Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Relative Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Conjunctive Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
ReflexivejEmphatic Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Reciprocal Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
lndefinite Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Negative Pronouns ................................................ 100
Much, Many, Little, Few, а Little, а Few .............................. 108

The Verb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111


То Ве in the Present Simple Tense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
There ls ( Are) Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
То Have in the Present Simple Tense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Тt1е Use of Tenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Simple Tenses ................................................. 118
The Present Simple Tense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
The Past Simple Tense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
The Future Simple Tense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Continuous (Progressive) Tenses ................................. 131
The Present Continuous (Progressive) Tense ................... 131
The Past Continuous (Progressive) Tense ...................... 139
Comparison of the Past Continuous (Progressive)
and the Past Simple ................................... 142

5
:..::
с
The Future Continuous (Progressive) Tense ..................... 144
~
'-' Perfect Tenses ................................................ 147
;:с
The Present Perfect Tense ................................... 147
~
< Comparison of the Present Perfect and the Past Simple . . . . . . . 151
:;t The Past Perfect Tense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
~
The Future Perfect Tense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
<
~ Perfect Continuous (Progressive) Tenses ......................... 160
::.;
The Present Perfect Continuous (Progressive) Tense ............ 160
:r: The Past Perfect Continuous (Progressive) Tense ............... 168
'/;

-.] The Future Perfect Continuous ( Progressive) Tense . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174


~
z
~ The Sequence of Tenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
Direct and Reported Speech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
Changing from Direct into Reported Speech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
The Tense Shift when Changing from Direct Speech
to Reported Speech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
Reported Questionsjlndirect Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
Reported CommandsjRequestsjSuggestions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
Modal Verbs in Reported Speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Reporting а Dialogue or а Conversation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
ExclamationsjYesjNo Short AnswersjQuestion Tags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Conversational Formulas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194

The Voice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198


The Formation of the Passive Voice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
The Use of the Passive Voice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199

Modal Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207


Сап ............................................................. 207
Мау ............................................................. 213
Must ............................................................ 218
То Have to - Have Got to. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
То Ве to ......................................................... 228
Need ............................................................ 231
Ought to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
Should .......................................................... 236
Shall ............................................................ 238
WilljWould . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Dare ............................................................ 242

The Mood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248


The lndicative Mood .............................................. 248
The lmperative Mood .............................................. 248
The Subjunctive Mood ............................................. 249
The Subjunctive Mood after the Verb Wish ........................... 249

~
The Subjunctive Mood in Conditional Sentences ..................... . 254 "'
f-
Unreal Conditions in the Present ................................ . 254 z
ш
Unreal Conditions in the Past ................................... . 254 f-
Mixed Conditionals ........................................... . 255 z
о
lnversion in Conditionals ....................................... . 255 u
The Subjunctive Mood after but for in Conditionals ................... . 255
lmplied Conditionals ............................................. . 255
The Subjunctive Mood after the Conjunctions as if ( as though) ........ . 262
The Subjunctive Mood after the Verbs Expressing Orders,
Commands, Suggestions ...................................... . 265
The Subjunctive Mood after lt is necessary; lt is natural etc ............ . 267
The Subjunctive Mood after lt's (about) time; lt's high time . ........... . 269
The Subjunctive Mood iп AdverЬial Clauses of Purpose ............... . 271

The Verbals (Non-Finite Forms of the Verb) .......................... . 279


The lnfinitive .................................................... . 279
The Use of the lnfinitive ........................................ . 280
The Use of the lnfinitive without the Particle to .................... . 280
The Functions of the lnfinitive in the Senteпce .................... . 281
The lnfinitive Constructions ....................................... . 290
The Objective-with-the-lnfinitive Construction (The Complex Object) ... . 290
The For-to-lnfinitive Construction ............................... . 296
The Subjective lnfinitive Construction (The Complex Subject) ....... . 300
The Gerund ..................................................... . 309
The Forms of the Gerund ....................................... . 309
The Functions of the Gerund in the Sentence ..................... . 310
The Tense and Voice Distinctions of the GerLind ................... . 310
Noun Characteristics of the Geruпd ............................. . 311
Verb Characteristics of the Gerund .............................. . 311
Constructions with the Gerund .................................. . 312
Rendering of the Gerund in Russian ............................. . 312
The Use of Gerund ............................................ . 313
Verbs Used witt1 the Gerund and the lnfinitive ..................... . 317
Verbs Used with the Gerund and the lnfinitive without а Change
in Meaning ................................................ . 318
Verbs Followed Ьу the Gerund or That-Ciause . .................... . 319
Verbs Fotlowed Ьу the Gerund, the lnfinitive and That-Ciause ....... . 319
The Gerund and the Verbal Noun ................................ . 320
The Participle ................................................... . 328
The Forms of the Participle ..................................... . 329
The Functions of the Present Participle (Participle 1) ............... . 329
The Functions of the Past Participle (Participle 11) ................. . 329
The Tense and Voice Distinctions of the Present Participle
and the Past Participle ..................................... . 330
Verb Characteristics of the Participle ............................ . 331

7
:.:: Adjective Characteristics of the Participle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
с
·""" The Objective Participial Construction (The Complex Object) . . . . . . . . 346
""
:t:i
The Subjective Participial Construction (The Complex Subject) . . . . . . 349
0::::
The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
<
~ The Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
:?.: The Nominative Absolute Construction (without а Participle) ......... 355
<
cr; The Prepositional Absolute Construction (without а Participle) ....... 356
r.;
:: The Preposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
(/}

Kinds of Prepositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358


._; The Place of Prepositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
z The Use of More Frequently Met Prepositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
:..;::
Prepositions of Place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
Prepositions of Movement and Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
Prepositions of Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
The Use of Some Prepositions: Confusing Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
Verbs, Adjectives, Nouns, Participles with Prepositions ................ 372

The Conjunction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379


Coordinating Conjunctions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
Subordinating Conjunctions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380

The Particle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383


Kinds of Particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384

The lnterjection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385

The Sentence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386


Kinds of Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
lnterrogative Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
YesjNo Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
Wh-Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
Subject/Object Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
Question Tags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
Alternative Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
lndirect Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390
Short Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390

Emphatic Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396

lnversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398

Punctuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403
The Full Stop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404
The Comma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404

!
8
!./1
The Semicolon .................................................. . 406 l-
The Colon ...................................................... . 406 z
~
The Question Mark ............................................... . 407 l-
The Exclamation Mark ............................................ . 407 z
,...
._,
The Brackets .................................................... . 407 u
The Hyphen ..................................................... . 407
The Dash ....................................................... . 408
The lnverted Commas ............................................ . 408
The Apostrophe .................................................. . 408

Abbreviations 408

Letter-Writing 409

Appendices
Appendix 1 Summary of Tenses ................................. . 410
Appendix 2 Short Forms ........................................ . 413
Appendix 3 lrregular Verbs ...................................... . 415
Appendix 4 Spelling ........................................... . 420
Appendix 5 Numbers .......................................... . 423
Appendix 6 Prepositional Phrases ............................... . 425
Appendix 7 Linking WordsjPhrases .............................. . 429
Appendix 8 Phrasal Verbs ...................................... . 433
Appendix 9 Word Families ...................................... . 451
Appendix 10 ldioms ............................................. . 455
Appendix 11 American English ................................... . 460
Appendix 12 List of Grammar Terms and Кеу Words ................. . 462

Sources ........................................................... . 477


:;":
о
о
The~~
;:.:'<

0::
<
~
ThePartsofSpeech
:г.
<
~
Аword is the smallest uпit of speech that сап express а thought. The differeпt
t.: kiпds of words used iп any laпguage are called the parts of speech.
=
Vi
There are eleven maiп parts of speech iп the Eпglish laпguage.

z; Name Examples
2
~ 1. TheNouп Moscow, а man, bread etc.
2. The Article the, ап, а
3. TheAdjective Russiaп, English, good, Ыacketc.
4. The Рrопоuп 1, you, she, this, по etc.
5. The Numeral one, six, tweпty, the first etc.
6. TheVerb to work, to go, to write etc.
7. The Adverb here, there, поw, theп, well etc.
8. The Coпjunctioп апd, but, пeither... noretc.
9. The Prepositioп оп, iп, at, under, belowetc.
1О. The Particle but, only, too, also etc.
11. The lпterjection Oh, yes! Of course etc.

The Noun
The поuп is а part of speech which denotes things (а tаЬ!е, а book), liviпg beiпgs
(а girl, а Ьоу), materials (air, gold), qualities (kindness, strengt/1), processes
(conversation, writing), abstract пotioпs(beauty, love, реасе) апd states(sleep,
consciousness).
Nouпs сап Ье divided ir1to simple поuпs, derived пouns and compouпd
поuпs.

Simple поuпs coпsist of опlу оп е stem: dog, chair, room.


Derived поuпs are composed of опе stem апd prefixes or suffixes:
disarmament, uneasiness, inequality, freedom, cruelty, friendship, visitor,
brotherhood etc.
Compouпd поuпs coпsist of at least two stems.
There are а great many compouпd nouпs in Eпglish such as: newspaper, seaman,
Ь/иеЬе/1, forget-me-not, passer-by etc.

i 10
The main noun forming suffixes are: 7
::::J
Q
Suffix Examples 7.
tJJ
-er worker, teacher, writer
-ist dramatist, telegraphist -,....
-ment development, government
-ness happiness, kindness
-ionjtionjsion connection, production
-dom freedom, wisdom
-hood childhood, brotherhood
-ship friendship, leadership
-ty property, cruelty
-ess actress, hostess
-or sailor, visitor
-а псе importance, resistance
-е псе difference, dependence

The main prefixes are:


Prefix Examples
dis- disorder
in- inability
re- reconstruction
co- coeducation
mis- misunderstanding
over- overproduction
sub- subcommittee
ex- ex-president
un- unemployment

MEXERCISES

Exercise 1
State the part of speech of each word in bold type giving а reason for your answer.
1. 1 like spring flowers. 2. The cat springs on the nюuse. 3. Spring is the first
season of the year. 4. 1 haven't any douЬt about the result. 5. 1 douЬt whether
you can do this work. 6. The Ьоу is а very hard worker. 7. You must work hard.
8. That firm is а very good one. 9. Не spoke in а firm voice. 1О. The Оу walked
over the taЬle and then began to Оу round the room. 11. The pond is round.
12. Give те а drink ofwater. 13. 1 am going to water the garden, it is very dry.

11
::.:: 14. 1 am going to paper my bedroom. 15. The Ьоу wore а paper hat. 16. Did you
с
с read the paper this morniпg?
=:
с::
< Exercise 11
~ State to what part of speech each word in bold type beloпgs.
;::
< 1. We have received а wire from Moscow. 2. Wire me as soon as you arrive in
с::
i",;,, Moscow. 3. I iron my clothes with an iron. 4. The iron bars were covered with
~
rust. 5. Iron is heavy. 6. Let те drive as quick as possiЬ!e. 7. We had а long drive
,".,
in а motor-car. 8. Your hat waпts а brush. 9. I brush ту hair with а hair-brush.
v 10. Не headed the movemeпt. 11. Не has а good l1ead. 12. Не is а forward Ьоу
7 for his age. 13. Не has promised to forward your letters. 14. Paper the walls
w;
with white paper. 15. Light the lamp. \6. The lamp gives а poor light. 17. You
have got wet paint оп the back ofyour coat. 18. Now let's paint.

Exercise 111
Form nouns from the given words with the help ofsuffixes -erand -or.
Model 1 to buy q buyer; to direct q director
То inspect, to inveпt, to produce, to sell, to teach, to supply, to traпslate, to visit,
to work, to write, to iпterpret, to lead, to sail, to drive, to ride.

Exercise IV
Form пouns from the giveп words with the help of suffixes: -ment, -ance, -ence,
-dom, -hood, -ness, -ist, -ion, -tion.
Model 1 to develop q developmeпt; important q importaпce
То agree, dark, free, differeпt, child, wise, to govern, kiпd, to improve,
resistaпt, neighbour, to move, material, scieпce, to collect, to dictate, to
produce, weak.

Exercise V
Give words opposite iп meaпing to the following; use пegative preflxes: dis-, ш1-, in-.
Model 1 honesty q dishonesty
Арреаrапсе, armameпt, comfort, certainty, dependeпce, justice, trust, truth,
decisioп, aЬility, easiness, employment, agreemeпt, comfort, convenience.

Exercise Vl
Form compouпd nouns from tl1ese phrases.
Mode/ 1 а machine for sewiпg = а sewiпg-machine
а stick for walking
а desk for writiпg
а room where we sit

12
а room where we dress 7.-
'::J
а room where we dine о
а bath wl1ere we can swim z:
;.:.u
а lamp for reading
=
,....

Kinds of Nouns
The main kinds of nouns are:
1) proper nouns;
2) common nouns.

Proper Nouns
Proper nouns are individual names given to separate persons and things
(personal names, geographical names etc): Ann, Peter, London, Moscow,
September, Tuesday.
Proper names are always written with а capitalletter.

Common Nouns
А common noun denotes not one person or thing, but is common to all persons and
things of the same kind: girl, book, house, tаЬ/е, cat, family, coal, oil, love, navyetc.
Common nouns are divided into:
а) class nouns,
Ь) collective nouns,
с) mass nouns,
d) abstract nouns.

Class Nouns
Class nouns denote persons or things of the same class: book, тап, dog,
engineer, doctor.
Class nouns are countaЬies for they сап Ье counted.
Therefore they have two numbers: the singular and the plural.

Col/ective Nouns
Collective nouns denote а number of individuals or things considered as one
completewhole: nation, army, cattle, machinery.

Collective nouns fall under the following groups:


а} nouns used only in the singular and denoting а number of things considered
as one object: machinery, people, crowd;
13
:.:: Ь) nouns which are singular in form but have plural meaning: people, po/ice,
.-.
._
с cattle;
.=:!
с) group nouns that refer to а group of people. They may Ье both singular
се:
< and plural depending on whether we see the group as а whole or as
~ individuals.
:?.:
< Such nouns are: army, audience, crew, crowd, family, press, puЬ/ic,
::::
:;; teametc.

(,/)
Note. The plural form peoples means nations.
.....J
~
z
~
Mass Nouns
Mass nouns denote different kinds of material: соа/, iron, gold, mifk, coffee, tea,
honeyetc.
These nouns may Ье used in plural number to denote different sorts of that material:
Different kinds of coals are excavated in Siberia.
Mass пouns сап 't Ье couпted, апd therefore they are called uncouпtaЫe поuпs.

Abstract Nouns
Abstract поuпs deпote some quality, actioп or idea: kindness, friendship, /iberty,
love, know/edge, freedom, sorrow, courage etc.
Abstract nouпs may become class поuпs wheп used with the article. Then they
сап Ье used iп the plural пumber too:

beauty- а beauty- beauties


The girl is а beauty.
coal - а coal - coals
Соа/ is mainly composed of carbon.
А coal fe/1 out of the fire.

iron - an iron - irons


/гопis heavy.
1have bought а new iron.

Мапу uпcountaЫe nouпs can Ье made соuпtаЫе Ьу means of partitives:


А piece of cake/informationjadvicejfurniture; ajar of jam; а glassjbottle of water;
а tiп of beans; а piпt of milk; а Ьох of chocolates; а packet of Ьiscuitsjtea; а slicej
loafof bread; а potofyoghurt; а potjcup oftea; а kilo of meat; а bottle ofvinegar; а
tube of toothpaste; а bar of chocolatejsoap; а Ьit/piece of chalk; an ice cube; а
lump of sugar; а sheet of paper; а bag of flour; а pair of trousers; а game of soccer;
а( n) item jpiece of news; а dropjcaп of oil; а сап of со/а; а carton of milk; а Ыосk of
;1! woodetc.

14
MEXERCISES 2
::J
с
Exercise 1 z:
ш
Write (с) countaЬle or (u) uncountaЬle. .....
,...
1. sugar 11. house
2. pen 12. Ьоу
3. Ьird 13. fruit
4. transport 14. luggage
5. housework 15. chess
6. ball 16. food
7. soap 17. dog
8. bridge 18. furniture
9. news 19. weather
1О. water 20. sausage

Exercise 11
Write the countaЬle and uncouпtaЬle nouns into two columns.
Air, aviation, hair, bread, darkпess, water, glass (стекло), glass (стакан), iron
(железо), iroп (утюг), happiness, hero, sand, music, friend, frieпdship, coffee,
coin, mопеу, ink, watch, tree, ice, lюrse, speed, umbrella, butter, cow, heat,
chalk, armchair, saпd, idea, ship, meat.

Exercise 111
State whether the пouns in bold type are соuпtаЬ\е or uncountaЬle. Translate the
sentences into Russian.
1. The Ьох is made ofiron. 2. А red-hot iron pressed her haпd. 3. Не saw а ligltt
in one wiпdow on the grouпd floor. 4. The mооп gave good light though it was
low in the sky. 5. The boys stood on the bank throwiпg stones into the river.
6. Wheпl think ofthis my heart turns to stone. 7. Her hair has gone quite grey.
8. Among the guests 1 saw а man with hardly а hair on 11is head. 9. 1 prefer fish
for supper. 10. All the water rushed out апd the reeds were full offishes. 11. The
doctor says that the patient is past danger. 12. Old seamen like to talk about past
dangers at sea. 13. The Crimea is famous for its wines. 14. Wine is made of
grapes. 15. Ice is frozen water. 16. Ices are made of cream, sugar and eggs.

Exercise IV
State whether the nouns in bold type are proper or common. Translate the sen-
tences into Russian.
1. Ву the time tl1e clock on the tower struck midnight the streets ofthe city were
almost deserted. 2. The group of ancient fortified buildings, called the Tower, is
of the greatest historical iпterest. 3. The picture we spoke about is in the

15
::.::: Hermitage. 4. The Albatross dropped anchor at а small port to get а new supply
''""
v
с of fresh water. The albatross is а large seablrd. 5. The snow-covered summit
iXi
\Vas glistening in the rays of the rising sun. 6. There was а town, down there,
с::
< called Summit. 7. Isaac Newton was а great British physicist. 8. The unit of
2 power is called the newton.
1 ~
1
<
с<:
t,;

.....
и
--' Gender
v
,, 7..
11 :..:: There are three genders of nouns:
1) masculine,
2) feminine,
3) neuter.

11
Masculine Gender
Masculine gender is used for all male persons, animals, Ьirds etc: Ьоу, actor,
poet, cock, son, father, тап, husband, brotheretc.

Note. ln fairytales and folklore in general Ьig and strong animals always are
considered as masculine: the bear, the lion, the elephant, the tiger.
But: the cat, the hare, the mouse is considered to Ье feminine.

Feminine Gender
\1' Feminine gender is used forfemales: girl, daughter, mother, sister, wife, woman,
hen, Ьее etc.

Neuter Gender
Neuter gender is used for names of inanimate objects and abstract notions:
tаЬ/е,
bed,pen, tree, stone, road, storm, fear.

Note. Veryyoung children and animals are usuallyconsidered as neuter:


ЬаЬу, horse, sheep.

Most nouns descriЬing people have the same form whether they are male or
female: teacher, studentetc.
Some nouns have different forms, though: actor- actress, groom- bride etc.
1 i

ll:ii,
,ll'llil 16

~~
Ways of lndicating Gender 7
:::J
There are usually three ways of showing the gender of different nouns. о
7
а} Ьу using different words:
Ьоу- girl nephew-niece gentleman - lady :::
,....
brother - sister son- daughter king-queen
father- mother groom - bride monk-nun
husband- wife lord - lady uncle-aunt
widower - widow barman - barmaid cock-hen
Ь} Ьу adding the suffix (usually -ess):
actor- actress lion - lioness prince- princess
author- authoress mister- mistress steward- stewardess
duke- duchess poet- poetess host - hostess
tiger - tigress waiter- waitress hero- heroine
host- hostess emperor- empress usher- usherette
с) Ьу adding а word denoting gender (after or before):
cock-sparrow- hen-sparrow
grandfather- grandmother
tom-cat- tabby-cat
he-bear- she-bear
man-servant- maid-servant
billy-goat- nanny-goat
male-child- female-child
pea-cock- pea-hen
boy-friend- girl-friend
man-student- woman-student
man-teacher- woman-teacher etc.

ln poetry or in folklore many things are often personified and considered as


being either masculine or feminine:
The Sun, time, day, death, names of rivers, mountains are masculine;
The Moon, the Earth, night, nature, names of countries, names ofvesse/s ( ship,
boat, steamer, ice-breakeretc), namesofvehicles(car, carriage, coach), abstract
nouns(beauty, реасе, wisdom) arefeminine.

Number
English nouns have two numbers: the singular and the plural. А noun that names
only one thing is in the singular number. А noun that names more than one thing is in
the plural number.
Proper, material and abstract nouns, unless used as common nouns, have no
plural.
17
:"::
() The Formation of the Plural
()
:с: The different ways of forming the plural of nouns are
::.:
< а) Ьу adding -s to the singular;
~ -s is pronounced like [s] aftervoicelessconsonants:
;:;::
< book - books; map - maps;
:::: like [ z] after vowels and voiced consonants:
~

::: tаЫе- taЫes; girl - girls;


'/)
Ь) Ьу adding -es to the singular, if the noun ends in -s, -х, -z, -sh, -ss or ch;
-'
'-' -es are pronounced like [iz]:
z class - classes; bus- buses; watch - watches; Ьох- boxes; brush -
~
brushes;
с) Ьу changing final -у into i + the ending -es:
сору- copies; country- countries; berry- berries; fly- flies.

Note. А final-yis
changed into -ies onlywhen it is preceded Ьу another
consonant.

Otherwise, i. е. if the -у is preceded Ьу а vowel, the plural is formed Ьу


adding simply -s
day- days; monkey- monkeys; toy- toys;
d) Ьу adding -es to nouns ending in -о which is preceded Ьу а consonant:
hero - heroes; potato - potatoes; echo - echoes

Exceptions /
piano - pianos concerto - concertos
canto - cantos dynamo - dynamos
photo - photos tango - tangos
solo- solos auto- autos
tobacco - tobaccos kilo- kilos
grotto- grottos memo-memos

lf -о is preceded Ьу а vowel, then the plural is formed Ьу adding


simply -s:
studio- studios; cuckoo- cuckoos; portfolio- portfolios
е) Some nouns ending in -о can take -es or -s. These are: buffaloesjbuffalos,
mosquitoesjmosquitos, volcanoesjvolcanos, zeroesjzeros, tornadoesj
tornados etc.
f) Ьу changing final -for -fe into -ves:
thief- thieves; half- halves; leaf -leaves; wolf- wolves; knife- knives;
life - lives; self- selves; shelf- shelves; calf- calves

18
Exceptions / 7
:J
с
roof- roofs gulf- gulfs
z
cliff- cliffs belief- beliefs щ

proof - proofs reef- reefs :с


,....
chief- chiefs grief- griefs
safe- safes handkerchief- handkerchiefs

ln а few cases both -fs and -ves are possiЫe:


scarf- scarfsjscarves
dwarf- dwarfsjdwarves
hoof - hoofsjhooves
g) bychanging the rootvowel:
man- men; woman- women; tooth- teeth; foot- feet; goose- geese;
mouse- mice; louse -lice
h) Ьу adding -en or -ren:
ох- oxen; child- children

i) Nouns ending in -th after а long vowel or а diphthong have [oz] in the
plural:
baths [ba:oz]; paths lpa:oz]; oaths [;)uoz]

Exceptions /
youths [ju:es]; Ьirths [Ьз:еs]

Nouns Used Only in the Singular or in the Plural,


or in Both Singular and Plural
1. Some nouns are used only in the singular form:
weather, advice, air, реасе, knowledge, strength, business, luggage,
money, information, progress, news, research, furniture.
2. Some nouns are used only in the plural form:
compasses, pyjamas, Ыnoculars, outskirts, congratu/ations, wages,
spectacles, scissors, trousers, tongs, contents, proceeds, thanks, sweets,
goods, stairs, oats, riches, clothes, cattle, police, people, earnings,
premises, surroundings, ashes etc.
3. The following nouns have the same form in the singular and in the plural:
sheep- sheep; fish- fish; deer- deer; trout- trout; swine- swine; salmon-
salmon; grouse- grouse; aircraft- aircraft; means- means; spacecraft-
spacecraft; species- species; hovercraft- hovercraft; series- series; corps
[k;):] - corps [k;):z].

19
::..:: Group поuпs сап take either а siпgular or а plural verb depeпdiпg оп
о
с whether we see the group as а whole or as iпdividuals. Such group поuпs are:
;:t:l
army, audieпce, c/ass, committee, сатрапу, crew, crowd, family, couпcil,
с::
< club, jury, headquat1ers, governmeпt, puЬ/ic, team etc.
;:;: With expressioпs of duratioп, distaпce or mопеу meaпiпg "а whole amouпt"
;:;:
< we use а siпgular verb.
с::
Теп miles is а loпg way to ride.
":::: Two weeks isп 't /опg to wait.
-
:/)

-i
4. Names, iпdicatiпg пumber, such as: pair, coup/e,dozeп, score, stoпe (мера
с веса: 14 англ. фунтов= 6,35 кг) апd head have the same form for both the
7. siпgular апd plural wheп they are preceded Ьу а пumeral: two dozeп of
~
haпdkerchiefs, five pair of shoes, оп е thousaпd head of cattle.

But wheп they are поt preceded Ьу а numeral they take the usual plural form:
to go iп pairs, dozeпs oftimes.
5. Nationality nouns ending in -ese, -ss have the same form in the singular and
in the plural:
Chiпese, Japaпese, Pot1uguese, Swiss.
We met а Japaпese. We met тапу Japaпese оп our holiday.

The Plural of the Compound Nouns


Compound nouns form their plural Ьу adding -sj-es:
1} to the second nouп if the compound consists of two nouns:
pocket-knife- pocket-knives; tooth-brush- tooth-brushes;
2) to the noun if the compound consists of an adjective and а noun:
flying рап -flying pans; walking stick- walking sticks;
3) to the first noun if the compound consists of two nouns connected Ьу а
preposition or to the noun if the compound has only one noun:
mother-in-law- mothers-in-law; passer-by- passers-by;
4) at the end of the compound if it does not include any nouns:
forget-me-not- forget-me-nots; grown-up- grown-ups.

The Plural of Abbreviations


МР (Memberof Parliament)- MPs [' em'pi:z]
MD (Doctor of Medicine)- MDs [' em' di:z]
Со (Company)- Cos [kэuz]

The plural of abbreviations is sometimes formed in spelling Ьу douЫing а letter:


Ms (manuscript)- MSS
р. (page)- РР
Mr (Mister)- Messrs ['mesэz]
20
z
The Plural of Foreign Words :::)
о
А number of foreign (particularly Latin and Greek) nouns have their original plural z
endings. u.J
:!:
;...
Singular Plural Singular Plural
-is[1s] q -es[i:z] -us q -i [aJ]
analysis - analyses -ora [;:}f;:}], -ега [ эrd]
axis - axes focus - foci
basis - bases radius - radii
crisis - crises nucleus - nuclei
diagnosis - diagnoses genus - genera
thesis - theses corpus - corpora
-а q -ае [i:]
-оп, -um q -а [d]
formula - formulae
phenomenon - phenomena
antenna - antennae
criterion - criteria
corona - coronae
datum - data
- ех, -ix q -ices [aiSiz]
stratum - strata
maximum - maxima index - indices
minimum - minima appendix - appendices

Some foreign nouns may have two plural forms: the English plural and the original
foreign one:
memoranda
memorandum
< memorandums
curricula
curriculum
< curriculums
formulae
formula
< formulas

Nouns with Two Plurals, Each


with а Different Meaning
Some nouns have two plurals used with some difference of meaning:
brother 1) brothers (sons ofthe same mother)
2) brethren [Ъrеопn] (members ofthe same society)

21
;:.::
cloth 1 ) cloth ( kinds of cloth)
с
о 2) clothes ( artic/es of dress)
се:

~
penny 1) pennies(coins)
< 2) репсе ( amount of pennies in va/ue)
~
:?.';. staff 1) staff ( military staffs, staffs of an institution)
< [ sta:f] 2) staves ( sticks)
~
r..:;
genius 1 ) geniuses ( men of talent)
.....
[' d,)i:nj<)s] 2) genii ['<trnrar](spirits)
-
!fl

.....:J
index 1) indexes (tаЬ/е of contents)
v
z 2) indices ['rndrsi:z](mathematica/terms)
~

Nouns Having One Meaning in the Singular


and Another in the Plural
compass ( magnetic instrument) - compasses ( mathematica/ instruments)
beef ( meat) - beeves ( live animals)
custom ( haЬit)- customs ( import duties)
colour(tint)- colours(f/ag)
force ( strength) - forces ( troops)
spectacle ( sight) - spectacles ( eyeglasses)
work ( action)- works ( plants, factories)
pain(ache)- pains(effort)
damage ( injury)- damages ( compensation for injury)
quarter (fourth part)- quarters (lodgings)
paper ( matiиia/)- papers ( documents)
scale ( proportion) - scales ( weighing machine)
glass ( drinking vesse/)- glasses ( spectacles)

rYfEXERCISES
Exercise 1
Give the plural ofthe following пouns.
1) man, womaп, tooth, foot, mouse, goose, child;
2) fly, city, toy, key, fox, watch, clock, bus, bush, thiet·, life, wolf, roof, shelf,
сатраnу, country, valley;
3) fornшla, апtепnа, basis, crisis, phenomenoп, пucleus, series, datum, index,
apparatus, medium;
4) fellow-student, passer-by, brother-in-Iaw, merry-go-round, man-of-war,
room-mate.

22
11.11
Exercise 11 2
:J
Give the plural ofthe following nouns. о
z
1) hero, piano, calf, proof, chief, stitch, bat\1, Negro, belief, berry, faшily; ш
2) boot, ох, шouth, ship, deer, cheese, sheep, leaf; ::::
,....
3) corps, criterion, analysis, curriculuш, stratuш;
4) rоош-шаtе, fellow-worker, sister-in-law, woшan-doctor.

Exercise 111
Give the plural ofthe tollowing nouns.
class death language fellow-student
house cliff toшato story
tower village cl1ild storey
judge шonth berry brush
hope hoot· pie stepшother
sea truth brush Ьее
shoe scarf postшan wife
pin tooth textbook genius

Exercise IV
State the nuшber of the following nouns апd give the corresponding singнlar or
plшal, if any.

Brethren, шemoraпda, antenna, шeans, scissors, school-inspector, pence,


sanatoria, strata, fish, photo, axes, physics, cloth, coшшander-in-chief, works,
forget-шe-not, swine, halves, staff, sleeves, grief, шiсе, species, contents, sledges,
bнsiness, knowledge, feet, corps, phenoшena, clothes, bases, sheep,
inforшation, loнse, сору, oxen, shelves.

Exercise V
State the nшпЬеr of each nouп in bold type and say whether the noun has the
correspondiпg singular ol" plшal form.

1. What is the news? 2. These scissors are шаdе long ago. 3. Under the great
oaks а flock ofsheep was feeding, and behind а steel fence а herd ofdeer. 4. The
fruit is поt yet l"ipe. 5. She gave ше sоше good advice. 6. М у friend spends шuch
money on education. 7. Не gave ше all the necessary information. 8. Her hair
is dat"k. 9. These data are quite correct. 1О. Не took five or six fish out ofthe net.
11. А series of English classics has receпtly been puЬlished. 12. Optics is а
bшnch of physics. 13. Sнch phenomena as we saw last nigl1t are rarely to Ье
seen. 14. Several strange species of aniшals exist in Austt"alia. 15. The cattle
wel"e driven hоше.

23
1''1 1

1 •

::<:: Exercise Vl
.~
'-'
Fill in the p1uralo
1

1: С>
~
1.'
!! ::::: 1wonder who decides what sort of 000000000000000000 (anima1) are kept in
<
..,. (zoo)? You expect to see а 1ot of 000000000000000000 (monkey), 000000000000000000000 (rhino),
~

:;:: and ооооооооооооооооооо (lion), but you rare1y see ооооооооооооооооооо (ох),
< (sheep), 0000000000000000000 (deer) or 0000000000000000000 (goose), probab1y because these
:::::
~ сап Ье seen commoп1y eпough in the wi1do Each day 1arge 00 о о о о о О о о о о 000 0000
..,.. (delivery) offood arrive for 0000000000000000000 (beast) to eato Not expensive items like
-
~/1

--'
00000000000000000000 (sa1moп) or Оооооооооооооооооооо (trout), but ordinary thiпgs 1ike
'-' оооооооооооооооооооо (potato) and ооооооооооооооооооооо (tomato) - a1t1юugh the
7- ооооооооооооооооооооо (panda) 1ike оооооооооооооооооооо (bamboo)o The whole fami1y,
~

Оооооооооооооооооооо (man), 00000000000000000000 (womaп) and 00000000000000000000 (chi1d) can


take о о 0000 000 00 0000 о 0000 (photo) or make 00000 о 000 000 00 о 00000 (video) of them eatiпg with
their ооооооооооооооооооооо (paw) and 000000000000000000000 (tooth), siпce anima1s do поt
use 000000000000000000000 (knife) and ооооооооооооооооооооо (fork) to eato

Exercise Vll
State the number ofthe поuпs iп bo1d type and give the correspoпding singu1ar or
p1ura1, if anyo
10 The doctor to1d me поt to read without eyeglasseso 20 Не remembered Pete
апd his brethreno 30 Once she got an offer, but the wages were on1y fourteeп
shilliпgs а weeko 40 Do you ski?- Used too But 1 haveп't any skis поwо 50 You
did not witness any of these phenomena yourse1f, did you? 60 One of the air
hostesses was making а couпt ofheadso 70 There was hard1y а white hair on her
heado 80 А wire fence ran all around to keep our rabblts and deero 90 Не wa1ked
out ofthe room апd towards the stairso 100 She was опе ofthose actresses who
were quite sure of themse1ves from the first rehearsalo 110 Three mouthfuls of
soup convinced him that he cou1d поt eato 120 The sheep were si1eпt; the оп1у
souпd iп the darkness was from the streamo

Exercise Vlll
Chaпge the пumber of the nouпs iп bo1d type making all the necessary changeso

10 The ох drove а cart of hayo 20 Her hair was soft and cur1yo 30 А very strange
phenomenon was observed Ьу astroпomers yesterdayo 40 She gave а dog а fisho
50 Не showed те а photo of his couпtry houseo 60 That gir1 had а pet sheepo
11'
70 The roof of the house is made of s1ateo 80 The fox sto1e а goose from the
1

farmyardo 90 11ost the key to the cupboardo 100 The huпter got а prize for killing
а wolfo llo The child was Ьitter1y crying over the broken toyo 120 At the festival
there was а Swiss, а German, а Frenchman and otherso 130 1 was presented with
а dozen handkerchiefso 140 The scout brought some va1uable informationo
:1
150 The Ьоу must have two teeth pulled outo
li,1
24
j
Exercise IX z
~
Change the nouns in bo1d type into the singu1ar and make other necessary changes. о
7.:
1. Iп this shop the gir1s bought two pair ofvery good scissors. 2. М у mother put two ;.и

loaves ofbread on the taЬle. 3. We saw Ьlack sheep in the fie1d. 4. Deer are grazing
in the valley. 5. In the 1ibrary we saw 1ong shelves witl1 books. 6. The wolves have ....
been shot. 7. The leaves ofthe flower were dark-green. 8. The mice were caught.
9. The keys to the boxes were 1ost. 10. These factories produce furniture.
11. Women and children came to the shore. 12. Where are the knives? 13. Some
copies ofthe coпtract were sent to the factory. 14. Put these boxes on the shelves.

Exercise Х
Trans1ate iпto English.
1. Мне нужен ваш совет в этом вопросе. 2. Многие из этих советов нам
очень пригодились. 3. Все сведения были очень важные. 4. Мы получили
такие же сведения. 5. Эти деньги не мои. 6. Сколько у тебя денег?- У меня
мало денег; их не хватит на покупку приемника. 7. Его знания в этой обла­
сти поразили нас. 8. Ваших знаний недостаточно, чтобы выполнить эту
работу. 9. Его работы в области физики широко известны. 1О. Какая инте­
ресная работа! 11. Какие вы нам принесли новости? 12. Эти новости уже
всем известны. 13. Какая дождливая погода! 14. В детстве её волосы были
совсем светлые; теперь они потемнели. 15. Я могу рассказать вам об очень
интересных явлениях, которые наблюдались нашими учеными.

Exercise Xl
Translate iпto English.
1. Фрукты в нашем саду уже созрели. 2. Мне очень нравятся эти часы.
Где вы их купили? 3. Волосы растут быстрее в детстве. 4. Какая приятная
новость: к нам приезжают друзья, которых мы давно ждали. 5. Каково
содержание этой книги? 6. Знания, приобретенные в молодом возрасте,
остаются в памяти на долгие годы. 7. Деньги держат в бумажнике или
кошельке. 8. Когда мы спим, наша одежда обычно лежит на стуле около
кровати. 9. Какие из этих овец будут посланы на выставку? 10. Рыбаки
были довольны: они поймали много рыбы. 11. Мои попутчики были ве­
селые и интересные люди. 12. Возьмите эти ножницы, они острые.
13. Мальчик вырос, и брюки стали ему коротки. 14. В коробке было
шесть пар чулок. 15. Его одежда совсем новая.

Exercise Xll
Translate into English.
1. Фрукты и овощи полезны для здоровья. 2. Молодой специалист все­
гда следовал советам своих друзей. 3. Ваш брат делает большие успехи в

25
:::.:: учебе. 4. Я могу рассказать вам очень интересную новость. 5. Купите для
о
с детей две пары перчаток и две дюжины шерстяных носков. 6. Какая ваша
;::::
заработная плата? 7. В этом лесу водятся олени. 8. Не знаю, насколько
:::::
< важны эти сведения. 9. Это очень трудная, но интересная работа.
~ 10. Твои часы неправильно идут.
11. Я не мог войти в сад, так как ворота
::?.
< были закрыты. 12. Товар только что прибыл. 13. Содержание его письма
:::::
t..; было совсем неожиданным. 14. Кому принадлежат эти деньги? 15. Какого
::::: цвета у нее волосы? J6. Это твои деньги, не так ли?

-
и

~'
;

7-
~

Case
English nouns have two cases:
1) the common case with no ending: father, Ьоу, sister;
2) the possessive casewhich is marked bythe apostrophe s( 's): father's,
sister's; fathers', sisters'.
The possessive case usually shows possession. ln the singular it has ending -'s.
lt is pronounced [ s] after voiceless consonants: the student's book; and [z] after
voiced consonants and vowels: the dog 's taif, the boy's сар. ln the plural it is formed
Ьу -(e)s': the boys' caps, the horses' hoofs.
When а proper noun ends in -s, -ss, -х, only apostrophe is added, and the
ending is pronounced [rz]: Burns' ['Ьз:nzrz] poems, Dickens' ['drkrnzrz] nove/s.
Sometimes- 's is added, the pronounciation remains [rz]: Burns's poems, Dickens's
novels.
ln compound nouns the ending 's is added to the final word: the editor-in-chief's
office, ту mother-in-1aw's garden.
Nouns denoting inanimate objects and sometimes abstract notions form the
idea of the possessive case Ьу the of + noun phrase: The roof of the house was
brown. She asked а glass of water.

The Use of the Possessive Case


1. As а rule, the possessive case is used with nouns denoting persons and
animals: John 's idea, the swal/ow's nest.
2. ln the following instances the possessive case may Ье used with names
denoting inanimate objects.
а. With nouns denoting time and distance, such as: minute, moment, hour,
day, week, month, year, inch, foot, mile and adverbs: today, yesterdayetc:
today'snewspaper; а month'sabsence; aweek'stime; amile'sdistance;
а night's rest; а few minutes' silence.

26
Ь. Often with the nouns town, city, country, гivег, wateг, ocean, woг/d, life: the z
;::)
country's сатрs, the wateг's edge, the town 's stгeets. о
7:
с. With the nouns ship, boat, саг: the ship 's сгеw.
ш

d. With nouns denoting planets sun, тооп, eaгth: the sun 's гауs, the earth 's :r::
....
life.
е. With the names of newspapers and nouns denoting different kinds of
organizations: the Tгibune 's го/е, the governтent's policy.
f. With some inanimate nouns in а few set expressions: atdeath's dоог(при
смерти); at агт's length (на расстоянии вытянутой руки); fог огdег's
sake (порядка ради); at а stone's thгow (в двух шагах); at one's fingeгs
end (до крайности); fог pity's sake (умоляю вас); а pin's head (ушко
иглы) etc.

There are some cases when the noun in the possessive case is not followed Ьу
the head noun and then it stands for the whole noun phrase. lt is used:
1) to avoid repetition: Оиг house is betteг than Магу's.
2) after the preposition ofif there is an attribute before the noun modified Ьу the
of-phrase: an o/d fгiend of ту тotheг's, that cousin of ту husband's;
3) to denote places where business is conducted such as: at the butcheг's,
at the bakeг's, at the gгocer's, at the cheтist's or institutions, where the
possessive is usually а saint's name: St Paul's (Cathedral), St Jaтes's
(Palace), or places of residence: at Тiтothy's, at ту uncie's, at oid
Jolyon's.

5( EXERCISES
Exercise 1
Use the nouns in bold type in the possessive case.
1. The room of ту friend. 2. А meeting of workers. 3. The novels of Dickens
(2 variants). 4. The rights ofwomen. 5. The poems ofByron. 6. The flat ofmy
brother-in-Iaw. 7. The interval ofthree hours. 8. The rights of ajudge. 9. Rights
ofjudges. 10. А book which belongs to James. 11. Coats for men. 12. А coat for
а man. 13. The hammei" of а worker.

Exercise 11
Replace the of-phrases Ьу the noun in the possessive case.
1. The new club ofthe workers. 2. The poems ofLermontov. 3. The clothes of
the boys. 4. The streets ofthe town. 5. The plays ofShakespeare. 6. The voice of
his sister. 7. The orders ofthe Commaпder-in-Chief. 8. The pages ofthe book.
9. The watch of my friend Peter. 10. The Ьirthday of my daughter Helen.
11. Tl1e parents of аН the other boys. 12. The boats of the fishermen. 13. The
27
::.:: opinion of the 1awyer. 14. The house of ту father-in-Iaw. 15. The rights of
.-.
'-'
о woтen. 16. The fathers of Peter and 1ohn. 17. The роетs of Byron a11d Shelly.
~

::;,:
< Exercise 111
~
Replace the of-phrases Ьу the notш in the possessive case where possiЬle.
5:
<
::;,:
1. 1 spe11t а fort11ight in the house оfту sister. 2. Never shall 1 forget those words
r.; of ту father. 3. We cou1d 11ot tear our eyes off the hands of the pianist. 4. The
girl was 11icely dressed for the сеrето11у ofthe eve11i11g. 5. Не did 110t want to
и

........!
hurt the feelings of the gir1. 6. The river was at а dista11ce of а тile a11d а half
z; froт the сатр. 7. The supper of the chi1drel1 is ready. 8. The house of ту
7.
~
daughter-i11-1aw is withi11 а stone's throw froт here. 9. There was а great
variety ofbooks for childre11 011 display. 1О. There was а spot of ink 011 the taЬle
c1oth. 11. We visited the village of Mikhailovskoye where Pushkin, the great
poet ofRussia, lived in exile. 12. Не told те ofthe retur11 ofhis brother Mike.
13. Will you joi11 the excursio11 of today? 14. Before 1 cou1d say а word, the
sou11d of carriage wheels was heard.

Exercise IV
Put the apostrophe, сотте11t upo11 use of the possessive case and translate into
Russia11.
1. These are Pнshki11s роетs. 2. For politeness sake stay а little lo11ger. 3. Goats
тi\k contai11s тоге fat than cows тilk. 4. Dickeпs пovels are true to life.
5. Аnп has gone to the butchers. 6. Kate is Peters frieпd. 7. А lot ofladies and
gentleтens shoes are оп sale. 8. Му youпger bюthers wife is а singer. 9. It is
todays \iteгature that we are studyiпg. 10. We kept hiт at arтs length. 11. What
kind of girl was Тотs wife? 12. 1 we11t to the chemists with the doctors
prescription. 13. Many Scotts novels are very roтantic. 14. Four sl1eeps heads
appeared above the hedge.

Exercise V
Put s, 5, or s'i11stead ofthe hyphens \vhere 11ecessary.
1. This is а пеw adition of Pushkiп_ роет_. 2. That rnaп was Pete_ and
Магу_ old teacher_ ofтusic. 3. Those were Nick_ and Kate_ pareпt_. 4. We
spe11t а week_ holiday iп Britain. 5. We spent а two week_ holiday witl1 the
Petrov_. 6. The book is пeither Johп_ nor Неlеп_. 7. f-ather took sоте mo11ey
froт his pocket and gave it to ту youпger brother_. 9. Esenin_life was short
but bright. 1О. Tchaikovsky_ house in Kliп is now а тuseuт. 11. The wall_ in
the huпter_ club were decorated with тountaiп goat_ and wild deer_ horп_.
12. А great many тusiciaп_ took part in the competition. 13. Мапу times he
rewrote sоте of his 11ovel_ chapter_ before puЬ\ishi11g them. 14. His eyes
narrowed like а cat_.

28
Exercise Vl z
;:::;
Use ~ or s 'where it is possiЬie. о
z
1. the exercise-books ofthe pupils i.J.J
2. а voyage of а month ::::
!--
3. the Ьirthday ofher son
4. the days ofthe week
5. work ofthree years
6. theatres of Moscow
7. the decision ofthe governmeпt
8. the crew ofthe ship
9. the best museums of our city
1О. the clothes ofthe girls
11. the windows of thc room
12. the success of tl1e сотрапу

Exercise Vll
Translate iпto Eпg1ish.
1. Вы знаете телефон Петра?
2. У вас есть карта Европы'? 3. Рабочий день
моего брата начинается в 9 часов утра. 4. Вы знаете мнение вашего учи­
теля? 5. Муж моей сестры уехал в Москву. 6. Они сообщили нам о при­
бытии такси. 7. Учащиеся выполнили советы учителя. 8. Я еще не знаю
решения директора. 9. Мы еще не получили ответы покупателей. 10. Се­
стра моего мужа работает в школе. 11. Давай зайдем в кондитерскую.
12. Он все ещ~ у твоей матери.

Exercise Vlll
Traпs1ate
into Eng1ish.
1. Лагерь туристов был расположен на берегу реки. 2. Они пошли в
отдел детской обуви. 3. Чье предложение вы поддерживаете- директо­
ра или главного инженера? 4. Как зовут сестру вашего друга? 5. У него
не было своего велосипеда, он брал велосипед у соседа. 6. Ее глаза были
такие же красивые, как у ее матери. 7. Мы с братом купили башмаки в
одно и то же время. Мои уже износились, а у брата совсем еще новые.
8. В санатории nосле обеда необходимо отдыхать в течение часа. 9. Мне­
ния разошлись. Одни предлагали встречать Новый год у Петровых, а
другие- у Никитиных. 1О. По дороге домой мы куnили большой букет
роз- любимые uветы моей матери. 11. Население Лондона составляет
более восьми миллионов. 12. Портрет жены Рембранта- один из ше­
девров художника.

29
fi'

;,.:
с
Exercise IX
о Translate into English.
iXi
:::.; 1. Книги Ильфа и Петрова очень nопулярны в нашей стране. 2. Я очень
< люблю пьесы Шекспира. 3. У нее лицо было маленькое, как у ребенка.
:г:
:?.: 4. Он один из ближайших друзей моего отца. 5. Мне не нравится новая
<
:::.;
подруга Анны. 6. Я провела зимние каникулы у тети. 7. Как я люблю
~ этот портрет отца! 8. Вчера у меня не было времени пойти в парикмахер­
:= скую. 9. Сегодня мы собираемся к дедушке и бабушке. 10. На лестнич­
'/J
- ной площадке было четыре двери. Я не знала, которая из них была дверь
-'
:.:; моих друзей. 11. Каково ваше мнение о сегодняшнем путешествии?
7
r..;;: 12. Несколько дней тому назад я встретила старую подругу моей мамы.
13. Вчера я отдала мои часы часовшику. 14. У меня была пятиминутная
беседа с преподавателем литературы. 15. Я очень хорошо помню эту улыб­
ку Марии! 16. Глаза доктора встретились с его глазами. 17. Не люблю я
эту новую приятельницу Мэри!

Exercise Х
Traпslate iпto Eпglish.

1. Я провел неделю в гостях у друга моей матери, который живет в Нью­


Йорке. 2. В сегодняшней газете есть длинная статья моего учителя. 3. До
его работы было несколько минут ходьбы. 4. Он никогда не забудет доб­
роту своей бабушки. 5. Хозяин дома не живет в нем, но иногда сюда
при езжает. 6. Тон его голоса был очень добрым. 7. Он отправился в апте­
ку купить лекарство. 8. Это не мои друзья. Они друзья моей матери и
отца. 9. Я сейчас не дома. Я у Елены. 10. Кого вы встретили у моих роди­
1

телей? 11. Он все еще у своей матери. 12. Я встретил их, когда они воз­
вращались от друзей. 13. Чье сочинение вам больше нравится: Ника или
11''
.1!
1
!11! Елены? 14. Она одна из двоюродных сестер моего отца. 15. Это одна из
:1,
любимых книг моей мамы. 16. Маленький Том улыбался. Его улыбка
была похожа на улыбку отца. 17. У меня нет своего фотоаппарата. Это
фотоаппарат моего дедушки. 18. Филипп был одним из старых школь­
ных друзей Джана.

1
11

11

' 30

j
(...lJ

The Article .....


u
-
f-
0::
The article is used as а deterтiner of the noun. There are two articles in the <
ш
English language: :::::
1) the indefinite article and f-

2) the definite article.

А [ ;J] and ап [ ;Jll] are called indefinite articles. They have developed froт the old
cardinal nuтeral оп е. lt is pronounced [;J] before consonants and [;Jn] before vowels:
а tab/e [ ;J 'terЬl]; ап apple [ ;Jn 'repl].
The definite article the [o;J, or] has developed froт the deтonstrative pronoun
this. The definite article is pronounced [o;J] before consonants and [or] before vowel
sounds: the реп [o;J 'pen]; the hour [ar 'au;J]
The use of articles in English is а difficult thing, but graттar rules сап help in this
work.

The Use of the lndefinite Article


The indefinite article is used:
1) before соттоn nouns in the singular used in а general sense:
1have а chair iп ту rоот.

Note. ln the plural по article is used in this case: 1have chairs iп ту rоот.

2) before nouns showing tiтe, nuтber, weight, тeasure, price:


Suттer сотеs оп се а year.
1go to the сiпета опсе а week.
1bought а kilograт of sugar.
3) before the words dozeп, huпdred, thousaпd, тillioп etc:
1waпt а dozeп of eggs.
А huпdred studeпts took part iп the festival.

4) before the words fewand little in the тeaning of sоте:


There were а few apples iп the tree.
1have а little tiтe for you.
5) after the words тапу, such, quite, ratherfollowed Ьу а noun in the singular:
Не is such а clever Ьоу.
She is quite а good girl.
This is rather а difficult probleт.
31
:.:: 6) after what in exclamatory sentences:
.~

...,
~

~ What а nice day!


;:С<

:::: 7) afterthe verbs Ье and have:


< She is а teacher.
:г:
:?.
< 8) before а noun in apposition:
:::: Pete, а sixth-form pupil, is our best chess player.
\,:;

::r; 9) it is often used in the sense of every:


'/;

,_;
The students have two English lessons а week.
:..) А child сап understand it.
z
:..;: А square has four sides.

1 О) after adjectives preceded Ьу so and too:


lt is not so simple а question as it seems.
There was too difficult а рrоЬ/ет for the child to solve.
11) before MrjMrs/Miss + surnamewhen we referto an unfamiliar person:
There 's а Mr Smith waiting for you.

The Use of the lndefinite Article


with Nouns in Set Expressions
at а speed of со скоростью
at а time when в то время когда
for а short (long) time в течение короткого (долгого) времени
in а loud (low) voice громким (тихим) голосом
on а large (small) scale в большом (малом) масштабе
all of а sudden внезапно
in а hurry второпях
to Ье in а position быть в состоянии
to Ье at а loss быть в растерянности (недоумении)
it's а pity жаль
as а resultof в результате
as а matter of fact фактически
to have а good time хорошо провести время
to have а mind to do something намереваться что-либо сделать
to have а look взглянуть
to have а headache испытывать головную боль
to take а seat сесть
to go for а walk пойти гулять
to have а cold быть простуженным

32
to fly into а passion прийти в бешенство ~
....)

to fly into а fury (rage) прийти в ярость v


to take а fancy to проникнуться симпатией f-
;:.:
it's а shame стыдно -<
it's а pleasure приятно
:::::
at а glance сразу, с первого взгляда ,...
to tell а lie говорить неправду

The Use of the Definite Article


The definite article is used:
1) before common nouns in the singular and the plural in а particular sense:
How did you like the film?
1have got the dictionary, you gave те.
The performances at this theatre are of great artistic value.
2) before nouns denoting only one thing of its kind:
the Sun, the Мооп, the Earth, the sky, the world, the ground, the
cosmos, the universe, the horizon.
3) before nouns preceded Ьу an adjective in the superlative degree:
the best pupil, the worst news, the most difficult thing.

Note. Most used as а determiner followed Ьу а noun, does not take the:
Most children like animals.

4) before family names meaning all its members:


The Petrovs moved to а new f/at.
The Smiths left London for the USA.
5) before the names of certain buildings which are unique:
the Kremlin, the Hermitage, the British Museum etc.
б) before the names of ships, railways, planes etc:
the Aurora, the Great Midland Railway.
7) before the names of puЫic institutions, theatres, cinemas, museums,
libraries and hotels:
the Bolshoi Theatre, the Russian Museum, the Russian Nationa/
Library.
8) before the names of English-language newspapers:
. The Тimes, The Guardian.
:: -~ J 1i 1
33
::..: 9) before the names of nationalities in plural ending in -sh, -ch or -ese:
с
о the Eпglish, the Japaпese, the Dutch.
~
Other plural nationalities are used with or without the:
а:::
< (the) Russians, (the) Germans, (the) ltalians.
~
~ 1 О) before an individual representing the whole class:
<
с:: The tiger is а fierce fighter.
r.;
:: 11) before the names of four cardinal points and winds:
"'....;
~

the пorth, the south, the west, the east, the пorth wiпd.
v But when these words show direction, the is not needed:
z
~ The expeditioп moved пorth.

12) before geographical names of rivers, seas, groups of islands, oceans,


canals, deserts, mountain ranges and the names or nouns with of:
the Thames, the North Sea, the Alps, the Pacific Осеап, the Suez
Сапа/, the Sahara Desert, the Bahamas, the Tower of Lопdоп, the
Statue of Liberty.

13) before the names of states wh ich contain either а preposition or the words
Kingdom, States, RepuЫic:
the Uпited Кiпgdom of Great Britaiп апd Northern lre/aпd, the Uпited
States of America, the Уетеп Arab RepuЬ/ic.

Exceptions /
the Netherlands, the Argentine, the Hague, the Ukraine, the Crimea, the Congo,
the Caucasus, the Transvaal.

14) before musical instruments, dances:


the рiапо, the taпgo

15) before the words: statioп, shop, ciпema, pub, library, city, village etc.:
She weпt to the statioп to see Peter off.

16) before the words: morniпg, afternooп, eveпiпg, пight:


1'11 Ье at home iп the eveпiпg.

17) before historical referencesjevents:


the Reпaissaпce, the Middle Ages, the Secoпd Wor/d War.

18) before adjectives used as plural nouns:


The rich сап 't uпderstaпd the poor.

19) before titles: the Queeп, the Priпce. The is omitted before titles with proper
li
names: Qиееп Victoria.
:1

34
~
20) before the nouns preceded Ьу sате and very: _:;
1should like to read the sате story. -'"'f-
Не read the book to the very end. ~
<
21) before the words: оп/у, last, first (used as adjectives): щ

Не was the last person to соте. .....


,_
22) after the expressions: one of, sоте of, тапу of, each of, тost of, а/1,
both:
8oth of the girls won а prize.
Sоте of the children got а five for а test.

The Use of the Definite Article


with Nouns in Set Expressions
the other day на днях
the day after tomorrow послезавтра
bythe dozen (hundred) дюжинами (сотнями)
in the morning утром
in (during) the night ночью
in the afternoon днем
in the evening вечером
what's the time? который час?
the day before yesterday позавчера
in (the) summer летом
in (the) winter зимой
in (the) spring весной
in the country за городом
in the singular в единственном числе
in the plural во множественном числе
in the past в прошлом
in the present в настоящее время
in the future в будущем
in the original в оригинале
on the whole в целом
on the one hand с одной стороны
on the other hand с другой стороны
it's out of the question об этом и речи быть не может
to tell the time сказать, который час
to pass the time проводить время
to tell the truth говорить правду
to break the record побить рекорд
35
:,.:
to ruп the risk подвергаться риску
с
.~
to play the рiапо (the violiп, the harp) играть на пианино, скрипке, арфе
'"'
с:
to take the trouЫe to do somethiпg потрудиться
:;:,::
< to keep the house сидеть дома
d: to keep the bed соблюдать постельный режим
г:
< to Ье оп the safe side для верности
:;:,:: totake {seize) smb bythe shouldercxвaтить кого-либо за плечо
:;,;
to pull smb Ьу the hair тащить кого-либо за волосы
v. to kiss smb оп the cheek (оп the forehead etc.) поцеловать кого-либо в
-' щеку(в лоб}
v to Ье wouпded iп the knee (in the arm etc.) быть раненым в колено (в руку}
7
~
just the same точно такой же
bythe Ьу кстати, между прочим
Ьу the way между прочим, кстати

The Absence of the Article


Usually the article is oтitted:
1) before proper поuпs:
Peter, Апп, Магу, Johп
2) before the пouns of тaterial:
/гоп is а very usefuf metaf.
Some chi/dreп dоп 't like mifk.

[ВU!: The mifk iп thfsb~ffkf;-;;~--;- --·· --- - - ~~~~J

3) before abstract nouns:


After the day's work we пeeded rest.

4) before соттоn nouns in the plural used in а general sense:


Cows are useful domestic aпimals.
5) before the naтes of years, тonths, days:
Му work begiпs оп Мопdау.
Last wiпter was rather warm.
6) before the naтes of тeals:
Our first те а/ is breakfast.
1usual/y dгiпk tea at supper.
7) before the патеs of scieпces and languages:
Mathematics is myfavourite subject.
Му sister studies Eпglish.

36
щ
8) before the names of natural substances:
We сап 't live without oxygen. v
f-
9) before the names of sports and games: ~

Figure-skating is popular in this country. -<


ш
:::
1 О) before the names of different kinds of arts: ~

The exhibltion of Dutch painting is open in the Hermitage.


11) before the names of continents:
Asia, Europe, South America.
12) before the names of countries and states:
Japan, France, Texas.
1 3) before the names of cities, towns, villages:
London is the Ьiggest city in Eng/and.
14) before the names of individual mountains, islands and lakes:
Everest, Ben Nevis, Easter lsland, Lake Michigan.
15) before the names of holidays:
Easter is а re/igious holiday.
16) before the names of planets and constellations:
Mars, Pluto.
17) before the names of streets, roads, squares, bridges, parks:
Red Square, Broadway, Piccadil/y Circus, Tower Bridge, Hyde Park.
18) before the words: bed, church, col/ege, court, hospital, prison, s.chool,
university, when we refer to the purpose for which they exist:
Тот was sent to prison.

(в~t: She went t~t~~~r;;;~---;;~~i;ffo~.-------- )

19) before the words: pubs, restaurants, shops, banks and hotels, which
have the nате of their founder and end in -s or- 's:
L/oyds Bank, John's shop.
20) before the names of airports, stations and universities where the first
word is usually the name of а person or place:
Cambridge University, Victoria Station, Kennedy Airport.
21) before the words: home, fatherjmother when we talk about our own
homejparents:
/'// ask Father about it.
22) before cardinal numerals:
Three and four is seven.
37
;:: 23) before countaЫe nouns in the singular when they show а post or а rank:
о We '11 discuss the matter with Petrov, dean of our faculty.
~
:::::: 24} before the names of illnesses: malaria, bronchites.
<
.".
...с.

::;:=. [ But: mumpsjthe mumps, measlesjthe measles, flu/the flu.


<
с::
\.; 25) before the word work ( place ofwork) never takes the:
:::: She's at work.
!/j

:.,)
z
~
Nouns Used in Set Expressions
without an Article
out of doors на улице, вне дома
to take to heart nринимать близко к сердцу
at heart в глубине души
to take offence обижаться
to give (to get, to ask) permission дать (получить, попросить) разрешение
to lose heart терять мужество
from time to time время от времени
from morning till night с утра до вечера
from day to day со дня на день
from shop to shop из магазина в магазин
from head to foot с головы до ног
from beginning to end с начала до конца
at first sight с первого взгляда
at sunrise на рассвете
atsunsetнaзaкaтe
at work за работой
at night ночью
athomeдoмa
at реасе в мире
atwar в состоянии войны
at dinner (breakfast, supper) за обедом (завтраком, ужином)
attaЬie за столом (т. е. за обедом, завтраком, ужином)
at school в школе (на занятиях)
Ьу chance случайно
Ьу mistake по ошибке
Ьу land, Ьу sea, Ьу air сушей, морем, по воздуху
bytram (train, boat, bus etc) трамваем (поездом, пароходом, автобусом и т. д.)
Ьу air воздушным путем
Ьу water водным путем

38
u.;
Ьу post (airmail) по почте (воздушной почтой) ...)

Ьу heart наизусть u
Ьу паmе по имени f--
:X
Ьу order of по приказу кого-либо <
Ьу meaпs of посредством щ

to Ье iп towп быть в городе ~

to go to towп поехать в город


to go to bed ложиться спать
to Ье iп bed лежать в постели
to go to sea стать моряком, выходить в море
for hours часами
for ages целую вечность
iп time во время
iп deЬt в долгу
iп demaпd пользоваться спросом
оп demaпd по требованию
iп sight в поле зрения
iп fact в действительности
iп coпclusioп в заключение
оп deck на палубе
оп board the ship на борту судна
оп credit в кредит
оп sale в продаже
dауаftеrdауденьзаднем
day and nightднeм и ночью
to Ье at hospital быть в больнице
to Ье in church быть в церкви
to Ье at prison быть в тюрьме
to put to prison посадить в тюрьму
to make use of использовать
to рау attention to обратить внимание
to set fire to поджечь
to shake hands with поздороваться
to take care of заботиться

IY'fEXERCISES

Exercise 1
Insert а or an if пecessary.
l. Му neighbour is ..... photographer; let's ask him for ... advice about colour
films. 2. We had ... fish and ..... chips for ..... lunch. That doesn't sound ..... very
iпterestiпg lunch. 3. 1 had ..... very bad night; I didn't sleep ..... wink. 4. Не is .....

39
;"::
~
vegetarian; you \Von't get ..... meat at his house. 5...... travel ageпt would give you
"-'
о ..... information about ..... hotels. 6. We'd better go Ьу ..... taxi- ifwe can get .....
с::
~
taxi at such ..... lюur as 2 a.m. 7. Do you take ..... sugar in ..... cotfee? 1 used to,
< but ПО\V I'm on ..... diet. I'm trying to lose ..... weight. 8...... mап sufferiпg from
~
..... slюck should not Ье giveп anything to drink. 9 ...... Mr Smith is ..... old
~
< customer апd ..... hoпest man. Why do you say that? Has he been accused of .....
cr:;
:;.; dishonesty? 10 ...... friend of mine is expecting ..... ЬаЬу. If it's ..... girl she is
goiпg to Ье called Helen. 11. 1 have ..... hour and ..... halffor lunch. I only have
:/1
_, half ..... hour ..... time for ..... cup of coffee. 12. I hope you have ..... love1y time
С; апd ..... good weatl1er. But 1'т not going for ..... holiday; I'm going on ..... business.
z 13. Не looked at me with ..... horror when I explained that 1 was ..... policeman.
~
14. I won't climb ..... mountain because 1 have ..... horror of ..... heights.

Exercise 11
lпsert а or an if necessary.
1. I have ..... headache and ..... sore throat. I think I've got ..... cold. I think
you're getting the flu. 2...... Mr Jones called while you were out. Не wants to
make ..... complaint about ..... article in the paper. Не was in ..... very bad
temper. 3. If you go Ьу ..... train you сап have quite ..... comfortaЬie journey,
but make sure you get ..... express, not ..... train that stops at all the stations.
4. l'm having ..... few friends in to ..... coffee tomorrow eveлing. Would you like
to соте?- l'd love to, but I'm afraid I'm goiпg to ..... concert. 5. It's time you
had ..... holiday. You haven't had ..... day offfor ..... montl1. 6. Не broke ..... leg
in ..... skiiпg accident. It's still in ..... p\aster. 7. 1 want ..... assistant with .....
knowledge of French. 8. 1 see that your house is built of ..... wood. Are you
insured against ..... fire? 9. I had ..... amaziлg experience last night. I saw .... .
dinosaur eating ..... meat pie in Loпdon Park. - You mean you had .... .
nightmare. Anyway, diлosaurs didn't eat ..... meat. 10. I'll рау you ..... hundred
..... week. It's not ..... large salary but after all you are ..... completely unskilled
man. 11 ...... little is known about the effect of this medicine; yet ..... chemist
will sell it to you without ..... prescription. 12. I have ..... little money Ieft; let's
have diпner in ..... restaurant. 13. Would it Ье ..... trouЬ!e to you to buy me .....
newspaper on your way home? 14 ...... man is ..... clever animal.

Exercise 111
lnsert the if пecessary.
1...... youngest Ьоу has just started goiпg to ..... school ...... eldest Ьоу is at .....
college. 2. Sl1e lives оп ..... top floor of an old house. When ..... wind Ьlows, all
..... windows rattle. 3 ...... darkпess doesп't worry ..... cats; ..... cats сап see in
..... dark. 4. М у little boys say that they want to Ье ..... spacemen, but most of
them will рrоЬаЬ!у have ..... less dangerousjobs. 5. Do you know ..... time?-
Yes, ..... clock in ..... hall has just struck пine. Then it isn't ..... time to go yet.
40
6. Не was sent to ..... prison for ..... six months. When ..... six months are over I.J..i
....)

he'll Ье released ...... difficulty then will Ье to fi11d ..... work. 7. l we11t to .... . '-'
-
f-
school to talk to ..... headmistress. I persuaded her to let Ann give up .... . о::
gymnastics a11d take ..... ballet lessons instead. 8 ...... ballet isn't much use for <
..... girls; it is much better to Ье аЬ!е to play ..... piano. 9. I am on ..... night duty. ш
:::
When you go to ..... bed, l go to ..... work. 1О. Peter's at ..... office but you could f-
get him on ..... phone. There's а telephone boxjust round ..... corner. 11. Не got
..... bronchitis and was taken to ..... hospital. I expect tl1ey'll send him home at
..... end of ..... week. Have you ru11g ..... hospital to ask how he is? 12. Ann's
habit of ridi11g а motorcycle up and down ..... road early in ..... morning trouЬ!ed
..... 11eighbours and in ..... end theytook her to court. 13. Не first went to ..... sea
in а Swedish ship, so as well as learning ..... navigation he l1ad to learn .....
Swedish. 14 ...... family hotels are ..... hotels which welcome ..... parents and
..... children. 15. On ..... Sundays my father stays in ..... bed till ten o'clock,
reading ..... Sunday papers. 16. Then he gets up, puts on ..... old clothes, has .....
breakfast a11d starts ..... work in ..... garden. 17. М у pare11ts have ..... cold meat
and ..... salad for ..... supper i11 ..... winter and ..... summer.

Exercise IV
I11sert the if necessary.
1. We have а very good train service from here to ..... city centre and most people
go to ..... work Ьу train. You сап go Ьу ..... bus too, of course, but you сап get а
seaso11 ticket on ..... bus. 2. I'd like to see ..... Mr Smith, please. Do you mean
..... Mr Smith who works i11 ..... Ьох office or ..... other Mr Smith? 3. Did you
соте Ьу ..... air?- No, I came Ьу ..... sea. I had а lovely voyage 011 ..... Queen
Elizabeth 1/. 4 ...... most of ..... stories that ..... people tell about ..... Irish aren't
true. 5...... married couples with ..... children often re11t ..... cottages Ьу .... .
seaside for ..... summer holidays. The me11 hire boats a11d go for ..... trips along
..... coast; ..... cl1ildren spend ..... day 011 ..... beach and ..... poor mothers spe11d
..... most ofthe time doing ..... cooking and cleaning. 6. It's usually safe to walk
011 ..... sa11d, but here, when ..... tide is coming in, ..... sand becomes da11gerously
soft ..... people have been swallowed up Ьу it. 7. Whe11 ..... Тitanic was crossing
..... Atlantic she struck an iceberg which tore а huge hole i11 her bow..... .
captain ordered ..... crew to help ..... passe11gers into ..... boats. 8. Everywhere
..... ma11 has cut down ..... forests iв order to cultivate ..... grouпd or to use .....
wood as ..... fuel or as ..... building material. 9 ...... people think that ..... lead is
..... heaviest metal, but ..... gold is heavier. 1О. Our air hostess said, " ..... rack is
опlу for ..... light articles, ..... heavy things sucl1 as ..... bottles must Ье put 011
..... floor". 11 ...... windows are supposed to let in ..... light; but ..... windows on
this house are so small that we have to have electric light on all ..... time.
12. They'll always Ье а coвflict betweeп ..... old апd ..... youпg ...... young
people waпt ..... change but ..... old people wa11t ..... tl1iпgs to stay ..... same.
41
::.:: 13. You can foo1 some of ..... реор1е all ..... time, and all ..... реор1е some of .....
с
·::;) time; but you cannot fool all ..... реор1е all ..... time.
~

0::
Exercise V
<
~ 1пsert а, an or the if necessary.
:;;:
< l knew ..... man who had travelled very much in his Jife. Не had visited many
с::;
1;.;
countries iп ..... East and in ..... West. Не loved ..... cl1ildren and often told
them ..... interesting stories. 1 remember some of ..... stories wl1ich he told me.
</1
One ofthem was about ..... adventure he had iп ..... London. Не was ..... young
...;
о
man at that time and was interested in ..... history of architecture. One day he
z visited one of ..... towers of ..... Houses of ..... Parliament. Не came out оп to .....
t..ч
balcony of ..... tower and began to look at ..... ornaments оп ..... walls. Then he
climbed up оп ..... roof. Suddenly ..... man came ruппing to him and seized
him Ьу ..... arm. Не began shoutiпg something in ..... Eпglish, but my friend
knew only ..... few words of ..... Eпglish and did not understand hiш ..... .
Eпglishman called ..... роliсешав ...... fact was that he thought that ..... Russian
tourist wanted to kill hiшselfby juшping froш ..... top of ..... tower. Later, when
everything became clear, they laughed а Jot over it.

Exercise Vl
Insert а, an or the ifnecessary.
1...... thunder and .. .lightning are caused by. .. electricity. 2 ...... last time 1 saw
you was in ..... 2002. 3. We met ..... last year. 4. Have you ever seen such .....
terriЬ!e weather? 5. Is there ..... bus to ..... town where ..... Browпs \ive? 6. Wlыt
..... terriЬ!e noise tl1ey are making ..... next door. 7. What ..... pity you didв't see
..... filш. It was ..... шost interesting. 8. Please do shut ..... wiпdow; ..... flies соше
in froш ..... garden in ..... eveniпg. 9. There is ..... o\d tree in ..... front of ..... house,
with ..... very pretty flowers in ..... spring. 1О. Do you go to ..... school? Do you go
to ..... school on ..... hill? 11. They usually se\1 ..... eggs Ьу ..... dozen. 12. They
made him ..... secretary of ..... club; they 11ad already chosen ..... ci1airman.
13. l went for ..... walk after ..... dinner. 14 ...... people iп ..... pi1oto, from ..... left
to ..... rigi1t, are Тош, Dick апd Harry. Harry is staпding on ..... left of Dick.
15. She always liked ..... good coпversation авd ..... сотраnу of ..... iпteresting
people. 16. There is ..... very pleasant couпtry rouпd ош town. 17. I have воt
forgotteп ..... promise you made me ..... last week. 18 ...... water is very 11ard iп our
part of ..... couпtry. 19. Не does воt like to take ..... advice, еvеп ..... advice of .....
clever people. 20. Tom's faшily could not aflord to give hiш ..... educatioп.

Exercise Vll
Iпsert а, an or the if пecessary.

1. Mrs Ivaпova is ..... director of ..... sci1ool ..... NQ 12. 2. Peter's father is .... .
experieпced engiпeer. 3. Му friend has pronouпcing dictionary Ьу .... .

42
щ
Dr Jones, ..... professor of ..... phonetics at ..... London University. 4. It is too ...l
important ..... matter to Ье discussed Ьу ..... children alone. 5. I simply could v

not reject so invitiпg ..... offer. 6...... Popovs started on their trip on ..... following f-
с::
day. 7...... two geпtlemen in the carriage were greatly frightened. 8 ...... 31st -<
~
of... December is ..... 1ast day of ..... year. 9. This is ... on1y road to ..... village. ..,..
10. It is ... very book I need. 11 ...... 1ast winter I visited ..... Tretyakov Gallery. .....
12 ...... rubber is ...juice ot' ..... rubber plant. 13. lt is ..... great pleasure to listen
how you р1ау ..... рiапо.

Exercise Vlll
Insert а, an or the if necessary.
1...... fog was so thick that we couldn't see ..... side of ..... road. We followed
..... car in front of us and hoped that we were going ..... right way.
2...... postman's little Ьоу says that he'd rather Ье ..... dentist than ..... doctor,
because ..... dentists don't get called онt at ..... night. 3...... day after ..... day
passed without ..... news, and we Ьеgап to lose ..... hope. 4. We're going to .....
tea with ..... Smiths today, aren't we? Shall we take ..... car? - We сап go Ьу
..... car ifyou wash ..... car first. We can't go to ..... Mrs Smitl1's iп ..... car all
covered with ..... mud. 5. Не got ..... job in ..... south and spent ..... next two
years doing ..... work he really eпjoyed. 6. lt was ..... windy morning but they
hired ..... boat and went for ..... sail along ..... coast. In ..... afternoon ..... wiпd
increased and they soon found theшselves in ..... difficнlties. 7. Doп't give the
same task to ..... strongest and ..... weakest students. 8. Both ..... juпior
aпd ... seпior members ofthe family were present at the diпner-party. 9. It was
..... wonderfнl concert: ..... conductor апd ..... violiпist both were а great
success with the puЬlic. 10. lt was ..... Ьlue night with ..... full moon hanging
over ..... city. 11. Don't give me ..... milk. You know I 11ate it at this time of .....
day. 12. They had two children, опе of them still at ..... sc}юol, ..... other in
her first year at ..... university. 13. Не looked clean and brushed; he was goiпg
to ..... town for ..... day.

Exercise IX
Traпslateinto English.
1. Я познакомился с ним в одном маленьком южном городе. 2. Какой-то
человек ждет вас около дома. 3. Кто принес это письмо? - Какой-то
мальчик. 4. Где словарь?- Он в книжном шкафу. 5. Кто эта женшина?­
Она жена одного инженера, который работает на нашем заводе. 6. Ка­
кой -то человек звонил вам по телефону сегодня утром. 7. Я знал их, ког­
да они были студентами. 8. Он родился в одном маленьком городе неда­
леко от Москвы. 9. Дверь открылась, и в комнату вошел молодой человек
с чемоданом в руке. 10. Когда профессор вошел в аудиторию, студенты
встали. 11. Ребенку легко изучать иностранный язык. 12. Какой пре-
43
~
красный день! 13. Какая теплая погода! 14. Это такой интересный рас­
с
о сказ. 15. Это слишком легкий текст для вас. 16. Они такие образован­
::;:
ные люди!
::::
-<
:2 Exercise Х
:;;:.
< Translate into English.
::::
'-=' l. Прошлым летом мы жили в деревне, расположенной на берегу Волги, в
маленьком домике, окруженном большим садом. 2. Перед домом росли ог­
'"' ромные старые липы. 3. Вчера я разговаривал с человеком, который провел
'-' несколько лет в Китае. 4. Я не помню цифр, которые он упомянул в своем
z докладе. 5. Человек, который хочет овладеть иностранным языком, должен
~
работать очень усердно и систематически. 6. Я только что прочел рассказ,
который мне очень понравился. 7. Рассказ, который я только что прочел,
очень интересный. 8. Мы встретимся после школы?- Где?- У входа в шко­
лу. 9. Была уже ночь; но, к счастью, это была летняя ночь, и погода стояла
сухая. 10. День только что начался, и воздух был чист и прохладен. 11. Я
зайду после обеда. 12. Он просил меня передать вам, что они пойдут на
экскурсию в Эрмитаж на следующей неделе. 13. Нам его рекомендовали
как человека с хорошим знанием языка. 14. Некоторые люди едят мороже­
ное на улице даже зимой. 15. Такие сведения всегда нужны.

Exercise Xl
Traпslate iпto Eпglish.

1. В маленькой комнате книжная полка удобнее, чем шкаф. 2. Он любит


пить не из чашки, а только из стакана. 3. Проблема такого рода должна
вас интересовать. 4. Они вошли в вагон, в котором не было свободных
мест. 5. Я еще никогда не видел дружбы крепче, чем дружба этих двух
людей. 6. Она посмотрела на часы на углу и поняла, что опоздает на
поезд. 7. Сегодня группа журналистов, которая состоит в основном из
студентов, начнет подниматься на Эльбрус. 8. Вашего сына будет опе­
рировать хирург, который сейчас работает над диссертацией на эту тему.
9. Рано утром, до завтрака, спортсмены ходили на речку купаться.
1О. Что у нас будет на ужин? 11. В этой столовой вы всегда можете получить
горячий завтрак. 12. По субботам у них обычно бывают гости к ужину.
13. Экскурсанты приезжают сюда днем и ночью сушей и морем. 14. Мы
провели лето на Днепре. 15. Будьте внимательны, вы сделали ошибку.

Exercise Xll
Translate into Eпg1ish.
1. Мне нужен совет в этом трудном деле. 2. Жалко сидеть дома в такую
прекрасную погоду. 3. Не сидите так долго на солнце, у вас заболит голо­
ва. 4. Черное море очень бурно зимой. 5. Она очень любит музыку.

44
!.'-'
6. Небо бьuю ясное, а звезды ярко светили. 7. Какие приятные новости
>
вы нам принесли! 8. Волга самый важный водный путь в нашей стране. f-
9. Было раннее утро, и трава была покрыта росой. 10. Молоко, которое я u
:..LJ
купила сегодня утром, скисло. 11. Было теплое утро; легкий ветер дул с .....
с:
моря. 12. В Крыму растут очень хорошие сорта винограда. 13. Был вечер <
и семья сидела за столом. 14. Чай очень крепкий, долейте немного воды. L.U
:::
15. Я надеюсь, что вы не будете проводить свои каникулы в городе. ....

The Adjective
Adjectives describe nouns. They have the same form in both the singular and the
plural. They normally go before nouns. They also go alone (without nouns) after the
verbsappear, Ье, become, feel, seem, sme/J, taste, look, getetc.
The egg sme/Js awfu/. П1е soup tastes delicious.
Adjectives сап Ье common, derived and compound.
Some common adjectives ( good, red, sad) do not have endings blJt many derived
adjectives formed from nouns and verbs have а particular ending (or suffix). These are:
-аЬ\е comfortaЫe -ent dependent
-al accidental -esque picturesque
-ant reluctant -ful useful
-ar popular -ian ltalian
-ary imaginary -iЬie horriЫe
-ate passionate -ic historic

-ical historical -like businesslike


-ious victorious -ly friendly
-ish childish -ory compulsory
-ist racist -ous humorous
-ive attractive -some wholesome
-less useless -у sunny

Adjectives are also formed with prefixes which generally t1ave а negative meaning:
possiЬ/e- impossiЬ/e.
Theseare:
un- untrue, unwise im- immoral, impractical
in- incorrect, insincere dis- dishonest, disagreeaЫe
il- illegal, illegiЫe ir- irregular, irresponsiЫe

45
::.::
с Note. Adjectives derived from proper nouns are written with а capitalletter
·'"'
'-'
and are called proper adjectives: Russian, lndian, Hungarian etc.
;::::,
::>:::
<
.... There are also compound adjectives which are formed with:
"""
г: 1. present participles: а never-ending story,
<
..""'
с:: 2. past participles: worn-out shoes,
3. cardinal numerals + nouns: а three-week ho/iday,
Vl
4. an adjective + an adjective: а dark-Ь/ue dress,
......:: 5. we\1, badly, ill, poorly + past participle: а we/1-paidjob,
:.;
z 6. а nounjpronoun +а verbal: а heart-breaking decision,
~ 7. an adjectivejadverb +а noun + the suffix -ed: а fair-haired girl.

Certain adjectives can Ье used as plural nouns referring to а group of people in


general.
These are: the poor, the rich, the Ыind, the young, the old, the disaЬ/ed, the
hungry, the strong, the deaf, the living, the dead, the sick, the elderly etc.
The rich should he/p the poor.

MEXERCISES

Exercise 1
Study the list of adjectives formed from nouns. Say lюw adjectives can Ье formed,
\Vhat suffixes can Ье used for that.

Noun
-------
Adjective Noun Adje':!ive_
adventure adventurous faith faithful
athlete athletic fool foolish
beauty beautiful friend friendly
Ьоу boyish gold golden
continent continental hero heroic
courage courageous metal metallic
coward cowardly music musical
noise пoisy mistery mysterious
poet poetic natioп national
star starry пature natural
111!
terror terriЬie person personal
value valuaЬ!e skill skilful
sun suпny

46
~
Exercise 11 >
Complete these phrases using the adjectives formed from the nouns: !-
~
а ......................................................... sea (storm) iJ.J
...,
а ......................................................... sound (metal) С;
..t,
........................................................... behaviour (child)
iJ.J
........................................................... forests (value) ~

!-
........................................................... wonder (nature)
а ......................................................... place (mystery)
а ......................................................... phrase (poet)
а ......................................................... armclшir (comfort)
а ......................................................... class (friend)
а ......................................................... deed (courage)
........................................................... streets (centre)
an ....................................................... trip (adventure)

Exercise 111
Form adjectives from the given words with the help ofthe suffixes:
Wonder, friend, trouЬle, Ыооd, harm, саге, green, wool, tire, truth, comfort,
faith, shame, sun, wood, attract, fool, humour, occasion, rain, nature.

Exercise IV
Complete each sentence Ьу inserting the adjective formed from the noun in brackets:
1. This has been а very ....... decision (fool).
2. The shop was situated in а ....... square (centre).
3. Gold is а very ....... metal (value).
4. The runner was а man of ....... build (athlete).
5. We studied the ....... sky througl1 а telescope (star).
6. Не feels quite ....... in this warm, light room (comfort).
7. Mark Twain wrote many ....... stories (humour).
8. А ....... person soon puts you at your ease (friend).

Exercise V
а)Study this list ofproper adjectives. Say how they are formed.

Proper Noun Proper Adjective Pro~er Nou!l__ Proper Adjective


Britain British Italy Italian
Canada Canadian Japan Japanese
China Chinese Scotland Scottish
Europe European Spain Spanish
France French Wales Welsh
Germany German Greece Greek
Ireland Irish Mexico Mexican
47
::.:: Ь) Insert tl1e correct proper adjective in each phrase below.
о
с~
~
............................................. athletes (Canada)
:.:: .............. ...... .. ....................... traditions (Japan)
< .......... ............ ............ ........ ... Isles (Britain)
~
:;;: .. . .. .. .. .. .. . . .. .. .. ...... .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. ... humour (France)
< .............. dances (Spaiп)
:::::::
................... championship (Europe)
"
'/1
.... .. .. ... soпgs (Scotlaпd)
_j
music (ltaly)
·~
'--'
z Exercise Vl
'-J
In eacl1 space iпsert the adjective formed from the proper noun.
The humour oflrelaпd ...... .. .................... humour
The lakes of Canada .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. lakes
The people of China .. .. . .. .. .. .. .... .. .. .. .. ... people
The mountains of Scotland .. .. .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... mountains
А village of Mexico .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. village
The population of France .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... population
The plants of Germany .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. plants
Computers of Japan ... .. ........ ............... computers
The tourists ofltaly ............................ tourists
The Armada of Spain .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... Armada
The coast of Greece .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. coast

Exercise Vll
Suffixes -аЬ!е, -ous, -а!, -ful, -у, -less, -ic are often used to form adjectives. Make
adjectives from each ofthe following words.
geography person uпderstand experiment
hero patriot luck health
enjoy truth classic remark
mystery glory nerve fun
noise woпder colour harm
greed grass care fantasy
eat delight artist fear

Exercise Vlll
Form adjectives from the given ones \Vith the help ofthe prefixes.
Certain, pleasant, attentive, сараЬlе, legal, successful, definite, moral, visiЬle,
important, frieпdly, convenient, logical, polite, l1appy, patient, grateful,
educated.

48
tJJ
Exercise IX ;;...
Use adjectives with the negative prefix in р1асе ofthe adjectives with the preceding 1-
not. :..J
(.J.,J
....,
1. lt was not probaЬle that more than one child would win the scholarship а с:

year. 2. The scholarship examination was not fair. 3. 1 do not fee1 well in this <
u..
climate. The c1imate here is not agreeaЬle. 4. His handwriting was so bad that :::
the notes he usually took were not legiЬle to anybody but himse1f. 5. Нis 1-

knowledge in the subject does not seem to Ье satisfactory.

Exercise Х
Translate into Eпglish using the пegative prefixes.
Неспособный, неудобный, несоединенный, неофициальный, неудовлет­
ворительный, несправедливый, неподвижный, нерешенный, незначи­
тельный, нетерпеливый, неграмотный, неблагодарный, неестественный,
нерелигиозный, независимый.

Exercise Xl
Trans1ate iпto Russian the following compound adjectives.
1. А broad-brimmed hat. 2. А tile-floored kitchen. 3. А fat merry-lookiпg little
old mап. 4. The kind old man never comes to the children empty-handed.
5. Red-hot steel. 6. А dark-complexioпed young girl. 7. It was а weather-
beaten old ship. 8. А marЬle-topped taЬle. 9. А ten-thousand-dollar car. 10. А
twenty-year-old building.

Exercise Xll
Make compound adjectives to describe the following.
1. А book which is written badly. 2. А city that has no pollution. 3. An
announcement which has been awaited for а long time. 4. А course that lasts
three years. 5. А worker who works hard. 6. А busjourney that takes two hours.
7. А hotel with five stars. 8. А room that has good ventilation.

Word Order of Adjectives


Adjectives normally go before nouns. Sometimes there are two or more adjectives
in the sentence.
Му friend has а nice new f/at.
There was а beautifullarge round wooden tаЬ/е in the dining room.

49
:.<: Adjectives like new, /arge, round, wooden are fact adjectives. They give us
~
'-'
""
~ objective iпformatioп about somethiпg (age, size, colour etc. ).
;Xi
Adjectives like nice, beautiful are орiпiоп adjectives. They tell us what someoпe
се:

< thiпks of somethiпg.


""'
~
Орiпiоп adjectives usually go before fact adjectives.
;:;::
<
се: Opinion Fact Noun
r.; -
:::: апiсе suппу day
(,/1
delicious hot soup
~
ап iпtelligeпt youпg mап

z abeautiful large rouпd woodeп tаЫе


щ

lf there are two or more fact adjectives, we put fact adjectives iп this order:
size с:> age с:> shape с:> colour с:> origin с:> material с:> noun
atall youпg girl
Ьig - - grey eyes
asmall - - Ыuе plastic bag
а large square woodeп taЬie
aпold Eпglish - soпg

апеw Ыасk woolleп skirt

Adjectives of size апd leпgth (Ьig, sma/1, ta/1, short, long etc.) usually go before
adjectives of shape апd width (round, thin, fat, wide etc.): а sma/1 round tаЬ/е, а ta/1
thin woman, а long white street.
The adjectives afraid, alike, alive, alone, ashamed, as/eep, content, glad, i/1 etc.
are пever followed Ьу а поuп.
The chi/d was never left а/опе.
The adjectives chief, elder, e/dest, former, indoor, inner, main, оп/у, outdoor,
outer, principal, upper сап опlу Ье used before поuпs.
Не is the eldest son.
Nouпs which express purpose, material or substaпce (cotton, gold, shopping
etc.) сап Ье used as adjectives before other поuпs.
1bought а new woollen hat.

Note. Goldeп hair (hair like gold) but gold watch (watch made of gold),
woodeп tаЫе, woolleп scarf, silk dress but silky hair, stoпe wall but
stoпy look, feather pillow but feathery leaves.

50
[У'( EXERCISES щ

-u>
f-
Exercise 1 щ
...,
Put the adjectives in the correct order. ~
<
1. а Japanese/1ittle/pretty/girl ш

2. a(n) wedding/expensive/silk/white/dress ........... . :::


f-
3. a(n) pair of leather/Ьlack/walking/old/shoes
4. a(n) English/ancient/famous/monument ........... .
5. а detective/new/fasciпating/French/film ........... .
6. а red/lovely/marЬle/chess set
7. а dessert/crystal/lovelyjЬowl ........... .

Exercise 11
Put the adjectives in the correct order.
1. а long/linen/cream/dress
2. а three-course/home-made/delicious/meal ........... .
3. a(n) interesting/nice/short/speech
4. Spanish/livejexcellent music
5. а round/gold/Ьig brooch
6. а grey/smartj\voollen/new jsuit
7. a(n) old/Ьlack/leather/jacket ........... .

Exercise 111
Put the adjectives in brackets in the correct position.
1. long hair (fair)
2. а large tаЬ!е (wooden) ........... .
3. а wide street (long)
4. а tall girl (thin)
5. а little cottage (old)
6. а good--lookiпg woman (youпg)
7. а sma\1 cat (Ьlack)
8. а beautiful dress (red) ........... .
9. an o\d shirt (cotton)
1О. а Ь!не car (little) ........... .
11. а wooden Ьох (small) ........... .
12. an old soпg (Italian)
13. а sunny day (nice)

51
::.::
о
с
Comparison of Adjectives
~

:::.::: There are three degrees of comparison for adjectives in English.


< 1) positive, which shows а simple quality: sma/1, deep, wise, hot;
г:
;.;: 2) comparative, which shows а high degree of the quality: smaller, deeper,
< wiser, hotter;
:::.:::
с 3) superlative, which shows the highest degree of quality: the smal/est, the
-
t /,
deepest, the wisest, the hottest.
....;
v·~ Notes. А noun preceded Ьу an adjective in the superlative form is generally
z used with the definite artic\e:
~

Mike is the tallest Ьоу in the family.


The comparative form is used when comparing two persons or things. The
superlative form is used only when comparing three or more persons or things.
Not а\1 adjectives have degrees of comparison.

Two Ways of Forming the Comparative


and the Superlative Degrees
There are two ways of forming the comparative and the superlative degrees:
а) Ьу adding -er( -г) ( comparative) and -est( -st) ( superlative) to the positive
degree;
Ь) Ьу adding to the positive degree
тоге 1 to form
less the comparative degree
most 1 to form
least the superlative degree

Adjectives of One SyllaЬie


Most adjectives of one syllaЫe compare Ьу adding -er( -г) and -est( -st):
Positive Comparative_ Superlative
hard harder the hardest
Ьig bigger the biggest
light lighter the lightest
short shorter the shortest

52
щ

Note 1 . lf the positive ends in two consonants or in one consonant preceded >
Ьу а diphthong, -е г and -est are added: !-
u
small smaller the smallest ш
...,
long longer the longest с::
<
light lighter the lightest ш

bright brighter the brightest :::


Е-
Note 2. lf the positive ends in one consonant preceded Ьу а short vowel, the
consonant is douЫed before adding -е г and -est:
Ьig Ьigger the Ьiggest
fat fatter the fattest
hot hotter the hottest
Note 3. lf the positive ends in -е, add only -г and -st:
wise wiser the wisest
white whiter the whitest
safe safer thesafest
Note4.
а. lf the positive ends in -у preceded Ьу а consonant, change the -у into -i and
add -er and -est:
early earlier the earliest
pretty prettier the prettiest
happy happier the happiest
There are some exceptions like shy and sly:
shy shyer the shyest
sly slyer the slyest
Ь. lfthe -у is preceded Ьу а vowel, the -у is not changed:
grey greyer Н1е greyest
gay gayer the gayest

Adjectives of Two SyllaЬies

1. Most adjectives of two syllaЫes compare Ьу adding тоге or less and most
or leastto the positive:
more themost
famous famous famous
less the least
more themost
active active active
less the least

53
~ 2. Adjectives of two syllaЫes with the stress оп the second syllaЫe compare like
с
с adjectives of one syllaЫe:
~
polite politer the politest
а::
< sincere sincerer the sincerest
2
2 3. Adjectives ending in -а/, -ed, -fuf, -ic, -ife, -ine, -ous form their comparative
<
а::
and superlative degrees Ьу adding тоге and mostto the positive:
liberal more liberal the most liberal
"'::::
:/')
learned more learned the most learned
cheerful more cheerful the most cheerful
-'
~ magic moremagic the most magic
7-. fertile more fertile the most fertile
~

4. Certain adjectives form their comparative and superlative in both ways, either
Ьу adding -eгj-est to the positive form or Ьу taking тогеjтоst. Some of
these are: cfeveг, соттоп, cruef, fгiendfy, gentfe, паггоw, p/easant, polite,
shallow, siтpfe, stupid, quiet.
simple simpler the simplest
also simple more simple the most simple

Adjectives of Three and More SyllaЫes


Most adjectives of three or more syllaЫes compare Ьу adding тоге or fess, and
тost or
/east to the positive:
beautiful more beautiful the most beautiful
courageous more courageous the most courageous
industrious more industrious the most industrious
interesting less interesting the least interesting

lrregular Forms of Comparison


Some adjectives have irregular forms of comparison:
good better the best
bad (ill, evil) worse theworst
many
much
little
> more
less
thernost
the least
А few adjectives have two forms of comparison:
farther the farthest
far
further the furthest

54
щ
latter the last
late >
later the latest -f-
v
thenearest ~
.....,
near nearer
thenext с
<.
older theoldest щ

old :::
elder theeldest .....

Note 1 . Farther and farthest are used for distance; further and furthest are
used to mean something additional:
The scfюol is at the farthest end of the village.
Further discussion wi/1 follow.
Note 2. Later and latest are used for denoting time, latter and /ast are used
for denoting order:
Did you hear the latest news?
The last edition of this book is so/d out.
Note 3. Nearest refers to distance, next is used when order is meant:
Т11е nearest town is 30 km.
Соте again the next day.

Note 4. Elder and eldest are used for the people of the same tamily. 0/der
and oldest are used to denote age for things and other people:
John is the eldest son of his family.
lt is the oldest building in our city.

Constructions with Comparisons


а) Comparison of equals is expressed Ьу as ... as for positive comparison and
not as ... as or not so ... as for negative comparison.
An арр/е is usual/y as blg as an orange.
А grape is not so ( as) Ьig as an orange.

Ь} Twice (five time etc) as Ьig ( long etc) as ... is used to show that оп е exceeds
the other several times.
This route is twice as fong as that one.
We use halftl1e size to say в два раза меньше
halfthe age в два раза моложе
half the weight в два раза легче
half as muchjmany в два раза меньше

55
:L с) Comparison of two unequal persons or things is expressed Ьу the comparative
с
о withthan.
с::;
Не is talleг than his Ьгоthег.
х
< А тountain is higheг than а hi/1.
~ The Ыие саг is /ess expensive than the геd one.
:;?
<
х
d) Comparison ofthree or more persons or things is expressed bythe superlative
;;;; with the ... of or the ... in ( of place ).
...v, Тот is the c/eveгest Ьоу in the c/ass .
Ann is the pгettiest of theт а/1.
-'
<.•i е) Sometimes two comparatives are used together. For example hагdег and
z
~ hагdег, тоге and тоге difficult, betteгand betteг.
Уоиг English is iтpгoving. lt's getting betteг and better.

f) Sometimes the construction the + comparative the betteг is used. For


example:
the sooneг the betteг.
the Ьiggeг the betteг.
What tiтe wilf we leave?- The sooneг the betteг.
g) The ... the ... with two comparatives are used to say that one thing depends on
anotherthing:
The еагliег we leave, the sooneг we will аггivе.
The wагтег is the weatheг, the betteг 1feel.
h) Adjectives in the comparative and the superlative can Ье made more emphatic
Ьу adding some words. Comparatives are preceded Ьу
much гораздо а great deal значительно
а blt (little) немного still еще
far намного

Superlatives are preceded Ьу


the very самый
byfar намного, гораздо,

and they are followed Ьу possiЬ/e, iтaginaЬ/e:


Не was fаг тоге than а tгanslatoг.
England is тисh Jaгgeгthan Scotland.
Уоиг flat is а gгeat dea/ betteг than тine.
This text is still тоге difficult.
She is the vегу best pupil in оиг class.
lt is Ьу fаг the тost difficult task.
lt is the easiest task possiЬ/e.

lj 56
Use of Some Adjectives >
t-
u
~
Much is always singular, and is used chiefly ....,
С;
а) in questions: <:
Was there тuch rain here /ast week? ~

Ь) in sentences with а negative sense: t-


1don 't like тuch sugar in ту coffee.
Мапу isalways plural:
There are тапу children at school.
Most is preceded Ьу an adjective in the superlative degree:
This is the тost interesting story.
When а noun is preceded Ьу тost, it is used without an article and it means
большинство, большая часть:
Most students like sport.
With the indefinite article тost means крайне, весьма:
His father was а тost experienced hunter.
Few and /ittle are used
а) preceded Ьу the indefinite article when the sentence has а positive sense:
lt wi/1 Ье а little boat.
А few pupils were at the concert.
Ь) v.tithout the indefinite article when the sentence has а negative sense:
We have little tiтe for breakfast.
There are few people present.

~EXERCISES

Exercise 1
Write the comparative and the superlative degrees ofthe foilowing adjectives.
Great, difficult, busy, far, polite, careful, deep, bad, dirty, clever, quick, little,
different, young, comfortaЬ!e, narrow, pretty, sad, Ьig, happy, old, late, heavy,
nice, dry, fat, ugly, joyful, yellow, sweet, near.

Exercise 11
Open the brackets using the comparative or the superlative degree wherever
necessary.
1. It's autumn; every day the air becomes ( cold), the leaves (yellow). 2. This is
the (beautiful) view 1 have ever seen in my life. 3. Your handw1·itiпg is now
(good) than it was last year; but still it is not so good as Pete 's handwriting. Не

57
::.:: has the (good) haпdwriting of all. 4. Are there (таnу) thaп two rooms iп your
Q
с new flat? 5. The weather got (bad) апd (bad) every day. 6. His age was fifty; he
~
looked several years (old). 7. Не is nшch (good) поw tl1an yesterday. 8. Oh, you
с.::
< are (wonderful), you're (wonderful) girl iп the whole wor\d. 9. Не was (huпgry)
~
thaп he had ever Ьееп in his lif'e. 10. The twenty-second of December is the
:г.:
< (shoti) day ofthe year.
с.::

"='
-
' /;
Exercise 111
-' Open the brackets usiпg the comparative or thc superlative degree.
с
7- 1. lron is (useful) of all metals. 2. The Neva is (wide) and (deep) thaп the
~
Moskva River. 3. E1brus is the (high) peak iп the Caucasian mountaiпs. 4. His
рlап is (practical) than yours. 5. This room is (small) thaп all the rooms in the
house. 6. Silver is (heavy) thaп copper. 7. Our house is (low) thaп yours.
8. This exercise is (good) thaп the last оне. 9. Yesterday was the (hot) day \УС
have had this summer. 1О. М у (old) brother John is two years (old) thaп 1 am.
11. The game of (iraugltts is (easy) thaп chess. 12. Thcre is (little) suпshiпe this
sumrner thaп Iast year. 13. lt was (good) concert 1 had ever attended.
14. Your sister is (old) than you, she is the (old) child in tl1e family. 15. Му
composition was (good), Mike's was а good deal (good), but Tom's was the
(good) of all pнpils.

Exercise IV
Use the correct form ofthe adjectivc iп brackets.
1. 1 wonder what his ... action is going to Ье (near).
2. The ... future will see this part ofthe desert turпed into а flourishiпg oasis
(near).
3. 1 have no one ... thaп you (near).
4. Апd they got dowп to busiпess without ... de\ay (far).
5. ln the ... eпd ofthe exhiЬitioп hall we saw а group ofyoung people engaged in
а hot discussioп (far).
6. Take this road. lt is no ... and much more p\easaпt (far).
7. The ... brother was tweпty years ... thaп the youпgest (old).
8. l always admired ту. .. twin brotl1er апd looked up to him though he was
опlу two hours my seпior (old).
9. Who are the ... members ofthe с!нЬ (old)?
10. l've got а still ... editioп of'the book (old).
11. ls there а ... traiп passiпg here (late)?
12. It was the ... thing l had expected ofllim (late).
13. Wlшt is tl1e ... news (late)?
14. We were in а hurry to catch а ... bus (late).

58
iJJ
Exercise V >
Write tl1e missing forms of adjectives. f-
u
...
i...U

~J;itff~ little с:
<
~
щ

'com~~rative worse further =


Е-
~, '· .~ .' ,. с , ~

---·-----

";Supe~:Iative best farthest


;Yt ,,-,

·. ~~~!~r€'~>::~~?' · near

.'~~~~.~ii~~~~::; older later

"su~;~lati~e '
' :. ' :. с' с ./~· .• ,. ~· ' ,,,,' ' '
eldest last

Exercise Vl
Compare the objects according to the given model.
Model 1 А winter coat ... а mackintosh. (warm)
А winter coat is warmer than а mackintosh.
А mackintosh is not so warm as а winter coat.

1. А lemon ... an orange. (sour)


2. The Вlack Sea ... the Baltic Sea. (beautiful)
3. The Chinese language ... the French language. (difficult)
4. А lane ... а street. (narrow)
5. Copper wire ... iron wire. (flexiЬle)
6. The fur of а fox ... the fш of а squirrel. (expensive)
7. Oil ... water. (light)
8. Honey ... sugar. (sweet)
9. Stone ... wood. (heavy)
10. А diamond ... а sapphire. (valuaЬle)

Exercise Vll
Complete the sentences.
l. Our school is as ... as ... 2. The temperature today is as ... as it was yesterday.
3. Не is not so ... as he looks. 4. Нis radio set is not so ... as ... 5. She is as ...
as her sister. 6. The weather in winter is not so ... as ... 7. М у friend is as ... as
... 8. She does not work as ... as ... 9. This street is as ... as ... 10. Our town is
not so ... as ...

59
:L Exercise Vlll
с
о Fill in the Ьlanks with adjectives in the correct form and make up sentences usiпg
~
the word-comЬinatioпs.
с.:
< а) Take adjectives from the followiпg list: fine, successful, unp/easant, simple,
~
;:;. hard, coumgeous, easy, useful, bad, amusing, curious.
< As ... as 1 had expected, ... thaп 1 had expected, ... 1 lшd ever expected, not so ...
с.:
r.; as you imagine, ... than one can imagine, ... thaп before, ... as before, ... of all
Vl
done before, ... than ever, ... as always, ... in the world.
....;
Ь) Use апу adjective you like:
v
z not so ... as it used to Ье; ... than at any other time; ... man ever Ьош; ... of
.....
the children; ... than anywhere else; as ... as the rest ofthem; ... роет ever
written; ... of all the things t\1at happened; nothiпg ... than this; aпything
as ... as that.

Exercise IX
Make up senteпces using the following phrases to emphasize
а) the adjective in tl1e positive degree:
that bad, so interesting, only too glad, this hard;
Ь) the adjective in the comparative degree:
а great deal faster, still easier, far better, no better, tl1e steeper ... the more difficult,
stronger and stronger, more and more interesting;
с) the adjectives in the superlative degree:
Ьу farthe easiest, the nearest ... possiЬ\e, the cheapest ... to Ье found, the smallest
... imaginaЬ\e, the freshest ... possiЬ\e.

Exercise Х
Give the English equivalents of:
а) более трудный; гораздо более трудный; еше более трудный; самый
трудный;
Ь) большее число; гораздо большее число; еще большее число; самое
большое число;
с) более трудная задача; гораздо более трудная задача; еше более трудная
задача; самая трудная задача; самая трудная задача, какая только воз­

можна.

Exercise Xl
Translate into English.
1. Я слышал оба доклада. Первый был значительно интереснее второго.
2. Этот текст еще более трудный, чем тот, который мы nереводили на

60
u.:;
днях. 3. Это крайне важный вопрос. 4. С каждым днем погода ухудша­
>
лась. 5. Сегодня жарче, чем вчера. 6. Я не думал, что моя новая работа i-
окажется настолько трудной. 7. Эта проблема не так серьезна, как вам u
ш

кажется. 8. Язык этой статьи полегче. Начните с нее. 9. Нам нужен шкаф .....
с
поменьше, так как комната небольшая. 10. Ваш брат очень способный <
ш
человек; он самый способный из наших молодых ученых. 11. Советую
пойти этой дорогой, так как это самый короткий путь. 12. Пальто ни­ !-

чуть не хуже после чистки. 13. Чем больше вы будете находиться на от­
крытом воздухе, тем лучше у вас будет здоровье. 14. Кто лучший спорт­
смен в команде? 15. На этот раз у меня меньше ошибок, чем было в
последнем сочинении.

Exercise Xll
Trans1ate into Eпglish.

1. Ваш брат намного старше вас? - Нет, он моложе меня. 2. После­


днее издание этой книги уже распродано. 3. Мы вынуждены были
отложить поездку за город, так как погода становилась все хуже и

хуже. 4. Она была гораздо моложе сноей сестры и менее веселая.


5. Последние известия по телевидению начинаются в девять часов.
6. Чем быстрее вы пойдете к врачу, тем легче будет вылечить вашу
болезнь. 7. Чем больше вы будете читать, тем скорее расширите свой
словарь. 8. Он сильный, он может поднять ящик и в три раза тяже­
лей. 9. Сегодня вдное холодней, чем нчера. 10. Я нашел его в самом
дальнем углу парка. 11. Скажите, пожалуйста, где ближайшая бу­
лочная? 12. Джейн была на год старше Марии. 13. Он чувствовал
себя все лучше и лучше. 14. Москва зимой для него была всегда
привлекательнее, чем летом. 15. Ваша память нисколько не лучше
моей. 16. Какие из всех этих книг вам больше всего нравятся?
17. Ты можешь положиться на него. Он сделает эту работу так же
быстро, как и я.

Exercise Xlll
Translate into English
1. Тема, над которой вы работаете, более сложная, чем моя. 2. Мои туф­
ли хуже ваших. Ваши более модные и более удобные. 3. Самое худшее
время года н Индии- период дождей. 4. Мой отец был старшим сыном
в семье. 5. Знаете ли вы последние новости о вашем друге? 6. После­
дняя глава в этом романе самая интересная. 7. В воскресенье я встала
позже, чем обычно. 8. Самый интересный вопрос на повестке дня был о
работе студенческого научного обшества. 9. Большую часть своего сво­
бодного времени он проводит в библиотеке. 10. Сегодня у нас меньше

61
::L работы, чем вчера. 11. Они шли так же медленно, как и мы.
12. Сейчас
с
с вы учитесь лучше, чем в прошлом году.13. Сколько лет вашей младшей
~
сестре? 14. Моя комната не такая светлая, как ваша. 15. Чем дольше я
с::
< смотрю на эту картину, тем больше она мне нравится. 16. Чем меньше
~ ты будешь говорить, тем лучше. 17. Чем скорее ты сделаешь это, тем
~
< лучше.
с::
~
Exercise XIV
{"Г.
Trans1ate into English
.....J
~· 1. Эта книга самая интересная в его библиотеке. 2. Это самый краси­
1'- вый дом в этом районе. 3. Этот мальчик выше всех других мальчиков
t;.i.;
в классе. 4. Аэропланы :могут летать быстрее, чем птицы, не правда
ли? 5. Он так же способен, как и его братья.
6. Вы гораздо умнее
своих братьев.7. Второй текст гораздо труднее первого, а третий еще
более трудный. 8. Это самое лучшее решение, какое только можно
себе представить. 9. Какой город Англии дальше всего от берега моря?
10. Чем короче ваше сочинение, тем лучше. 11. Чем внимательнее вы
будете, тем меньше ошибок вы сделаете. 12. Вы не слышали после­
дние известия? 13. Сегодня у нас больше работы, чем вчера. 14. Она
переводит медленнее, чем ты. 15. Ты самый лучший ученик нашего
класса, не правда ли? 16. Где здесь ближайшая станция метро? 17. Я
прочитал столько же книг, сколько и ты. 18. Кто прыгает выше и
бегает быстрее?

Exercise XV
Trans1ate into English
1. Самые красивые ткани на выставке были отмечены премиями.
2. Самый маленький радиоприемник помещается в спичечной короб­
ке. 3. Величайшие достижения науки должны служить людям. 4. Самое
сложное задание поручили лучшему ученику. 5. Я хочу купить туфли с
более длинным носком и с более высокими каблуками. 6. В зале Петер­
бургской филармонии выступают самые знаменитые артисты мира.
7. Большинство моих друзей живет в Москве. 8. Музыкант исполнил
свое последнее произведение. 9. Я нашел его в самой дальней комнате
квартиры. 1О. Этот самолет последней конструкции. 11. Наш тренер­
старейший член нашего спортивного клуба. 12. Чем интереснее книга,
тем быстрее она читается. 13. Ему бы хотелось работать над более слож­
ной темой. 14. Купите обои пасветлее для вашей комнаты. Она тогда не
будет выглядеть такой мрачной, как сейчас. 15. Эта комната еще свет­
лей. Она лучше подойдет для студии.

62
Exercise XVI ::х:

Translate into English ш

>
:::;
1. Многие считают, что самое красивое горное озеро - это озеро Севан в <
Армении. 2. Из всех живых существ самый сложный организм- у чело­ ш

века. 3. Большую часть своего свободного времени он проводит в биб­ :r:


[-.
лиотеке. 4. Она надела нарядную коричневую юбку и белую блузку, что
делало ее намного моложе, чем она была. 5. Этот перевод вдвое легче. Вы
с ним справитесь. 6. Новый стадион в несколько ра.з больше старого.
7. Хотя эта комната в два ра.за меньше, она мне больше нравится. 8. Вам
следует помнить, что Петр на десять лет моложе Тома. 9. Вам нравится
этот костюм?- Да. Но он в полтора раза дороже. 10. Сегодня вдвое хо­
лодней, чем вчера. 11. Все его приятели в два ра.за старше его. 12. Пруд
немного больше в длину, чем в ширину. 13. Он был самый добрый и са­
мый приятный человек, которого я когда-либо знала. 14. Ее назвали Еле­
ной, так как это было самое модное имя для девочек в то время.

The Adverb
The adverb is а word that serves to denote verbs, adjectives and other adverbs:
1study seriously.
She is coming here.
Тот knows him verywe/1.

The Formation of Adverbs


Adverbs are often formed Ьу adding the suffix -/yto an adjective: lately, slowly,
pure/y, immediately.
Adjectives ending in -/е drop -/е and add -/у to form their adverbs: terriЬ/e -
terriЬ/y. Adjectives ending in consonant -ydrop -у and add -i/yto form their adverbs:
happy- happily. Adjectives ending in -/у (friendly, lovely, fatherly, motherly, silly,
lively, ugly etc.) form their adverbs with in а ... way: in а friendlyway.
Adjectives ending in -е form their adverbs adding -/ywithout dropping -е: rare-
rarely.

Exceptions /
whole- wholly, true- truly.

63
~ The less common suffixes are the following:
.~
'-'
о -wise clockwise, crabwise
;:.::;
-ward{s) backward(s), eastward(s)
"'
< -fold twofold, manifold
2: -most innermost, outermost
~
< -way{s) longways, sideways
с::
о

::: Compound adverbs are formed of two stems: soтewhere, soтetiтes,



downstairs etc.
......:)

Z.J
Phrasal adverbs consist of two or more word-form, as а great dea/, а little Ьit,
z now and then, а lot of, froт tiтe to tiтe, а great deal of, far enough, kind of etc.
~
Some adverbs are the same as their adjectives (daily, early, fast, hard, late,
тonthly, best, easy, /ow, high, near, тuch, little).
Не works hard. This is а hard job.
lt's а high тountain. The Ьird flew high.
This is а fast train. She drives fast.

The adverbs in -/yformed from the same root have different meaning. Thus we
find in English pairs of parallel adverbs formed from the same root, one with the
suffix -/у, the otherwithout it. As а rule, the derived form has а more abstract meaning.
She has а lot of near relatives.
Не са те home near/y in the тorning.

How to Form Opposites


Dis-, ип-, in-, il- (before /), iт- (before т or р), ir- (before r), та/- are negative
prefixes which are used to make opposites of certain adverbs:
legally- illegally;
grateful/y- ungratefully.

Adverbs with Two Forms and


Differences in Meaning
deep =а long way down full = exactly, very
deeply = greatly fully = completely
direct = bythe shortest route hard = with effort
directly = immediately hardly = scarcely
easy = gently and slowly high = tojat а high level
easily = without payment highly = very much
freely = willingly last = after all others

64
lastly = finally shortly = soon С<:

late = not early sure = certainly u.J


>
lately = recently surely = without doubl С;
-<!!
near=close wide = far away from the right point щ

nearly = almost widely = to а large extent .....


l-
pretty = fairly wrong = incorrectly
prettily = in а prettyway wrongly = incorrectly, unjustly
short = suddenly

Kinds of Adverbs
According to their meaning adverbs сап Ье divided into
1) adverbs of time
а) definite- today, yesterday, now, tomorrow, immediatelyetc:
Не p/ayed footba/1 yesterday.
Now he is busy with his research work.
Ь) indefinite- before, soon, late, ever, afterwards, seldom, a/waysetc:
They wi/1 Ье here soon.
Не is a/ways late.

2) adverbs of place or direction: here, there, above, under, near, outside, to and
fro, backwards etc:
Outside the factory there is а lot of flower-beds.
3) adverbs of frequency: оп се, twice, a/ways, se/dom, four times, again, monthly,
firstly, often, usual/y, never, ever, regu/ar/y, rarely, sometimes etc:
Не is twice as c/ever as 1а т.
The orchestra plays monthly.
4) adverbs of manner: we/1, badly, hard, easi/y, fast, s/ow/yetc:
Study we/1 in school and work hard in life.
Не won the competition easily.

5) adverbs of degree: very, too, enough, quite, quick/y, scarce/y, almost, little,
оп/у, absolute/y,just, complete/y, extremely, very, awfully, rather, slightly, fairlyetc:
Не ran quick/y half the way across the field.
Не is scarcely аЬ/е to finish his report in а week.

б) sentence adverbs: certainly, surely, рrоЬаЬ/у, possiЬ/y, perhaps, maybe,


clearly, lucki/yetc:
Не wi/1 certainly соте today.
She did not соте, possiЬ/y she is i/1.

1 .!11\1
65
;:<:
7} relative adverbs: where, why, when.
с
о lt is the place where we used to play in our childhood.
~
lt was the year when the war broke out.
::.:
< Relative adverbs introduce attributive clauses.
:.:1:
:?.
<
::.:
:;.:;
:::;
Comparison of Adverbs
!./)

.....) Certain adjectives form their comparative and superlative degrees in both ways,
v either Ьу adding -erj-est to the positive form or taking morejmost. Some of these
z
~ are: c/ever, common, crue/, friendly, gentle, narrow, pleasant, polite, quiet, simple,
stupidetc.
clever cleverer the cleverest
alsoclever moreclever the most clever.
Adverbs having the same forms as adjectives add -erj-est
fast faster the fastest.
Two syllaЫe or compound adverbs compare Ьу adding тоге and most (/ess and /east)
brightly more brightly the most brightly
loudly less loudly the least loudly
А few adverbs have irregular degrees of comparison:
well better the best
badly worse the worst
much more the most
little less the least
near nearer the nearest, the next
far farther, further the farthest, the furthest
late later the latest, the last

Word Order of Adverbs in the Sentence


Adverbs can go in front, mid or end position in а sentence. Front position is at the
beginning of the sentence. Mid position is before the main verb or after the auxiliary.
End position is at the end of the sentence.
front mid end
Final/y, he wi/1 рrоЬаЬ/у start working here next week.
Adverbs of frequency (often, usually, never, ever, regular/y, barely, se/dom,
scarce/y, rarely, sometimes etc.) normally go before main verbs but after auxiliary
verbs ( mid position). However, in short answers they go before the auxiliary verb.

66
Не ofteп wгites те letteгs. ""'
а:::

"Не is a/ways te/liпg the tгuth, isп't he?" "Yes, he always is." щ

>
Used to апd have to take the adverb of frequeпcy before them: с::
<
Уо и always used to go fог wa/ks.
ш

Frequeпcy adverbs сап go at the begiппiпg or the епd of the sепtепсе: ::


~
Soтetiтes 1woke up late.
1go оп excuгsioпs гаге/у.
Adverbs of time usually go at the епd of the sепtепсе:
She left Moscow yesteгday.
or at the begiппiпg of the sепtепсе:
Yesteгday they left Lопdоп.
Such adverbs as sооп, поw, sti/1, theп etc. сап go iп the mid positioп:
She is поw wгitiпg а test.
The adverbs alгeady, по /опgег, haгdly, погта//у, пеаг/у, alтost usual/y go iп mid
positioп:
Не is по /опgег woгkiпg hеге.
Sепtепсе adverbs (ргоЬаЬ/у, certaiпly, possiЬ/y, cleaгly, fortuпately, luckily,
maybe, peгhaps, of couгse etc.} go iп апу positioп, froпt, mid or епd; the froпt
positioп is the most usual:
РгоЬаЬ/у t1e is late. Не рrоЬаЬ/у is /ate. Не is /ate ргоЬаЬ/у.
ln пegatioпs certaiпly, probaЬiy, possiьtygo before the auxiliary:
Не ргоЬаЬ/у doesп 't kпow the ги/е.
Adverbs of degree (absolutely, just, coтpletely, ехtгете/у, а lot, very, геа//у,
tеггiЬ/у, тисh, awfully, гаthег, quite, pгetty, а little, а Ьit, slight/y, eпough, too etc.)
сап go before the adverb they deпote:
lt is quite с/е а г.
The adverbsa lot, тuch, а /ittle, а Ьit, awful/y, tеггiЬ/у, absolutely, coтpletelyaпd
totally go iп mid or епd positioп:
The stогт coтpletely destгoyed the агеа. or The stогт destгoyed the агеа
coтpletely.
Adverbs of mаппеr (beautifully, bad/y, eageг/yetc.} апd place (hеге, theгe etc.)
go after the verb or the object of the verb if there is оп е:
She looked at те aпgгily.
Adverbs of mаппеr сап also go iп mid positioп:
She looked aпgгily at те.
Wheп there is more thaп опе adverb iп аsепtепсе, their order is mаппеr- place- time.
However wheп there is а verb of movemeпt (go, гип, /eave etc.) the place adverb
goes пехt to the verb of movemeпt:
manner place time
Не spoke we/1 at the тeetiпg yesteгday.
place manner time
She goes to woгk оп foot every day.

67
;,..::
с
о
The Use of Adverbs
~

<::<:
< Adverbs have the function of an adverЬial modifier in the sentence. When they denote
..,.
~ verbs, they сап serve as adverЬial modifiers of place, manner, time, degree etc.:
;.:
The саг started moving backwards. ( place)
<
:::::: She spoke verydistinctly. (manner)
(..;)

:::;
The children returned home late. (time)
V:.· Ву the end of the day she felt quite exhausted. ( degree)
А few adverbs which denote nouns сап have the function of an attribute: А teacher
_..;
v
z must Ье fully master of the classroom.
w

g'EXERCISES

Exercise 1
Foпn the adverbs from the following adjectives Ьу adding tl1e suffix -!у.
quiet woвderful late careful
easy beautiful l!Sllal woвderful
true slow brave нncomfortable
excellent clear comparative cheerful
safe shy entire enthusiastica1
noble complete curioнs entire
happy nervoнs immediate immeвse
heavy steady f'rightful dry
angry absolute free greedy
gay real poJite hasty

Exercise 11
Give the degrees of comparison ofthe follo\ving adverbs:
heavily, hard, gaily, fast, cheerfully, politely, Iate, shyly, far, dryly, bravely,
carefнlly,often, early, badly.

Exercise 111
Put tl1e adverbs from the Iist below into the correct colнmn.
why wl1ere hard нsнally immediately
badly near of'ten probably occasionally
l1ere almost today carefнlly absolutely
hardly quite slowly foolisl1ly freqнently
soon well lately always suspiciosly
clearly f'ast

68
,.,..
о::
u..J
>
о
~

=
1:-

Exercise IV
State whether the words in bold type are adjectives or adverbs.
l. а) The patient breathed hard. Ь) Не was а hard patient to cure; he would not
оЬеу the doctor's orders.
2. а) I watched the fig\1ters at close quarters. Ь) Не kept close to the road.
3. а) She is as pretty as а picture. Ь) In а month's time the situation \vas pretty
much the same.
4. а) l'm afraid she might do it worse thaп you. Ь) То make thiпgs still worse, he
had а leg broken.
5. а) This is the right way to do it. Ь) She lives right around the coгner.
6. а) Look straight al1ead! Ь) You can't expect а straight answer from him.
7. а) Не was too long in doing it. Ь) lt took him long to do it.
8. а) You Iook quite ill. Ь) You oughtn't to speak Ш ofpeop\e you don't know
well.
9. а) It was still early w\1e11 we returned. Ь) We returned very early.
1О. а) The sportsman dived deep and appeared at the other end of the pool.
Ь) They had to dig а well some hundreds meters deep to get to the water.
11. а) Не came close to his friend. Ь) Не was also his closest companion and
his closest friend.
12. а) His hair was straight and long. Ь) Не sat up straight in his chair.

Exercise V
Choose the correct word and state whether it is an adjective or an adverЬ.
\. а) His head is full of ... ideas. Ь) They a\ways speak ... of him. с) We ...
appreciate your kiпdness. (high, high\y)
2. а) А\1 was settled ... between us. Ь) You doп't play .... с) Why are you
helping him? lt isn't .... (fair, fairly)
3. а) She cut him ... sayiпg it was not to the point. Ь) Не came to live there ...
after t\1e war. с) Speak .... (slюrt, shortly)
4. а) They ... spoke during the walk. Ь) It was а pity he took life so ... с) Try
again, try .... (hard, hardly)
5. а) Не tried to translate it as ... to the text as possiЬ\e. Ь) lt was ... in the room.
с) Не felt he was being ... watched. (close, closely)

69
:х:
.~
6. а) 1 found him ... in thought. Ь) 1 found him ... engrossed in reading the
'-'
·''-'""' manuscript. с) Still waters run ... о (deep, deeply)
~
r:r:;
7. а) The engine is .. о to operate and its every part can Ье ... replacedo Ь) Take it
<
..,. ... с) Не is an .. 0-going mano (easy, easily)
"с.
8. а) We were ... welcomedo Ь) She put а tea-cosy on the pot to keep it ....
:s.::
< с) Don't dress the child too ... о (warm, warm1y)
r:r:;
t..:i 9. а) Here is some work for you; see that you do it .... Ь) The Pamir is ... called
::: "the wor1d 's roof' о с) The car stopped ... in the midd1e of the road. (right,
-
:/)

........j
10.
rightly)
а) How are you?- Very ... , thank youo Ь) How is life?- Very ... , thank you.
v
r с) How are you getting on?- Very ... , thaпk youo (good, well)
~

Exercise Vl
Choose t11e correct word in bracketso
lo The Ьirds were flying (high, high1y) and Jowo 2. Не was (high, high1y)
intelligento 30 Не had found out that the Petrovs' fami1y had lived (c1ose, c1ose1y)
to mineo 4. Meanwhile Martin's own reward was coming (near, nearly). 5. We
were (near, nearly) smashed up on the shore several times. 6. l'm sure you
know how (deep, deeply) 1sympathize with you. 7 о With her beautiful expressive
eyes she 1ooked (deep, deeply) into hiso 80 During his last year in London Philip
had to work (hard, hard1y). 90 1 need (hard, hardly) say that 1 agree wit\1 youo
100 Suddenly she stopped (short, slюrtly), and left her companiono 110 Не was
joined (short, shortly) Ьу ап air hostesso 120 "Open your eyes (wide, widely),"
he ordered geпtly апd examiпed each еуе in turn iп tl1e bright 1ighto 130 This
word is (wide, widely) used in spokeп Eпglisho 140 The officer leaпed dowп апd
1ooked (c1ose, c1osely) at Mikeo 15. There were tl1ree desks, опе with а computer,
and all with papers, books, апd files piled (high, highly)o 16. His heart beat so
that he cou1d (hard, hardly) breatheo 170 Не drank long and (deep, deep1y)o
18. You paid too (dear, dearly) forthis radio seto 190 The father1oved his daughter
(dear, dear1y). 20. Do 1 speak (loud, 1oudly) eпough? 21. Не \Vas (deep, deep1y)
movedo 220 The doctor answered him (short, shortly).

Exercise Vll
State to what part ofspeech the words hard, late, near, hardly, lately, nearlybe1ong
to. Trans1ate the sentences.
10 Не is doing hard work.
His work is hard.
Не is working hard.
1 was so tired, 1 could hardly worko
It's raiпiпg hardo
Не is а hard nut to crack.

70
:::!::
2. We returned to town late in autumn. с.:

It's bad for one's health to go to bed late. UJ


>
Не has left Moscow lately. ~
.ot:
lt's nice to go to the south in late sнmmer. L.lJ
3. They will Ье throнgh with their research in the nearest fнtше. ::;
l-<
The Ьнs stop is somewhere near here.
The poor man was nearly drowпed.
lt is nearly time to start.

Exercise Vlll
Put the adverbs in their right place in the sепtепсе.

1. The weather was gloomy on that day. (extremely)


2. I have sееп а talkiпg parrot. (never)
3. We will go to the coнntry. (tomorrow).
4. Му aнnt Helen 1ives with l1er litt1e daнghter. (here)
5. The boys read tl1is magazine. (se1dom)
6. llooked at tl1e арр1е, I didn't toнch it. (only)
7. Poor Тот l1as realized how loпg it is from breakfast to dinner. (never, before)
8. His fat11er has been in the Far East two years. (пеаr1у)
9. 1 coнld thank my sister. (hard1y, enough)
10. Everytl·1ing was ready. (qнite, sооп)

Exercise IX
Trans1ate the adverbs iп brackets iпto Eпglish.
1. We shaп't get онt of'the mнdd1e we're in except Ьу thinkiпg (усиленно) and
realistically. 2. Не сон1d (едва) speak. 3. The train passed Ьу whistling (гром­
ко). 4. The geologists dнg too (глубоко) to find oil. 5. The Ьоу came (близко)
and looked at his friend. 6. The lantern held (высоко) was in his left hand.
7. Не will Ье here at ten (ровно). 8. Не spoke (резко) to the children, and told
them to go in to their tea. 9. Не lives (далеко) from university. 10. She put
her arm round ту shoulders and (почти) wept over me. 11. 1am very sorry that
1 (плохо) know English. 12. It is (широко) known that John is the best
sportsman in our towп. 13. lt is (весьма) рrоЬаЫе that they are in the Crimea
now. 14. Не always came away (глубоко) depressed. 15. l'm afraid 1 can't
walk very (быстро). 16. 1 am (глубоко) iпterested iп the happy coпclusioп of
this proЬlem. 17. The wiпd was Ьlo\viпg so (сильно) that l could (едва) staпd
on my feet. 18. Gorky's works are (хорошо) kno\vn iп the wlюle world.

Exercise Х
Translate the adverbs iп brackets iпto Eпglish.
1. With eyes (широко) о реп she looked at the sight of Chicago орепiпg before
her. 2. 1 am (глубоко) iпterested in the l1appy conclusion of this problem.
71
::.:: 3. The champion (справедливо) deserves the prize he received. 4. The factory
.---.
'-'
......
'-' stood (близко) Ьу the river. 5. The sailor kept pulling (сильно) at the rope. 6. 1t
~
was (почти) dinner-time when we got back. 7. The well-known Russian
~
<
..,.. musical critic Stasov was а (высоко) educated man. 8. (Вскоре) after
~

;.;. graduating from university I went to the Far East. 9. The only thing that
< stood out (ясно) was his mother's face. Нis sister he remembered (более смут­
С<:
t; но). 1О. Не shouted (громко) and (долго) but nobody came. 11. (Легче) said
than done. 12. Do short-sighted people see (хорошо или плохо)? 13. 1 was so
'"'-' tired that 1 (едва) could work. 14. А spasm oftremЬiing shot through 11is body
:.; and he was breathing (тяжело).
z
i..i.1
Exercise Xl
Translate into English. Рау attention to the place of adverbs of time.
1. Вы всегда приходите вовремя. 2. Наш преподаватель никогда не гово­
рит на занятиях по-русски. 3. Вы иногда бываете неправы.
4. Она упорно
работает над этой проблемой. 5. Я только что закончил работу. 6. Я никог­
да не забуду этой встречи. 7. Я еще не возвратил книги в библиотеку. 8. Вы
уже написали письмо? 9. Его только что видели в соседней комнате.
1: 10. Его редко об этом спрашивали. 11. Вы всегда можете обратиться к
'1:1,!
нему за помощью. 12. Вы никогда не должны забывать об этом. 13. Мы
видели его вчера в театре. 14. Я часто буду вспоминать эти веселые дни.
i li
15. Мы будем с ними иногда встречаться на лекциях. 16. Летом мы почти
всегда живем на Кавказе. 17. После прогулки я хорошо спала вчера.
111

Exercise Xll
1111 Translate into Englisl1 using the adverbs still, yet (as yet, not yet), e/se, a/ready.
1

,1! 1. Ваша сестра вернулась в Санкт- Петербург? - Нет, она еще не при­
l.i
ехала. Она еще в Сочи. - Куда еше она собирается поехать до возвра­
'li шения домой?
1 2. Ты закончил готовить уроки? - Нет. Сочинение еще не написано. Я
li!
1! еще пишу его. -Что еще ты должен сделать сегодня?- Больше ничего.
3. Вы уже прочитали этот интересный роман?- Нет, я еще не прочитал
его до конца. Я его еще читаю.
4. Уже десять часов, а он еще не пришел. Он уже должен был прийти
полчаса тому назад. Я думаю, он еще дома. Он еще не ушел.
5. Вы уже перевели эту статью?- Нет еще. Я ее перевожу уже две неде­
ли, но еще не закончил.

Exercise Xlll
Translate into English.
1. Чем дольше я смотрю на эту картину, тем больше она мне нравится.
2. Прежде чем делать какие-либо выводы, вы должны глубоко изучить
72
этот вопрос. 3. Я вас правильно понял? 4. Чем интереснее книга, тем
::::
с.:

быстрее вы ее читаете. 5. Близорукому человеку приходится подносить u.J


>
текст близко к глазам. 6. Только высококвалифицированный рабочий .~.

<
может управлять этим сложным станком. 7. Книга была настолько увле­
~

кательная, что я читала до глубокой ночи. 8. Я был глубоко тронут его =


f-
заботой. 9. Чем раньше вы придете, тем скорее мы закончим работу.
10. Смотрите мне прямо в глаза. 11. Его прервали в самой середине речи.
12. В этом месяце я истратил денег на покупку книг в три раза больше,
чем в прошлом. 13. Подождите, они скоро придут. 14. Больной тяжело
дышал. 15. Больной едва дышал. 16. Он недавно вернулся из команди­
ровки. 17. Это выражение широко употреблялось в английском языке
XVI века. 18. Мы живем совсем близко от железной дороги.

Exercise XIV
Translate into English.
1. Дверь была широко открыта, и они вошли не позвонив. 2. Он пришел
домой вскоре после того, как мы ушли. 3. Вы так сильно изменились,
что я едва вас узнала. 4. Она дышала медленно и глубоко после соревно­
вания. 5. Во время беседы он внимательно ее рассматривал. 6. Малень­
кий Джан спустился вниз и сел на нижнюю ступеньку. 7. Нас считали
высокообразованными людьми. 8. Чем скорее вы прочтете книгу, тем
лучше. 9. Чем больше он думал о своем путешествии, тем больше оно ему
нравилось. 1О. В течение двух или трех дней доктор внимательно следил
за Томом. 11. Ребенок порезал большой палец и сильно плакал, когда
мать вошла в детскую. 12. Он поскользнулся и чуть не упал. 13. Он оста­
вил собаку около дома. 14. Он пристально смотрел на девушку, которая
сидела напротив него.

Exercise XV
Translate into English.
1. Чем быстрее вы обратитесь к врачу, тем легче будет вьmечить вашу бо­
лезнь. 2. Письмо пришло вскоре после твоего отьезда. 3. Чем больше вы
будете учить английских слов, тем лучше вы будете знать язык. 4. Рано
или поздно, это должно бьuю произойти. 5. Какие из всех этих книг вам
больше всеrо нравятся? 6. Оливер взошел на крыльцо и робко попросил
попить. Затем он еше более робко попросил кусочек хлеба. 7. Говорите
громче! 8. Чем больше вы будете находиться на открытом воздухе, тем луч­
ше будет у вас аппетит. 9. Раз уж вы обещали, вы должны это сделать.
10. Спидометр показывал, что машина идет в два раза быстрее, чем рань­
ше. 11. Я хуже всех играю в шахматы. 12. Кто живет дальше от универси­
тета: ты или твой товарищ? 13. Какая из всех картин на выставке вам
нравится больше всего? 14. Мой товарищ бегает быстрее меня.

73
::.::: Exercise XVI
~
--
.~
'-' Translate into English .
~

:::.: \. Кто из студентов вашей группы живет дальше всех от университета?


< 2. Какая из этих двух картин вам нравится больше? 3. Вы всегда прихо­
~
;.: дите на заседания позже меня. 4. В этом году вы работаете меньше, чем в
< прошлом. 5. Из ваших рисунков этот пейзаж мне нравится меньше всех.
:::.:
с 6. Мой товарищ должен работать гораздо лучше, чтобы избавиться от
таких ошибок. 7. Вы уже прочитали эту интересную статью?- Я ее еще
'../"]
читаю. Я еще не прочитал ее до конца. 8. Уже восемь часов, а он еще не
:.? встал и не позавтракал. Он все еще спит. 9. Недавно я получила от брата
z открытку. Больше я от него ничего не получала. До сих пор я не получила
r..:J
телеграммы о том, как он себя чувствует. 1О. Она так волновалась, что
едва могла отвечать на вопросы. 11. Вы редко приходите вовремя. 12. Он
никогда не опаздывает на лекции. 13. Его только что видели в соседней
комнате. 14. Вы всегда можете обратиться к нему за помощью. 15. Не­
давно я встретил своего школьного товарища.

The Numeral
Words denoting number are called numerals. The chief classes of nurnerals are
cardinal numerals and ordinal numerals.

Cardinal Numerals
Cardinal numerals (one, two, three, four etc.) are used in counting answering the
question "How many?".
1. The cardinal numerals from 1 to 12 and 100, 1000, 1000000 are simple
words; those from 13 to 19 are derivatives with the suffix -teen (thirteen,
fourteen etc.).
2. The cardinal numerals of tens are formed Ьу the suffix -ty: sixty, seventy,
eighty ... , but twenty, thirty, forty, fifty.
3. The numerals from 21 to 29, from 31 to 39 etc. consistoftwowords, and
they are written with а hyphen twenty-one, thirty-two etc.
4. Cardinal numerals hundred, thousand, mi/lion are used with articles when
denoting а definite number: а hundred sheep, а thousand workers.
74
Years аге counted in the following way: -'
<
1995- nineteen hundred and ninety five о г nineteen ninety-five. е:::
t.:.:i
2004- twenty hundred and four or twenty О [эu] four. :;:;:
О= nought [n:):t] огО [эu] when speaking of numbers: one, two, noughtor ::J
z
О [эu] etc. t..Ц

О= О [эu] in telephone conversation: .....


Mytelephone number is 29037 (two, nine, О [эu], three, seven). '""
О= zero ['Ziэrэu]- the point between the positive (+) and negative (-),
especially оп а thermometer:
- 4' =four degrees below zero
+Т= seven degrees above zero
О= nil in scoring at games:
4:0 = four to nil.
Rememberthe following expressions:
1. to count Ьу tens, hundreds, thousands; also Ьу the hundred, Ьу the
thousand etc.;
2. 12- а dozen, 20- а score, 60- three score;
3. half an hour, а quarter of an hour, three kilometres and а half, а thousand
and а half kilometres;
4. 41 books;
5. 61 hours.

Ordinal Numerals
Ordinal numerals showthe order of persons and things:
1st, 2nd, Зrd, 4th etc.
Most of the ordinal numerals are formed from cardinal numerals Ьу means of the
suffix -th (seventh, fourteenth, twentieth), except first, second and third.
Notice also the spelling of fifth, ninth, twelfth.
Ordinal numerals аге usually preceded bythe definite article: the first, the second,
the tenth, the one hundred and twenty-fifth.
The letter -yof cardinal numerals is changed into -ie in ordinals:
forty- the fortieth, fifty- the fiftieth.
ln ordinal groups only the last figure of group takes the ordinal form: the forty-
third, the sixty-fifth.
Dates may Ье written and read in different ways:
7 June 2004 1
7thJu~e. 2004 theseventhofJune, twentyO[эu]four

June 7, 2004
June the seventh, twenty О [ эu] four
June 7th, 2004 1
75
:0.::
~
v
о
Words and Expressions
i:t:l
,.,., Used in Mathematics
<
;:;
? 1. Fractional numerals:
< 1) common fractions:
::::
Q 1/ - а ha!f а
2 1/
3 - third 1/ -
4 а quarter
-
С/1
31 - three fifths
5 2fs - two thirds 5Js- five sixths
,_. 2) decimal fractions:
z 0.5- nought point five О .31
- nought point three one
;.ч
0.05- nought point noughtfive 2.35- two point three five
11. Addition:
4+5=9- four and five are nine (four plus five are nine).
111. SuЬtraction:
6-5=1 - six minus five is one.
IV. Multiplication:
3х2=6- three times two are six (three bytwo is six);
2х2=4- twice two are four (two Ьу two are four);
1х3=3- once three is three (one Ьу three is three).
V. Division:
8:2=4- eight divided Ьу two is four.
Vl. Percentages:
1% - one per cent;
3%- three per cent;
31 %- three eighths per cent;
8
1/ %- а half per cent;
2
0.2%- nought point two per cent;
3% from 200 = 6 - three per cent from two hundred is six;
5% from 300 = 15- five per cent from three hundred is fifteen;
Some mathematical expressions:
20·- twenty degrees;
52 - five square (the square of five, fiveto the second power);
63 - six cubed (the cube of six, six to the third power);
23= 8 - the cube of two is eight;
с 18 - с [si:] to the eighteenth power;
а· 10 - а [ er] to the minus tenth power;
Г4 = 2- the square root of four is (equals) two;
va- the cube root of а [ er];
Vi12 - the fifth root of а [ er] square.

76
[У'( EXERCISES
...J
<
~
tJJ
Exercise 1 :;:;:
:.::;
Read and write the following cardina1 numerals: z
5, 100, 73, 14, 31' 46, 88, 97, 123,678, 779, 1050,384, 2134, 1, 207,641,425, ш

712, 2, 032, 678, 75, 137. =


""'
Exercise 11
Read and write the following numerals:
3, 4, 14, 40, 15, 18, 80, 12, 100, 226, 705, 1000, 4568, 6008, 75, 137,425, 712,
1306527,2032678,3453,696, 1/7,2/19, 1 1/5,8 3/8, 0.8, 1.35, 2.07, 2.386, 3.14

Exercise 111
Form, read апd write ordina1 numerals from the following cardinal numerals:
1, 12, 2, 20, 7, 14, 40, 15, 6, 16, 60, 18, 80, 9, 19, 90, 100, 103, 300,425, 705,
1000, 1015.

Exercise IV
Form, read and write ordinal numerals from the fol\owing cardinal numerals:
5, 11' 21, 62, 100, 690, 3, 8, 13, 30, 76, 108, 1, 701' 4, 9, 22, 50.

Exercise V
Read апd write in English tl1e following:
а) dates
6jVI.l995 8/XII.1939 12/IV.2001 2/YIII.1940
7/Xl.1917 6/Ш. 1987 3ljVII.2003 22jVI.194l
Ь) common fractions:
2/3, 3/5, 5/8, 7/16, 9/32, 1/4, 3/4
с) decimal fractions:
2,5; 25, 16; 31 ,75; 49, 165; 0,36; О, 105

Exercise Vl
Give the corresponding cardinal and ordinal numerals:
Model 1 Seven-seventh-seventeeп-seventeenth-seventy-seventieth.
One, nine, four, five, tl1ree, eight, two, six.

Exercise Vll
Translate into English:
l. Две тысячи рублей. 2. Тысячи людей. 3. Триста сорок метров. 4. Сотни
лет. 5. Тысяча четыреста километров. 6. Двенадuать студентов. 7. Пять-

77
::.:::
о
десят автомобилей. 8. Три с половиной килограмма. 9. Три четверти часа.
.....
~
10. 16 процентов. 11. 3/ 4 тонны. 12. 1/ 2 сантиметра. 13.265 метров. 14.0,75
~
проuента. 15. 2 1/ 2 часа.
С>::;

<
~
Exercise Vlll
г.:
< Translate into Eng1ish:
~
о 1/
4 километра; 1/ 2 часа; 1/ 3 фунта; 23/ 4 проuента; 0,105 метра; 2,18 фунта;
f/1
17,562 тонны; 5 процентов; 23 сантиметра; 1/ 2 процента; Il/1 фунта;
2 1/ 2 тонны; 35 долларов; 2 500 рублей; 3/ 4 километра; 0,2 процента;
С· 6,8 метра; 31/ 2 часа; 3445 рублей.
z
~
Exercise IX
Translate into English:
1. Пятьдесят килограммов.
2. Триста автомобилей. 3. Шестьдесят один
грамм. 4. Два миллиона тонн. 5. Сотни ящиков. 6. Тысячи книг. 7. Двести
восемьдесят один доллар. 8. Три тысячи рублей. 9. Сорок фунтов.
10. Тридцать четыре доллара и десять центов. 11. Сотня велосипедов.
12. Триста лет.

The Pronoun
А pronoun is а word used instead of nouns, adjectives and numerals.
There are tеп kinds of pronouns:
1) personal,
2) possessive,
3) demonstrative,
4) interrogative,
5) relative,
6) reflexive,
7) coпjunctive,
8) reciprocal,
9) indefinite,
1 О) negative.

'
78

1
7..
Personal Pronouns ;::)
о
7..
о
Personal pronouns are /, he, she, it, we, you, they. ::.:;
The personal pronoun 1 is always written with а capital letter. The personal r.::..
~
pronouns he, she, it denote gender (masculine, feminine, neuter), but the plural ::
form theyis used for all tl1ree genders. Е-

lt is used forthings, animals, plants, ideas, babies and as the impersonal subject:
1/ike that book, it is very interesting.

Note. Sometimes it is used to give emphasis and in impersonal sentences:


lt was Pete who са те to the meeting first.
lt is cold today.
lt does not matter.

lt is also used in the following: 1t seems that, lt appears that, lt looks like, lt is said
thatetc.
lt seems that it's going to snow.
We use personal pronouns to refer to people, things or animals:
l've bought some mi/k. lt's оп the tаЬ/е.
The personal pronouns have cases: nominative and objective. We use /, you, he,
she etc. before verbs as subjects and те, you, him, her etc. after verbs as objects.
Не gave her an expensive present but she didn 't like it.

Persons "
" Nominative Case Objective Case ..
.....
(\j 1 1 me
'S
О) 11 you you
с:
(75 111 he, she, it him, her, it

аз
1 we us
.....
:::! 11 you you
а:
111 they them

Possessive AdjectivesjPronouns
Possessive adjectivesjpronouns express possession. Possessive adjectives go
before nouns, whereas possessive pronouns do not go before nouns:
This is ту diary. lt's mine.
Sometimes possessive pronouns go at the beginning of а sentence:
Yours is in the bedrooт.
79
:.::
с Г. ~ers,pnaiPronO,uns>'!• ,possessiveAdjectives\ PossessiveProno~ns
с
а::
my mine
~
< you your yours
~ he his his
~
< she her hers
с:: it its its
:.;
we our ours
~ you your yours
.....; they their theirs
:.;
z.
r..i.!
Possessive adjectives usually have the functions of an attribute:
Нег exeгcise is good.
Possessive pronouns may Ье used as the subject, the object and the predicative:
This is not ту penci/, тine is Ыие. (the subject)
1have bгoken ту pencil. Please give те youгs. (the object)
The book is тine. (the predicative)

Note 1. Possessive pronouns are used in such constructions as а fгiend of


тine, that dictionaгy of youгs:
That саг of yours is very good.
That тusic of hers is very pleasant.
Note 2. Possessive adjectives are often used before the names of the parts
ofthe body, clothing, things belonging to а person etc. ln this case
they are nottranslated into Russian:
Не put his hand into his pocket.
Note 3. Possessive adjectives are not used with parts of the body after
prepositions. Verbs used in this pattern are hit, kiss, punch, blte,
touch, pat, sting etc.:
She kissed the ЬаЬу оп the cheek.

MEXERCISES

Exercise 1
Insert the proper form ofthe personal pronoun in brackets.
1. 1 had turned and faced (he). Не was taller than (1). 2. Не will Ье between
(you) and (1), anyway. 3. lt was (she) wlю asked the next question. 4. lt's (they)
whom 1 pity desperately. 5. "She's better at it than (we) are," said Nora. 6. It
was (1) not Martin, who had insisted on seeing (he) that night because 1 wanted
his support. 7. 1 recalled, too, there had been some talk between Tom and (she).

во
8. It was (he) before whom she felt defeat. 9. This is (1) who сап help you. 7-
::J
1О. М у mother gave (I) а very interesting story to read. 11. You must go to see (she) о

and talk to (she). 12. Му friends came to see (we) yesterday and 1 showed (they) 7-
"'
'"'
the pictures you had sent (I). 13. The Ьох you wanted to give (he) is on the taЬle, х
.-:..
bring (it) here. 14. There were several other реор1е no less amused to see (l) than ~

1 was to see (tl1ey). 15. If somebody inquires about me, tell (they) that 1 am well. ::r:
f-

Exercise 11
Insert persona1 pronouns.
1. Austra1ia is one of the five continents, but ... is much smaller than the
other four. 2. Look at the yacht! ... is a1most touching the waves with the sail.
Look at ... ! 3. I hear а chi1d has been born to you. Is ... а Ьоу or а gir1? 4. When
Кiпuli had become а Ьig lioпess, ... 11ad to Ье returпed to the Zoo, as it was
daпgerous to keep ... at home апу longer. 5. What is tl1e пате ofyour dog?-
... is called Jip. 6. Mike soon made ... clear that ... did not waпt to stay there
Ioпg. 7. Do you like your car? - Oh ... has пever let me dowп yet. 8 .... say
tl1ere's Ьееп а great earthquake iп the Pacific. 9. It was ... who helped me
most. 1О. They iпvited you апd ... to tl1e party. 11. Very few could do it faster
thaп .... 12. You сап take the lюrse to the water, but you саппоt make ...
driпk 13. Where is my umbrella? 1 1eft ... in this corner. 14. ls he your friend?
I have not yet seen ....

Exercise 111
Underliпe the personal and possessive adjectives апd proпouпs iп the followiпg
senteпces.

1. Our country is very rich in oil, coal, iron and other пatural resources.
2. England has to import most ofthem. 3. His dictation was much better than
yours or miпe. 4. Не does his work much better than 1 do miпe. 5. Their car
was faster than ours. 6. At the concert 1 met an old frieпd of mine. 7. Leпd them
your dictionary, they have left theirs at lюme. 8. This book is пeither hers nor
his, it should Ье miпe. 9. Their kпowledge of chemistry is поt much better than
miпe. 10. You сап do without my he1p, but not without hers.

Exercise IV
Choose the correct form ofthe possessive adjectives or pronouns in brackets.
1. Would you like to see some of (her, hers) latest sketches? 2. Не has not read
а line of (your, yours), how сап he criticize (your, yours) poems? 3. lfthis book
is пeither (her, hers) nor (his, his), it should Ье (my, miпe). 4. (Their, theirs)
knowledge ofthe subject is поt much better than (our, ours). 5. l'm afraid they
will take (your, yours) words agaiпst (her, hers). 6. All (our, ours) clothes were
extremely dirty, апd (my, miпe) especially so. 7. Will you help me to sort out

81
;,.::
the things? I cannot tell which are (your, yours) and which are (our, ours).
"'
'-'
·"""'
'-' 8. (Their, theirs) boat was faster than (our, ours). 9. The man next door has
;::.::
е::;
been bt1sy cutting the grass in (his, his) garden. 10. She put (her, hers) hands in
< (his, his).
:;:;:
:;;
< Exercise V
0::
r.;; Use the correct form of possessive adjectives or pronouns in the following sen-
:::: tences:
(./]
l. This foolish wife of (l) thinks I'm а great artist," said he. 2. Very wel\,
•...; Motl1er, I'll have (l) hair cut this afternoon. 3. We can do (we) shopping
7.
:..;:.1 before lunch. 4. She folded the letter and put it in (it) envelope. 5. She makes
all (she) clothes herself. 6. Tl1is book is (1). There is (1) name on it. 7. There
is а very interesting article of (he) in this evening's paper. 8. This demand of
(they) is quite unexpected. 9. She took off (she) coat and hat and sat down to
wait for (she) friend. 1О. Не asked me what (1) name was and wrote it down
in (he) notebook.

Exercise Vl
Choose the correct form ofthe possessive adjectives or pronouns.
1. 1 went (my, mine) way, апd she went (her, hers). 2. Не left (her, hers) with
(their, theirs) child. 3. What was this experimeпt of(your, yours)? 4. Не put (his)
arm in (her, hers). 5. From this moment (their, theirs) story comes iп two versions,
(my, miнe) апd (her, hers). 6. Му friend's room was only two doors from (my,
mine). 7. "That tlюught is not (me, miпe)," he said to himselfquickly. 8. Where
is (your, yours) seat? I wiJlgo to (my, mine). 9. Leпd them (your, yours) dictionary;
they have left (their, theirs) at home. 10. 1put оп (my, miпe) coat апd hat and sat
dowн to wait for (her, hers) friend. 11. We are all ready to defend (our, ours)
couнtry. 12. You can leave (your, yours) bags iп the cloakroom.

Exercise Vll
Change the followiпg senteпces as in the giveн models:
Model Z j This is my book. - This book is mine.
Model Zl 1 This is my book. - Апd that one is his (hers).
These are your books. - Апd those are ours (theirs).
1. This is my purse. 2. This is our suggestion. 3. This is your glove. 4. These are
your seats. 5. This is her plan. 6. This is her toothbrush. 7. These are my pens.
8. This is theirwriting-taЬ!e. 9. These are my пotebooks. 10. This is their part of
work. 11. This is my dictioпary. 12. These are our postcards. 13. These are our
records. 14. This is my umbrella. 15. These are our notebooks. 16. This is my
hat. 17. This is my watch. 18. These are our tickets. 19. These are our scissors.
1
20. This is my coat.
111

82
Exercise Vlll 7
;:J
Translate into Eпglish. с
z,..._
1. Построена новая дорога; ее длина более тысячи километров. 2. Пост­ '-'
С<:
роен новый мост; его ширина около ста метров. 3. У меня много книг ~

этого поэта; я большой почитатель его таланта. 4. Я предпочитаю Крым !..J..)

Кавказу из-за его более сухого климата. 5. Этот автомобиль очень не­ ,_::r::
большой, но мотор у него довольно мош.ный. 6. Я не могу сейчас ездить
на своем автомобиле: у него мотор не в порядке. 7. Чьи эти фотографии?
- Мои. 8. Не трогай утюг, он горячий. 9. Кушайте больше моркови, она
очень полезная. 10. Где фрукты?- Они в холодильнике. 11. Это ваша
записная книжка, а это его, но где же моя? 12. На борту парахода я встре­
тил своего старого друга. Он был также другом моего брата.

Exercise IX
Translate iпto English.
1. Вы едете в одном купе, но его место верхнее, а ваше нижнее. 2. Чьи
стихи вам больше понравились: его или того молодого поэта? 3. Он взял
ключ соседа вместо своего. 4. Мы поделились с ними своим опытом, а
они своим. 5. Результаты показали, что наш план бьm более правиль­
ным, чем их. 6. Самое лучшее предложение- ваше. 7. Когда вы увидите
его, отдайте ему его карандаш. 8. Мы пригласили их на наш вечер, и они
обешали прийти со своим учителем. 9. Мать попросила ее принести из
комнаты ее журналы, а она принесла свои. 10. Она заглянула в свою
комнату и быстро вернулась в его. 11. Она вошла в ванную комнату,
чтобы вымыть лицо и руки. 12. Он был на два года старше меня и моей
подруги.

Exercise Х
Translate into English.
1. Ее дядя был директором школы. - И мой тоже. 2. Я полагаю, что я
прав, думая, что он один из ваших учеников. 3. Его мнение было таким
же, как мое. 4. Его английский был также хорош, как и их. 5. Том недав­
но получил письмо от школьного друга. 6. У меня было странное чув­
ство, когда мы говорили о его друзьях. 7. В те дни я редко видел своего
школьного друга и в его присутствии я чувствовал себя неловко, как и
он в моем. 8. Сегодня утром мне звонила по телефону одна из моих пле­
мянниц. 9. <<Мы поедем сегодня к нашему другу на вашей машине или
на моей'?>> -спросила Аня. 1О. Он говорит, что он один из ваших друзей
или вы один из его друзей. 11. Я прочту вам свое сочинение и хочу, чтобы
вы прочли мне свое. 12. Я вижу, что у вас нет словаря, я хочу дать вам
свой. 13. Я еще не написал свои упражнения. А ваши готовы? 14. Вот
ваш портфель. А где мой? 15. Вы еще не показали мне свой доклад.

83
::.:: Exercise Xl
Q
...... Trans1ate into English .
"'"'
;:Q

с::
1. Если вы остави.пи дома ключ, я могу вам дать свой. 2. Он надел шляпу и
< пальто и вышел на улицу. 3. Уrром я убираю свою комнату, завтракаю и иду
:г:
:г:
на работу. 4. Если у нее нет с собой зонтика, дайте ей ваш.
5. Наш секретарь
<
~
хорошо знает свои обязанности. 6. Вы еще не сказали мне своего мнения о
:_:) моей работе. 7. Идет доЖдь. Наденьте rшащ. 8. Возьмите, пожалуйста, свои
::I: деньги, я могу их потерять. 9. Он признает свои недостатки. 10. Не вмеши­
!/:;

....;
вайтесь не в свое дело. 11. Он надел шляпу и вышел. 12. Мы сняли пальто и
v вошли в комнату. 13. Они не хотят видеть ваши рисунки, они хотят видеть
z мои. 14. Вы можете очень хорошо обойтись без моей помощи, но не без их.
~

Demonstrative Pronouns
The demonstrative pronouns are tf1is ( these), that ( those), the forтer, the latter,
such, the sате.
The demonstrative pr·onoun refers to а rюun which has already been used.
This (these) refer to near things, events or persons:
This room is very coтfortaЬ/e.
lt is very cold this winter.
This (these) are used:
а) for present or future situations:
/'т going to London this тonth.
Ь) to introduce people or when we introduce ourselves on the phone:
"Pete, this is Kate."
"Hel/o? This is Тот speaking."
That(those) refer to distant things, events or persons:
That Ьоу is ту brother.
We haven 't been to those p/aces.
That(those) are used:
а) for past situations:
We had а woпderful Christтas that year.
Ь) to refer back to something mentioned before:
"She failed her ехат. "- "That's too bad."
с) when speaking on the phone to ask who the other person is:
"Hello? This is Ann. Who's that speaking?"
Both this (these) and that (those) are used as adjectives and pronouns:
This is the student that 1was /ooking for.
84
The former is used for the first of the two, the latterfor the second of the two: ~
:::J
Newton and Faraday were two great English scientists, the former lived in о
the 17th century, the latter in the 19th century. 7.
о
ct:
Such means "so great" or "ofthat kind". ~

lt was such а funny story! I.!.J

The same is always used with the definite article:


=
....
lt is а/1 the same to те.
We were in the same form.
А demonstrative pronoun may Ье used instead of а noun to save repetition:
Compare these maps with those оп the Ь/ackboard.

[У(EXERCISES
Exercise 1
Use the necessaty deшonstrative pronoun iп the following sentences.
1.... book is шine. 2. 1 prefer ... flower to ... one. 3. Му English dictionary is
better than ... ofyours. 4 .... is the filш we saw Iast year. 5 .... will do! 6. Try one
of ... pens. 6. TI1e шusic ofthe "Queen ofSpades" is тоге draшatic than ... of
the "Eugene Onegiп". 7. The stories Ьу O'Henry are as full oflife as ... writteп
Ьу Mark Twain. 8. Natшal rubber is of higher quality than ... produced
artificially. 9. " ... depeпds on the new timetaЬ!e," said one ofthe pupils.
10. Т11eir poetry was not ... of Byron and Shelley.

Exercise 11
Use that or those for the repeated поuп.

1. The trees in our garden are taller thaп the trees in the park. 2. The cliшate of
Moscow is better thaп the cliшate of St Petersburg. 3. At our factory these are
few шachines similar to the шachiпes described in this шagazine. 4. The price
oftin is higher than the price of copper. 5. Read шу Ietter апd the Ietter оfшу
sister. 6. Look through these magazines апd the шagazines received before.
7. Correct the mistakes made iп шу coшposition and the mistakes in your
composition. 8. Сору the figures written iп this Iist апd the figures written in
that list. 9. The vase on the shelf is more beautiful thaп the vase оп the taЬle.
1О. The mediciпe given me Ьу your doctor has helped me шuch better than the
mediciпe given me Ьу ту шother.

Exercise 111
Use one ofthe demonstrative proпouпs in the followiпg seпteпces.
1. She gave the ... answer as before. 2. What do you want те to do with ... ?
3. Do you see ... bushes on the other side ofthe river? 4. Well, ... 's exactly what
85
::..: 1 did. 5. Don't Ье in ... а hurry. 6. 1 believe you but there are ... who wouldn't.
с
о 7.... is what I thought last year. 8. 1 can't find all the books you asked me for.
=
с::
1put ... 1 found on your desk. 9.... is what 1want you to do. 1О. 1 have divided the
< books into two piles .... are to Ье kept .... are to Ье sold. 11. 1 have had ... а busy
~
:?.;.
morning. 12. Му seat was пехt to ... of Johп's mother. 13. "One сап't compare
< Chopin's waltzes with ... oftoday," she said. 14. Му services, ... as they are, are at
с::
your disposal.
"
:t
V> Exercise IV
....;
~
Complete the sentences as in tl1e given models.
z
~
Mode/1 1 Give me another envelope. 1 don't Iike this (that) one.
Give те some other peпcils. 1 doп't like these (those ).
Or: Will you kindly show me aпother dress? This one won't do. That
опе won't do.

Let's choose а hat in another department ...


Just sing another song, will you? ...
Let's listen to some other tunes ...

Model IJ 1This is my dictionary and that one is yours.


These are ту books and those are not mine.
This is your cup of tea ...
These are your sandwiches .. .
These are my friend's g1oves .. .
This is my sister's bag ...

Exercise V
Translate into English.
1. Климат Италии лучше климата Англии. 2. Ваши ошибки хуже оши­
бок, сделанных вашим другом. 3. Он всегда приходит сюда в то же самое
время. 4. Таков был результат их спора. 5. В этот момент я увидела моего
друга в зале.6. Он говорил ей о своей работе в больнице, а она рассказа­
ла ему, что она делала в тот день в университете. 7. Я занят в данный
момент. 8. Эта книга моя, а та ваша. 9. В те первые августовские дни у
меня бьmо малодел на работе. 10. Этотакой интересный роман! 11. В тот
день я бьm болен и не ходил на лекции в университет. 12. Эти туфли мне
не подходят. Дайте мне те, пожалуйста. 13. Читайте тот же самый текст,
пожалуйста. 14. У меня никогда не было такой работы. 15. Зима в Анг­
лии более мягкая, чем зима на континенте. 16. Запах розы приятнее, чем
запах лилии. 17. Не трогай те игрушки, возьми игрушки в углу. 18. Мне
1 нравятся такие маленькие города, как этот. 19. У нее длинные вьющиеся
волосы. Я никогда не видел такие красивые волосы. 20. Я принес вам
последние новости. Это самые важные новости.

86
Exercise Vl z
::J
Translate into English paying attention to the use of personal and demonstrative о
pronouns. z,...,
'-'
с:::
1. Чьи это туфли? - Это мои туфли. 2. Кто-то заглянул в комнату. Это ~

был мой сосед. 3. Когда я впервые увидел его, это был еще совсем моло­ щ

:r.;
дой человек. 4. Куда вы положили деньги?- Они в кошельке, на полке.
.....
5. Вы помните ее? Она была очень веселая девушка. 6. Это были самые
красивые розы, какие я когда-либо видел. 7. Я получил все сведения,
которые вы мне послали. Они очень интересны. Но это еще не полные
сведения. 8. На столе было много фруктов: они были в красивых вазах.
9. Что с вашими часами?- Они отстают на 5 минут. 10. Посмотрите, кто
это? - Это один из наших студентов. Я его где-то видел. - Наверное на
соревнованиях; это один из наших спортсменов. -Да, теперь я узнаю,
это он. 11. Кто тнм? - Откройте, это я.

Exercise Vll
Translate into Eпglish.
1. Много лет тому назад в этом доме была библиотека. 2. Посмотрите на
маленький дом с зеленой крышей на том берегу реки. 3. Они скоро едут
в Польшу. Они думают, что им придется пробыть в этой стране около
года.4. Он был в Китае несколько лет тому назад, но в то время он еще не
знал китайского языка. 5. Это мои тетради, а это ваши. 6. Я не хочу ему
звонить по телефону сейчас. Он всегда обедает в это время. 7. Возьмите
эти журналы на столе, но не берите те журналы на полке. 8. Как называ­
ются эти предложения? 9. Какого uвета те обои? 10. Это был 1810 год. В
те дни в нашей стране не было железных дорог. 11. Это письмо от моего
старшего брата, которого я не видел полтора года. 12. Все эти проблемы
много раз обсуждались, но ни одна из них еще не решена.

lnterrogative Pronouns
lnterrogative pronouns who, whose, whom, what, which are used to form wh-
QLJestions.
Who, what, whose, to whom, whom are used when asking about persons:
Who lives in this house?
Whom did you speak to?
Whose dictionary is tf1is?
What is Магу?- Магу is ап engineer.

87
~ Which is used when asking about а particularthing:
с
о Which of the two stories do you prefer?
~

:;:,:
Which is the tallest building in Moscow?
< What is used when asking about things in general:
:.?:
;г. What happened last week?
<
:;:,:
\,;

f./'} IY1"EXERCISES
-'
с
7
Exercise 1
~ Fill in the Ьlanks with the pronouns who, whom, whose, what, which:
1.... sleeps in this room? ... сар is it? ... did you me~;:t there? 2 .... is your
sister? ... game do you prefer, tennis or volleyball? 3.... brother is Boris? ...
is he Ьу profession? 4. On ... days do you take English lessons? ... day is
more convenient for you, Tuesday or Wednesday? 5 .... will help me? ... of
these girls is the youngest? 6 .... is your telephone number? ... pencil is this
Peter's or Helen's? 7 .... are you drinking? ... understands this rule? 8 ....
trees grow in your garden? ... of you must I thank for this? 9 .... gloves are
these? They are mine. 10 .... shoes do you want to buy? 11 .... ofthese cakes
may l take?

Exercise 11
lnsert interrogative pronouns:
1.... colour is it to Ье, Ьlue or violet? 2.... do you think сап Ье entrusted with
this task? 3 .... are your intentions for the summer? 4 .... turn is it now? 5 .... is
speaking? 6 .... сап 1 do for you? 7.... does he do? Is he а lawyer? 8.... are you
laughing at? 9 .... proЬlem are you working at now? 10. We serve coffee and tea
... would you like? 11 .... of you did it? 12 .... would you 1ike to see as your
assistant?

Exercise 111
Put questions to the words in bold type.
1. They are talking about the new opera. 2. They are talking about their friends.
3. 1 have bought it for you. 4. Не looked for his bag. 5. 1 am looking at him.
6. They are talking about the international situation. 7. They are painters.
8. Не is waiting for me. 9. That book is mine. 10. These boys are my brothers.
11. 1 rang up my sister. 12. The handbag is made ofleather. 13. The man asked
for а cup oftea. 14. Не has bought а gold watch. 15. Не dictated the letter to the
secretary. 16. This te1egram is from my sister. 17. 1 spoke to the director about
it. 18. The director's office is on the third floor. 19. The height ofthis bui1ding is
one hundred metres. 20. This is my brother's dog.
88
Exercise IV z
::J
Translate into English. о
z
1. Кто оставил словарь на столе? 2. Кого из них вы спрашивали об этом? о
с::::
3. Кого вы ждете здесь? 4. На каком этаже вы живете? 5. Что мы будем 1:\.,
писать сегодня: диктант или грамматические упражнения? 6. Какой щ

месяц самый холодный в Москве? 7. Какой язык вы знаете лучше: анг­ ::r:
,....
лийский или немецкий? 8. Что вы предпочитаете: чай или кофе? 9. О чем
вы разговаривали, когда я вас встретил? 10. Кому вы дали свой словарь?
11. Какой из этих рассказов самый короткий? 12. Какого цвета эти обои?
13. Чья эта тетрадь? 14. Что вы думаете по этому вопросу? 15. Кто этот
молодой человек? Он студент. 16. Что вы хотите: сыр, масло или печенье?
17. Кто изобрел радио? 18. Какие журналы вы купили? 19. Кто знает
адрес нашего учителя? 20. Кого вы спрашивали? 21. Кто из нашей груп­
пы написал диктант без ошибок?

Relative Pronouns
Relative pronouns who, whose, whoт, which, that introduce attributive clauses.
Who and whom are used when referring to persons and animals:
The Ьоу who is speaking to те now was ту pupil before.
The first girl whoт 1saw was Alice.
Whose is used when referring to persons, animals or things:
Those trees whose branches are /ong /ook /ove/y.
Which is used only when referring to animals or things:
Where is the article which you have translated?
Thatis used instead of which. lt may referto persons and things:
lt is the тost interesting book that 1have ever read.
The student that wrote the letter was his friend.

As is used as а relative pronoun after sате and such and may refer to living
beings and things:
1have the sате opinion as you have.

Note. The relative pronoun is sometimes omitted as being understood:


This is the student 1told you about. ( This is the student that 1told
youabout).

89
::.::
.~
'-"
~
·-.;
6tEXERCISES
;:с:

с::: Exercise 1
< Fill in relative pronoнns.
~
~ 1. Do you know the man ... wrote this letter? 2. The magazine ... you gave me
< is very interesting. 3. The street ... leads to the station is very wide. 4. The doctor
с:::
о
... she visited told her to stay in bed. 5. The man ... you want to see has just left.
:::::::
'/О 6. This is the student ... book уон found. 7. The girl ... you see at the door is my
.....; sister. 8. Не returned to l1is desk and dialled the numЬer ... he kвew Ьу heart .
r.;,
7.
9. She саше into а room in ... а child w·as sleeping авd drew the curtains.
~ 10. Ofteв theydiscussed thiпgs about ... l1e kne\V nothing. 11. Не was the architect
ofthis very hoнse ... we live in поw. 12. Tl1e teleplюne, ... was on а side taЬle,
suddenly rang out. 13. А friend of mine, ... was preseпt at the meeting, told me
all about it. 14. Is the mан with ... уон spoke а writer? 15. Не will Ье glad оfаву
help ... you сап give him. 16. This is the only ехашр1е ... 1 сан tell you.
17. Yesterday I met шу brother ... showed me а letter ... he had received froш
ош pareвts. 18. М у yoнвgest sister, ... уон met at ту house last week, has jнst
got married. 19. Не has three soнs, ... all \vork at tl1e sаше factory. 20. The
шilitiaman ... 1 asked for tl1e way to the hotel was а very polite шаn.

Exercise 11
Fill iв
relative рrопоннs.
1. The mап ... !1as jнst соте iп is ош вeighЬour. 2. The womaп ... you see iп
the office is waitiпg for the maпager. 3. The youнg mан ... applicatioн you lыve
jнst read is а we\1-kнowн chemist. 4. The gir! ... 1 l1ave spokeп аЬонt will Ье
here iв ан hour. 5. The dog ... is шввiнg a!ong the street has evidently lost its
master. 6. Уош pet ... you want to pнnish does not deserve it. 7. The albнm ... is
lying on the sllelf contains таnу nice sketches. 8. Otten they discнssed tblngs
about ... he knew notmпg. 9. Iп tlle dark апd the cold oftl1e morвiпg they drove
out the couпtry road throнgll tl1e шist ... huпg heaYy OYer the flat. 10. It was
pleasaпt to \valk among tl1e trees ... Jeaves were of таnу coloшs. 11. They
reaclled the street in ... she lived. 12. The room in ... I foнnd myselfwas very
large. 13. Tl1e persoп ... you said \vas waitiпg is gопе. 14. The stнdent ... book
уон Ьorrowed wishes to have it back.

Exercise 111
Traнslate into English.
1. Это моя подруга, которую вы вчера видели со мной в кино. 2. Пасса­
жир, чемодан которого лежал рядом, сказал, что место занято. 3. Я еще
не проверила диктант, который вы вчера писали. 4. Я не знаю никого,
кто живет в этой квартире. 5. Это та собака, которую мы видели в цирке.

90
6. Девушка, о которой он говорил вам, сестра моего приятеля. 7. Студент, z
:::;
которому я одолжил свой словарь, принесет его завтра утром. 8. Это са­ о

мая интересная книга, которую я когда-либо читал по этому вопросу. z


о
9. Мы прошли мимо комнаты, дверь которой была открыта. 1О. Он помог ::.::
:::..
нести мой чемодан, что бьmо очень любезно с его стороны. 11. В лесу tJ.)
было уже много деревьев, листья которых были совсем желтые. 12. Это ::::
та книга, которую вы ишете? 13. Человек, которого мы встретили в ко­
....
ридоре, директор нашей школы. 14. Он был единственным учеником,
который написал этот диктант с ошибками.

Exercise IV
Trans1ate into English.
1. Книга, которую вы мне дали вчера, очень интересная. 2. Как фамилия
человека, с которым ты только что разговаривал? 3. Это дом, в котором я
жил в детстве. 4. Он показал мне прекрасную картину, которую он не­
давно купил. 5. Вчера я встретил своего старого друга, которого я сразу
не узнал. 6. Человек, который только что звонил, просил вам кое-что
передать. 7. Адрес, по которому я написал, оказался неправильным.
8. Он один из самых интересных людей, которых я когда-либо встречал.
9. Это письмо от моего старшего брата, которого я не видел полтора года.
1О. Дерево, из которого сделана эта мебель, очень твердое. 11. Поезд из
Москвы, который должен прибыть в 5.30, опаздывает.

Conjunctive Pronouns
Conjunctive pronouns who (whose, whom), which, what introduce subject,
predicative and object clauses:
Who locked the door remains а mystery. (subject)
1don 't know who these children are. (object)
Не is clever and witty, but that is not what 1value him for. ( predicative)

gEXERCISES

Exercise 1
Analyse the pronouns in bold type and say whether they are conjunctive, relative
or interrogative.
1. Не felt like one whose dream has come true, but too late. 2. Не knew what
was happening, of course. 3. Не was the architect ofthis very house that we live
91
11

::.:: in now. 4. 1 rететЬеr you тe11tioned Wednesday and Friday. Which day shall
с
с we go to the cineтa? 5. Ask hiт whiclt ofthese books he will take. 6. The 1ibrary
!Ж!
is in the house which stands at the corner. 7. Whom did you give your book?
:::>:::
< 8. The таn whom you see in the c1assrooт is our teacher. 9. Т11е question is
~
what he will tell us. 1О. М у friend whom you saw yesterday is а good doctor.
:г:
< 11. 1 ат not sure which of ту brothers will тееt те at the station. 12. The таn
~
с
whom 1 have spoken about will Ье here in an hour.
::
v:. Exercise 11
FШ in conjunctive, re1ative or interrogative pronouns.
-<
v
~ 1.... ат I speaking to, please? 2. I don't саге ... he says to те. I know l'т а rea1
r...;
artist. 3. They reached the street in ... he Iived. 4. "Му shou1der hurts," 1 said.
" ... shoulder?" 1 touched ту 1eft shou1der. 5. Не was 1ate, ... таdе her angry.
6. Не got up froт the sofa on ... he was 1ying, and went into the dining-rooт.
7. 1 don't k11ow ... dress you would like тоге. 8. 1 ат not sure ... voice it is.
9. The book ... is 1ying 011 the she1f contains тапу nice stories. 1О. The cat ... is
1ying in the street has evident1y 1ost the way hоте. 11. 1 don 't k11ow ... of the
answers is right. 12. Froт ... did you receive а te1egraт? 13. There is the тап ...
we saw in the park yesterday. 14. The Ьоу spoke to his тother ... he had теt at
the shop. 15. The 1ast thiпg ... any of us wants is breakfast.

Exercise 111
Use interrogative or coпjuпctive pronouns in the following sentences.
1. They had brought few books with theт ... she had11't read. 2. You're one of
the few реор1е ... l'd like to know better. 3. " ... ofthe two oftheт is right?" he
asked те. 4. 1 doп't honest1y see ... I can do about it. 5. That is the worst news
... we've ever had froт you. 6 .... do we call the sea between Eпgland a11d
France? 7 .... pronouп is always written with а capital1etter? 8. Lookiпg at hiт
she wondered ... sort of sтall Ьоу he had Ьееп. 9 .... cost more mопеу, ready-
made c1othes or tai1or-made c1ot11es? 10. Tilere ilad grow11 between tilem an
understanding ... required no words. 11 .... other tilings did you buy? 12. Now
... you see all the faтily togetiler tell те ... you think of us. 13. It is for you to
decide ... is to speak to the chief. 14 .... qua1ity do you adтire in а таn?

Exercise IV
Use the re1ative or conjunctive pronou11s.
1. The room in ... 1 fouпd тyse1fwas 1arge and cosy. 2. 1did not remeтber to
... I 1ent the book. 3. I did not know ... to think of it. 4. Tile person ... you said
was waiting is gone. 5. She wanted to know ... he was supposed to do.
6. P1ease bring me the pencils ... points need sharpening. 6. Tell те ... you are
going to do toтorrow. 7. P1ease te11 те ... way Ье will come. 8. Не crossed tЬе
street, and sat 011 one of tЬе iron bencЬes ... were p1aced under tЬе trees.
92
9. Everyone ... you know is out oftown. 10. The militiaman ... 1 asked at once 7
-'
told me the way. 11. At this house 1 met my cousin, ... wanted to see me. 12. 1 о
gave а lump ofsugar to Tom's horse, ... is very fond ofsweets. 13. Не gave me z
о
the directions ... 1 needed. 14. Tell me ... you have written. 15. 1 ran into а :::::
~
youпg man ... I had not noticed.
w
::!:
f-

ReflexivejEmphatic Pronouns
с·. ~~J;~E;
· 1stPerson 2ndPerson ...•.•.. Зrd .~ef'Son :..
.• •··. . •

ф myself yourself himse/f


:::J
01 herself
с

й5 itself
ф
.... ourse/ves yourselves themselves
:::J
а::

Ref/exive prorюuns are тyself, yourself, himself, herse/f, itse/f, ourse/ves,


youгse/ves, theтselves.
Ref/exive pronouns are used after certain verbs (behave, bum, cut, enjoy, hurt,
ki/1, /ook at, laugh at, introduce, dry, teach etc.) when the subject and the object of
t~1e verb are the same:
Не taught himself how to drive.
Ref/exive pronouns can Ье used after Ье, fee/, /ook, sеет to describe emotions
or states:
Не doesn 't sеет hiтself these days.
Such verbs as wash, shave, (un)dress, afford, coтplain, тееt, rest, ге/ах, stand
up, getup, sitdown, wake up etc. do not normallytake а reflexive pronoun.
Не got up and shaved.
But when we talk about children or animals we can use а ref/exive pronoun with
wash or dress:
1'т teaching ту son how to wash hiтself.
Emphatic pronouns have the same form as reflexive pronouns but а different
meaning. They emphasize the noun, or the fact that one person, and not another,
performs an action:
Не hiтse/f painted this picture.
They also mean "without help":
She fixed the leak herself.

93
~
'~
~
,,..._ Note these idioms.
"'"'
;:.:: Епjоу yourself! (=Have а good time!) Behave yourself! (=Ве good!) llike beiпg
~
Ьу myself. (=llike beiпg аlопе.) She lives Ьу herself. (=She lives оп herowп)
< Bymyself, byyourself, Ьу himself etc. (=оп myowп, оп your оwп, оп hisowп
:2
г etc) Help yourself to coffee. (=You' re welcome to take some coffee if you waпt
<
с:::
some} Do it yourself. (=Do it without beiпg helped) Make yourself at home!
\":; (=Feel comfortaЫe) Make yourself heard. (=Speak loudly eпough to Ье heard
Ьу others) Make yourself uпderstood. ( =Make your meaпiпg clear)
(/:;

v
z
~

!Y(EXERCISES

Exercise 1
Use reflexive or emphatic pronouns in tl1e following sentences:
1. We eпjoyed ... at the dance. 2. Why is she sitting all Ьу ... in the dark?
3. I closed the door behind .... 4. All day the children were beside ... from
excitemeпt. 5. "Sit dowп, Peter," she said, seating ... in а chair opposite him.
6. You сап speak to him .... 7. She opened tl1e door to him .... 8. She wrote the
words to them .... 9. At two o'clock I was cooling ... in the lake. 10. Did you
invite him ... ? 11. Ilooked at ... iп the mirror. 12. I will ask him .... 13. They
told me the пews .... 14. She will answer the letter .... 15. М у brother waпted
to help us, Ьнt we decided to try to do it ... without his help. 16. She fell down
апd hurt .... 17. "М у child!" said her nюther ... "Look at ... !" Апd s11e held
up 11er haпd mirror. 18. We are back апd haYe eпjoyed ... very much. 19. 1'11
see blm ... tomorrow. 20. She wrote this and ot11er poems to t11em ...
21. They fouпd ... iп а straпge place.

Exercise 11
Use reflexive or emphatic proпouns in the followiпg senteпces.

1. 1 liked 11aviпg lodgings of ту оwп, w11ere 1 could Ье Ьу .... 2. 1 fouпd ...


doiпg nearly all the talking. 3. Sl1e looked in the mirror апd could not
recogпize .... 4. Sit dowп and make ... at !юте. 5. S11e had made ... very
uпpopular. 6. Tl1e boat was expected between the eighth and tenth of August.
1 allowed ... to sit gazing out to sea iп the hope that it would appear before
time. 7. 1 thoug11t what а pretty girl she was .... 8. Не l1ad iпjured .... 9. What
do you suggest ... ? 10. The pupils ... decorated the 11all with flowers and
garlands. 11. During the break t11e children amuse ... in the p1ayground.
12. John ... wrote and posted the Jetter. 13. We protect ... from the raiп with
an umbrella. 14. l ... was to blame. 15. You said so .... 16. Не settled ... as
comfortably as he could.

94
Exercise 111 z
-'
Translate into English. о
z
1. Я сам отвечу на это письмо. 2. Он не любит говорить о себе. 3. Они о
~
хотели это сделать сами. 4. Ваш отец сам был здесь. 5. Он очень много ::...
рассказывал нам о себе. 6. Я оставлю эту книгу для себя. 7. Она сама цJ

принесет вам книгу. 8. Он ходил туда и все видел сам. 9. Пусть дети
f-
делают домашние задания сами. 1О. Если он занят, я могу пойти в театр
одна. 11. Когда она была готова, она посмотрела в зеркало. 12. Он час­
то разговаривал сам с собой. 13. В тот вечер они должны были обедать
одни. 14. Они предпочитали пить чай одни, а после чая играли в шах­
маты. 15. Вернись, мой мальчик, и закрой дверь. Двери сами не закры­
ваются. 16. Я сама могу вам дать свою фотографию. 17. Кофе был го­
тов. Она налила себе чашку и села за стол. 18. Он удивлялся самому
себе. 19. Не брейтесь в темноте. Вы можете порезаться. 20. Он храбро
защищался.

Exercise IV
Translate into English.
1. Я сама увижу его завтра. 2. Затем ей самой захотелось что-то сде­
лать. 3. В тот вечер она была сама доброта. 4. Были такие моменты,
когда ему было чрезвычайно жалко самого себя. 5. Он слишком много
о себе думает. 6. Он страшно упрекал себя за свое поведение в тот вечер.
7. Он был недоволен собой. 8. Они сделали это не для себя, а для своих
товарищей. 9. Молодой человек ничего о себе не сказал, и мы не знали
даже имени своего спасителя. 1О. После болезни она слишком слаба,
чтобы заботиться о себе. 11. Мы увидели перед собой красивое лесное
озеро. 12. Она хочет это сделать сама. 13. Я очень удивлена, что он так
себя вел. 14. Не беспокойтесь. Я сам отнесу письмо на почту. 15. Они
очень много рассказывали нам о себе. 16. Вы сами видите, что вы не­
правы.

Reciprocal Pronouns
There are two kinds of these pronouns: each other and one another.
The first is used when speaking about two persons, the second, when more than
two are meant. ln the sentence they have the function of an object:
The boys he/ped each other.
The children friendly played with опе another.

95
~
с gEXERCISES
""'
'-'
;:с

~ Exercise 1
< Coтpletethe following sentences using either each other or оп е another.
~
;;::: 1. The workers stood in а line and handed heavy parcels to .... 2. All of us put
<
~ down ... telephone nuтbers. 3. Without saying а word, ту friend and I nodded to
v .... 4. Before the ascent all the sportsтen were fastened to .... 5. When ту fellow-
'/; student and 1 теt again we recognized ... at once. 6. When а сотраnу offormeг
c1assтates теt they cou1d not recognize .... 7. The two friends exchanged ...
:.:;
z photos. 8. Му friend and his guest sat down opposite .... 9. When parting the
f..;;;.:E
forтer fellow-students usually put down ... addresses. 1О. The тетЬеrs of our
large faтily live in different towns; though we don't see ... for years, we keep up
correspondence. 11. One was Russian, the other - Bulgarian, so they could
understand ... ratherwell. 12. The friends kissed and eтbraced .... 13. Was it the
first tiтe that you saw ... ? 14. When they теt ... they looked at ... in astonishтent.
15. The father and the son теt ... at the station. 16. The two sisters reseтЬled ...
very тuch. 17. The teaтs greeted ... warmly. 18. During the interval the pupils
ran in the garden, sang and spoke to .... 19. John and Mary were always ready to
help .... 20. The students were helpiпg ... to prepare for the lessoп.

Exercise 11
Insert each other or оп е another.
1. The old couple looked at .... 2. They were red in the face апd found looking
at ... for а тотепt. 3. The rest of us looked at ... iп aтazeтent. 4. Тот апd
Mike spoke to ... only about the gате. 5. For the пехt three days neither Pete
поr they spoke to .... 6. The two boys faced .... 7. The two faтilies don't kпow
.... 8. The two stood gazing at ... for а тiпute iп silence. 9. Апd for а тотеnt
they all three stood silently looking at .... 1О. The twins looked at ... gluтly.
11. For а тотеnt nothiпg тоге was said. And then they suddenly sтiled at ....
12. These three ladies disliked and distrusted .... 13. The twins juтped up and
ran round .... 14. Tl1ey sat opposite ... , as they had so ofteп sat before.

Exercise 111
Translate into Eпglish.

1. Петя и Лена очень любят друг друга. 2. После школьных каникул


школьники были рады видеть друг друга. 3. Все в нашей семье помогают
друг другу. 4. Эти два брата никогда не видели друг друга. 5. Они часто
ссорилисьдругсдругом. 6. Они продолжали работать, помогаядруг другу.
7. На секунду их глаза встретились, и они поняли мысли друг друга.
8. Они знают друг друга два года. 9. Они часто видят друг друга.
10. Когда они встретились снова, они узнали друг друга. 11. Они обви-

96
няют друг друга, но, вероятно, они оба виноваты. 12. Они часто навеща­ z
::::;;
ли друг друга. 13. Мы смотрели друг на друга с волнением. 14. Ее дети о

всегда помогали друг другу. 15. Два человека кивнули друг другу. z
."'
._,
::::<:
~
Exercise IV t.r...J
Trans1ate into English. :::
f-
1. Хотя они жили на одной и той же улице, они редко виделись друг с
другом. 2. Члены нашей семьи живут в разных городах; хотя мы и не
видим друг друrа в течение нескольких лет, мы часто пишем письма друг

другу. 3. Когда бывшие одноклассники встретились, они не узнали друг


друга. 4. Мы должны помогать друг другу. 5. Два товарища посмотрели
друг на друга. 6. Когда друзья расставались, они записали номера теле­
фонов друг друга. Затем они обменялись фотографиями друг друга.
7. Мать и сын сидели напротив друг друга. 8. Они впервые увидели друг
друга несколько лет тому назад. 9. Сестры были очень похожи друг на
друга. 10. Они поцеловались и обнялись друг с другом.

lndefinite Pronouns
lndefinite pronouns refer to things or persons. They are: some, any, every,
somebody, anybody, everybody, someone, anyone, everyone, something,
anything, everything, each, а/1, both, several, either, (the) other, (the) others,
another, one.

Note. Some, any and everywith -body and -one are used when speaking of
persons, with -thing- when speaking of things:
ls anybody there? (а person)
1have to te/1 you something. (а thing)

1. Some and its compounds are used


1 ) in positive sentences:
1have bought you some good books.
Someone entered the room.
Something has happened to him.
There is somebody in the garden.
2) in interrogative sentences when we want to make an offer, or request or
when we expect а positive answer:
Wi/1 you he/p те with some топеу?
Could 1have some tea?
~ :: 11 о
97
"

::.<: 11. Any and its compounds are used


с
о 1) in interrogative and negative sentences, in indirect questions and in
~
adverЬial clauses of condition:
0:::
< ls anybody absent today?
~
1didn 't bring anything.
:г.:
< Аге there апу pictures in the book?
0:::
/fyouhaveanydouЬt, tellittome.
"'"""' 2) in positive sentences in the meaning of всякий, любой:

--v
V;;
You т ау ring те up at any time.

z
~ tnterr99fi''~~····:·•
some any any

-thing something anything anything


что-то, все, что-то,

что-нибудь что угодно что-нибудь

-body somebody anybody anybody


-one someone anyone anyone
кто-то всякий, кто-нибудь,
кто-нибудь любой кто-либо

-where somewhere anywhere anywhere


где-то где угодно, где-нибудь,
куда-то кудаугодно куда-нибудь

F'ositi\leffttEt9atJy~Д
ll'lt~rr«:)gц~iy~ ··

not ... any no every


-thing 1
not ... nothing everything
anything ничего всё
ничего

-Ьоdу not ... nobody everybody


-one anybody никто everyone
not ... все

anyone
никто

-where 1 not ... nowhere everywhere


anywhere нигде, везде,
нигде, никуда всюду

никуда
1

98
111. Everyand each. Everyis usedwith singularcountaЫes. ;z
;:)
lt refers to а group of people orthings and means а/1, everyoпe, everythiпg etc.: о
;z
Every studeпt тust kпow this rule. о
Не recogпized everybody. ~
::...
Everyoпe took part iп this тeetiпg.
tJ.J
Each is used with singular countaЫes. lt means опе Ьу опе, considered :r::
Е-
individually:
Each pupil iп the class has ап Eпglish dictioпary.
IV. А/1refers to more than two people or things. lt has а positive meaning and
takes а verb in the plural. lt is the opposite of попе:
All the passeпgers weпt ashore.
All + that -clause means everythiпg and takes а singular verb:
А/1 that he said was lies.

V. 8oth refers to two persons or things. lt has а positive meaning and takes а
verb in the plural. lt is the opposite of пeither:
8oth ту frieпds are good sportsтeп.
Vl. Several denotes sоте, а few:
We had to repeat the words severa/ tiтes.
Vll. Eitherhastwo meanings
1 ) one or the other:
You сап take either book you see оп the table.
2) both:
Неге are пеw houses оп either side of the street.

Note. Every, each and either are singular and require а verb in the singular:
Everybody was preseпt.
lt was а peak-hour апd every trolfeybus was full.
Either is аЬ/е to do this suт.
Either oftakes а verb either in the singular or plural:
Either of theт havejhas proтised to help те.

Vlll. Other and aпother. Other may Ье used as an adjective and as а noun. Plural
form others; possessive case other's, others':
Give other exaтples, please!
Sоте studeпts were preseпt, others were тissiпg.

Aпother means
1) а different one:
Please give те aпother book.
2) an additional one:
Give те aпother piece of cake, please.
99
:"::
IX. Опе has the function of а noun and of an adjective. lt сап have the possessive
с
"""
~ case ( опе 's) and the plural form ( опеs):
:::::
Опе тust always keep опе 's word.
~

< Оп е тomiпg 1са те to the uпiversity very ear/y.


""'
L
Опе in the function of а noun is used
~
< 1) to replace the noun which has just been mentioned:
~
:;; Takemypeп.- Thaпkyou, l'vegotoпe.
:::: 2) in the meaning ofeveryoпe, апуопе:
-.....,
и

Опе should always observe the traffic rules.


'--'
z
~

Negative Pronouns
Negative pronouns express refusal of something positive. They are по, по опе,
попе, поЬоdу, пothiпg, пeither.

1. No has the character of an adjective:


She has по топеу.
2. No опе and поЬоdу refer to human beings:
Nobody has told те about it.
No опе kпewthis rule.
3. Nопе resemЫes а noun. lt is used when speaking about persons and things:
Nопе of theт is ту frieпd.
ls there а telephoпe iп the rоот? -- No, tf1ere is попе.
4. Nothiпg refers to names of objects:
1saw пothiпg iпterestiпg there.
5. Neither is the opposite of either:
Neither book iпterested те.
Neither is used before singular countaЫes.
Neither was preseпt.
lt refers to two people or things.
Neither oftakes а verb either in the singulaг or plural:
Neither of us isjare rich.

rYfEXERCISES
Exercise 1
Insert some or апу.
l. We ce11aiпly doп't waпt ... trouЬle. 2. There is ... soup in t.he рап. You may
eat it. 3. Bllt tl1ere areп't ... traiпs until morning. 4. Why do you always ask if
100
tl1eгe 's ... news. 5. His шоthег boнght ... пotebooks fог l1irn. 6. Sl1e looked Z.
:J
eveгywheгe for шatches but cou\d not find ... 7. "Have you ... money?" -
·z
"Yes."- "Give me .... "8. Апп is nшс\1 youngertlшп ... otl1eг girls in l1ег class.
9. lfyoнlшve ... news, call me back. 10. Тl1еге is hardly ... place iп tl1is \юнsе
w\1ere we сап talk аlопе. 11. Т11еу uпderstood еас\1 otheг witlюнt ... words.
12. Уон l1ave ... fiпe flowers iп уош gardeп. 13. Go апd ask 11im fог ... пюrе ·-
~-·
paper. J lшveп't ... iп my desk. 14. Later we had ... tea. 15. Не waпts ... more
pнdding. 16 .... time ago I read t11is story iп а magaziпe. 17. I dоп 't thiпk tl1ere
is ... milk left iп the jнg. 18. Аге there ... mistakes iп ту dictation?- Yes, tl1ere
are ... 19. What kind offruit do you prefer? -l1ike ... kiпd. 20. Тl1еге is ... wiпe
1eft iп the bottle. 21. Не found ... пеw expressioпs iп t11e book.

Exercise 11
lпsert some, any or по.
1. Tl1ere are ... matc\1es left. We must buy .... 2 .... studeпt сап aпswer tl1e
questioп. 3. Аге tl1ere ... illustratioпs iп that book? 4. Не pнts ... sнgar iп his
coffee. 5. Не waпts more milk. Give him .... 6. Сап уон give me ... more
iпformatioп? 7. Do уон waпt ... app\es? Неге are ... ripe опеs. 8. lfyotl fiпd .. .
mопеу оп tl1e floor, it is miпe. 1 dropped ... tms morпiпg. 9. Please give те .. .
pнddiпg.- 1 am sorry, Ьнt tl1ere is ... pнddiпg Jeft. 10. There is ... bнtter оп the
taЬle, but tl1ere is ... milk. 11. Will you buy ... stamps for me, please? 12. Jfyou
l1ave ... questioпs to tl1e Jecturer, write t11em dowп апd l1and iп. 13. Wl1en 1
пeeded help, l1e didп 't ask ... questioпs. 14. Аге 111ere ... apple-trees iп уош
gardeп? 15. Have you got ... lessoпs tomorrow morпiпg? 16. Give me ... time to
tllink about it. 17. Му grandmotl1er does not watc\1 ... programmes оп ТУ.
18. Have ... nюre ice-cream.- Tl1aпks, 1 doп't waпt ... mbre. 19. Не сап aпswer
... qнestion оп tl1e subject. 20. Wlшt book slшlll briпg you?- ... yolllike.

Exercise 111
Insert опе oftl1e coшpounds iп some, any ог по.
1. At tl1e рагtу you'll see ... you haveп't шеt yet. 2. Will tl1ere Ье ... at the club
so early? 3. I'm поt goiпg to see him because 1 have ... importaпt to report.
4. 1 was late. 1 fонпd ... in tl1e lюuse. 5. J am expectiпg ... at twelve о 'clock.
6. I tlliпk t\1ere's ... wroпg wit\1 my watch. 7. Is there ... at \юте? 8. Tl1e
door-bell raпg Ьнt tl1ere was ... there. 9. 1 kпow ... at all. 10 .... сап L1ecome а
member ofthe c1ub Ьу payiпg а subscriptioп. 11. W\1еп we get tl1ere it may Ье
too 1ate to do .... 12 .... l1as beeпl1ere before us. 13. "Whydoп't you say ... ?"
he demaпded. 14. In the winter l1e 1ived without doing .... 15. This is my
affair апd ... else's. 16. Can't you do ... Ьу yoшselfпow? 17. I took care to ask
llim ... about his оwп doings. 18. Will уон briпg ... with you or will you соте
аlопе? 19 .... lшs апу right to interfere iп this matter. 20. If ... delays you, yoll
пшst let me know.
101
,:,::
/'
Exercise IV
с. I nsert some, any, по, попе or coшpound proпouns.
<:.::
с:.с:
1. Jfyou J1ave ... against ше, speak out. 2. There is ... familiar in bls voice. 3. Tl1e
·< scientist was iп ... need of ап iпterpreter. 4. Is ... the шatter with you'? - ... is tl1e
2:.
~ matter. 5. Get offat tl1e next stop and tl1ere ... wi!J show you the way. 6. Jfyou
<
0::
need ... шопеу, you шust get ... out oftl1e savings bank; there is hardly ... in t11e
с.::> hoвse. 7. We looked for а taxi, but there was ... aroвnd. 9. Should ... interesting
::с
(IJ
turn up, give ше а ring at once. 10. Уон are not expecting ... to саП, are you?
11. Wl1y the crowd? Has ... happeпed? 12. W11at book s11a!J I briпg you?- ... you
·~ like. 13 .... doctor will te!J уон tl1at it is 11arшfнl to уош l1ealtl1. 14. Sha!J 1 help
Z.
~
you to ... fruit? 15. It was clear tl1at ... had l1appened. 16 .... l1as апу right to
interfere in tl1is шatter. 17. Не looked at шу pictures and l1e didп't say ....

Exercise V
I nsert some, any or their compoнnds.
1. lf there's ... you waпt, let ше know. 2. You шау have ... tea witJюut milk
because tl1ere isn't ... at lюше. 3. It's а subject you nшst kвow ... аЬонt.
4. Now, сан you teiJ те ... аЬонt уош children? 5. 1 did not waпt to speak to ...
1 kпow here. 6. Don't you rешешЬеr ... about this afternoon? 7. I will Ье very
тucl1 surprised if ... is wroпg. 8. Не knows а great deal тоrе than ... of us
about tl1ese тachines. 9.There'll Ье ... coffee in а тinнte. 10. lf ... таn waпts
to raise а beard, let hiт. 11. Has ... been here to see те?- Yes, ... l1as left а note.
12. По you see ... on the sl1elf? 13. Does ... lie on your taЬle? 14 .... special
happened yesterday. 15. Why didn't you ask ... to help you? 16. If ... l1appeпs,
ring те вр immediately. 17. Не asked tl1e secretary wl1etl1er there was ... waiting
for hiт. 18. You сап get t11is book at ... bookshop. 19. Уов шау соте at ... time
tl1at is convenieпt to уон. 20. Will you have ... to eat?

Exercise Vl
Translate into Englisr1 paying attention to the use of some, any, по and their coт­
pouпds.

1. Я вижу какую-то записку на нашем столе. Что, кто-нибудь заходил?


1\i 2. По-моему, в статье есть кое-какие ошибки. Вы не заметили? -Я пока
111
ничего не заметил. 3. Я ничего не могу вам сказать. Спросите у кого­
11\ нибудь еще. 4. Я не вижу ничего подходящего для себя на витрине; не
111, можете ли вы показать мне что-нибудь еще? - К сожалению, ничего
больше не могу вам сейчас предложить. Зайдите в любой день на следу­
ющей неделе. 5. Он вам ничего не рассказал? А ему есть что рассказать:
я думаю, что он за это время повидал больше, чем любой из нас. 6. Никто
мне ничего не говорит. Может быть, вы мне что-нибудь скажете? 7. Я
вижу чей-то мокрый зонтик в передней. Кто-нибудь пришел? 8. Не даст
ли мне кто-нибудь из вас свои записи? 9. Возьмите чьи угодно записи и

102

111 1
1
посмотрите лекции, которые вы пропустили. 10. Я слишком устал, что­ 7.

бы заниматься сейчас чем-нибудь серьезным. 11. Давайте встретимсн в .;:::;


какой-нибудь другой день. В среду у меня совсем не будет времени. ..
,7:
'-"
12. На столе есп, масло?- Да, есть. 13. Если вам нечего делать, идите :0::
р..

гулять. 14. Мы никого не знали на этом вечере. 15. Она ничего не видела,
так как в комнате было темно. 16. Никто из детей еще не встал. :z:
f-
17. Сегодня в вашем диктанте нет ошибок. 18. Я буду у себя в кабинете,
если вам что-то понадобится. 19. Вам удалось найти какие-нибудь ста­
тьи по этому вопросу? 20. Мы что-нибудь можем для вас сделать?
21. Папа, ты освободился? Я хочутебе что-то сказать. 22. Вам предложи­
ли прочесть некоторые интересные статьи в этом журнале?

Exercise Vll
Translate iпto Eпglis\1 paying atteпtioп to tl1e пsе of some, any, по апd tl1eir com-
pouпds.

1. Я ходил на почту и купил марок и конвертов. 2. В этом журнале нет


иллюстраций. 3. Если у вас есть книги по этому вопросу, принесите их,
пожалуйста. 4. Почему он не принес мне воды? Я просил его принести, так
как я очень хочу пить. 5. Кто-то оставил дверь открытой. 6. Звонил мне
кто-нибудь? 7. Не можете ли вы рассказать мне что-нибудь о жизни этого
писателя? 8. Если вы найдете что-нибудь интересное в этом журнале, при­
шлите мне его, пожалуйста. 9. Любой из вас может это сделать. 1О. У меня
нет времени, чтобы пойти туда. 11. Если у вас будет свободное время, по­
смотрите этот фильм. 12. Вы говорили с кем-нибудь об этом? 13. Он ниче­
го не знает об этом. 14. Вы можете застать его здесь в любой день между
пятью и шестью. 15. Не можете ли вы дать мне бумагу? Я хочу написать
письмо. 16. Есть ли английские журналы в нашей библиотеке? 17. Есть ли
вопросы к докладчику? 18. Он, конечно, ответит на любой вопрос. 19. Я
еще не предупредил об этом некоторых из моих друзей. 20. Часть работы
будет сделана завтра. 21. Могу я сыграть все, что я хочу?

Exercise Vlll
Insert each or every.
1. The two 1ittle girls held his hands, one on ... side. 2. There was ... kiпd of news
in the paper: accidents, sports and politics. 3. Tl1e bedrooms were all the same,
... witl1 а window апd а door. 4. Тот did fош more variaпts oftl1e speech, ... ot'
wl1ic\1 his teac\1er praised 11ighly. 5. There were fош studeпts iп tl1e room, апd
l gave а ticket to ... of them. 6. There are new lюuses оп ... side of tl1e street.
7 .... Ьig plaпt has its polyclinic. 8 .... pupil was asked to nаше his favourite
writer. 9. At ... lesson tl1ey were slюwп different pictures. 1О .... week we l1ave
Eпglish lessons. 11. Have you seen ... of11er two sisters? 12. Here are two lюuses.
You may go to ... oftl1em. 13. She always kпew wl1at ... ofus wou1d like best.
103
:L 14 .... cl1a11ge of seasoп, i11deed ... Iюш of the day, makes some сlыпgе iп tl1e
"'·
,.., woпderful colours of these mou11taiпs. 15. She searcl1ed ... corner but fouпd
с:;

11otblпg. 16. Two boys eпtered .... was carryi11g а suitcase.


::>:::
<
2. Exercise IX
~ lлsert every, each or eitl1er or compouпd pro11ouпs.
<
~
с;
1.... day he comes I1ere, апd ... time he asks me the same qнestioпs. 2. Т11еrе
was а large buildi11g 011 ... side of tl1e square, ... lшviпg ап arcl1ed gate.
(/)
3. Wllich would you prefer, this or that dictioпary? - ... will do. TI1a11k you.
о
4. We will get books for ... апd give а сору to .... 5. Не shook Iшпds and !1ad а
z few miпLJtes' talk with ... ofнs. 6. Tl1e mеп a11d \Vomeп were comiпg trom tl1e
Li1
viпeyard, ... two ofthem carryiпg а basket ofgrapes. 7.... miпнte l1e stood ttp
a11d looked throнgh tl1e wi11dow. 8. I remember ... Jюuse iп our street. 9. Two ot'
tl1em could поt соте, but ... of them had а valid reasoп. 10. There are two
vaca11t rooшs i11 tl1e lюtel, уон may take .... 11. They looked at ... pictшe iп tl1e
museuт witl1 great iпterest. 12. There were clшirs 011 ... side of tl1e taЬJe.
13. There were тапу fi11e houses 011 ... Ьапk ofthe river.

Exercise Х
Clюose betweeп а!/, every апd еас/1 to use it iп tl1e followi11g seпteпces.

1. I have ... bookhe lшs everwritteп. 2. Не slюuted I1еrпате twice ... time baпgiпg
his tist 011 tl1e taЬJe. 3. Не lшd Ьее11 brougl1t up Ьу а тother wlю lшd taug\1t him
that ... pleasure must Ье paid for. 4. Tl1ey did поt talk much аЬонt wlшt ... feared
most. 5. That's the sort ofjob ... boys like doiпg. 6. Tl1ey broke i11to little groups; ...
l1ad his оwп woпderful story to tell. 7.... the people were cl1eeriпg Ioudly. 8. Before
Ье lett tl1e classrooтl1e gave ... Ьоу а task. 9. She had sometblпg to say оп ... sLJbject.
1О .... tl1e пюnеу was spe11t. 11 .... tl1e family was present. 12. And [ \1ad to sit онt
tllere witl1 ... еуе оп me. 13. Не I1as ... сlш11се to wiп. 14. Не looked at ... ot'нs iп
turп. 15. Не didп't aпswer. Не lшd 110 doubt tl1at sl1e mea11t ... word she said.

Exercise Xl
Choose between all and а сошроuпd iп evety to нsе it i11 tl1e followiпg seпteпces.
1. 1waпt to l1ear ... tl1ey say. 2. She took the iпitiative апd I1erself spoke to ... sl1e
kпew. 3. Не couldп't help пoticiпg Iюw well dressed ... was. 4. l waпt ... to Ье
l1appy. 5. Тl1еп, to .. .'s surprise, she шarried someoпe quite uпdistiпgнisl1ed.
6 .... wlю have studied tbls issue have соте to the same coпclusioп. 7. Sl1e
believed that ... was watcblпg her. 8 .... ofhis frieпds Ьаd otTered blm his l1elp.
9. Sооп ... were asleep. 10. The lady laugl1ed I1eartily at ... that was said to her.
11 . ... fe1t iпdigпaпt wheп he Ьеgап hitting the Ьоу witl111is stick. 12 .... were of
the same opiпion 011 tbls questioп. 13. We are ... glad to see уон. 14 .... said tl1e
same tblпg. 15 .... is ready for their departure. 16 .... girls Iike beautifнl tblпgs.
17 .... l1e told me was ot· great interest.
104
Exercise Xll /
--,
~

Tпtnslate iпto Eпglisl1. Рау attentioп to tl1e use oftl1e proпouпs each апd eveJy. -~

~?:
1. Каждый школьник знает правила дорожного движения. 2. Она встре­
чала его на катке каждую субботу. 3. Известно, что почти каждый ребе­ ::;,..
нок любит яблоки. Мы дали каждой девочке и каждому мальчику по
яблоку. 4. Каждую неделю я проводил несколько дней в деревне. 5. Он .•!-.
f-·
продолжал смотреть на часы каждые пять минут. 6. Они прислали мне
два билета в Мариинекий театр. Каждый билет стоил более ста рублей.
7. Каждый студент должен знать свои обязанности. 8. Каждый из нас
должен был выполнить свою работу вовремя. 9. Когда он был студентом,
он каждый год ездил на юг. 10. Он пожал руку каждому гостю. 11. Он
навещает нас каждое воскресенье. 12. Мы встречаемся с друзьями каж­
дое лето на юге. 13. На конференции каждому дали блокнот и ручку.
14. Преподаватель сказал, что каждый из нас должен внимательно про­
читать эту статью. 15. Я помню каждый дом на нашей улице.

Exercise Х\11
Use all (а!! о./) or bot/1 (both о./).
Models They are wroпg. We saw the filт.
Botl1 ofthem are wrong. АН ofus saw the filт.
They are both wroпg. We all saw the film.
1. We kпew tl1e truth. 2. They were surprised to l1ear it. 2. You I1ave Ьееп
тistaken. 4. WШ tl1ey Ье preseпt? 5. We Iшve Iarge faтilies. 6. We l10pe to see
you agaiп. 7. You will fiпd tl1eт there. 8. Сап you соте earlier? 9. Т11еу were
glad to тееt you. 1О. You could do it much better.

Exercise XIV
rпsert other or another апd the defiпite article wl1ere пecessary.
1. Pete'swife brougl1t in two Ьig cups, holding оп е in each hand. Опе she gave to Тот
апd ... to Pete. 2. Finally Jеппу said, "Wouldп't апуЬоdу like some more соШ~е?"­
"I think my l1usbaпd could use ... снр," saidAП11. 3. Alec whispered sometiliпg from
... side oftl1e taЬle. 4. Не spread the magazine flat оп the floor, ореп so tl1at its pages
were оп опе side апd its paper оп .... 5. There was ... pause. 6. 1looked throнgl1 ti1e
wiпdow. Three parachutes орепеd опе after ... in rapid succession. 7. From опе piece
of пews he went to ... , keeping the paperwell before his face. 8. Mike was takiпg ashort
holiday which he speпt iп going every пigi1t to the ti1eatre iп оп е towп after ... 9. 1will
соте in ... dayto see howti1eyget along with eacl1 oti1er. 1О. Не eпtered tl1e rоот апd
saw Johп апd Maria sittiпg оп tl1e sota. Не looked first at опе, tl1eп at .... 11. Wl1en
it Jшррепs, there тust Ье onlytwo persons present beside myself. One is Mark .... is а
mап whom 1 expect here опlу very seldom. 12. Her two soпs were playiпg in tl1e
garden. Апп turпed her eyes from оп е to ....
105
~

OL Exercise XV
() Traпslate iпto Eпglisl1 нsing other, otheгs, the other, the otf1e1·s, anoti1CI·.
:У.\

;:,:: 1. Этот лист бумаги слишком мал. Дайте мне другой. 2. Я постучала в
< дверь, но никто не ответил. Я постучала еще раз. 3. В поиедельни к я буду
~
~ занята. Приходите в какой-нибудь другой день. 4. Некоторые люди лю­
<
;:,::
бят кататься на коньках, другие предпочитают ходить на лыжах.
~ 5. Почему ты одна, где оста.п:ьные? 6. На другой берег реки мы перебра­
лись на лодке. 7. Я хотела бы посмотреть какой-нибудь другой фильм.
v;
8. Несколько наших студентов остались в университете. Все остальные
.... отправились на экскурсию. 9. Я увидела свою подругу на другой сторо­
z не улицы и помахала ей рукой. 10. У менн две сестры. Одна школьниuа,
~

другая студентка. 11. Дайте мне, пожалуйста, любой другой словарь.


12. У меня в кармане только одна перчатка. Где же другая? 13. Не хотите
ли еще чашку чая? 14. Уже поздно, не говорите так громко: нужно счи­
таться с другими.

Exercise XVI
Use tl1e рrо1юш1 оп е in tl1e proper form апd, ifпecessary, with tl1e reqнired article.
1. Tl1ey are six in the family.... you saw are David and Тошmу. 2. Browп's old
car is шнсl1 better tl1an our пеw .... 3. Tl1ere are woolleп gloves апd !eatl1er ...
on the sl1elt'. 4. Не was rather pale, апd the expressioп оп l1is face was ... I lшс!
пever seen before. 5. "WI1icl1 girl is Jеап?"- '' ... iп the greeп dress." 6. "\Vl1at
has happeпed to aJI the books?" - "1 saw ... оп tl1e taЬie iп tl1e l1all." 7. Sucl1 ...
as you waпt is very rarely sееп. 8. "Have уон little ... fiпisl1ed уош dessert?"
said Аnп. 9. Two more bнses саше up апd pulJed iп bel1iпd tl1e first .... 10. Не
has interviewed ту friends, - ... 1 lшve tюw and ... who have Ьееп witl1 me iл
former years. 11. "Which is Неlеп, tl1e young ... or tl1e old ... ? " - "Т11е уонпg
.... " 12 .... morпiпg I1e received а long letter from ilis friend. 13. М у skis may Ье
too small for you. Better take George 's .... 14. Wl1ich is ту glass 11ere?- Take
... that is пearest to you.

Exercise XVII
Traпslate into Eпglish usiпg the рrопонn one.
1. Следует быть осторожным, когда купаешься в море. 2. Никогда не
знаешь, что может случиться. 3. Следует соблюдать правила уличного
движения. 4. Если совершил ошибку, нужно ее исправить. 5. Телеграмму
можно послать по телефону. 6. Следует всегдадержать свое слово. 7. Преж­
де чем ехать куда-нибудь, нужно взять билет. 8. Расписание поездов мож.­
но узнать в справочном бюро. 9. Если работаешь с детьми, нужно обла­
дать большим терпением. 10. Нужно много работать, если хочешь
достигнуть хороших результатов в занятиях. 11. Следует считаться с мне­
нием других. 12. Нельзя судить о книге, не прочитав ее до конца.
106
Exercise XVIII L
l:ill in по, по one or попе. ·:::;
2
1. 1 have invited all oftl1em, but ... have (has) come. 2. There is ... doнbt tl1at уон ·~
....-
wi\l соре with this work. 3. Тl1at is ... business ofyours. 4 .... was (wеге) аЬ!е to ~

uпderstaпd what he meaвt. 5. An accideпt l1appeпed, but ... gJ·eat lшrm was dопе. u.J

... lives were lost. 6 .... tried to teach her anything. 7.... ofus is perfect; we all make

mistakes. 8.... ofus kпew how i11 she was. 9. I'm sure you l1eard it from Магу, ...
else could tell you tlшt. 10. 1 wanted some more coffee but tl1ere was ... left.
11 .... of tl1em kпows his duty yet. 12. We had ... to give вs accurate information.
13.... ofвs kпows lюw пшсh he has suffered. 14. Of all the girls l1e phoned ... were
at lюme. 15. Duriпg that time he saw ... wlю coвld tell him wlыt l1ad gопе wroпg.

Exercise XIX
Use both, either or пeither in tl1e followiпg senteпces.
1. We drove along а wide road with trees on ... side. 2. Не iпvited вs ... , Ьвt l
knew he did поt want ... ofus at а family party. 3. The veraпdal1 stretched оп ...
side of me. 4. 1 coнld !1ear them ... , Ьнt saw .... 5. Tl1ese are ... very gloomy
rooms. l'm afraid ... will suit me. 6. "Which of'tl1e two newspapers wot~ld уон
like?"- "Oh, ... will do." 7. She lшd browп sblniпg lшir wl1ich hllпg dowп оп
... side of11erface. 8. "What are уов goiпg to lшve, orange or applejuice?"- " ...
l'm not tblrsty." 9. "Tell ... уош motl1el' апd father tl1at l'm expectiпg tl1em
toпigl1t"- "l'm afraid 1 woп't see ... oftheш today". 10. "Wblcl1job are you
going to take?" - "1 'm afraid .... " 11. Thel'e were trees оп ... bank. 12. Nick
апd Тош are ... my frieпds. But ... is iп the town now. 13. "WI1at have уов
written, а short story or an essay?" - ''l'm afraid it doesn't соте withiп ...
descriptioп." 14. " ... the jars, the Ьig one and the small one, are empty. Уон сап
take ... of them." - "1 'm afraid ... wil\ do."

Exercise ХХ
Answer the followiпg questions iп the пegative вsing the пegative pronollп пeither
(speaking oftwo) or попе (speakiпg ofmaпy).
Model J How many books have you seпt Ьу post? - None.
Whicl1 oftl1e two books have you seпt Ьу post?- Neitl1er.
1. Whom lшve you sееп: Ann or Pete?
2. How many exercises lшs he dопе?
3. Whicl1 haпd have you hurt?
4. Whicl1 stocking of this pair has а hole?
5. Which ofthese two poems have yoнlearned?
6. Which оfуош fellow-stнdents did уон meet оп уош way to the university?
7. Which ofthese umbl'ellas do you like?
8. How mапу lettel's l1ave you received from her?
107
"J""''

;,с:
.__, Exercise XXI
_. Translate iпto Eпglisl1. Рау atteпtioп to tl1e use of'tl1e рrоrюнпs по, попе апd tl1eiг
coшpouвds.
с~

< 1. Она решила никого не приглашать к себе до приезда мужа. 2. Мы


~
~
никого не знали на этом вечере. 3. Никто не разговаривал. Все внима­
< тельно слушали лектора. 4. Никто из детей еще не пришел из школы.
се
5. Ни один журналист не писал об этом. 6. У меня нет времени помочь
:::: вам сегодня. 7. Есть ли телефон в комнате?- Нет. 8. Ни один параход
[/)
еще не вышел из порта. 9. В коробке ничего нет. 10. Оба улыбнулись, но
никто из них не 3аговорил. 11. Никто из них не мог ответить на этот
;z
~ вопрос. 12. Ничего не было видно в темноте. 13. Я ему ничего не сказал.
хотя он настаивал. 14. В вазе нет цветов. 15. Ничего особенного не слу­
чилось вчера. 16. Я не нашел ошибок в вашем переводе. 17. От него не
получено никаких сведений. 18. Мы ничего не читали об этом.

Much, Many, Little, Few, а Little, а Few


Much and little are used with uncountaЫe nouns and are singulars:
We have тuch соа/, iroп, stee/, oil.
Мапу and few are used with countaЫes and are plurals:
We are buildiпg тапу пеw towпs, factories, railroads.
ln spoken English we do not use тапу and тuch in positive sentences without
some adverbs sLrch as: very, too, so or rather. lnstead of тапу and тuch in positive
sentences we use different expressions, such as а lot of ... , /ots of ... , pleпty of ... , а
great dea/ of ... .
Except for а great deal of, they сап Ье used with countaЫes and uncountaЫes; а
greatdealofcan Ье used onlywith uncountaЫes:
There were lots of iпterestiпg books iп the bookcase.
There was а great dea/ of /aughter iп the rooтs.
We have pleпty of tiтe to fulfil our work.
ln spoken English тuch and тапу are usually used in interrogative and negative
sentences:
Have you got тuch work today?
No. 1haveп 't got тuch work today.

When few and little are used without the article, they have а negative meaning
(мало).
When they are used with the indefinite article, they have а positive meaning
(немного, несколько):
There are few books оп history iп this /ibrary.
Аfew books were оп the tаЬ/е.
She eats little bread. Give те а little bread.
108
Veryfewjvery/ittle are more usual in everydayspeech. lt is alsocommon to use ;г.

''' 1/у а little, оп/у а few:


1'т very tired because 1've had very few days' holiday. 7

She speaks Germaп quite we/1 but оп/у а littfe Freпch. х


:::..

:с:

1vf EXERCISES '"'"'

Exercise 1
Iпsert тапу, much, littleor few.
1.... was said but ... dопе. 2. Say ... апd do .... 3. Уегу ... people kпow аЬонt it.
4 .... heard about the book, but ... read it. 5 .... is spokeп about it, but ... believe
it. б. The forces were uпequal, they were ... , we were .... 7. We slшn't get all iпto
tl1e саг. Tl1is опе is too .... 8. Не lшs very ... kпowledge oftl1e matter. 9. T\1ere
isп't ... lшrm iп it. 1О. Is tl1ere ... milk left iп tl1e jar?- No, tl1ere is quite ... шilk
left there. 11. TI1ere were ... people iп tl1e streets (2). 12. 1haveл 't l1eard ... аЬонt
tllis composer. 13. Hurry up! There is ... time left. 14. SI1e is а persoп of ...
words. 15. How ... exer·cise-books do you waпt me to buy? 16. How ... time
does it take уон to get to your office? 17. How ... times did уон visit the Rнssian
Museшn?

Exercise 11
Complete tl1e fo1lowiпg usiпg тапу, mucfz, (e1v or little iп tl1e reqнired degree of
comparisoп.

1. Не kпows ... , but I1e kпows ... tlшп you. 2. Не kпows ... thaп you, but it
doesп 't mean tl1at he kпows .... 3. We need no ... thaп tlve days to complete tl1e
work. 4 .... were preseпt; mucl1 ... than уон сап imagine. 5. Tl1e iпstrнment is
very sensitive, tl1e ... noise affects its work. 6. The tood did поt look appetiziпg,
to say ... of it. 7. There were ... objectioпs to the рlап, but ... part of' it was
approved of. 8. I can't do ... for уон, this is ... I сап do, апd 1 tl1iпk it's ... tlшп
we had рlаппеd before. 9. Take this road, it has ... turпs. 1О. II1ave so ... tl1ings
to do that 1 don't kпowwhicl1 to do tlrst. 11. Nowadays he was verybusy апd he
couldп't see ... of his old frieпds. 12. Sl1e was glad to see me because I was
Eпglisl1 апd she kпew ... Eпglish people.

Exercise 111
Choose between тuch апd тапу, (а) little and (а) few to use it iп the f'ollowing
seпteпces.

1. М у sister speпds so ... money оп her clothes t11at sl1e 11as попе left for lюlidays.
2. Не was so busy in the buildiпg ofllis 11ouse that eveпts oнtside it affected llim
.... 3. Sl1e 11ad slept ... last пigl1t апd sl1e 11ad а l1eadacl1e. 4. At tl1e bar ... men

109
-
~
~.
were discussing tl1e comiпg electioпs iпloud voices. 5. Неlеп returпed to Eпglaпd
'-'
~
at t!1e momeпt \Vl1eп ... were leaviпg it. б. Last week tl1ere was so ... raiп tlшt 1
с.:
_, was поt аЬ!е to go онt. 7. The1·e were ... Ьig hotels t!1at were closed Ьвt пюst о Г
< the shops were ореп. 8. How ... is tl1e clock fast поw? 9. There was ... time to
;?;
thiпk. 1О. lп tl1e 1ast tweпty-four lюurs too ... thiпgs !ыd 1ыррепеd. 11. P11ilip
2
<. had ... frieпds. 12. It was а lюt day апd tl1ere were ... flies iп the room. 13. There
et.:
~
were ... people iп the square, but 1 did поt пotice the faces as I lшrried past.
14. Martiп was ill апd speпt so ... time iп tl1e hospital.
v;
_,
Exercise IV
:z: Clюose betweeп muc/1 апd тапу, (а) little and (а) few to use it in the following
seпteпces.

1. I suggested tl1at he should get ... eggs ашt some bread. 2. Auпt Mary Iыd ...
money wblle попе oftl1e ot11er family had iпherited as ... as а pouпd. 3. Му
dear, 1'm afraid I have поt ... pieces of пews to сопvеу but still tl1ere are ... thiпgs
1 slюuld like to add. 4. 1 Ьеgап to miss Lопdоп: it was поt so ... tl1at 1 l1ad ...
close friends tl1ere, for 1 have ... frieпds but 1 missed variety. 5. Nick l1as еаtеп so
... that 11е сап't move. б. Аппl1аd not l1ad ... visitors lately. 7. Не didп 't еаrп ...
шопеу апd lived iп tl1e couпtry. 8. М у father read ... books оп econoшics. 9. 1
l1ave ... time to watch ТУ. 1О. Не l1as ... work to do this afterпooп. 11. Please
give me ... water. 12. Tl1ere are very ... illвstrations iп this magazine.

Exercise V
Choose between litt!e, а little, fен', afew.
1. А good speaker can say mucl1 in ... words. (few, а few) 2. Could уон describe
the situatioп in ... words? (few, а few) 3. Why do you eat so ... ? Try ... of
everytl1iпg. (little, а little) 4. Tl1e street looked almost deserted. Tl1ere were ...
people in it. (few, а few) 5. I have опlу ... tl1iпgs Jeft uпdone. (few, а few) б. Не
takes very ... trouЬle witl1 his work. (little, а little) 7. It lыs giveп me поt ...
trouЬ!e. (little, а little ). 8 .... did 1 know what was in store for те. (little, а little)
9 .... are as сараЬ!е at languages as he is. (few, а few) 10. Do уон kпow tl1e
Eпglish Jaпguage? - Just .... (little, а little) 11. Are there тапу шistakes iпmy
compositioп?- Qвite .... (а few, few)

Exercise Vl
Use а !ot (of), lots (of), plenty (of), а great deal (oj), а good deal (oj), а great тапу,
agoodmany.
1. 1 lыve got ... work to do for tomorrow. 2. There were ... flowers iп tl1e room.
3. 1have got ... valuaЬie iпformation. 4. Tl1e Ьоу kпows ... оп the sвbject. 5. М у
brotl1er reads ... books. б. She got ... presents оп her Ьirthday. 7. Не eats ...
sweets. 8. Don't hшry up. We lшve ... time before us. 9 .... people took part iп
the conference. 10. Не took ... trouЬle with that Ьоу.
110
Exercise Vll ~.:_.:::

Translate into English. ~

>-
1. Известный русский художник И. Левитан написал много прекрас­ LЦ


ных картин. 2. Россия экспортирует много леса. 3. Вы потратили слиш­
f-
ком много времени на этот перевод. 4. В библиотеке много английских
книг. 5. У нас есть немного времени. 6. У меня есть несколько книг по
этому вопросу. 7. Мы пригласили много друзей на день рождения.
8. Много народубыло приглашено, но немногие пришли. 9. Об этом ска­
зано мало. 10. Что я могу вам сказать, если я сам так мало знаю об этом?
11. На улице было мало детей. 12. Много детей было на концерте в школе.

Exercise Vlll
Traпslate iпto English.
1. Многое из того, что он сказал, уже обсуждалось раньше. 2. Многие
это уже слышали. 3. Мало было сказано, но много сделано.
4. Мшю кто
знает об этом. 5. Как всегда, он говорил много, но сказал мало. 6. Он
сказал, что прочел много детективных романов IЗО время каникул. 7. К
сожалению, у меня мало времени. 8. Много ошибок в контрольной рабо­
те на употребление времен. 9. Многое из того, что он сказал, было ново
для нас. 10. Говорят, что он написал мало книг, но почти все его книги
имели большой успех. 11. Вы сделали гораздо больше ошибок, чем дру­
гие. 12. Я сделал на три ошибки больше, чем он. 13. На этотраз вы сдела­
ли в три раза меньше ошибок, чем в прошлый раз.

The Verb
А verb is а word used to express some action or state:
Shesings.
Не is very busy.

Verbs are divided into:


1} simple: to read, to speak, to /ove etc.
2} derived (having suffixes or prefixes}: to discover, to rewrite, to Ыacken
etc.
3} compound (consisting oftwo stems): tobroadcast, to whitewash etc.
4} phrasal (consisting ofa verb and an adverb or а preposition): to give up,
to соте back etc.

111
1""

The main verblorming suffixes are:


"'
.~

/~
-en to widen, to strengthen;
~r:,
-fy to simplify, to justify;
-ize to criticize, to organize;
"""
:;"Е
-ate to demonstrate, to separate.
~
r-.>:.
<
:;: The main prefixes are:
r..::; re- to resell, to reconstruct;
::::: dis- to disappear, to disarm;
v:
un- to untie, to unload.

7
w
То Ве in the Present Simple Tense
Person Affirmative lnterrogative
Negative Form
Number Form Form
am(l'm) Aml? 1am not (l'm not)
Не is (he's) lshe? Не is not (he's not or he isn't)
She is (she's) lsshe? She is not (she's not or she isn't)
lt is (it's) ls it? lt is not (it's not or it isn't)
We are (we're) Arewe? We are not (we're not orwe aren't)
You are (you're) Areyou? You are not (you' re not or you aren 't)
They are (they're) Arethey? Theyare not(they' re not or they aren 't)

MEXERCISES

Exercise 1
Put in am, is or are.
1. I ... not quite well today. 2. She ... а painter. Her pictures ... on tl1e walls.
3. Helen's brotl1er ... а student. 4. They ... tl1e most experieпced workers at tllis
factory. 5. Sl1e ... поt so attractive as her sister. 6. М у room ... tl1e smallest iп
онr tlat. 7 .... your cousiп at Jюme? 8. His family ... in Londoп now. 9 .... уош
pareпts at work?- Yes, tl1ey ... 10. Му grаппу ... ап actress. 11. Wllere ... ту
spectacles?- Tl1ey ... on tlle taЬie. 12. This garden ... the most beautiful iп our
town.

Exercise 11
Write seпtences using short forms oftlle verb to Ье.
Mode/ 1 l'm Ьнsу today (ready to answer your qнestioпs, 18 years old, а pllpil at
а secoпdary sclюol, уош friend, in the 1Otll form, late tor tl1e meeting).

112
Model Sl1e's а pнpil (ill, а small girl, good at matl1s, а nice womaп, f~lt).

/vlodel He's а Ьig Ьоу (at home, twenty-five, аЬlе to help us, our classteacher). -;,:,..-

!vlodel You're late (stroпg, ту frieпd, а history teacher, very aпgry, rigl1t).
::
Model Не isn't at home (ту friend, а good pupil, at the concert, in the park). ,....

Model They aren't ту friends (happy, present, at the exam, in the street, пеаr
tl1e metro station).

Exercise 111
Write positive and negative short answers.
1. Is уош motl1er а doctor?
2. Is уош friend а youпg girl?
3. Are you а studeпt?
4. Are уош motl1er апd fatl1er at work?
5. Is your dog small?
6. Аге the pнpils late fог the lessoп?
7. Is the film dull?
8. Are your teachers kind?
9. Аге theytired?
10. Is уош father а doctor?

Exercise IV
Translate iпto Englisl1.
1. Мне семнадцать лет.
2. Я в 10 классе. 3. Я интересуюсь архитектурой.
4. Мой брат- инженер. 5. Он очень устает после работы. 6. Сейчас он в
читальном зале. 7. Вечером он очень занят. 8. Моя сестра- студентка.
9. Она интересуется искусством. 10. Они дома сейчас. 11. Моя сестра­
лучшая студентка первого курса. 12. Она очень способная девушка.
13. Наша семья гордится ею. 14. Они лучшие ученики класса. 15. Он на
уроке сейчас. 16. Мы студенты. 17. Мой брат- переводчик.

There ls (Are) Construction


The sentences with there is( are) construction are used to saythat something or
someoneexists. Thisconstruction hasthe meaning <<есть», <<имеется», <<находится»,
«лежит»:

There is а newspaper оп the tаЬ/е. На столе газета.


The sentences with there is ( are) construction have the following word order:

an adverЬial modifier of place


1 There is ( are) 1 1 the subject 1
an adverЬial modifier oftime

113

.
1
;":
,.... The Russian sentences begin with adverЬial modifiers.
с Russian English
а::

:;,:;
--=------------------
В моей диктовке есть There are some mistakes
<
~ несколько ошибок. in mydictation.
2 В ЭТОМ ГОДУ В лесу МНОГО There are а lot of mushrooms
:;,:; грибов. in the forest this year.
(.;;

= Besides the verb to Ье some other verbs can also Ье used after there such as: to
"" live, to exist, to occur, to соте, to stand etc:
.-~

'-' There lives an old тап in that house .


z
>.;; lfthere are several subjects in the construction there is( are) the predicate agrees
with the subject that stands first after the predicate:
There is а taьte and five chairs in the rоот.
Т/иrе are five chairs and а taьte in the rоот.

lnterrogative and Negative Forms


ls there а map in your room?
No, there isn't (а map in my room).
No, there is no map in my room.
Аге there any new words in the text?
No, there aren't (any newwords in the text).
No, there are no newwords in the text.
Mind that the sentences: There is а telephone in ту rоот and The telephone is in
ту rоот have different meaning. The first sentence shows that а telephone is in that
place, the second one shows that the telephone we know is in that place (in my room).

~EXERCISES
Exercise 1
Put tl1e following sentences in the iпterrogative and negative forms.
1. There is а Ьlackboard in the classroom. 2. Tl1ere are some Eпglisl1 books on the
taЬie. 3. TJ1ere are many mistakes in уош dictation. 4. TI1ere's а пеw grammar
rule in tl1is text. 5. TJ1ere is а teJegram оп tl1e taЬle. 6. TI1ere are а lot ofpeople in tl1e
street. 7. There are some textbooks in the bookcase. 8. Tl1ere is а new cinema near
ту 11ouse. 9. Tl1ere is uпiversity iп t11at town. 10. There is somebody iп tl1e room.

Exercise 11
Ask qнestioпs to the words iп bold type.
1. Tl1ere's а nice park in ош city. 2. Tl1ere are five c11airs iп the room. 3. There
arc somc English textbooks оп my table. 4. Tl1ere are а lot ofmistakes iп your
114
exercise-book. 5. There are three mistakes in my dictation. 6. There's а new ~

cinema near ту lюuse. 7. Tl1er-e are easy exercises in this textbook. 8. Tl1ere are
three юoms in our flat. 9. There is а vase offlowers оп tl1e tаЬ!е. 10. Tl1ere is а
bookcase in the corner oftl1e room. ,...
Exercise 111
Translate into English.
1. В Москве много красивых зданий. 2. В центре Москвы находится
Кремль. 3. В нашем городе много исторических памятников. 4. В Санкт­
Петербурге 1\tного университетов и школ. 5. У меня на столе интересная
книга. 6. В этом уроке мало грамматических правил. 7. Недалеко от на­
шего дома есть новая школа. 8. В этом тексте есть новые слова. 9. У него
в диктанте нет ошибок. 1О. На том столе много журналов?- Нет, только
два. 11. В этом журнале есть много интересных статей. 12. На этом столе
много русских и английских книг.

Exercise IV
Translate into Eпglisl1.

1. В этой коробке лежат карандаши. 2. В аудитории двенадцать стульев.


3. В вашей группе 12 или 14 студентов? 4. Что висит на стене?
5. В этом
шкафу лежат английские или русские книги? 6. Какая бумага лежит на
той полке? 7. Сколько карандашей в коробке? 8. Сколько комнат в ва­
шей квартире? 9. Сколько окон в вашей комнате? 10. Сколько стульев в
аудитории? 11. Сколько страниц в этом учебнике? 12. Сколько детей в
группе у этого преподавателя? 13. На вашей улице много новых домов?
14. В вашем учебнике много картинок? 15. В вашем классе есть книж­
ный шкаф? 16. Что лежит в этом книжном шкафу?

То Have in the Present Simple Tense

have (got) (l've got) Have 1got? 1have not got (haven'tgot)
Не has (got) (he's got) Hashe got? Не has not got (hasn't got)
She has (got) (she's got) Hasshegot? She has not got
lt has (got) (it's got) Has itgot? lt has not got
We have (got) (we've got) Havewegot? We have not got
You have (got) (you've got) Have you got? You have not got
They have (got) (they've got) Have they got? They have not got

115
Тf1ey've got а lot of English books.
"""'
'-'
~

.~
Have you got а large family?
х
< DojDoes + Have
:?:
~
1. ln questions and negative sentences we can use dojdoes + have when \Ve
< speak about regular actions:
"v Do you have much time for your lessons?- No, 1don 't have much time for
them.
:,./'";
Ooes she a/ways lшve much work to do?- She doesn 't always have muc/1
workto do.
2"""'
r:....;.; 11. When the verb to have is used in а number of actions and has other meanings
than to possess. For example:
to have dinner (breakfast, supper) to have а bath (а shower)
to have tea (coffee) to have а holiday
to ~1ave а lesson to have а good time
to have classes to have а rest etc.
ln qLJestions and negative sentences it also takes the auxiliaryverb to do:
Whattime do you usuallyhavedinner?
We don 't have c/asses every day.

5l( EXERCISES
Exercise 1
Write sentences using tl1e following models.
Model 1 1 l've got а family.
1 lшveп't got а family.
Have you got а family?
А sоп, а brotl1er, а frieпd, а
motl1er, а tatl1er, skis, skates, ап Eпg\is\1 textbook,
а Rossiaп magaziпe, а question.
Model 11 1 1 have diппer at three.
Do уоо l1ave diппer at three?
I doп't lшve diппer at tl1ree.
То I1ave breakfast, to have а bat\1, to l1ave classes, to lыve а dictatioп, to l1ave
опе's Eпglish.

Model J/1 1 I 've got а cold поw.


I doп't ofteп have colds.
Тime, work, Englisl1 classes, а dictation, а test.

116
Exercise 11 0:::
Put tl1ese seпtences in tl1e interrogative and пegative forms. L.:...;
;;..
а) 1. Ann has got а tamily. 2. Jane has got а Jot of relatives. 3. l've got а cousiп.
4. Му cllildreп have got а lot offriends. 5. The Ьоу has got а cold now.
Ь) 1. Т11еу !1ave tl1eir Eпglisl1 iп the morning. 2. They often have а dictation. ""'"
3. Не lшs diпner iп tl1e afterпooп. 4. The childreп have а rest iп sLJmmer.
5. They l1ave tea or coffee tor breakfast.
с) 1. 1 ofteп have а lot of work to do. 2. l've got а lot of work to do today.
3. l usLJally have а cLJp oftea for breaktast. 4. I've got а camera. 5. They've
got а Iot offlowers in tl1e gardeп.

Exercise 111
Ask qнestioпs to the foltowiпg seпteпces.
!. TI1ey l1ave two little rooms. 2. Slle l1as few books at Iюme. 3. Не !1as а nice
film. 4. We l1ave little bread. 5. We have yoвng teachers at uвiversity. 6. Tlley
have а lot of good Eng1isl1 books at home. 7. Tllis room l1as two windows. 8. Не
11as good friends at school. 9. We l1ave gLJests toпight. 1О. They l1ave а nice little
daugl1ter.

Exercise IV
Traпslate iвto Eпglisl1.

а) 1. У меня есть интересная книга о художниках. 2. У моего друга много


русских книг, но у него нет английских книг.3. У вашего друга боль­
шанили маленькая семья? 4. Сколько детей у вашего друга? 5. У моей
сестры двое маленьких детей.
Ь) 1. Когда вы обычно завтракаете? 2. Я обычно пью кофе на завтрак.
3. Вы обедаете сегодня поздно? 4. У кого есть вопросы?- У меня есть один
вопрос. 5. Сегодня у меня нет времени обсуЖдать этот вопрос с вами.
с) 1. У вас вечером много времени, чтобы вриготовитьдомашнее зада­
ние по английскому языку? 2. У вас сегодня много работы? 3. Дайте
мне, пожалуйста, журнал, у меня сейчас есть время, чтобы прочитать
эту статью. 4. Вы часто простужаетесь? 5. Вы простужены сейчас?

Exercise V
Traпslate iпto Eпglisll.

1. У меня есть два брата. 2. У моего друга есть собака. 3. У менн есть
времн, чтобы заниматься английским языком. 4. У моего отца есть
новая машина. 5. У моих друзей есть новый телевизор. 6. У кого есть
ручка? 7. Какие уроки у вас сегодня?
8. У вас есть сегодня занятие по
английскому языку? 9. У вас много друзей в школе? 10. У меня новый
компьютер.

117
]11

1'''
,11

;:,.,:
о
'""
The Use of Tenses
ф

~
< Simple Tenses
:.:20
:.:20

~
< The Present Simple Tense
с.;,
lt is formed from the infinitive without the particle to.
:I:
-
U') ..
· .Person· ···.
'
,,· .,. ;,··· ; ..·.
....!
v Nu.mber
:z
~
work Do lwork? 1do not work (don 't work)
Не works Does he work? Не does not work (doesn 't work)
She works Does she work? She does not work
lt works Does it work? lt does not work
We work Dowework? We do not work
You work Doyouwork? You do not work
Тhеу work Do they work? They do not work

Pronunciation and Spel/ing Ru/es


The Зrd person singular is pronounced:
after voiceless after vowels after -s, -z, -ss,
consonants and voiced consonants -sh, -ch, -х

[s] [z] [rz]


1 heasks hebegins hecloses
hewrites shereads heteaches

Note 1. The Зrd person singular of the verb to say ( says) is pronounced
[sez].
Note 2. The Зrd person singular of the verbs to go and to do is to go- goes
[g<Juz] to do- does [ dлz].
Note 3. Verbs which end in -у preceded Ьу а consonant change у into i and
add -es [z] in the Зrd person singular:
1cry- he cries, 1carry- he carries.

But: 1play- he plays (because -у is preceded Ьу а vowel here).

118
Т11е Present Simple is used: ::::
1) to state simple facts in the present: >
1/ive iп St Petersburg.
:.:
She is а studeпt. ,...
We study Eпglish.
2) to state laws of nature and the permanent truths:
lt sпows iп wiпter.
Sпow melts at 0° С.
3) to denote usual or repeated actions in the present:
They get up at 8.
Оп Suпdays we stay at home.

4) to denote actions taking place at the present moment of verbs not used in
continuous form:
1don 't see w/1at you are doiпg.
Now 1hear you perfect/ywe/1.
5) а) to denote future actions if they are planned beforehand with verbs of motion:
to go, to соте, to start, to /eave, to return, to arrive, to sail, to f/y, and
when we are talking about timetaЫes and programmes:
1go to Moscow пехt week. They start оп Suпday.
The traiп arrives iп Washiпgton at 3 p.m.
Ь) in advervial clauses of time and condition, referring to the future, after the
conjunctions: wheп (когда), uпtil, ti/1 (до тех пор пока ... не), as sооп as
(как только), as loпg as (пока), before (прежде), after (после), if(если),
uп/ess (если не), iп case (в случае), оп coпditioп that (при условии),
provided that, providing that {при условии):
1wi/1 go there uпless it raiпs.
We wi/1 seпd you the docurneпts as sооп as we receive thern.

Note. ln object clauses introdLJced Ьу the conjunctions wheп and ifthe Future
Simple is used to denote fLJture actions:
1doп't kпowwheп she wifl соте. Ask him if he wi/1 do it at а/1.

We generally use the Present Simple with the following time expressions: every
lfay/weekjmoпthjyear, usually, ofteп, a/ways, rarely, пever, sometimes, iп the
пюrniпgjeveпiпgjafternooп, atпight, оп Mondays.

119
fИ' EXERCISES
~

~
~

ос

~ Exercise 1
< Put the verb iп brackets iпto tl1e Preseпt Siшple.
~
1. We (to begiп) our work today. 2. Не always (to read) пewspapers iп t11e libraгy.
3. Му sister (to atteпd) Englisl1 classes. 4. Tl1e cl1ild (to slюw) tJs l1is drawiпgs.
~'
5. Let her go hоше now. Classes (to Ье) over. б. Every шоrпiпg sl1e (to lшrry) to
::;::
~.1':: the uпiversity. 7. Father (to соте) !юте froш the factory at б о' clock. 8. М у sоп
(to do) 11is lessoпs every eveпiпg. 9. Tl1e teacher (to give) us Eпglisl1 шagaziпes.
"-'
Z.
1О. The studeпts (to take) books froш the library. 11. Не always (to do) exercises
~ atteпtively. 12. М у sister (to look) tl1rougl1 tl1e шorniпg пewspapers every clay.

Exercise 11
Open the brackets usiпg the Preseпt Siшple.
1. The Strait of Dover ... tl1e Britisl1 Isles froш tl1e сопtiпепt (to sepaгate ).
2. Tl1e шаiп Eпg1ish rivers поt ... rapidly (to f1ow). 3. Tl1e Тlшшеs ... оп!у пiпе
шiles froш tl1e eastern bank oftl1e Severп (to begiп). 4. Tl1e west wiпd soшetiшes
... rise to tl1e daпger off1oodiпg (give). 5. Ifyoн ... to tl1e west oftl1e Реппiпе
Сlшiп, уон wiJl enter tl1e шost beautiful part ofEпglaпd, tl1e Lake Distгict (to
go ). 6. WI1eгe ... the beaнtifнllake Wiпderшere ... (to lie )? 7. Tl1e шost noгtl1eгly
towп ofEпglaпd, Berwick ... at the nюпtl1 oftl1e Tweed (to staпd). 8. WI1en yoLJ
... iп London, take as шаnу pl1otos as уон сап (to Ье). 9. Tl1e sl1ip ... for
Lопdоп in а few days (to leave). 10. I was listeпiпg iпlast nigllt. Suddeпly tl1e
bell ... апd I ... ту frieпd's voice: "Ншrау! l аш going to Eпglaпd!" (to гiпg, to
l1ear). 11. What ... опе ... ifoпe is slюrtsigl1ted (to use)?

Exercise 111
Write tl1e followiпg seпteпces iп the iпterrogative апd negative forшs.
1. We listeп t.o tl1e radio every day. 2. Не tells us about his work апd studies.
3. I read а page of sоше English book every day. 4. М у sister l1elps ше to do шу
11oшework. 5. The librariaп helps us to c11oose books for lloшe readiпg. 6. We
listeп to his lectшes on Suпdays. 7. We speak Eпglish weii. 8. Му sister plays
teппis. 9. 1 lеаш пеw \Vords every day. 10. Sl1e Iшs diппer iп tl1e afterпooп.
11. They play the piano weii. 12. Tiюse foгeigп studeпts speak Russiaп.

Exercise IV
Ask wh-questioпs to the words iп bold type.
1. 1 work at an office. 2. We usually have ош Eпglish in the evening. 3. TI1ey
often speak English iп class. 4. We write а lot of sentences оп the Ьlackboard.
5. After my English 1 go to the office. 6. You read English books at lюme. 7. We
read, write and speak English during our lesson. 8. We l1ave dictations very
120
::::;
often. 9. After classes l go home. 10. Му friends read тапу English books. ~

11. 1 soшetimes give Peter my exercise-books. 12. Tl1ey usually go to tl1e office
in the morпing.

Exercise V
I'Lrt the verb in brackets into tl1e correct forш.

1. What time ... (eveпing perforшaпcesjЬegin) in St Petersburg? 2. Wlыt .. .


(youjdo )? - 1 аш а teacher. 3. Where ... (youjgo) after classes? 4. How ofteп .. .
(youjlыve) dictations? 5. Where ... (your brot\1erjwork?- Не ... (wo1·k) at t11e
Гactory. 6. Му sister ... (know) Eпglis\1 well, but s\1e ... (not/know) Frenc\1.
7. Wlыt kind ofbooks ... (youjread)? 8. How тапу tiшes а week ... (you/Jыve)
Eпglisl1 classes? 9. Не l1as а coшputer but he ... ( notjuse) it vегу оЛ:еп. 1О. М у
frieпds ... (rюt/live) iп St Petersbшg, they ... (live) in Moscow.

Exercise Vl
Translate iпto Englis\1 нsing tl1e Preseпt Siшp1e.

J. Мой друг изучает два иностранных языка. 2. Какие книги вы читаете?


3. Во время урока мы читаем, пишем диктанты, делаем упражнения и
разговариваем по-английски. 4. Вы разговариваете по-английски или
по-русски со своим преподавателем? 5. Обычно мы говорим по-англий­
ски, иногда по-русски. 6. Кто дает вам английские книги для чтения?­
Мой преподаватель. 7. Какие журналы вы любите читать? 8. Каждое
утро мой друг приезжает в Санкт-Петербург, а вечером уезжает домой.
9. Он всегда вовремя приходит на работу. 10. Когда вы обычно приходите
домой с работы? 1 J. Что вы делаете по вечерам? - Я прихожу домой и
делаю домашние задания. 12. Как часто вы готовите уроки вместе со
своим другом? -Два, три раза в неделю.

Exercise Vll
Тranslate
into Eпglish using the Present Simple.
I. 1. Я работаю в одном крупном учреждении. 2. Мой рабочий день обыч­
но начинается в 8 часов утра. 3. Я встаю, делаю утреннюю зарядку,
умьшаюсь и завтракаю. 4. После завтрака я иду на работу. 5. Так как
я живу близко от места работы, я обычно иду туда пешком. 6. Я занят
на работе с 9 часов утра до 6 часов вечера. 7. Я также учусь. Я занима­
юсь на подготовительных курсах. 8. У нас занятия в понедельник,
среду и пятницу. 9. Занятия начинаются в 18:30 и заканчиваются в
21:30. 10. Вечером, когда у меня нет занятий, я немного читаю, смот­
рю телепередачу или слушаю радио. 11. Иногда я хожу на прогулку
или навешаю своих друзей. 12. В 12 часов я обычно ложусь спать.
II. У меня есть друг. Его зовут Николай. Его родители живут не в Моск­
ве. Они живут в Киеве. Николай занимается спортом. Он учится в

121
х:
Московском университете. Он завтракает в столовой университе·1;1
с
Q Поэтому он уходит из дома в 8 часов. Чтобы дойти до университет;1,
А:!
ему необходимо J5-20 минут. Иногда после занятий он ходит в биl)
cr:
< ли отеку, где он читает книги и просматривает газеты.
:?.:
:?.:
<
cr:
\...?: The Past Simple Tense
::r: According to the way in which Н1е Past Simple and Participie 11 are formed, vertJ:.
(/']

are divided into 1) regularverbs and 2) irregularverbs.


с The regularverbs form the Past Simple and Participle 11 Ьу adding -ed or -d to th1 ·
;z.
~ infinitive of the verb:
to open- opened, to translate- translated;
-ed and -d are pronouпced in three different ways:
а) [1d] after -t апd -d:
to act- acted to /and -Janded;
Ь) [ d] after voiced consonants, except -d, and after vowels:
to ореп - opened to stay- stayed to die - died;
с) [t] aftervoiceless consonants, except -t:
to look - /ooked to work- worked.

Spel/ing Rules
1. The final consonaпt letter is douЫed if it follows а single vowel in а stressell
syllaЫe:
to nod- nodded to permit- permitted
to stop - stopped to refer- referred
to stir - stirred to compel- cornpelled
2. The final -/ is douЫed even in an unstressed syllaЫe:
to travel- travel/ed to сап се/- cancel/ed
3. ln some words the final -р is douЫed in an uпstressed syllaЫe:
to kidnap- kidnapped to worship - worshipped
4. The final -у is changed to -i if it is preceded Ьу а consonant:
to cry- cried to rep/y - replied
The irregularverbs form the Past Simple Tense and Participle 11 in а differentway:
to Ье - was - were - been
to begin - began - begun
to write- wrote- written
to meet- rnet- met
to lie -/ау -Jain etc.

122
с::
Person 1 Negative :::::
(.._)
Number ·· Form·. Form ;;.
щ
spoke Did 1speak? 1did not ( didn 't) speak ::r:
(played) (play?) (play) ...,
Не 1 spoke Did he speak? Не did not speak (play)
(played) (play?)
She 1 spoke Did she speak? 1 She did not speak (play)
(played) (play?)
lt 1 spoke Did it speak? 1 lt did not speak (play)
(played) (play?)
We 1 spoke Did we speak? 1
We did not speak (play)
(played) (play?}
You 1 spoke Did you speak? 1
You did not speak (play)
(played) (play?)
They 1
spoke Did they speak? 1
They did not speak ( play)
(played) (play?)

The Use of the Past Simple Tense


The Past Simple Tense is used:
1) to denote past hablt or state:
Не weпt to school оп foot.
2) to denote а complete action or event which happened at а stated past time:
She raпg те up ап hour ago.
3) to denote past actions which happened one after the other:
Не got up, dressed апd had breakfast.
4) to denote an action which happened at а definite past time although the time is
not mentioned:
Shakespeare wrote а lot of p/ays.

Note. Besides the Past Simple Tense there are two otherways of expressing
haЬitual actions in the past:
а) Ьу means of the form used + the infinitive.
Used to expresses past hablts, regularly repeated actions in the
past or past states:
Sоте years ago she used to cal/ оп те.
The negative construction of used to is formed in one of two ways;
didп 't use to or used поt to:
Не didп 't use to cal/ оп те оп weekdays.
Не used поt to cal/ оп те оп weekdays.
The interrogative form is did ( he) use to:
Did he use to play teппis wheп he was а child?

123
;:,:::
'"" Ь) Ьу means of the verb would + the infinitive.
о
се Wou/d expresses regularly repeated actions in the past. lt isnlt
~ used for states:
< When he was а student he would spend his vacation
~
~ mountaineering.
< Не used to live in the country ( not would-state).
с::

"-
и
The Past Simple Tense is used with the following time expressions: yesterday,
...J
v
the day before yesterdayl а week ago 1 last night 1 last week, /ast month 1 /ast yearl an
z hour ago in 1970 1 w/1en etc.
1
~

MEXERCISES

Exercise 1
Use the Past Simple iпstead ofthe iпfiпitives iп brackets.
1. Не (to stay) at uпiversity after classes. 2. 1 (to kпow) а\1 tl1e words vегу \Vell.
3. Sl1e (to study) Eпglish at sclюol. 4. Sl1e (to wгite) t11e letteг to l1ег trieпd.
5. Some years ago sl1e (to live) iп the couпtry. 6. She (to make) ап iпterestiпg
report last week. 7. Last year l1e (to work) at tl1e factory. 8. Yesterday we (to go)
home Ьу metro. 9. 1t (to take) те half ап hour to get home. 1О. We (to see) а very
iпterestiпg film а week ago. 11. Sl1e (to Ье) vегу Ьнsу Ьнt she (to fiпd) time to
help нs. 12. Не (to do) the tгaпslatioп withoнt а dictioпary. 13. Last пight we
(to watcl1) а lюckey matc\1 оп ТУ. 14. Sl1e (to leave) for Eпglaпd tl1e day Ьеfоге
yesterday. 15. I (to do) my best to fiпis\1 t\1e report in time. 16. Не (to tlпis\1) l1is
design last пigl1t. 17. It (to take) me some years to master Eng\is\1.

Exercise 11
Use tl1e Past Simple iпstead oftl1e iпfiпitives iп brackets.
1. Sl1e (to cut) tl1e cake апd (to put) а large piece оп my plate. 2. Не (to look) at
11er for а momeпt witl1 surprise. 3. М у frieпd (to switcl1 on) tl1e wiгeless апd (to
sit dowп) beside it. 4. She (поt to smile) wheп sl1e (to see him). 5. Оп tl1e way
lюme s\1e usнally (to Ьну) а loafat tl1e bakeг's. 6. Tl1ree o'clock (to strike), апd
four, Ьнt 11е (поt to саше). 7. Wl1eп l1e (to arrive) 11е (to fiпd) tl1e patieпt to Ье а
small Ьоу of пiпе years of age. 8. А qнarter of ап lюur later l1e ( to l1ear) voices.
9. On the fifteent\1 ofOctober Тот (to set онt) аlопе for Londoп. 10. His train
(to arrive) iп Lопdоп at оп е o'clock, апd 11е (to go) to t11e hotel апd (to \1ave) а
batl1 апd а sleep. 11. Tl1e straпger (to climb) iпto l1is car апd (to drive away),
апd when 11е (to пotice) laterthat his speedometer (to slюw) seveпty-tlve, l1e (to
laнgl1) at himselfbнt (поt to slow dowп). 12. Wl1eп l1e (to leave) iп tl1e пюгпiпg
l1e (to take) her photograp\1 with 11im.
124
Exercise 111
\Vrite tl1e followiпg seпteпces iп tl1e пegative foпn.

1. Т11еу had tl1eir breakfast at tl1e нпiversity diпing-room. 2. Не \VШ1ted to go to


Moscow duriпg the lюlidays. 3. Ош Eпglisl1 cle~ss Ьеgап at 10 o'clock. 4. Last
пigl1t 1 got а Ietter from шу parents. 5. Му sister tried to write tl1e letter iп
Eпglish. 6. She made а report Iast week. 7. It snowed hard last week. 8. Dark
clouds appeared in tl1e sky. 9. Не did tlle translatioп witlюut any difficulty.
10. Yesterday I skied iп tl1e couпtry. 11. First spriпg flo\veгs appeared iп tlle
fields iп April. 12. Т11е weatl1e r was tlпe апd cloodless tl1e day Ьеtоге yesteгday.
13. Tl1e studeпts weпt оп ап excшsioпlast week. 14. М у bгotl1er left fш Eпglaпd
last year. 15. Last sumrner we speпt tl1e lюlidays iп tl1e Crirnea.

Exercise IV
Ask yesjпo апd wl1-qнestioпs.

1. We listeпed to tl1e latest пews over tl1e radio. 2. Т11е meetiпg Ьеgап at
3 o'clock. 4. М у fatl1erweпt to Lопdоп last \\'eek. 5. I got up late yesteгday. 6. We
speпt tl1e lюlidays iп tl1e coLmtry last sш11111er. 7. lt was pleasaпt to batl1e iп tl1e
river iп sвrnшer. 8. TI1ere were а lot ofleaves оп tl1e grouпd iп ti1e park. 9. We
weпt iп fог skating last wiпteг. 10. Не worked l1ard at llis Eпglisl1 last year.
11. They stвdied at tl1e library after classes. 12. ТЬеу passed епtrапсе
examiпatioпs Iast sвmmer. 13. \Ve eпtered tl1e college last year. 14. Не atteпded
tl1e hockey сlнЬ last year.

Exercise V
Ask wl1-qвestioпs to tl1e words ofbold type.
1. Не was iп Moscow last week. 2. Му friend wrote to me very ofteпlast year.
3. They were at their office yesterday morнing. 4. Our students read а lot of
English books last year. 5. Не took llis son онt оп Monday evening. 6. The
students вsually weпt home after classes. 7. We decided to ask our friends to
diппer. 8. Yesteгday my friends came to see ше in the evening. 9. 1got lюme late
yesterday eveпiпg апd \Vent to bed at once. 1О. The meeting fiпisl1ed at 6 o'clock.

Exercise Vl
Coшplete tl1e seпteпces witЬ used to ....
1. Sl1e ... ту best friend Ьвt we aren't frieпds поw. 2. Wl1eп l was а child 1 ... а
lot ofsweets Ьвt I doп't like tЬem поw. 3. Tl1cy ... iп а smalJ village Ьнt поw tl1ey
live iп Kiev. 4. SЬе ... long hair Ьвt she cut it sоше time ago. 5. I ... teппis wl1e11
1was а cllild bllt 1stoppecl doing it поw. 6. 1've started driпkiпg cof'fee. I пever ...
it before. 7. [ ... аlопе but поw llive with шу relatives. 8. М у bгotl1er ... а lot bllt
these days l1e doesп't go away very ofteп. 9. She ... lшrd wl1eп sl1e was iп tl1e
juпior forшs. 10. I ... tl1e рiапо а lot but 1 have по tirne поw.

125

..- - -..........(..._ _
~u,...,,,,,~,t;ill,;;,,Ы;,o,~ ."
.....
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
;L
Exercise Vll
""·
о Replace the Past Simple Tense in the followiпg seпteпces Ьу used to or wou!d.
с:::

~
1. Не was а lecturer at uпiversity. 2. She lived iп that house wl1eп she was
<
.."..
young. 3. There was а small house l1ere, Ьнt now there is а пеw factory. 4. In
~

::;;: her childlюod Магу drank а glass of milk every morпiпg. 5. Peter was very tat.
<
с::
6. Gтandnюtl1er always grumЬled. 7. Неlеп was ofteп late for work. 8. [ l1ad
1.:; very good eyesight.
:r:
VJ

-J
Exercise Vlll
с Translate iпto Eпglisl1 usiпg tl1e Past Simple.
z
~ 1. Я встретила его вчера. Мы боялись опоздать на поезд. К счастью, на
углу нашей улицы мы увидели такси и приехали на вокзал вовремя.
2. Летом я вам не писала, так как потеряла ваш адрес. 3. На прошлой
неделе я написала ей два письма, но ответа не nолучила. 4. Когда вы
перевели эту трудную статью? 5. Что вы делали вчера: переводили ста­
тью или писали сочинение? 6. Когда моя сестра была здорова, она всегда
сама шила платья себе и мне. 7. В прошлом году она сшила мне очень
красивое платье. 8. Прошлым летом мы посетили много музеев. 9. Вчера
я не могла прийти домой вовремя, поэтому я пообедала в столовой.
10. Когда вы получили это письмо?- Вчера утром.

Exercise IX
Translate into Englisl1 using tl1e Past Simple.
1. Вы смотрели вчера вечером фильм по телевизору?- Да.
2. Вам он понравился?- Не очень.
3. Что ты делала в выходные дни?- Я была у друзей.
4. Ты записал вчера лекцию на магнитофон? -Да.
5. Твойдруг поступил в университет в прошлом году?
6. Как вы провели каникулы в прошлом году?
7. Когда вы приехали?
8. Где ты был вчера вечером?
9. Когда ты ходил в Третьяковскую галерею последний раз?
10. Куда вы ездили прошлой весной?

Exercise Х
Translate iнto English usiпg the Preseпt Simple or the Past Simple.
1. Он улыбнулся, когда увидел своего приятеля в окне вагона. 2. Он гово­
рит, что не помнит многих подробностей в романе, так как читал его еще в
детстве. 3. Этой книги уже нет в продаже. Жаль, что я не купил ее на про­
шлой неделе. 4. Кажется, он очень интересуется химией?- Да, он интере­
совался ею еще в школе. 5. Почему вы не пришли за книгой, когда я вас

126
просила? 6. Я сержусь на вас за то, что вы были так невнимательны вчера. -
:::::.
7. Она осталась в гостинице, т.к. у нее болела голова, а мы отправились ..:...)

>
осматривать город. 8. Наша библиотека снабжает студентов всеми нуж­
ными им книгами. 9. Несколько веков тому назад не было поездов, ма­
шин и трамваев, люди путешествовали в каретах. 10. В юности я, бывало, '""'
часто ходил на охоту с отцом. 11. Жаль, что он не хочет воспользоваться
такой прекрасной возможностью. 12. По его улыбке я понял, что ему при­
ятно услышать эти новости. 13. Когда я был студентом, я обычно обедал в
студенческой столовой. 14. Я очень вам благодарен за то, что при встрече
вы напомнили ему об этом. 15. Латынь сейчас мертвый язык, но четыре
века тому назад она была международным языком.

The Future Simple Tense

shalljwill + lnfinitive

Person Affirmative Negative


Number Form 1 Form

shalljwill work Shall/willl work? 1shalljwill notwork


(l'llwork) (1 shan'tjwon'twork)
Не willwork Will he work? Hewill notwork
She willwork Will she work? Shewill notwork
lt willwork Will itwork? ltwill notwork
We shalljwill work Shalljwill we work? We shalljwill notwork
You willwork Will you work? You will not work
Тhеу willwork Will theywork? Theywill notwork

The Future Simple Tense is used to showthat an action will take place in the future:
She wi/1 take her exams in spring.
Не wi/1 ring you up and tel/ you everything.
ln present day English the tendency is to use wi/1 in the first person singular and plural:
1wi/1 Ье there tonight.
Wi/1 is often used with these words and expressions:
probaЬiy /'1/ probaЬ/ycome home late.
l'm afraid /'m afraid 1'11 Ье а litt/e late.
l'msure /'т sure you'll /ike myfriend.
lbet 1bet Ann '11 get the prize.
1think lthinkyou'llwin thematch.
lsuppose 1suppose you'll see Pete at the meeting.
lguess 1guess we'/1 meet nextweek.
127
;:: The Future Simple is used with the following time expressions: tomorrow, next
с week, next month, next year, in two days, in а month, the day after tomorrow etc.
~

~
< Note. The Future Simple is not used
;?,
~ 1) in adverЬial clauses of time and condition referring to the future
< introduced bythe conjunctions: when, while, till, until, before, atter,
~
о as soon as, if, unless, in case (that), оп condition (that), provided
:r: ( that), providing ( that). ln such clauses the Present Simple Tense
""' is used instead:
When she comes, ask her to type the letter.
z
r..,:) 2) for а planned future actions with verbs of motion: to соте, to start,
to leave, to return, to arrive, to sail, to f/yand when we are talking
about timetaЬies, programmes the Present Simple is used:
We leave at six, arrive in Paris at midnight.

rИ' EXERCISES
Exercise 1
Write tl1e following seпteпces iп iпterrogative апd пegative forms.
1. There will Ье а lot of people at the meeting tomorrow. 2. The talk will Ье vегу
iпterestiпg. 3. Не will go witl1 us ifl1e has time. 4. I will have to stay at lюme tl1is
eveniпg. 5. Не will Ье out tomorrow afternoon. 6. She will рrоЬаЬ\у соте today.
7. We shall Ье very busy toпight. 8. Опmу day off I will write letters. 9. Оп М опdау
you will Ье busy iп tl1e eveпiпg. 10. We will go to tl1e exhiЬition пехt Sнпdау.
11. 1 will fiпish the work iп two days. 12. They will Iшve to get up early toпюrrow.

Exercise 11
Ask уеs/по questioпs апd wl1-questioпs to which the words in bold type are the answers.
1. They will Ье glad to see you. 2. 1 will meet them agaiп iп two days. 3. We shall
see your friend tomorrow. 4. Mybrotherwill Ье oпleave in Мау. 5. Sl1e will keep
in miпd my request. 6. She will поt allow l1er childre11 to play оп tl1e road. 7. 1
will give her а valuaЬie preseпt. 8. Не will go to the post office to se11d а telegram
to his mother. 9. 1 will Ье а second year studeпt 11ext year. 10. Tomorrow tl1ey
will Ье far from here. 11. It will raiп hard i11 the afternoo11. 12. 111 the Caucasus
you will see high mou11taills and beautifullakes.

Exercise 111
Replace the iпfiпitive in brackets Ьу tl1e Future Simple or the Preseпt Simple.
1. The delegatioп (to start) for Londoп as soon as they (to receive) theirvisas.
2. At the travel bureau they (to tell) you exactly when the traiп (to leave).
128
3. I (not to tl1iпk) 1 (to Ье аЬ!е) to call оп tl1em and (to say) good-bye Ьеfоге 1 (to ;:-:(.

go) abroad. 4. lfyou (поt to want) to climb tl1e tree, you сап shake it апсt the
apples (to fall) dowп to the grouпd. 5. Wl1eпl (to go) to Moscow [ нsually (to ""
stay) at my friends'. б. Ask him when he (to finish) packiпg. 7. Ask l1er ifsl1e (to
саше) to the party аlопе or 11er sister (to соте) too. 8. Ifshe (to соте) to tl1e
party аlопе апd tl1eгe (to Ье) поЬоdу sl1e (to kпow), she (to f'eel) loпely. 9. Т11е
milk (to Ье) fгesl1 а loпg time ifyou (to put) it iп tlle гefгigerator. 10. Ask tl1e
flower-giгllюw пшсl1 mопеу 1 (to 11ave) to рау if I (to take) all tl1e flowers.
11. Ask tl1e teacl1er ifwe (to stLidy) accordiпg to the old tiшetaЬie о г а пеw опе
(to Ье) ready wl1eп we (to begiп) to study. 12. 1 thiпk we (to leave) for Cllicago
sooпer tl1aп we tlюugllt.

Exercise IV
Use tl1e Preseпt Simple or tl1e Future Simple iпstead ot'tl1e iпfiпitives iп bгackets.

1. 1 (not to work) апу тоге today; I (to stay) wit11 you. 2. Now I (to tell) you а
secret if'yoll (to promise) поt to tell апуопе. 3. ОГ сошsе it сап 't last, but wl1eп
it (to саше) to ап епd it (to Ье) а woпdeгful experieпce for him. It гeally (to
шаkе) а mап of11iш. 4. Wl1eп you (to Ье) iп the sanatoriuш it (поt to seem) so
bad, l (to Ье) sure. 5. Iп а шiпнtе l (tojoiп) you, my frieпd. б. Уон don't tl1iпk
it (to raiп), do уон? 7. 1 (to thiпk) ofyou day апd пigl1t. 8. Уон (to stay) iп Rome
long? 9. Wl1y, we (to work) all nigllt and (to fiпisl1) everytl1ing tomorrow. 1О. I
tlliпk we (to leave) for Paris sooпerthan we thougllt. 11. 1 expect we (to see) а lot
ofeach otl1er. 12. Sl1e knows that ifsl1e (to соте) she (to have) а сlыпсе ofa
happier life tl1an sl1e has had. 13. Ifyou (to meпtion) l1er nаше agaiп, 1(to Ье)
very angry with you. 14. It (not to Ье) so long till we (to Ье) together and theп it
(not to Ье) so lыrd for blm.

Exercise V
Use tl1e veгbs to go (to bed), to sи,еер апd to invite iп the Preseпt Simple or in the
Fнtше Si mple.

1. [ wil\ switcl1 offthe radio wheп you ... to bed. 1 will get up iп time if' l ... to
bed early. М ау I riпg you up at eleveп? When ... you ... to bed toпight? - 1
lыve got mucl1 woгk to do, so 1 dоп 't kпow if l ... to bed at eleveп as usual.
How сап I kпow wheп I ... to bed?
2. lfyou ... tl1e floor, it will Ье quite clean. Will уон kiпdly look tor ту пeedle,
wl1e11 уон ... tl1e f1oor tomorrow? lt's пiпе о 'clock already. Wl1eп ... yotl ...
the floor? She will Ье so Ьнsу toшorrow; sl1e doesn't kпow wlleп sl1e ... tl1e
f1oor. She asks те ifi ... tl1e floor tomorrow morпiпg.
3. Though I don't feel well, I ... some frieпds of шine to the housewarming
party. Wl1eп will you ... them, l wonder? lt is not settled yet wl1eп I ... tl1em.
1'11 Ье glad to see Апn ifyou ... l1er to your housewarmiпg party. 1 аш eager
to kпow ifyou ... tl1e Browпs too.
'JI!. 129
:L. Exercise Vl
"'-'
~
Coшplete tl1e senteпces нsing tl1e Present Siшple or tl1e Fнtше Simp1e.
~

(..~
1. \Ve wiJI go lюше after ... 2. Уонпшst repeat tl1e rнle Llntil ... 3. Wl1en the \Vateг
< is really I1ot ... 4. TJ1ey will keep qнiet wl1ile ... 5. 1 will iпform tl1em аЬонt it as
~
2:
soon as ... 6. Close tl1e door quietly w11en ... 7. 1 will Ье ready Ьу tl1e time you ...
<_ 8. Don't lock Н1е door in case ... 9. Nobody luю\vs wl1en ... 10. It is difficl!lt to
~
gнess wheп ... 11. You'll catch а cold if ... 12. You won't catch the train нлless .. .
:r 13. Ask him wl1en ... 14. Ask уош teacher if ... 15. l сап 't do anything unless .. .
v;

·~
Exercise Vll
~!. Complete tl1e foJ!owiпg нsing tl1e Pгesent Simp1e or t11e Fнtше Simple.
1. 1 will ассошрапу yol! witl1 pleasшe as soon as ... 2. The pert'ormaпce will
Ье а great sнccess if ... 3. As soon as tl1e meetiпg starts ... 4. lf this time is
солvепiепt for you ... 5. We will поt complete the work this week iп case .. .
6. Diппer will Ье served before ... 7. Wheп the toшists соте to the camp .. .
8. lfshe keeps herpromise ... 9. You will Ье iп myway if ... 10. Tl1e experimeпt
will Ье carried out as sооп as ... 11. Wl1eп у он tшn iпto tlыt alley ... 12. As sооп
as it begiпs to Гreeze ... 13. Unless you Jook at tl1is pictшe at some clistaпce ...
14. f wiJI remiпd уон ofyour promise iп case ... 15. The deпtist will pнll онt tl1e
tooth if ... 16. f f уон work lыrd ... 17. 1 thiпk everythiпg will Ье clear wheп ...
18. Уон will fiпish уош repol"t sооп оп coпditioп that ...

Exercise Vlll
Translate into Eпglisl1.
1. Я подожду, пока он окончит свой рассказ, а потом попрошу его ответить
на мой вопрос. 2. Я с ним поговорю, когда он придет, но я не уверена, придет
ли он сегодня. 3. Я не знаю, когда я получу от нее ответ, но как только я
получу его, я немедленно вам позвоню. 4. Если вы будете работать усердно,
то вы скоро кончите работу. 5. Я зайду к вам перед тем, какуеду из Москвы.
6. Я дам вам знать, как только получу письмо от него. 7. Я поговорю с ним об
этом, когда я его встречу. 8. Он будет брать уроки английского языка два
раза в неделю, если у него будет время. 9. Как только моя сестра приедет, я
пошлю тебе записку; если ты будешь свободен, ты придешь повидаться с
ней. 10. Когда мы поедем в Крым, я буду много купаться в море. 11. Мне
будеточень жаль, если вы не приметеучастия в экскурсии. 12. Лучше посо­
ветоваться с врачом, прежде чем вы дадите согласие на эту поездку.

Exercise IX
Traпslate iпto Eпglisl1.
1. Если вы выучите новые слова, вы хорошо напишете диктант. 2. Я вам
буду очень благодарен, если вы мне поможете перевести эту статью.
3. Я думаю, все станет ясно, как только мы получим от него письмо.

130
4. Если она позвонит и нас не будет дома, спросите ее, зайлет ли она к
нам вечером. 5. Если вы возьмете такси, вы успеете встретить брата.
б. Как только вы его увидите, спросите его, когда он уезжает. 7. Если вы
доберетесь до лагеря первыми, ждите нас. 8. Как только вы приедете в
город, приезжайте ко мне: в доме достаточно места для всей вашей се­
мьи. 9. Я буду вам очень благодарен, если вы напомните брату о его обе­
щании. 10. Он обещал достать мне несколько книг, как только я начну
работать над статьей. 11. Я уверен, что все полюбят ее, как только она
начнет работать с нами. 12. Я не смогу прийти к тебе сегодня, если мне
придется остаться здесь после работы.

Exercise Х
Translate into English.
1. Интересно, когда они вернутся. 2. Вы сразу узнаете Tol\Ja, как только
увидите его. 3. Если вы встретите Аню, попросите ее поторопиться. 4. Она
будет очень рада, когда встретит вас там. 5. Я не помню, когда они во:шра­
щаются. 6. Если он опоздает, мы уйдем без него. 7. Я дам вам эту книгу,
при условии, что вы ее скоро вернете. 8. Вы не будете знать английский
язык, пока не начнете усиленно работать. 9. Когда станет темно, мы заж­
жем свет. 10. Я не знаю, когда мы опять встретимся. 12. Если вы сразу же
не уйдете, вы опоздаете на поезд. 13. Стойте здесь, пока свет не станет
зеленым. 14. Я сообщу ему эту новость, как только он придет сюда.
15. Если пы будете читать при плохом освещении, вы испортите глаза.

Continuous (Progressive) Tenses


r-·---·--·---------9)1
toЬе + Participle 1( -ing)

The Present Continuous ( Progressive) Tense

Person Affirmative lnterrogative Negative


Number Form Form Form
amspeaking Am 1speaking? 1am not speaking
Не isspeaking ls he speaking? Не is not (isn't) speaking
She isspeaking ls she speaking? She is not speaking
lt isspeaking ls it speaking? lt is not speaking
We are speaking Are we speaking? We are not (aren't) speaking
You are speaking Are you speaking? You are not speaking
They are speaking Are they speaking? They are not speaking
131

W!:"1i11t:!rh''ihrtЗiWttn' ntH'. H:rl.j'l!l t;tп~rn;;шi~-~~ ~~·~·--··"-""--·-~


У-
,-, Spelling Rules
~~
When verbs end in one stressed vowel between two consoпants we douЬie the
х
final consonant: swiт- swiттiтg; stir- stirring.
< Look at the spelling of these verbs: die- dying; write- writing.
2
;; The Present Continuous is used:
(""

~ 1) to denote continuous actions happeпing at or around the momeпt of speakiпg:


Listen! The telephone is ringing. Go and answer it.
'./] 2) to denote temporary situations:
They are spending their ho/idays at the seaside this suттer.
·...-
z 3) to denote futu r·e actions with verbs of nюtion (to соте, to arrive, to go, to leave,
..:;
to return, to sai/, to start), usually ifthe actions denote an intention or plan:
She is leaving toтorrow.
4) to denote actions in progress referring to all or any time, the mornent of speaking
included. ln this case the adverЬials ever, for ever, constantly, always are
Lrsed. lt expresses annoyance or criticism.
She is always interrupting те!
5) to denote two actions one ofwhich is in progress and the other is а haЬitual one:
1never speak while 1а т working.
6) to denote several simultaneous actions:
Ne/1 is reading in her rоот. Father is resting.

The Present Continuous is used with the following time expressions: now, at the
тотепt, at present, nowadays, today, tonight, always, sti/1 etc.

Note. ln the construction 1am going to + the infinitive, 1ат going has the
meaning of 1intend (я собираюсь), and refers the action expressed
bythe following infinitive to the future.
1ат going to read tf1is book.

Stative Verbs
Stative verbs express а permanent state rather than an action and they do not
have continuous forms.
Theseare:
1) verbs of the senses: to feel, to hear, to see, to sте/1, to taste etc. Look,
watch and listen can Ье used in continuous:
John is watching TV.
Feel and hurt can Ье used in either continuous or simple forms:
Не fee/sjis feeling worse today.
2) verbs offeelings and emotions: to adore, to appreciate, to detest, to dislike,
to enjoy, to forgive, to hate, to like, to loathe:
1dis/ike the prograттe 1а т watching оп ТV now.
132
3) verbs of opinion: to agree, to believe, to expect (= to think), to see (= to -
х
understand), to suppose, to understand etc.:
1believe he is innocent.
4) other verbs: to keep (= to continue), to appear(= to seem), to belong, to
concern, to contain, to depend, to fit, to have (= to possess), to know, to
mean, toowe, toown, topossess, toneed, towant, torequire, toprefer, to
weigh, to wish, to seem etc.:
Не wants some тоге Ьiscuits.

Some stative verbs to Ье, to /ove, to see, to sme/1, to taste, to think etc. have
continuous forms but there is а difference in meaning:

State
-----·-----------------··-·--
Action
--------~-~-~-----------------------

Не thinks he is really (= he believes) l'm thinking about his offer (= l'm


hardworking. considering).
What does it taste like? (= What is its He's tasting the food (= he's testing
flavour?) the flavour).
Не has two houses (= he possesses). She's having breakfast (= she's eating).
The silk skirt feels soft (= it has а soft l'mfeeling the cat'sfur (= l'm touching).
texture).
Do you see what 1 mean? (= Do you He's seeing his friend tonight (= he's
understand?) meeting).
Your perfume smells of roses (= it has She's smelling the roses (= she's
thesmell). trying the smell of).
1 lovejenjoy good performances (= 1 l'm lovingjenjoying this performance
like in general). ( = llike especially).
lt looks like rain (= it appears). Не is looking at the portrait (= he is
viewing it).
Не appears to Ье working
(= he seems The actress is appearing on stage
to Ье). (= she will make an appearance).
The Ьох weighs а lot (= its weight is). She is weighing the vegetaЫes on the
scales (= she is finding out the
weightof).
Ann is naughty (= hercharacterisbad). She is being very naughty (= she is
misbehaving).
This dress fits me well (= it is the right We are fitting а new carpet in the living-
size). room (= laying).

Some adjectives can Ье used with "to Ье" in the continuous form to express а
temporary characteristic. These are: careful, foolish, kind, lazy, nice, patient,
( im)polite, rude, sil/y etc.:
You're being very lazy.

133

йtirt"HtН' h tr &ttitФhм"··в- - . _ . · """""""""" ~~--~'"·~·-···


~
с:
·... ;
lYf EXERCISES
~

-
<'
Exercise 1
Put tl1e following sentences in the negative forт апd add affirтative seпtences
:;;;
:;; using tl1e words in brackets.
<
.-/
Model 1 She is readiпg поw. (to write а Ietter)
......
!'""

S11e is not readiпg. Sl1e is writiпg а 1etter.


[/~
1. Неlеп is skating поw. (to ski) 2. Tl1ey are playiпg clless. (doтinoes) 3. The
studeпts are going !юте. (to the Iibrary) 4. Motller is тakiпg dinпeг. (to was\1
disl1es in tl1e kitcl1eп) 5. Fatller is workiпg in tl1e gardeп. (to take а rest) б. Аnп
~J
апd Mike are swimшiпg t11ere. (to Jie in the sвn) 7. J am asking уов qнestions.
(to aпswer уош questioпs) 8. Не is sittiпg at his desk. (to staпd at tl1e Ьlackboar·d)
9. She is Jearniпg пеw words. (to recite а роет) 1О. We are llaving а meetiпg. (to
have ап English class)

Exercise 11
Aпswer tl1e qt1estioпs нsiпg the words iп brackets.
Model 1 Are you t'ree поw? (Yesjl1ave а rest).
Yes, J аш. I 'm 11aving а rest.
1. Аге уон busy поw? (Yesjtidy нр tlle flat)
2. Are уон free поw? (No/go to the tlleatre)
3. Is your тother busy поw? (Yesjwash tlp)
4. Is уош brotl1er iп the diлing-rooш? (Yesjlыve а 1uпcl1)
5. Is тot11er in the kitcheппow? (Yesjcook)
6. Аге you leaving now? (Yes/go to the library)
7. ls уош teac!1er Ьнsу поw? (Yes/give а lectнre)
8. Are tlle c11ildгeп resting поw? (Nojstudy)

Exercise 111
Ask qпestioлs to t!1e words in bold type.
1. Lucy is taking her examination now. 2. Тот is playing cl1ess with bls friend.
3. Many students are goiпg to the library. 4. Sl1e is lookiпg at the picture. 5. Не
is aпsweriпg the teacher's questioп. 6. They are speakiпg about tl1eir work.
7. Tl1e traiп is leaving at 5 o'clock. 8. She is swimming in the lake 110w.

Exercise IV
Fill in witl1 tlle Present Siтp1e or the Present Coпtinнous.

1. 1 ... (to think) аЬопt visiting Kate this afternoon. 2. I ... (to tl1iпk) sl1e's away
on holiday. 3. Mr Sтith ... (to 11ave) а teleplюпe тessage froш llis wife. 4. Не
... (to !1ave) а bпsiпess meetiпg апd 1 doп't want to distнrb l1im. 5. 1 ... (to Iove)
breatlliпg in clean, соппtrу air! 6. So do 1. I ... (to love) every тintrte of this
134
walking trip. 7. Why ... (уон/tо taste) the sot1p? Is anytlliпg wгопg witl1 it? (.:''
,.,
8. Yes, it ... (to taste) too sweet. Itl1ink I 've t1sed sllgar iпstead о Г salt. 9. \VI1y .. .

(youjto feel) Pete's Гorehead, Мнm? 10. I tl1iпk he's got а teшperatшe. Не .. .
(to Гееl) ratl1er lюt. 11. Nick ... (to Ье) а very rude persoп. 12. Неlеп ... (to Ье)
f-
very rude tl1ese days too, although she is usually polite. 13. Wl1y ... (уон/tо
smell) the inside оfуош car? 14. Because it ... (to smeli) of petrol.

Exercise V
Iпsert tl1e constгuctioп to Ье going + infiп itive. Тгaпslate tl1e seпte псеs i пtо RLJssiaп.
1. ... yott ... to take part iп the coпcert? - Ceгtaiпly, I ...
2. What ... you ... to sing? - I shall sing two folk soпgs.
3. Who ... to ассошрапу you? - Му frieпd Неlеп as usual.
4. Who else ... to siпg or recite soшetlliпg at tl1e coпcert?- Nick ... to recite а
poem writteп Ьу himselfand our choiг will siпg some soпgs.
5. ... tl1ey ... to have а dапсе afteг tl1e coпcert?- Of course, tl1ey ...
6. .. . a!l уош friends ... to Ье pгesent at the party? - Certainly, tl1ey ...
7. Wl1eп will you саше !юте?- We ... to dапсе till after midпigl1t.

Exercise Vl
Traпslate iпto English.
а) What (Whose) book are you reading?
1. На какую картину ты смотришь? 2. Какой вопрос ты задаешь? 3. Ка­
кое упражнение они делают? 4. На какой вопрос они отвечают? 5. Чей
рассказ ты читаешь? 6. Чей журнал он берет? 7. Чьей ручкой он пишет?
8. Чью ручку ты даешь мне? 9. Какое упражнение ты пишешь? 10. Ка­
кой рассказ ты читаешь? 11. Какую программу ты смотришь? 12. Какой
текст ты переводишь?

Ь) Wlю is sittiпg at the wiпdow?


1. Кто читает книгу? 2. Кто говорит по телефону? 3. Кто пишет на доске?
4. Кто берет книгу из библиотеки? 5. Кто кладет газету в почтовый ящик?
6. Кто пишет диктовку? 7. Кто отвечает на вопросы? 8. Кто декламирует
стихотворение? 9. Кто читает журнал? 10. Кто разговариnаетс У'fителем?
с) Wlшt аге yott doing?
1. Что ты пишешь? 2. Что ты читаешь? 3. Что ты слушаешь? 4. О чем ты
рассказываешь им? 5. Над чем ты работаешь? 6. О чем ты говоришь?
7. На что ты смотришь? 8. Что ты спрашиваешь? 9. О чем ты думаешь?
10. Что ты переводишь?
d) Wl1eгe аге уон going?

1. Куда ты смотришь? 2. Куда ты кладешь газету? 3. Где ты стоишь? 4. Где


ты сидишь? 5. Куда ты посылаешь письмо? 6. Где вы сейчас отдыхаете?

135
~
~
7. Где вы живете? 8. Где вы работаете? 9. Куда вы посылаете телеграмму?
1О. Где у вас урок английского языка?
:::;
~
е) WJ1y are you openiпg tl1e door?
-~
1. Почему ты закрываешь окно? 2. Почему он задает тот же самый воп­
.г рос? 3. Почему высмеетесь? 4. Почему вы спешите? 5. Почему вы уез­
< жаете? 6. Почему вы показываете этот журнал? 7. Почему вы сидите у
(.,;;
окна? 8. Почему вы не слушаете учителя? 9. Почему вы кашляете?

:/0
10. Почемувынепишитеупражнение? 11. Почемутызапираешьдверь'?

Exercise Vll
:...: Traпslate iвto Englisi1.
1. Вы торопитесь на занятия?- Да. В 11.00 у нас лекция. 2. Куда вы
идете? -Я иду в библиотеку. 3. Вы читаете? Что вы читаете? 4. Кому вы
пишете письмо? - Сестре. 5. Ваш брат дома сейчас? - Да. Он занят
сейчас. Он готовит уроки. 6. Я хочу видеть профессора Петрова.- Про­
стите, его здесь нет. Он читает лекцию. 7. Где Виктор?- Он в читальном
зале. Он читает газеты.- Какие газеты он читает?- Я не знаю. 8. Не
входите в класс. Учащиеся пишут контрольную работу. 9. На следую­
щей неделе мы едем в Сочи. 1О. Делегация приезжает завтра. 1 1. Какой
урок вы сейчас изучаете?- Мы проходим 5-й урок. 12. Куда все спешат?
-На стадион. Там сегодня интересный матч. 13. Не шумите. Дети спят.
14. Что делает Петя?- Он рисует. 15. Вы уже заканчиваете эту работу?
16. Не мешайте мне. Я готовлюсь к докладу. 16. Отец дома? - Да. Он
работает в саду. 17. О чем вы думаете? 18. С кем он там разговаривает?
19. На что вы смотрите? 20. О чем вы говорите?

Compare the Present Simple and the Present Continuous


Present Simple Present Continuous
Does your daughter sing? What is she singing?
( in general) ( at the present moment)
Does it rain much in St Petersburg? ls it raining?
( actions that happen repeatedly) (now, atthe momentofspeaking)
Myfriend lives in Moscow. l'm living with myfriend untill find
(а permanent situation) somewhere to live.
(а temporarysituation)

136
~EXERCISES
;..,.
Exercise 1 ;..;.J

Use the Preseпt Simple or the Preseпt Coпtiпuous iп the followiпg seпteпces.
f·~

l. Tl1e '.vomaп who (to speak) wit\1 my sister iп tl1e yard (to Ье) OLlr пeigJ1boш
who (to live) across the street. 2. Уо а (to ask) too macl1 of ше. 1 (to Ье) qLlite
powerless to l1elp you. 3. Уон (to l1ear) tl1e speaker well?- Yes, 1 (to hear) llim
clearly. 1 (to listeп) very atteпtively, but still (поt to uпderstaпcl) wl1at he (to
speak) about. 4. You (to go) iпmy directioп? 1 сап give you а lift. 5. lt (to Ье) а
very interesting scieпtific film. In it уон сап see lюw tl1e grass (to grow) апd tl1e
flowers (to нnfold) tl1eir petals rigl1t before уош eyes. 6. I (to look) at tl1e
baroшeter апd (to see) tlшt it (to fall). 7. Doп't eпtertl1e stнdy. Fatl1er (to vvork)
tl1ere апd l1e (поt to like) to Ье distшbed. 8. You (to see) tl1at wошап iп tl1e
corпer? Sl1e (to l1ave) l1er dessert поw. As sооп as sl1e (to leave) we (to occLlpy)
tl1e taЬle. 9. Wllere you (to hurry)?- 1 (to Ье) afraid to шiss tl1e 2.35. М у f"гieлd
(to соше) with it. 10. Tl1ey willllave to stay witl1 us w!1ел tl1ey (to arrive) !1ere.

Exercise 11
lпsert tlle Preseпt Сопtiпнонs or tlle Preseпt Simple.
1. Wllat you (to do) llere?- 1 (to wait) for шу frieпd. 2. Не (to speak) Fгепс11?
- Yes, l1e (to speak) Freпcl1 very tlueпtly. 3. Tl1e тап (to Ье) daшk. Не (поt to
kпow) wllat l1e (to say). 4. I '11 соше dowп wllen I (to Ье) ready. 5. 1wiiJ take otT
tl1ejacket ifit (to get) too lюt. 6. "lt (to get) windy," l1e said iпbls qнiet way.
7. Listen! Someoпe (to kпock) at tlle door. 8. Doп't go into tlle classroom! The
students (to write) а test there. 9. Slle (to write) а letterto ller шotherevery week.
1О. Let's go for а walk. It (not to rain). 11. Уон (to hear) anytblпg? 1 (to listeп)
lшrd, Ьнt r поt (to hear) aпytl1ing. 11. Listeп! Tl1e telephoпe (to riпg). 12. Tl1ey
willlшve to stay with us wl1eп they (to arrive) here.

Exercise 111
Рнttl1e verbs in brackets into the Preseпt Simple or the Present Сопtiшюнs.
1. The sun (to rise) iп the east and (to set) iп the west. 2. Althougl1 the sш1 (to
rise) 1 canпot see it because it is beblnd the clouds. 3. Уон (to play) tl1e piano?
- No, I (to do) not. 4. I hear somebody playing iп the пехt room; who (to pJay)
there? 5. lt is pleasant to Ье at lюme wl1eп а stoпn (to rage) outside. 6. Tl1ere are
so шапу people there; wl1ere tl1ey а\1 (to go )? 7. As а rule 1 (to f"eel) ratl1er tired
af"ter шу walk. 8. Thaпk уон, поw l (to feel) mнcl1 better. 9. Не (to swim) vегу
fast. 1О. Look! Soшebody (to swiш) overthere. 11. Where isAiec?- Не is iп tl1e
gardeп. 1 thiпk l1e (to do) his morпiпg exercises. 12. Не always (to do) his
шorпing exercises with tl1e wiпdow о реп. 13. 1' d like to see Professor Smith. -
Sorry. Не is out at the momeпt. Не (to give) а lecture. 14. Soшetimes l1e (to give
bls lectшes) iп Eпglish Гог the stнdents oftl1e Eпglis\1 departmeпt. 15. Wlю (to

137
~
~
make а report) at the meetiпg?- Т am sorry. 1 doп't kпow the speakeг's nаше.
.
·~ :·. 16. Ош teacl1eг (to speak) two foreigп laпgнages. 17. Нс11о! Тl1is is ВгО\vп
~
speakiпg. - Sorгy, I doп't l1ear уоп well. Wlю (to speak)? 18. ls Nick in tl1c
с::
< diпiпg-room?- Yes. Не (to lшve lппсl1).
2
;;;;:
< Exercise IV
~
<,;:)
Put the verbs iп brackets iпto tl1e Preseпt Simple or tl1e Ргеsепt Coпtiпuoнs.
1. Water (to boil) at 100 degrees Ceпtigrade. 2. We (to meet) twice а week.
(/";

...;
3. Tl1e clock (to strike), it is time to go Jюme. 4. Не (to take) 11is English lessoп;
:::; l1e always (to take) 11is lessoпs iп tl1e тоrпiпg. 5. Wl1ere is Jolш?- Не (to
2 рrераге) his Jessoпs; l1e tiSLially (to prepare) tl1em at tl1at time. 6. I (поt to
~

нnderstaпd) your гemark. 7. Сап you l1ear wlшt. 1 (to say)? 8. Ati:er а wlюle
week of clear weather it (to begin) to rain. 9. What (to Ье) tr1e title oftl1e book
you (to read)? 1О. Look, smoke (to соте) out ofthe window. 11. Tl1e sun (to
set). Wlшt а glorious sig11t it is! 12. What (to listen) to? - It seems to те I (to
I1ear) а stгaпge noise outside. 13. Wi1y you (to wear) уош пеw clothes, tlюse iп
wl1icl1 you are to travel tоnюггоw? 14. Wl1y, ту dеаг Ьоу, Jю\v stoнt уон (to
get)! 15. Уон (tojoke) Тот?- No, Fatller, l (поt tojoke). 15. Оп 11is \vay he
usually (to meet) тaпycllildreп who (to go) to sclюol. 16. I (to look) for Pcte.
Have you seen 11iт? 17. I ат certain to know all about it \VI1eл I (to get) llis
letter. 18. 1 (to woпder) ifyou'd like to соте to а little party I (to give) пехt week.

Exercise V
Give aпswers to tl1e following qнestioпs usiпg tl1e Preseпt Coпtiпuoнs ortl1e Preseпt
Siтple.

1. Where are you goiпg this Suпday? - Tllis Sнлdау ... Ьнt usнally оп Stшdays
... 2. When is l1e comiпg to see us? - Не ... Friday лight tlюнgl1 most ofteл ...
3. Tl1e delegatioп of French scientists is arriving Ьу plane toпigl1t, isл 't it'? -
Yes, it ... at tl1e Vпнkovo Airport, foreigп delegatioпs, as а rule ... 4. Wheп is the
boat from Odessa coming? - It ... iп half ап hош as it is Jate toпigl1t, Ьнt
regularly it ... at 8 sl1arp. 5. Wheп is the пight train for St Petersbшg leaving?-
It ... in l1alfaпlюur. lt ... at 15:15 according to the timetaЬle.

Exercise Vl
Traпslate
into Eпglisl1 нsing
tlle Present Simple or the Present Coпtiпtюtls.
1. Где Николай?- В саду.- Что он там делает? 2. Я не понимаю, о чем вы
говорите. 3. Он знает, что мы уходим? 4. Как вы думаете, чего они ждут?
5. Я не знаю, почему я плачу. 6. Почему ты не ешь суп?- Я не хочу. 7. Я не
вижу, что вы пишете. - Я пишу письмо своему брату, который живет в
Москве. Мы большие друзья и часто пишем друг другу. Сейчас он рабо­
тает над своей дипломной работой. 8. Я вижу двух студентов и слышу их
голоса, но не понимаю, на каком языке они говорят. Возможно, это ка-

138

--~~-~-~~----------
кой-то восточный язык, а я не знаю восточных языков. 9. Я люблю,
когда вся наша семья по вечерам собирается вместе. Обычно мы гоно­
рим о нашей работе. Сейчас мы все вместе в столовой. Мы пьеl\1 чай.
Отец просматривает газету. Брат рассказывает нам о последних ново­ х
f· ...
стях в университете. Мама смотрит на часы и говорит, что младшим де­
тям пораидти спать. 10. Чтоделаеттвой брат?- Он работает на заводе.­
А что он сейчас делает?- Он читает газету. Я приношу el\IY газеты, когда
он приходите работы. 11. Не выходите на улицу. Идет дождь. 12. Осенью
в Петербурге часто идет дождь. 13. Могу я видеть Михаила?- Нет, он
обедает. Он всегда обедает в это время.

Exercise Vll
Translate iпto Eпglish using the Preseпt Simple or tl1e Present Coпtinuous.
1. Дождь все еще идет. Я вижу дождевые капли на стекле. 2. Эти люди
пристально смотрят на вас. Вы их знаете? 3. Как называется журнал. ко­
торый вы просматриваете? 4. Что вы стоите в дверях? Проходите, мы как
раз пьем чай; выпейте с нами чашку. 5. Мы приближаемся к морю. 6. Что
ты слушаешь?- Я слушаю концерт из филармонии. 7. Этот человек, ко­
не•шо, очень хорошо говорит по-английски, но мне трудно понимать его,
так как он говорит очень быстро, а я знаю язык недостаточно хорошо.
8. Молодой человек, с которым разговаривает журналист, известный ху­
дожник. Сейчас он, очевидно, рассказывает о своих картинах. 9. Я не
люблю таких людей, как он. Он всегда мечтает, но ничего не делает, чтобы
осуществить свои мечты. 10. Позвони на вокзал, пожалуйста, и узнай,
когда приходит поезд из Москвы. 11. Достаньте ваш биле1~ Контролер
проверяет билеты. 12. Не шевелись, фотограф уже снимает тебя. 13. Она
всегда жалуется на своего сына, когда бы я ее ни встретил. 14. Вы говори­
те, что уезжаете скоро. Может быть вы побудете здесь, пока он не приедет?
15. Не входите в комнату, мой брат готовится там к экзамену.

The Past Continuous ( Progressive) Tense


Person Negative
Number Form
1 was speaking Was 1speaking? 1was not (wasn't) speaking
Не was speaking Was he speaking? Hewas not speaking
She was speaking Was she speaking? She was not speaking
lt was speaking Was it speaking? ltwas notspeaking
We were speaking Were we speaking? We were not (weren 't) speaking
You were speaking Were you speaking? You were not speaking
Тhеу were speaking Were they speaking? Theywere not speaking

139
~
The Past Continuous is formed with the Past Simple of the auxiliary verb to Ье and
~

(""
Participle 1 of the notional verb.
:::::
ltis used
ct.
-< 1) to denote а continuous action at а certain moment in the past:
~
At 1О о 'clock it was stifl raining.
~:
<~ The fire began at midnight when everybody was sleeping.
~
<..;; 2) to denote а continuous action during а certain period in the past:
:::: We were working in the garden from six tifl eight.
v;
They were quarrelling а/1 day long yesterday.
-'
v 3) to denote two or more simultaneous past actions:
z 1was preparing dinner while she was tidying up the room.
""' 4) to denote past action in progress interrupted Ьу anotl1er past action. Tl1e
longer action is in the Past Continuous, the shorter action is in the Past Simple:
While 1was having breakfast the te/ephone rang.
The Past Continuous is used with the following time expressions: while, when, as etc.

~EXERCISES
Exercise 1
Put the tollowing senteпces iп tl1e iпteпogative and пegative toпns.
1. I was haviпg supper when you raпg me up. 2. М у mother was makiпg diппег
iп tl1e kitcl1eп when I саше in. 3. Your friends wеге speakiпg iп tl1e corridor
when we saw them. 4. I was hштying to the сапtееп wl1eп I шеt you. 5. We were
haviпg our Eпglish at 10 iп the шоrпiпg. 6. Не was waitiпg for us at 1О o'clock
yesterday. 7. 1 was s1eepiпg souпdly wl1en our пeigl1bours kпocked at the door.
8. We were discнssiпg tl1e пеw filш wheп you rang up.

Exercise 11
Put the following sentences iпto the Past Continuous addiпg sоше necessary
adverblals oftiшe or adverblal clauses oftiшe.
1. Wl1at's his sister doing? 2. He's поt packiпg his tl1iпgs. 3. Аге you waitiпg
for your frieпd? 4. Where are yotJ lшrrying to? 5. Му frieпd's stayiпg at а
hotel. 6. Sl1e's talkiпg to а frieпd ofшine. 7. М у daнgl1ter's haviпg l1er Eпglisl1.
8. Sl1e's cookiпg diпner. 9. Аге tl1ey haviпg diппer? 1О. They are discнssiпg а
пеw filш.

Exercise 111
Put wl1-questioпs to the words iп bold type.
1. We were waiting for you at five yesterday. 2. They were discussing this question
wl1e11 we саше in. 3. 1 was readiпg wl1en шу friend raпg ше up. 4. I \Vas readiпg
140
а difficult Eпglisl1 book at tlшt tiшe. 5. We were lшviлg tea wheп ту frieпd
са те iп. 6. 1 \vas going to the library wl1e11 уон теt те. 7. Т11еу \Vere listeniпg
iн wheп уон eпtered tl1e rоош. 8. SI1e was taking а шusic Iessoп \VI1eп lн:r
шotl1er саше hоше.

Exercise IV
Aпswer the questioпs conceпtratiпg on t\1e нsе ofthe Past Coпtiпнous.
1. Were you doiпg your hoшework at 8 yesterday eveлiлg?
2. Were уон lшrryiпg \юше atl:er classes wl1eп I теt you?
3. Wlю were you talkiпg to wl1eл 1 called you?
4. \\-Ъаt were уон talkiпg about wheл I саше iп?
5. \Vlшt was your sister doing wl1eп you got \юте yesterday?
6. Wl1ere were уон going wl1eпi шеt you in tl1e street yesterday?
7. What was your father doing wl1eп 1 raпg you нр?
8. What were you doiпg wheп tl1e raiп Ьеgап?

Exercise V
Неге is а list ofti1iпgs Kate did yesterday (апd tl1e tiшe iп w\тic\1 she did t11еш):

1) 2:30-3:00 l1ad diппer 4) 6:15-7:00 read а book


2) 3:00- 4:00 had а rest 5) 7:30- 8:00 l1ad supper
3) 4:00- 6:00 did l1er hoшework 6) 8:15 - 9:00 watc\1ed ТУ
Write senteпces sayiпg wlшt she was doiпg at. tlшt tiтe:

1) At 2:45 sl1e was lшviпg diппer. 4) At 6:45 .. .


2) At 3:30 sl1e . .. 5) At 7:45 .. .
3) At 5:00 ... 6) At 8:30 .. .

Exercise Vl
Translate into Eпglis\1.
1. Вчера в
5 часов вечера я читал газету. 2. В воскресенье с 2-х до 4-х мы
работали в саду. 3. Мы занимались английским языком весь день.
4. Когда я позвонил ему, он готовился к урокам. 5. Мы шли в библиотеку,
когда она нас встретила. 6. Что вы делали в прошлую субботу вечером с
5 часов до 7 часов? 7. Когда я писал письмо, он делал упражнение по
английскому языку. 8. Мы смотрели телевизор, а они слушали радио.
9. Во время обеда он читал газету. 1О. Было уже темно, когда они выходи­
ли из леса. 11. Где вы работали сегодня в 9 часов утра? 12. Я ждал вас с 3-хдо
4-х, азатем ушел. 13. Мы сели на скамейку. Рядом с нами два м<шьчика
о чем-то громко разговаривали. Один из них з~щавал вопросы, а другой
отвеч<UJ. Под деревом играли две девочки. Несколько студентоu гуляли
по дорожкам пар ка. На деревьях пели птицы. Становилось жарко, и мы
решили искупаться.

141
:L
-,::)
Exercise Vll
~-
Translate into Eпglisl1.
~

;::~
1. Он писал упражнение, когда я вошел в комнату. 2. Шел дождь, когда я
< вышел из дома. 3. Что он делал, когда вы зашли к нему'? 4. Он ушиб ногу
..".:-<
~ в то время, как играл в футбол. 5. Когда я шел сюда, я встретил вашего
< брата. 6. Был вечер. Моя жена читала книгу, а я писал письмо. Вдруг
cL
--~ дверь открылась, и вошел мой брю~ 7. Было 1О часов утра, когда и вошел
~r:: в контору. Несколько посетителей ждали заведующего. Секретарь гово­
~./:.

рил с кем-то по телефону. 8. Я обеда.ТI, когда он мне позвонил. 9. Я воз­

'"' вращался домой довольно поздно. Становилось уже темно, и шел дождь.
z Я шел быстро, так как у меня не было зонтика и я боялся промокнуть.
Ы.:4

10. Дети играли в шахматы, а мать готовила обед в это время. 11. Куда вы
спешили, когда я вас встретил'? 12. Пожар начался ночью, когда все
спали. 13. Пока он готовил чай, она наблюдала за ним. 14. Когда он
вошел, я просматривала книгу его ранних набросков.

Comparison of the Past Continuous (Progressive) and the Past Simple:

The Past Continuous The Past Simple


is used to say that is used to talk about actions
someone was doing something and situations in the past
at а certain time She passed her exams we/1
Whi/e mother was cooking lastyear.
dinner, the plюne rang.

5fEXERCISES
Exercise 1
Use tl1e Past Simple or the Past Contiпuous iпstead oftl1e iпfiпitives iп bгackets.

1. Wl1eп I (to саше) iпto the hall, the stlldeпts (to discuss) tl1e first report. 2. Т11е
secretary (to type) а report when the postmaп (to соте in) and (to pllt) tl1e latest
mail оп t11e tаЫе. 3. Wheп 1 (to 1eave) university, it (to rain) l1eavily. 4. Wheп
Johп (to returп) home, l1e (to see) his yot1nger brother who (to do) his Jessoпs.
5. Wl1at you (to do) \Vl1en 1 (to соте in)'? 6. l (to write) а letter to ту frieпd, апd
поw 1 (to take) it to the letter-box. 7. Last year at tl1e same hour oftl1e day ош
family (to sit) iп онr graпdfatl1er's room. Father (to read) ап article abot1t my
graпdfatl1er's пеw iпveпtioп. 8. Wl1eп 1 (to соте) home from scl1ool, ту Jittle
brotl1er (to sit) оп the floor with all his toys arouпd 11im. Не (to play) wit\1 t!шп.
1 (to tell) him to put all his toys iп the Ьох as he (to make) too mucl1t10ise. 9. All
пight loпg the stars (to glitter). 1О. Sl1e (to look up) to see it'we (to Jisteп). 11. Fог

142
tl1e first time sl1e (to notice) l1er sister (to wear) а new dress. 12. It so (to lшppen) ~

that sl1e (to have diппer) that very eveniпg at her auпt's. 13. Апn (to соте) to tl1e :>
sittiпg-room wl1e1·e we a!J (to sit) readiпg tl1e papers after breakfast. 14. Near !1er
а smaJI Ьоу (to play) sileпtly. 15. She (to go) to t11e back dоог, апd as sl1e (to raise)
her lыпd to kпock, tl1e youпg mап (to ореп) the door suddeп\y.

Exercise 11
Use tl1e Past Simple or tl1e Past Сопtiшюнs iпstead oftl1e iпfiпitives iп brackets.
1. Алd sооп she (to laнgl1) wheп he (to tell) 11er about some fuппу tlliпgs.
2. Tl1rougl1 tl1e о реп door (to соте) tlle voice of 11is father. Т11е old mап (to
siпg). 3. Апd I (to go) softly iпto tl1e room. Sl1e (to sit) Ьу tl1e fire. 4. Sl1e (to
weep), 11er whole body (to trешЬ!е). 5. 1 (to write) а letter wl1eп уон (to eпter)
tl1e room. 6. We (to do) ош room wheп ош пеig\1Ьош (to kпock) at tl1e door.
7. Не (to write) l1is report wl1eп tl1e bell (to riпg) апd his frieпd (t.o eпter) tl1e
room. 8. Не (to play) football w\1еп tl1e baJJ (to blt) llis head. 9. It (to grow)
dark, so we (to decide) to returп. 1О. Kate (to dапсе), but wl1eп she (to see) а
пewcomer sl1e (to stop ). 11. Не (to сlеап) the саг wl1eп the рhопе (to riпg), so
he (not to answer) it. 12. SJ1e (to look) tired. Sl1e (to type) letters all morпiпg.
Exercise 111
Traпslate iпto Eпglish usiпg tl1e Past Simple or the Past Coпtiпнous.

1. Ты можешь вспомнить, что ты делал в то время? 2. Когда мы вышли из


кино, все еще шел сильный снег. 3. Она что-то писала, когда я вошел. 4. Он
работал с утра до ночи, так ему хотелось накопить нужную сумму и уехать
отсюда. 5. Все время, пока Петр рассказывал свою историю, она присталь­
но смотрела на него. Она пыталась понять, что он за человек. б. Поезд при­
ближался к станции, делегаты стояли у окон и махали шляпами. По перро­
ну бежали дети с цветами. 7. Пассажиры так и не увидели Байкал. Когда
поезд проезжал Байкал, была ночь.
8. Охотники замолчали, красивый олень
медленно приближался к ним. 9. Покадиректор разговаривал с представи­
телями иностранных фирм, секретарь сортировала утреннюю почту. 1О. В то
время, как он пробиралея сКDозь толпу, он услышал, как кто-то позвал его.
11. Мы вышли на привокзальную площадь. Толпы народа спешили на вок­
зал и с вокзала; подъезжали и отъезжали машины, кто--топокупал цветы.

12. Пока носильщик и шофер укладывали еговешив машину, Джек увидел


своего брата. Он стоял за стеклянными дверями.

Exercise IV
Translate iпto Eпglisl1 using the Past Simple or tlle Past Coпtinuous.
1. В три часа его не было дома. Он в это время работал в библиотеке. Когда
я пришла в библиотеку, он все еще там работал. 2. Я плохо слышал доклад­
чика, так как сидел далеко, а он говорил довольно тихо. 3. Было поздно,

143
о<:
~
темнело, и мы решили вернуться домой. Пока мы шли, все время шел
~'

с дождь и дул холодный ветер. 4. День был солнечный. Мы катались на


::;::
лыжах все утро. Когда мы катались на лыжах, начал идти снег. 5. Когда
~
< параход отошел, пассажиры стояли на палубе и махали платками друзь­
;,:
~
ям, которые оставались на пристани. 6. Начался салют, к набережной
~

< Невы шли толпы народа. 7. Когда Том вышел на улицу, все ребята играли
=<:
в мяч. 8. Было уже темно, когда мы подошли к дому; дул сильный ветер, и
"' становилось все холоднее и холоднее. 9. Юноши очень подружились, ког­
да вместе путешествовали по горам Кавказа. 1О. Шел сильный снег, когда
и

с
мы вышли из дома. 11. Она переводила статью в то время, когда мы смот­
;;:~
рели телевизор. 12. Мы купались в реке, когда пошел дождь.
~

Exercise V
Translate iпto Englis\1 using the Past Simple or t\1e Past Continuoнs.
1. Я встретил его, когда он шел домой. 2. Мы стояли на платформе, когда
прибыл поезд. 3. Сестра пришла, когда мы обедали. 4. Вчера целый день
шел снег. 5. Где вы были в 11 часов? - Я каталея на лыжах. 6. Вы педь
путешествовали в это время в прошлом году, да? 7. Женшина что-тоска­
зала мальчику, который шел рядом с ней. 8. Когда я вошел в зал, студен­
ты все еще обсуждали первый доклад. 9. Секретарь печатала доклад,
когда вошел директор и положил на стол еще какие-то бумаги. 1О. Поезд
приближался к станции. Много людей спешили на вокзал. 11. Когда
мальчик заснул, он все еще держал новую игрушку. 12. Он проснулся,
так как возле его кровати звонил телефон. 13. Молодая девушка напева­
ла веселую песенку, когда она шла наверх. 14. Ее рука дрожала, когда
она вешала телефонную трубку.

The Future Continuous ( Progressive) Tense


Person
Number
shalljwill Shalljwilll Ье 1shalljwill not Ье speaking
bespeaking speaking? (shan'tjwon't)
Не will Ье speaking Will he Ье speaking? Не will not Ье speaking
She will Ье speaking Will she Ье speaking? She will not Ье speaking
lt will Ье speaking Will it Ье speaking? lt will not Ье speaking
We shalljwill Shalljwill we Ье We shalljwill not Ье speaking
bespeaking speaking?
You will Ье speaking Will you Ье speaking? You will not Ье speakiпg
They will Ье speaking Will they Ье speaking? Theywill not Ье speaking

144

j
The Future Continuous is formed with the Future Simple of the auxiliary verb to Ье
and Participle 1of tl1e notional verb.
lt is used to denote an action in progress ata certain momentoftime orduring а
certain period oftime in thefuture:
f-
At 8 о 'c/ock she wil/ Ье having her ear/y morning сир of coffee.
When she comes, 1think 1'11 Ье sleeping.

~EXERCISES
Exercise 1
Put tl1e following seпtences in t11e interrogative and пegative forтs.

1. He'll Ье waiting for you at seven in the eveniпg toтorrow. 2. They'll Ье


11aviпg dinner at that tiтe. 3. We'll Ье discussing this questioп toтorrow
тоrпiпg. 4. Tl1ey'll Ье packing at 10 o'clock toтorrow. 5. T11ey'll Ье coтing to
see нs froт 7 till 8 toтorrow eveniпg. 6. Wl1eп I соте to Kiev toтorrow at
12 o'clock, ту old friends'll Ье waitiпg fo1· те at tl1e statioп. 7. He'll Ье still
working wl1en 1 соте. 8. Sl1e'll Ье stнdyiпg Eпg1isl1 at t11fee o'c1ock tomorrow.
9. I'll Ье prepariпg for my report tomorrow at 2 o'c1ock. 10. We'll Ье taking ап
Englis11 ехат froт 12 till 2 toтorrow.

Exercise 11
Ask yesjпo апd w\1-questions to the words in bold type.
1. We will Ье workiпg hard this time tomorrow. 2. Sl1e wШ Ье takiпg а пшsiс
lesson at this time tomorrow. 3. They will Ье bui1ding а пеw c1ub when you are
in the country in summer. 4. I will Ье sleeping ifyou соте so Jate. 5. The English
students will Ье writing their examination paper at 3 o'c1ock toтorrow. 6. The
doctors will Ье exaтiniпg their patients from 12 to 2 tomorrow. 7. Tl1ey will Ье
rehearsiпg the second act when you соте. 8. They will Ье listeпiпg to опе of
ту favourite symphonies at 8 o'c1ock toтorrow.

Exercise 111
Rep1ace the infinitives in brackets Ьу the Future Siтple or Future Contiщюus.
1. 1 (to stay) with ту faтi1y over the weekend. 2. Toтorrow we (to ski) iп the
forest t11e whole day. 3. Wl1at you (to do) toтorrow at 12 o'clock? 4. Tl1ey will
(to have) an Englis\1 class froт 10 tillll.30. 5. There (to Ье) а 1ot of'people iп
t11e diпiпg-rooт during the dinner-break. 6. The cl1ildreп (to play) w11ile I go
s1юppiпg. 7. Wheп you (to соте) back?- I thiпk, I (to Ье) back оп Мопdау.
8. ]t (to take) you half ап hour ifyou go there Ьу тetro. 9. Sl1e (to work) at the
report froт ear1y тorning tilllate at night toтorrow. 10. We (to wait) for уон
froт 9 till 3 o'clock in the afternoon toтorrow.

145
~
Exercise IV
с-
~
~ Join tl1e following pairs ofsentences witl1 if, when or while. Miпd the use oftenses
=:\
in the subordinate clause.
::::.
< 1. You will Ье packiпg our thiпgs. 1 will Ье makiпg arraпgemeпts over tl1e
:?:
L telephone. 2. We will come at 12 o'clock. They will Ье rellearsiпg tl1e secoпd
····~(
;:С::
act. 3. You \Vill ring up at 3 o'clock. 1 am afraid 1will Ье 11aviпg а loпg-distaпce
caiJ апd tl1e liпe will Ье eпgaged. 4. Tlle German stнdeпts will Ье having tl1eir
oral test. Tlle Eпglisl1 stнdeпts will Ье writing tl1eir examiпatioп paper. 5. Tl1e
'l1
_;
ward doctors will Ье examiпiпg tlleir patients. Tl1e professor will make l1is
daily Юl\Пd.
z
~

Exercise V
Complete tlle followiпg dialogue нsing tl1e Future Simple or tl1e Fнture Coпtiпнous.

РЕТЕ: Сап 1 рhопе you tomorrow, Апп?


ANN: Wl1at time?
РЕТЕ: Well, l'm поt workiпg tomorrow so 1 ... (plюne) уон at 9 o'clock iп tlle
morniпg.
ANN: Oh по! l ... (sleep) tЪеп.
РЕТЕ: О К. 1 ... (call) you at пооп.
ANN: Well, I ... (tidy нр) tlle room.
РЕТЕ: Perl1aps 1 ... (соте) апd visit уон iп tl1e afterпooп tl1eп. Wl1at ... (you/
do) at 3 o'clock?
ANN: I ... (get) ready for my aeroblcs class.
РЕТЕ: Well, if 1 ... (рl1опе) уон at 5 ... (youjЬe) at home?
ANN: No, 1 am afraid not. 1 ... (visit) my aнnt.
РЕТЕ: When сап l see you, Апn?
ANN: Plюne me tomorrow eveпiпg at 7 o'clock. 1 ... (not/do) aпything tl1eп.

Exercise Vl
Traпslate tlle Rнssiaп seпteпces iпto Englisl1 makiпg tl1em tlle logical continнa­
tion oftl1e Eпglisl1 опеs.
1. We will Ье playiпg cl1ess iп half ап lюur. - А они будут играть в шашки.
2. Wllat will you Ье doing wllen 1 come? - Я буду, очевидно, писать доклад.
3. What will tl1e coacl1 Ье doiпg at this time tomorrow?- Он будет тренировать
юношескую команду. 4. I will Ье listeпing to ту favourite songs at 8 o'clock
tomorrow. -А я буду в это время писать сочинение о творчестве Чехова.
5. Tomorrow at tl1is time we will Ье taking leave of each otl1er at the station.- Вы
вдвоем поедете на север, чтобы присоединиться к своей экспедиции, а я
поеду на Урал. 6. Tomorrow at this time 1will Ье working iп tl1e library. -А вы
в это время будете готовиться к экзамену. 7. Tomorrow in an hour you will Ье
packiпg уош thiпgs. -А мы в это время будем уезжать.

146
Exercise Vll :;,::
Translate tl1e followiпg senteпces Llsing the Future Coпtiпuous wl1ere reqнired.
1. Завтра в это время вы будете слушать прекрасную оперу. 2. Вот увиди­ )...;_,

те, через минуту он будет рассказывать о своей встрече с чемпионом. '-


3. Когда мы придем домой, мама еще будет готовить обед, и нам придется
подождать. 4. Если вы хотите увидеть их, вы должны поторопиться, ина­
че, боюсь, вы придете, а они будут уходить. 5. Не звоните мне с 3-хдо 5-ти:
я буду работать в лаборатории. 6. Ровно в 5 часов .завтра многие астроно­
мы будут наблюдать солнечное затмение. 7. Спускайтесь, я вас сейчас
догоню.8. Ровно в шесть часов я буду ждать тебя на троллейбусной оста­
новке. 9. Он будет учить английский язык, когда ты придешь. l О. Завтра
в 1О часов утра я буду сдавать экзамен по истории. 11. Не приходи ко мне
завтра в 2 часа дня, я буду готовиться к докладу. 12. Вы все еще будете
работать, если я приду в девять?

Perfect Tenses

[to have + Participle 11 \

The Present Perfect Tense

Person 1 Affirmative lnterrogative Negative


Number Form Form Form
have (1 've) spoken Have 1spoken? 1have not (haven't) spoken
Не has (he's) spoken Has he spoken? Не has not (hasn 't) spoken
She hasspoken Has she spoken? She has not spoken
lt hasspoken Has it spoken? lt has not spoken
We havespoken Havewespoken? We have not spoken
You havespoken Have you spoken? You have not spoken
They havespoken Have they spoken? 1 They have not spoken

The Present Perfect is formed with the Present Simple ofthe auxiliary verb to have
and Participle 11 of the notional verb.
lt is used
1) to denote а completed action which is connected with the present, no definite
time is mentioned:
1have been to the Hermitage.

147
::.::: 2) to denote an actioп which is over, bLJt а period oftirne is not cornpleted. The
~

Present Perfect is used with adverbial rnodifiers today, this week, this тont/1,
а::
this year etc.:
::.::
< Не has been to Moscow this week.
2:
~
3) lt is used with the adverbs ;ust, yet, never, ever, lately, recently, already, often,
< seldoт, general/y, rarely. These adverbs are usually placed before the rnain verb:
с:::
Не has just соте froт London.
""
,.)...
4) lt is used with since (а preposition, an adverb or а conjunction introducing а
С/:
subordiпate clause ); since denotes frorn а certain rnornent in the past up to поw:
v 1have read three English books since the beginning ofthe terт. (а preposition)
z She cal/edon те /ast Sunday, but/ have notseen hersince. (an adverb)
""' We have not had а single rainyday since we сате here. (а conjunction)
5) lnstead of Present Perfect Continuous with the verbs having no continuous
forrns before for and since:
1have been here since 8 о 'clock.
Не has known him for ten years.

6) ln subordinate adverЬial clauses of tirne and condition to denote а future


action taking place before а certain rnornent in the future:
1'11 staywith you unti/you've finished everytfling.

Note. ln special questions with wt1en the Past Sirnple is used: -------~
When did you соте? ___)

Have gone tojHave been tojHave been in


She has gone to New York ( = She 's оп her way to New York or she 's there.
She hasn 't соте back yet.)
She has been to Paris опсе. (= She has visited Paris; s/1e is not there new.
She has соте back.)
She has been in London for two years. ( = She lives in London now.)

~EXERCISES
Exercise 1
Put the verbs iп brackets iпto t11e Present Perfect.
1. I doп't kпow tllis man. I (пever) met l1im. 2. Let's go to tl1e ciпema. А пеw
Шm is оп.- Му frieпd already (to see) it. 3. Wl1ere is Nick?- Не jl!st (to go)
out. 4. Doп't you know wlыt the story is аЬонt? - No, [ (not to read) it.
5. Doп't worry about the letter. l already (to post) it. 6. Is l1e а good Ьоу?- Oh,
yes he (to l1elp) me а lot. 7. I kпow Кiev perfectly well. I (Ье) tl1ere several times.
148
8. l can't find шу bag. 1 tl1ink soшebocly (to take) it Ьу шistake. 9. Where is tl1e '~

key?- 1 (to put) it on tl1e tаЫе. 10. Do you speak Japanese?- No, I пever (to LlJ
>
study) it. 11. Do you knowwhere he lives?- No, he recently (to шоvе) to а new L:.,j

flat l ( поt to Ье) there yet. :I:


f-

Exercise 11
Put tl1e verb in brackets iпto the Preseпt Simple or the Present Perfect.
1. l see the snow (to stop ). 2. As а rule I (to lшve) eggs for breakfast, but ti1is tiшe
I (to oгder) porridge. 3. Tl1is is tl1e lюuse wl1ere I (to live). 1 (to Iive) l1ere since
c11ildlюod. 4. Once iп а week I (to write) letters home, but 1 (not to write) one
this week, so шу пехt letter шust Ье very long. 5. Sl1e just (to ask) а porter to
сапу l1er bags as they (to Ье) too l1eavy for her. 6. I regularly (to see) him every
шorniпg at tl1e bus-stop, but l (поt to see) l1im tl1ese days. 7. You (to Ье) tl1e first
guest 1 (to have) siпce my rеtшп. 8. Jt (to Ье) afterпooп. 1t (to stop) raiпiпg, апd
the sш1 (to саше) онt. 9. Т!ыпk you for everytl1iпg you (to do). I (to learп) а
great deal from уон. 1О. J (to believe) Mr Smith (to рау) уон а visit this afterпoon.
- Yes, he just ( to go). 11. 1(to kпow) l1er for fifteeп years, Ьнt 1 never ( to hear)
you speak like that before. 12. How long she (to Ье) away? It (to sееш) ages.

Exercise 111
Use tl1e words iп brackets to make qLJestioпs accordiпg to а шodel.
Model 1 (yoнjeverjЬejto tl1e Tretyakov Gallery?)
Have you ever Ьееп to tl1e Tretyakov Gallery?
1. (fatherjcome back/today?) ...
2. (youjseeja new filшjreceпtly?) ...
3. (how 1ong/11e/be/here?) ...
4. (youjread/this bookjalready?) .. .
5. (youjeverjvisitjtl1e Kremliп?) .. .
6. (youjeverjbe/the Bolslюi TI1eatre?) ...
7. (уон/Ье il1/tllis week?) ...
8. (sl1ejlivejthis hoнsejall her life?) ...

Exercise IV
Iпsert the adverbs where necessary.
1. We have passed our examiпatioп. Uust) 2. They have fiпisl1ed their research
work. (already) 3. М у sister l1as Ьееп а good pupil. (always) 4. Sl1e llas beeпlate
for classes. (пever) 5. We llave поt takeп our exams. (yet) 6. 1 have met my
friend. (already) 7. Tl1is studeпt has told нs about 11is scieпtific work. (пever)
8.I11aveп't dопе my morпiпg exercises. (yet) 9. I I1ave had my diппer. (already)
10. Have you Ьееп very busy? (lately) 11. М у fatl1er llas Jeft for 11is пative towп.
Uнst) 12. I have Ьееп to Fraпce. (пever) 12. Has she graduated from нпiversity?
(already) 13. Have they writteп poems? (ever)
149
~
...., Exercise V
Ask yes/no алd wh-questions to tl1e followiпg sentences .
.с.::
с::
1. We have already written our term test papers. 2. Sl1e l1as forgotten to bring you
< tl1e book. 3. They lшve accepted our proposal this week. 4. They lшve Ьееп to tl1e
~
~
Hermitage lately. 5. Tl1ey have got mucl1 work this year. 6. We have just bOLrght а
< пеw dictioлary. 7. Не hasп't passed his examiпatioп. 8. She hasп't fiпished l1er
с::
(.!: work. 9. We have invited our frieлd to our place. 10. Tl1e meeting hasjust begнn.
:r:
и Exercise Vl
Fill iп: ''hasjhave Ьееп in/to", ''has/lыve gone to" iп the correct form.
о
z 1. 1 ...... Wasl1iпgtoп several times, Ьнt 1 ...... New York. 2. Wl1ere's Peter?
~
1 haveп't sееп him for days. Не ...... Berliп. 3. We ...... Milan for very Joпg, so
we doп't know it very well yet. 4. Апп isп't here. Sl1e ...... tl1e Jibrary to get some
books. 5. I ...... that exhiЬitioп twice but 1 l1aven't sееп tl1e picture you
mentioned. 6. John ...... Brussels for two montl1s.
Exercise Vll
Traпslate iпto Eпglish нsing tl1e Preseпt Perfect.
1. Я никогда не был в этом театре. 2. Мы только что говорили с ним об этом.
3. Он только что ушел. 4. Собрание еще не началось. 5. Мы уже просмотрели
новые газеты. 6. Она всегда присутствовала на наших собраниях в этом году.
7. Я уже показал ему дорогу на станцию. 8. Я не был в кино с сентября. 9. Мы
никогда не катались на лыжах в лесу зимой. 1О. Они не видели его в после­
днее время. 11. На этой неделе она не посещала занятий. 12. Мой сын только
что приехал из Англии. 13. Мы еще не обсуждали этот вопрос на собрании.
14. Она несколько раз приходила сюда в последнее время. 15. Моя мама уже
ответиланаэтописьмо. 16. Мыникогданеизучалииспанскийязык.17. Мы
не получали от них никаких известий с тех пор, как они уехали в США
18. Недавно они устроили прекрасную художественную выставку.

Exercise Vlll
Traпslate
into Englisl1.
1. Где Петров? Почему он не пришел n университет? Я его сегодня не
видела. Боюсь, что он заболел. - Вы ошибаетесь. Петраn здесь. Он
только что пошел на лекцию. Но вы не можете сейчас с ним погово­
рить, так как лекция уже началась.

2. В этом году мы много читали. Мы прочитали несколько английских


книг в оригинале. Я всегда любила английскую литературу. -Вы хо­
рошо знаете английскую литературу ХХ века? Я прочла все произве­
дения Голсуорси (Galsworthy), Моэма (Maugham) и Кронина (Croпin).
Некоторые романы я прочла на русском языке.
3. Вы были на выставке картин Шишкина?- Да, я была там несколько
раз. Я всегда интересовалась творчеством этого художника. Я никог­
да не видела ничего прекраснее его пейзажей.
150
:ri
4. Я очень люблю путешествовать. Я уже побывала во многих городах ;:;,::
нашей страны. Я не была в Новгороде с тех пор, как мы переехали в
;;...
Санкт-Петербург. Я оченьлюблю этот древний город. ~

:r:
Exercise IX
Translate this diaJogue into English. "'""

Привет, Борис!
Здравствуй, Николай!
Не uидел тебя сто лет. Где ты был все это время?
Видишь ли, я только 'IТО приехал из Крыма.
Ты видел много красивых мест, не так ли?
О, да. Между прочим, ты когда-нибудь был в АТiупке?
К сожалению, я никогда там не был, но я много слышал об этом месте.
О, это замечательное место.
Ты ездил туда один?
Нет, вместе с Виктором. Ты помнишь его, да?
Конечно. Он уже окончил университет?
Да, он стал журналистом.
А как ты? Я давно о тебе ничего не знаю.
Спасибо. Все в порядке. Заходи ко мне. Я всегда рад тебя видеть.

Exercise Х
Translate into English.
1. Я еще не слыхал об этом. 2. Кто пришел? Наконец-то вы пришли!
3. Можно мне прочитать ваше сочинение или вы его уже отдали учите­
лю? 4. Вы нашли зонтик?- Да, нашла. -А где вы его нашли?- Я нашла
его в собственной комнате. 5. Я дам вам эту книгу, после того, как я
прочту ее. 6. За последнее время я не получал от него писем. 7. Я не полу­
чал от него известий с тех пор, как он уехал из Москвы. 8. Он уехал из
Москвы три года тому назад, и я не видел его с тех пор. 9. Почему вы
надели пальто? Сегодня саnсем тепло. 1О. Он положил документы на стол
и вышел из комнаты. 11. Я не знаю, который сейчас час, так как мои
часы остановились. 12. Я не видел его с лета. 13. Я уже говорил вам об
этом два раза. Разве вы не помните? 14. Наконец такси остановилось у
подъезда большого дома. 15. Ваш друг пришел. Он ждет вас внизу.

Comparison of the Present Perfect and the Past Simple:

The Present Perfect The Past Simple


А completed action connected An action performed in the past
with the present 1posted ту letter yesterday.
1have just posted ту /etter.
151
:.";
--' gEXERCISES
.~
~

::r::
r::t. Exercise 1
< Replace tl1e infinitives in brackets Ьу the Present Perfect or tl1e Past Simple.
::Е
~ 1. You ever (to Ье) to tl1is picture gallery?- Yes, 1 (to visit) it олсе wl1en а уонt\1,
< алd the pictшes (to make) agreat impression on me. Since then I (поt to Ье) hеге.
r::t.
(";)
..,..,
2. You already (to see) the леw film?- Yes, 1 (to maпage) to see it yesteгday. I (to
cr; go) to the cinema iп the eveпiпg апd (to get) two tickets qнite easily. 3. Уон a!ways
(to draw) books from our library?- Yes, as а rule I (to draw). Last уеаг 1 (to go) to
7.
another library Ьнt I (лоt to fiлd) it as good as this опе. 1 (to dгaw) books from
l1ere for some 6 moпths already. 4. I (not to see) anytblng ofHelen lately. Wl1eп
"" you (to see) her last? - I (to meet) her two days ago. l (to tblnk) tl1at sl1e (to
change) very mнch. 5. You (to have dinner) already?- No, not yet. The waiter
(to take) my order 15 minutes ago and (not to bring) me anythiпg yet. 6. Уон ever
(to l1ear) Lemeshev sing?- Oh, yes. Не (to Ье) а spleпdid siпger апd а very good
actor aswell. 7. Where уон (to get) tl1is fiпe newbag from?- М у pareпts (to give)
it to те as а Ьirthdaypreseпt. 8. She jнst (to remind) me that we (to Ье) at schoo\
togetl1er. 9. I (to meet) Nick tl1is morпing at the statioп. 10. Sl1e (to fiпisl1) tidyiпg
up the flat, then she (to begiп) cookiпg diппer. 11. 1(to see) his nаше iп the papers
very ofteп oflate. 12. They (to leave) just а weekago. 13. Most ofthe cblldreп I1ere
(to lшve) tl1e flu already. 14. I (to love) you siпce 1 (to see) you at tl1e party.

Exercise 11
Use tl1e Preseпt Perfect or tl1e Past Simple iпstead oftl1e iпfiпitives iп brackets.
1. You (towrite) а letterto yourfrieпd at last?- Yes, I (to l1ave).- Wheп you (to
write) it? - 1 (to write) it last пight. - And why you (поt to seпd) it yet? - I ( to
leave) it at home iл the morпing, апd I (to Ье) busy siпce I (to rеtшп) home.
2. Jапе
(to соте) lюme?- Not yet. 1 am very aпxious аЬонt l1er. When sl1e (to
leave)? - She (to leave) home at 6 o'clock and sl1e (to go) straigl1t to t\1e
dentist. - Don't worry. 1 am sнre the doctor (to detain) l1er. - Внt it's 9
o'clock лоw, so she (to Ье) away from home for tl1ree hoнrs already.
3. Look! What letter Ijust (to receive)from Mother.- Aпythiпg (to hарреп)?­
Father (to fall) ill.- 111 again! Не (to Ье) ill in September.- Yes. At first the
doctors (to say) it was the flн. But then he (to feel) worse and tl1ey (to take)
i him to the hospital. Mother writes he (to Ье) ill for more tl1aп а week already.
1'

Exercise 111
Put the verb in brackets into the Present Perfect and the Past Simple.
1. - You ever (to Ье) to the Hermitage?
- Yes, 1 (to Ье) there several times.
- Yes, 1 (to Ье) there а few days ago.
152
2. - You (to Ье) to the Kremlin recently? ;;L.
- Yes, I ... L;._;

>
- Yes, 1 (to go) there last Sunday.
3. - You (to see) Mike this morning? :-
- Yes, 1 ...
- No, 1 (not to see) him siпce last Monday.
4. - You (to Ье) to tl1e theatre this week?
- Yes, I ... 1 (to go) to the Mariinsky Theatre.
5. - You ever (to play) footbalJ?
- Yes, I ...
- I (to play) when l (to Ье) а schoolboy.
6. - 1 (to lose) mywoollen gloves. You (not to see) them anywhere?
- No, I am afraid, I .... When you last (to wear) them?
- I (to wear) tl1em last пight.
7. - YoLJ (to hear) 11iш speak оп tl1e radio last night?
- Yes, 1 ...
8. - You (to Ье) here loпg?
- Yes, I (to Ье) l1ere two months.
- You (to соте) to see John?
- Yes, I (not to see) him siпce last summer.
9. - How loпg you (to kпow) Pete?
- l (to kпow) him for 15 years.
10. - Where you (to Ье)?
- l (to Ье) to the dentist.
-Не (to take) out your tooth?
- Yes, l1e ....

Exercise IV
Traпslate
into Englisl1.
1. Я закончила доклад. Взгляните на него, пожалуйста. 2. Вы читали се­
годняшние газеты?- Конечно! 3. Вы послали за доктором?- Да. Он скоро
придет. 4. Вы давно знаете Елену? -Я знаю ее уже шесть лет. 5. Сегодня
мне звонил мой друг. 6. В прошлом году он уехал на север, и с тех пор я его
не видела. 7. Я встретилась с Аней у своих друзей три года тому назад, и с
тех пор я о ней ничего не слышала. 8. Вы хорошо знаете этот rород?- Нет,
я никогда здесь раньше не была. 9. За последнее время он сильно изме­
нился, не правда ли? - Я не заметила. 1О. Вы не навещали нас с тех пор,
как приехали. 11. Я не могу идти с вами в кино, потому что я еще не сдела­
ла домашнее задание. 12. Рада вас видеть. Я так много о вас слышала.
13. Когда вы принимали участие в спортивных соревнованиях? 14. Мой
друг никогда не был за границей. Недавно он уехал в США.

153
~~- ~-

::,;:
с
Exercise V
с Translate into Eпglisr1.
CQ

::>:: 1. Когда они уехали?- Точно не знаю. Меня не было дома. 2. Я вам очень
< благодарна за все, что вы для меня сделали. 3. Мы только что продали
~
~ последний экземпляр этой книги. Жаль, что вы раньше нам не сказали,
< что она вам нужна. 4. Дождь уже прекратился, и люди идут без плащей и
с::
(.; зонтов. 5. Когда мы были студентами, мы всегда помогали друг другу.
::r: 6. Очень рад с вами познакомиться. Я столько слышал о вас и давно
c.r;
хотел с вами встретиться. 7. Я знаю его много лет; он всегда мне был
с хорошим другом. 8. Экзаменаторы уже пришли и вызвали трех студен­
z тов. 9. Где вы достали этотчудесный ковер?- Он у меня с тех пор, как я
"" перееха.п на эту квартиру. 10. Куда она уходила сегодня утром? - Она
ходила в библиотеку, потом зашла к своей подруге. 11. Она написала
несколько писем на этой неделе. 12. Куда ушел Том? Я не вижу его здесь.
-Он ушел домой пять минут тому назад. 13. Я не видел свою старую
учительницу в течение двух месяцев. 14. Новый учитель по истории при­
ехал в понедельник. 15. В прошлом году у нас было пять уроков англий­
ского языка в неделю. 16. Разве ты не получил мое письмо?- Твое пись­
мо? Нет. -Да, конечно, ты еще не мог его получить. Оно было отправлено
только сегодня утром.

The Past Perfect Tense

;~~rson ··/ Affirmative lnterrogative Negative


<1\iumber. Form Form Form
had (l'd) written Had 1written? 1 had not (hadn 't) written
Не had written Had he written? Не had notwritten
She had wгitten Had she written? She had notwritten
lt had written Had itwritten? lt had not written
We had written Had we written? We had notwritten
You had written Had you written? You had notwritten
They had written Had theywritten? Theyhad notwritten

The Past Perfect is formed with tr1e PastSimple ofthe auxiliaryverb to have and
Participle 11 of the notional verb.
ltis used
1} to denote а past action which took place before another action or before а
given past time:
We had finished our work Ьу 5о 'clock.
1had seen him before 1came here.
154
~
2) to denote а complete past action which had visiЫe results in the past: ~
She was sad because she had failed the exam. ~

>
3) The Past Prefect is used with the adverbs: :..::J

hardly ... when :::


f-
scarce/y ... when
по sooner ... than
With these words the inversion is used:
Hardly had we returned home when our friends са те to see us.
Scarcely had 1finis/1ed ту composition when the Ье/1 rang.
No sooner had they arrived than the thunderstorm began.

The Past Perfect is used with the following time expressions: after, before, Ьу, Ьу
the time etc.

MEXERCISES

Exercise 1
Use tl1e Past Perfect oftl1e verbs giveп in brackets to complete tl1e seпteпces.
1. Муbrother went to Moscow after he. (pass the exams)
2. Неunderstood the rule after he. (learn it)
3. She entered university after sl1e. (finisl1/tl1e secondary school)
4. We wrote our compositions. We gave them to the teacher. (after)
5. Sl1e was very tired because sl1e. (work а lot/that day)
6. The sш1 set. They finisl1ed their work. (before)
7. The boys decided to make а sea voyage. They travelled in the Caucasus.
(after)
8. They finisl1ed tlleir work. They went оп an excursioп. (wllen)
9. Tlley саше llome. Т11eir friends rang tllem up. (llardly)
1О. Tlley саше llome. It raiпed lleavily. (after)

Exercise 11
Ask wl1-questioпs to tl1e words iп bold type.
1. The people weпt home after they had finished their work. 2. The lecture had
beguп Ьу the time 1 entered the room. 3. Tl1e cllildren had fallen asleep before
we returned home. 4. The meeting had begun when he came into the room.
5. They llad fiпislled the construction of the stadium Ьу last year. 6. These
students had taken their examination Ьу the time you arrived. 7. The speaker
l1ad made his report Ьу this time yesterday. 8. Уон had studied English before
уон came to stнdy l1ere.

155
~
Exercise 111
о
Coшpletethe senteпces usiпg tЪе words iп brackets.
с::

с::
Model 1 There was поЬоdу in tl1e classrooш. (asjeverybodyjalтeadyjgo out)
< There was поЬоdу iп the classrooш as everybody lшd already gопе out.
:г.
:г. 1. Tl1e cl1ildren went straigl1t hоше. (afterjtl1eyjfiпish/tl1eir classes)
< 2. The teacher саше iпto the classroom. (Ьу tl1e timejtl1e cl1ildreпjtakejtheir
с::
с,:)
seats)
:r: 3. We left tl1e house. (after/the raiп/stop)
v;
-1 4. You raпg up. (when/the guests/пot comejyet)
с
5. You entered university. (afterjyoujstudy/Eпglish)
z
~ 6. 1 саше into the room. (Ьу tl1e tiшejthe lectшe/begin)
7. The hoнse was ешрtу. (as everybodyjgojto tl1e party)
8. Т11еу went lюше. (afterjtheyjfinisl1/tl1eir work)
9. I шеt you in tl1e street. (afterjyoujseeja пеw film)
1О. Не сонldп 't take part iп tl1e competitioп. (becaнsejhe/break/11is arm)

Exercise IV
Replace tl1e iпfiпitives iп brackets Ьу the Past Simple or tl1e Past Peгfect.

1. Tl1ey (to coшplete) all tl1e preparatioпs for tl1e ball Ьу 6 o'clock. 2. Оп leaviпg
hospital the шаn (to thaпk) tl1e doctor who (to cure) l1im ofhis disease. 3. Iл tl1e
шorniлg all the passeпgers (to t'eel) good atteг tl1e night they (to speпd) iп tl1e
coшfortaЬJe sleeper. 4. Dшiпg my last visit to the picturc galteгy I (to find) tl1at 1
no loпger (to like) tl1e pictures wl1icl1 (to impress) me wl1eп I first (to see) tl1eш.
5. Last nigl1t he (to coшplete) tl1e experimeпt \VI1icl1 l1e (to begiп) somc moпtl1s
before. 6. No sooпer sl1e (to о реп) the drawertl1ш1 sl1e (to tlпd) tl1e р\юtо wl1icl1
she (to thiпk) she (to lose) loпg before. 7. They ( to Ье) frieпds fог some tеп years
before 1 (to meet) tl1em. 8. I (to refнse) to give а defiпite aпswer before 1 (to receive)
а letter from llim. 9. Hardly he (to toвcl1) tl1e pitlow wl1e11 he (to fall) asleep.
10. Eveгybody (to Ье) already at the Ьнs station, Ьнt tl1e guide (поt to соте) yet.
11. Не (to fiпd) the landscape еvеп more beaLJtifнl tl1aп he (to expect) it to Ье.
12. Sl1e (to read) iп his eyes wl1at l1e (to \Vant) to say before l1e (to say) it.
Exercise V
Replace the iпfinitives in brackets Ьу tl1e Past Simple or the Past Perfect.
1. Their friends (to call) for tl1em before t11ey (to Ье) ready. 2. We (to lшve) to
stay at the statioп forthe nigi1t Ьесанsе we (to miss) the last traiп. 3. She (to slip)
the letter into l1er pocket wheп her frieпd (to eпter) the room. 4. Не (to fiпisl1)
11is work before you (to come). 5. Our graпdfatl1er (to slюw) LJs tl1e office wl1e11
he (to work). 6. After we (to have) sLJpper my sister (to wasl1 нр) tl1e disl1es.
7. The eпgiпeer (to tlпisl1) his experimeпts Ьу tl1e епd oftl1e last week. 8. Ву tl1c
first ofSeptember all the students (to come) to tl1e city. 9. I (поt to waпt) to go to
the cinema as I (to see) this film. 1О. lt (to Ье) niпe o'clock and we (to соше) to
156
l1er rоош two lюuгs before, as we (to (io) ofteп on tlюse wiпter eveпiпgs. 11. No .::-:
sooпer we (to put dowп) ош glasses tl1an the waiter (to refi11) tl1eт. 12. Hardly
sl1e (to соте) hоше wheп her frieпds (to гiпg) I1ег up. 13. 1 (to шееt) ту frieлd
before 1 (to Ье) а fortпight iл Paris. 14. Не cou1d поt шееt ше. Не (not to Ье)
wel! fог а few weeks. 15. Payiпg fог w1ыt he (поt to eat) l1e (to leave) tl1e cafe. ""
1б. Sl1e (to fa\1) i1l апd her frieпd (to work) for her. 17. Tl1e other childreп who
(to grow) witl1 hiш (to Ье) still the sате.

Exercise VI
Rep1ace t11e iпfiпitives iп bгackets Ьу t11e Past Siшp!e ог tl1e Past Perfect.
1. Не (to ask) ше ifl (to Jыve) bгeakt'ast. 2. At Jast sl1e (to show) те the letter l1e
(to wгite ). 3. Sl1e (to Ье) sше tlшt he пеvег (to lie) to hег Ьеfоге. 4. Не (to kпow)
11iш for tеп years, апd tl1ey (to play) teппis together in Paris. 5. Tl1ey (to Ье
тarried) only а few шопt11s wl1eп they (to give нр) liviпg in Londoп. б. Не (to
glaпce) нр апd dowп t11e beaci1 to see ifl1e (to Jeave) aпythiпg. 7. Wl1eп s\1e (to
eпter) tl1e hoнse at diппer-time апd (to tiпd) Pete gопе s\1e (to kпow) what (to
l1арреп). 8. Не (to take) а roorn at tl1e lюtel w!1еге Аnп апd l1e (to stay) on their
first visit to Lопdоп. 9. Не (to feel) tl1at l1e (to write) а good report. 10. I (to
uпderstaпd) t\1ey (to kпow) eacl1 otl1er siпce tl1e wаг. 11. Talkiпg to hirn (to Ье)
very easy;just like talkiпg t.o sошеопе you (to kпow) all уош life. 12. WI1eп he
(to саше back) to 11is seat his таnнег (to chaпge ). Не (to Ье) geпtle апd kiпdly.
13. George (to шаkе) по aпs\ver, апd we (to tlпd) that 11е (to Ье as\eep) for sоте
tiшe. 14. Hardly l1e (to eпter) the rоош wheп l1e (to switcl1 оп) tl1e ТУ set.
15. Just as we (to leave) tl1e рlюпе (to гiпg).

Exercise Vll
Traпslate iпto Englisl1.
1. Телеграмма пришла десять минут спустя после того, как ты уехала. 2. К
7 часам все уже прибыли на вокзал. 3. Когда вы пришли, я уже наnисал
доклад. 4. К тому времени, когд.а вы позвонили, гости еще не собрались.
5. Вы изуча.пи английский язык перед тем, как постуnили на эти курсы?
б. Сколько страниц этой книги они перевели к концу прошлой недели?
7. Что вы уже подготовили к тому времени? 8. Кто уже сдал экзамены к
тому моменту? 9. После того как Петр перевел предложение неправильно,
Аня попыталась перевести его пранильно. 1О. Когда он вошел в комнату
на урок английского языка, он обнаружил, что забыл не только учебник,
но и тетради тоже. 11. Он нервнича.ТI, так как не выучил все слова, которые
учительница задала. 12. Придя в театр, я обнаружила, что спектакль еще
не начался. 13. Она приехала в наш город три года тому назад. К этому
времени она уже окончила университет. 14. Когда я nришел домой, мой
брат уже ушел в кино. 15. Он ушел до того, как мы получили телеграмму.
lб. Мой брат сказал, что он уже nосетил эту выставку.

157

/i~Wi:o.:,,i;;~,;;;:.;;ш,L>_"'";,;tiiМ<IЫC<;,.;;coнltl'"J~.JI_"б."'i'"i'.'"'"'""'·'''' '' '''""·''""--• 1 '•'c•;,i,J.<;,,;I:C-""'"'''""'"''·'"''"""' _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __


::,;:
()
Exercise Vlll
~-
Translate into Eпglish.
с::;

~-
1. Она дала мне письмо только после того, как я сказал свое имя. 2. Придя
< утром в лабораторию, он с удовлетворением отметил, что лаборантка ни­
;f
~
чего не трогала на его столе, и он мог сразу приступить к работе. 3. Я видел
...;( много репродукuий этой картины до того, как я увидел оригинал. 4. Воп­
::>:::
(.,; рос оказался гораздо проще, чем мы думали. 5. Солнце еще не поднялось
:с над горизонтом, когда мы отправились в путь. 6. Когда я пришел, все
v;
--1 гости уже собрались. 7. Радио сообщило, что самолет прилетел в Новоси­
бирск. 8. Его произношение значительно улучшилось после того, как он
z
;,;с несколько раз позанималея в лингафонном кабинете. 9. Строитель пока­
зал своим иностранным друзьям мост, в строительстве которого он сам

принимал участие. 10. Никто не говорил ей, как тяжело она была больна.
11. Он не мог принять участие в экспедиции, так как он сломал ногу.
12. Едва певец закончил пение, публика разразилась аплодисментами.

The Future Perfect Tense

Personl Affirmative lnterrogative Negative


NumЬer Form Form Form
shall/will (1'11) Shalljwilll 1shalljwill (shan't) not
havespoken have spoken? (won't) have spoken
Не will have spoken Will he have spoken? Не will not have spoken
She will have spoken Will she have spoken? She will not have spoken
lt will have spoken Will it have spoken? ltwill not have spoken
We shalljwill Shalljwillwe We shalljwill not have spoken
havespoken have spoken?
You 1 will have spoken Will you have spoken? 1 You will not have spoken
Тhеу will have spoken Will they have spoken? They will not have spoken

The Future Perfect is formed with the Future Simple ofthe auxiliaryverb to have
and Participle 11 ofthe notional verb.
lt is used to denote an action which will Ье finished before а given future time.
The Future Perfect is used with the following time expressions: before, Ьу, Ьу
then, bythe time, until, ti/1. Unti/jti/1 are normally used with the Future Perfect only in
negative sentences.
Bythe end ofthe term we wi/1 have leamt тапу newwords and expressions.
She won 't have finished her work unti/8 о 'clock.
The Future Perfect is rarely used either in conversation or in writing.

158
~EXERCISES !...:.~
;...
Exercise 1
Put tl1e verb in brackets into the Future Perfect. :-
1. 1 (to leave) university Ьу this tiтe toтorrow.
2. We (to go away) before you соте.
3. Не (to pass) l1is exaтinatioлs before you return froт the south.
4. She (to return) tl1e book to the library before you соте.
5. Не (to give) tl1e fiлal answer Ьу this tiтe tomorrow.
6. Tl1e expedition (to leave) for tl1e лorth Ьу April.
7. We (to go) Ьу five o'clock toтorrow.
8. 1 (to fiлish) ту report Ьу Monday.
9. Не (topost) tl1e letterbythe tiтewe соте.
1О. She (to do) l1er hoтework Ьу tlшt tiтe.

Exercise 11
Put tl1e work in brackets in the required future teлse forт. Mind tl1e Futшe Perfect.
1. The librarian (to register) all tl1e books Ьу tl1e евd ofthe week. 2. 1ат afraid
we (воt to disct1ss) а11 the qt1estions Ьу the tiтe they (to соте). 3. The secretary
(to look tl1rough) all the papers Ьу the tiтe the director (to соте). 4. I hope that
tl1ey (to receive) ту letter Ьу Saturday апd (воt to expect) те оп Suпday. 5. l
ат sше he (to throw) sоте ligl1t uроп tl1is тatter before] (to learп) about it
from ту sister's letter. 6. Оон 't start arguing uпtil you (to hear) wlыt I lшve to
say. 7. I suppose that wl1eп ту letter (to reach) you, you (to returп) from your
voyage. 8. Our plaпt (to fulfil) its plan Ьу the 5th ofDeceтber. 9. Не (to go) Ьу
tl1e time 1 arrive. 1О. Don't worry 1 (to write) а letter Ьу the time you (to соте)
back. 11. Do please hurry or they (to close) the door Ьу the time we get tl1ere.
12. Bytl1e епd oftl1e moпth the delegation (to соте).

Exercise 111
Traпslate iпto English usiпg the Future Simple, tl1e Future Continuous апd tl1e
Future Perfect or tl1e Present Siтple.
1. Я буду очень занят в начале июня. Я буду сдавать экзамены. 2. К семи
часам я закончу эту работу и смогу отдохнуть. 3. Я все еще буду рабо­
тать, когда ты вернешься. 4. Через год он приедет в Санкт-Петербург.
5. Поезд уже уйдет к тому времени, когда мы приедем на станцию. 6. Не
приходите ко мне в пять часов завтра, у меня будет урок английского
языка.7. Мы выполним эту работу к 3 часам, а потом все вместе пойдем
гулять.8. К 15 мая мы уже сдадим все зачеты. 9. Строители построят эту
школу к 1 сентября. 10. Я напишу мое сочинение к тому времени, как
она придет ко мне. 11. Ровно в 5 часов я буду ждать тебя на автобусной

159
~;;::
~.
остановке.12. Не звоните мне от трех до пяти: я буду работать. 13. Завтра

к :э-тому времени мы уже пообедаем. 14. Если Петр приедет в Москву, я
::;:,
покажу ему Красную площадь и Кремль. 15. Она не будет с нами разго­
::<:
< варивать до тех пор, пока он не извинится.
:?.
2:
< Exercise IV
::<:
Translate into English giving special atteпtion to tl1e future tenses.
:::: 1. Боюсь, к тому времени, как вы вернетесь с деньгами, они уже распро­
'/;
дадут все книги. 2. Мы сделаем все упражнения к его приходу, и затеl\I
все вместе пойдем на каток. 3. Я напишу ему, как только увижусь с его
z родителями. 4. Я позвоню вам, как только закончу переводить статью.
~

5. Мы сделаем большую часть работы, когда вы обратитесь к профессору


за помощью. 6. Я уверен, что все гости уйдут к 1О часам. 7. Я боюсь, что
он уже отправиттелеграмму к тому времени, когда мы придем. 8. К тому
времени, когда ты освободишься, я уже закончу работу. 9. Что вы будете
делать завтра в 8 часов вечера? -Завтра к 8 часам я уже закончу свои
уроки и в 8 часов буду играть на пианино. 1О. Я окончу свой перевод к
концу недели. 1 1. Когда я напишу письмо, я сейчас же пойду и отправлю
его, но я не знаю, когда она его получит. 12. Я с ним поговорю, когда он
придет, но я не уверена, придет ли он сегодня. 13. Мне бы хотелось знать,
когда она вернется в Москву. Если она вернется после 1-го июля, н ее не
увижу, так как н уже уеду на юг к этому времени. 14. Она обещала дать
мне эту книгу при условии, что н верну ее в воскресенье. Если она не
получит книгу в воскресенье, она не сможет подготовитьсн к докладу.

Perfect Continuous (Progressive) Tenses


г-------- --~
have been + Participle 1( -ing)

The Present Perfect Continuous ( Progressive) Tense

1,
Person Negative
1
NumЬer Form
have (l've) been Have 1been speaking? 1have not (haven't)
speaking been speaking
Не 1 has (he's) been Has he been speaking? Не has not (hasn't)
speaking been speaking
She 1 has been speaking Has she been speaking? She has not been
speaking

160
'::::.
Per~on; Negative ::::
NumЬer Form ..:.:

lt has been speaking Has it been speaking? lt has not been --
speaking .....
We 1 have been speaking 1 Have we been speaking? 1 We have not been
speaking
You 1 have been speaking 1 Have you been speaking? 1 You have not been
speaking
They 1 have been speaking 1 Have they been speaking? 1 They have not been
speaking

The Present Perfect Continuous is formed with the Present Perfect of the auxiliary
verb to Ье and Participle 1of the notional verb.
ltis used
1) to denote an action in progress which began at а certain moment in the past
and is still going on at the present moment:
Не has been writing а composition for two hours.
The Present Perfect Continuous is translated into Russian Ьу the present.
2) to denote а past action of certain duration having visiЫe results in the present:
She 's been crying. Нег eyes are red.
3) to denote an action expressing anger, irritation, annoyance or crticism:
1suppose you have been telling tales again.

The Present Perfect Continuous is usually used with for, since, how long.

Note. Live, fee/ and work can Ье used either in the Present Perfect or the
Present Prefect Continuous with no difference in meaning.
l've been livingj!'ve lived in Paris for а year.

The verbs not used in continuous forms are not used in the Perfect Continuous
either. 1n this case the Present Perfect is used:
We have known him since 200 1.

IYf EXERCISES
Exercise 1
Put the verb in brackets into the Present Perfect Continuous.
1. You see, l (to do) this kind ofthing for tl1e last thirty years. 2. She (to tell) you
tl1is loпg story all this time? 3. Do уон waпt to dance?- No, tl1ank you. 1 (to
dance) so mнcl1 all eveniпg, tl1at my feet are ready to fall. 4. How is your poor
,, _·:н,
161
~
~
friend? 1jllst (to speak) ofllim. 5. Не says l1e (not to feel) well for tl1e past week.
~
6. Yolllook so pale. Kate (to feed) yoll in my absence? 7. 1 (to try) to get уоо all
·~
day, Mike! 8. I (поt to sleep) foгovera day. 9. We (to write Jetters) to опе another
с.::
< for а collple ot'years поw. 10. Wl1y is he !1ere ло\v?- I doп't kпow.- YoLI (to
...: coгrespoпd) witl111iш?- No. 1 J. 1 (to tгaпslate) ап article for aпlюur siпce we

..,-.:_ саше home. 12. Не (to take) Eпglislllessoпs for some time siлce last year.
;:,;
(.;;;

Exercise 11
seпteпces addiпg adverЬials iп
:/;
Complete tlle tollowing as tl1e model. (Give all
-'
possiЬle variaлts.)
z Model 1 1 lшve beeпlisteпiпg iп ...
"" I lшve been listeпing in for апlюш.
I llave beeпlisteпiлg iп since Т саше hоше.
I tшve Ьеел Jisteпiлg iл siпce 7 o'clock.
1. Т11еу llave Ьеел woгkiлg iп tl1e gardeп ... 2. 1 l1ave Ьееп waiting for yoLI ...
3. Т11е ЬаЬу l1as Ьееп crying ... 4. The toшists have Ьееп doiпg tl1e towл ...
5. Tl1e stLideпts have Ьееп readiпg foгtl1e examiпatioп ... 6. Не l1as Ьееп traiпiпg
his dog ... 7. Т11еу have Ьееп bllildiпg tl1e леw bridge ... 8. Tl1e gardeпer !1as
Ьееп sortiпg tl1e apples ... 9. Т11еу llave Ьееп playiпg golf ... 10. We l1ave Ьееп
gatl1eriпg Шllshrooшs ... 11. SI1e lыs been sufferiпg from а I1eadache ... 12. 1
l1ave Ьееп writiпg а compositioп ... 13. They l1ave Ьееп studying at uпiversity ...

Exercise 111
Put t11e verb in brackets iпto t11e Ргеsепt Perfect апd tl1e Preseпt Perfect Coпtiпuous.
1.1 (to do) ту lюmework t'ortwo lюшs апd l (поt to fiпisl1) yet. 2. Неlеп (to read)
tl1is book siпce Мопdау апd sl1e (not to read) it yet. 3. М у brother (to collect)
stamps ever siпce he Jeft sclюol. Now l1e (to collect) so шалу tl1at l1e doesп't
kпowwl1ere to рнt tl1em. 4. Tl1at Ьоу already (to staлd) at the bus stop for tl1e last
halfan hour. Slыll I te1111iш tlыt tl1e last bus a1ready (to go)? 5. Sometl1ing (to
hарреп) to Nick. 1 (to wait) for llim Joпg апd l1e (поt to соте) yet. 6. Tllere are а
lot ofthiпgs 1 (to do) for а Joпg time, and I (поt to do) them. 7. There is the саг.
Pete (to соте) back. I must go апd wasl1my eyes. 1 doп't waпt llim to see I (to
cry). 8. Fatl1er a1ready (to arrive). We jнst (to speak) ofhim. 9. You are old епонg\1
to begiп to learл.- I (to learn) allmy Iife. 1О. Wlыt you (to do) witl1my bag? I (to
look) for it for an lюur апd I сап't fiпd it.- I tlliпk, Mary (to go) offwitl1 it.

Exercise IV
Use tl1e Preseпt PerГect Coпtiпuous о г Ргеsепt Peгfect iп tl1e following seпteпces.
1. 1 (to Ье) busy siпce we last met. 2. I am very foпd of Alice but 1 (поt to see)
mucll of her Jate1y. 3. Yoll look very tiгed. - I (to wa1k) arouпd all day. I (to
llave) а few driпks апd пotlliпg to eat. 4. I (to cook, to сlеап) апd (to wasl1) tl1e

162
liпen tor three days апd 1 am verytired. 5. 1 iшagine lюw nшс\1 tl1ey (to Iеагп) :У'

siлce they (to Ье) llere. 6. I dоп 't tblпk your mother expects у он to become а ;,......
driver.- Wlшt s\1e (to say) to you?- Nothiпg. 7. 1 tound 11im waitiпg dowпstairs
at tl1e house door to let me iп. "I'm sorry", l said "I hope you (not to staпd) l1ere
~ ....
loпg". 8. Tl1ere (to Ье) по guests at all siпce 1 left? 9. Не is ал old frieпd. 1 (to
kпo•v) blm for ages. 1О. You (to see) aпythiпg ot· М ary lately? 11. I kпow tl1e
пames ofeveryoпe iп the vilJage. 1 (to live) l1ere all шу life.

Exercise V
LJse tl1e Ргеsепt Perfect Coпtiпuol!s, say what l1asjust Ьееп l1appeпiпg to callse tl1e
state oftl1iпgs expressed iп tl1e followiпg seпteпces.
1. His clotl1es are wet. (to walk iп the raiп) 2. You look upset. (to say terriЬ\e
tl1iпgs abollt ... ) 3. 1'11 soon fiпisl1. (to write а compositioп since morпiпg)
4. Wl1y do уон tl1iпk I ought to give up mywork (to talk to the doctш)? 5. Не is
very tired. (to overwork) 6. The streets are wet. (to raiп) 7. 1 сап 't wгite а Jetter to
ту friend поw. (to write too шапу otiicial papers) 7. Уон seem to kпow а lot
аЬонt уош пeigl1boшs. (to live) 8. Yoнlook vегу pale. (поt to sleep) 9. Не is
аЬонt to get нр. (to rest for а loпg time) 1О. 011, I am really Iюt. (to rш1)

Exercise Vl
Use tl1e Present Perfect or tl1e Present Perfect Coпtiшюus iпstead oftl1e iпfinitives
iп brackets.

1. 1 (to try) all tl1e afterпooп to get а miпнte аlопе witl1 уон. 2. Уон (to wait)
loпg?- Yes, 1 (to staпd) l1ere for more tl1aп ha1faп 1юш. 3. YoLI (to see) Апп
1ately? 4. l (to try) to get а goodjob for тапу moпtl1s rюw. 5. Не (to give) Kate
daпciпg Jessons or lle (to pretend) to? 6. 1 (to thiвk) аЬонt пotl1iпg else siпce
tlleп. 7. Не (to aшuse) hiшselfthat way all his life. 8. 1 (to look) forward to it all
tl1e week. 9. What уон (to do) to yoшselfsiпce r (to Ье) away? 10. I just (to
wasl1) my l1air and 1 (to try) to dry it Ьу tl1e radiator. 11. l (to tl1iпk) оfуош
decisioп since we parted. 12. Не (to сошрlаiп) of paiпs iп 11is cllest апd l1ead
for а loпg tiшe. 13. Sl1e (to пшsе) tl1e llardest patients for four years. 14. 1 am
afraid, l (toproшise) towait for MrWatkiпs. 15.1 (towis\1) tospeak to you ever
siпce уон returпed. 16. Slle (to сlеан) all day, апd I (to cook).

Exercise Vll
Traпslate iпto Eпglisll usiпg tl1e Preseпt Perfect Coпtiiшotis.
1. Я жду своего друга уже час. 2. Сколько времени вы переводите эту
статью? -Я перевожу ее уже 2 часа. 3. Мы повторяем этот материал
вторую неделю. 4. Анна учится в консерватории уже 3 года. 5. Мой друг
работает наддокладом уже неделю. 6. Я пишу это сочинение со вторни­
ка. 7. Я учусь в университете с сентября. 8. Он учит английский язык с
пятого класса. 9. Сколько лет вы изучаете английский нзык? 10. Что ты

163

twtr'Ф W$ tЖ *ett SЧМ.Ш' Ф i!UtW н .Oii.OJ.Ш."""""'"'"'---------------------------


;L
делала все это время? 11. Мы уже много лет проводим исследования n
с

-
=:.::
этой области.
ми. 13.
12. Я давно с интересом слежу за вашими исследования­
Могу я видеть Николая?- Нет, он обедает. -А давно он обедает?
< -Да, он обедает уже полчаса.
~
,е-;:

<"
Exercise Vlll
~'
Translate into Eng1isl1 usiпg t11e Ргеsепt Perfect Coпtiщюus.
1. Те мальчики играют в футбол уже два часа. Я с11ютрю на них с тех пор.
:/;
как сижу здесь. 2. «Вы давно здесь сидите?>> - «Около десяти минут.»

'-'
3. Я думаю о вас со вчерашнего дня. 4. Ник, я ищу вас повсюду уже в
?' течение нескольких часов. 5. Они с утра ждут телефонного звонка от
~
Петра. б. Марина работает в читальном зале уже два часа. 7. Это такал
интересная книга. Я ее читаю с раннего утра. 8. Я знаю, что она пишет
эту статью месяца два или три. 9. Погода очень плохая, так как дождь
идетуже в течение недели. 10. Мы слушали тебя все это время, теперь мы
тоже хотим сказать что-то тебе. 11. Я изучаю английский язык в течение
нескольких лет. 12. Я жду вас уже целый •шс. 13. Здание нового театра
строят уже два месяца. 14. Я все время думаю о вас с тех пор, как я видел
вас последний раз. 15. Мы уже целый час говорим о вас. 1б. Вы такой
усталый. Очевидно, вы сегодня рабопши весь день.

Revision of А/1 the Present Tenses

MEXERCISES
Exercise 1
Put t11e verb iп brackets iпto
t11e Preseпt Coпtiпuoнs апd the Preseпt Simple.
1,
1. Wlю (to knock) at tile door? 2. We (to driпk) соПее every morпiпg. 3. Wlыt
1
this word (to mеап)? 4. It (to raiп), take your umbrella. 4. Don't bot11er me,
l! 11' please, I (to work). 5. Уон (to kпow) tl1at Ьоу over tl1ere? б. Wl1at уон (to do)
Nick)?- I (to draw). 7. You (to see) aпytl1iпg? 8. I (поt to remember) his 11ame
1

'1'1,[

exactly. 9. Ruп dowпstairs, уош sister (to wait) for уон. 10. l (to !юре) уон (to
1'1
kпow) wl1ere l1e (to 1ive). 11. Let's l1ave some tea. It (to get) cl1illy. 12. Уон (to
111 read), dear?- Yes". -WI1at (to Ье) tl1e book аЬонt? -- Doп't talk to llim wllilc
l1e (to read). 13. How loпg it (to take) уон to get to uпiversity, нsна11у? 14. Yoti
(to 1ike) what yoll (to do) поw? 15. Кеер qнiet, we (to listeп) to t11e mнsic.

Exercise 11
Put the verb iп brackets iпto Preseпt
Simple апd the Preseпt Pertect.
1. Апп (to waпt) to see уон. You (поt to Ье) l1ere for ages! 2. I (поt to Ье) to tl1e
zoo before. 3. Yoll kпow Апn? - Yes. How loпg yoll (to kпow) l1er? - l (to
164
know) her forten years. 4. You (to know) tl1e girl v;lюjust (to leave) the slюp?­ -:::t.
Yes, that (to Ье) Неlеп. 5. I (поt to see) your pictures for а loпg time. Сап llook .....,
>
rouпd? 6. You (to Ье) the first guest I (to have) since my retшn. 7. Не (to Ье) iп
tl1e bathroom. Не (to shave) just. 8. As а rule I (to lшve) l1a111 and eggs tor ;....
breakfast, but tl1is time 1 (to order) an omelette. 9. 1 (to Ье) cold iп winter iп
Moscow, as а rule'? - Yes, geпerally it (to Ье), but tl1is winter it ( to Ье)
exceptionally waпn. 10. No wonder he (to look) tired after t\1e strain Lmder
wl1ich he (to Ье) lately. 11. Let me look at you. You (not to c\1ange) mнch.
12. 1 (to come) to ask уон what you (to tl1ink) ofthe sitнatioп.

Exercise 111
Рнt tl1e verb iп brackets iпto the Preseпt Perfect or tl1e Preseпt PerГect ContiпLIOLis.
1. Не (to try) to ореп this Ьох for tl1e last forty minutes Ьнt iп vaiп. 2. lt (to snow)
fortl1e wlюle day: tl1e gardeп is covered wit11 sпow. 3. W\10 (to break) tl1e windovv?
4. H's tl1e best book 1(everto read). 5. 1(to listen) to уон for tl1e past lшlf'aп hощ
but 1 сап't uпderstand wl1at you are speakiпg аЬонt. 6. How loпg уош анпt (to
Ье ill)'? 7. Somebody (to driпk) my coffee! М у ctlp was fнll. 8. l doп't t11iпk l ( ever
to see) her lookiпg so upset before. 9. 1 (to sit) l1ere iп tl1e park for ап hощ апd 1
(to meet) tl1ree frieпds of miпe. 10. How mнch money you (to save) for t\1e
lюlidays? 11. I (to wait for) уон siпce two o'clock. 1lшve somet11iпg шgепt to te\1
уон. 12. She (to take) gнitar lessons this year. 13. This team (to lose) only оп е
game this seasoп. 14. М у pareпts (to work) for this сотраnу since 1995.

Exercise IV
Make Llp а compouпd or comp\ex seпtence нsiпg tl1e giveп claнse iп tl1e Preseпt
Tenses.
Mode! ... sl1e is teacl1iпg literatшe ...
She kпows literatшe so we\1 Ьесанsе sl1e l1as reacl а \ot of books
апd s\1e is teac\1iпg literatшe at sclюol.
Or: She l1as graduated from Pedagogical Uпiversity апd now sl1e
is teacl1iпg literatшe at sclюol.
1.... sl1e and I lшve lived iп tl1e same house ...
2. ... 11е knows two foreigпlaпguages ...
3. .. . wiпter l1as set iп .. .
4. .. . ош team l1as wоп .. .
5 .... tl1ey 11ave Ьееп playiпg teпnis ...
6 .... sl1e always loses her gloves ...
7. .. . he is doing tl1e sums ...
8 .... t11ey lшve been writiпg ап exercise ...
9. .. . tl1e leaves are falling off the trees ...
1О. .. . the weatl1eг lыs clшпged ...
165
:;,с
~-,
~
Exercise V
.-. Replace tl1e infinitives Ьу the Present Simple, the Present Coпtinuoнs, tl1e Preseпt
~

,:;..:
Perfect or tl1e Present Perfect CoпtiпнoLJS.
_/
1. Не (to solve) tl1e crossword pнzzle for halfaп hour апd I1e (to say) l1e (to Ье)
~
аЬонt to finish it as l1e (to tblnk) over the last word. 2. The actors (to rehearse)
"'""
~"-
<: siпce early moгвing; поw tl1ey (to go over) the first sсепе as they (поt to Ье)
~
.''-"
,.., satisfied with their actiпg. 3. Неге you (to Ье) at last! I (to wait) for you for ап
hош. Уон (поt to Ье) aslшmed? 4. She (to speak) overthe telephoпe loпg eпoug\1,
:.,г..

it (to Ье) time for her to stop talkiпg. 5. Уоп (to keep) late lюurs this week tlшt's
·~ wl1y you (to \ook) tired апd worп out. 6. lt (to sпo>v) steadily the whole week
z апd it still (to sпow). lf it (to go оп) like tbls, поЬоdу will Ье аЬlе to reacJ1 tl1c
;..;:..;
camp. 7. At last you (to ореп) tl1e door! I (to riпg) for ап hош at least, it (to
seem) to те. 8. М у watch (to keep) good time ever siпce tl1e first repair. 9. Tl1ey
(to discнss) this questioп ever siпce 1 (to Ье) here апd t11ey (поt to соте) to апу
defiпite сопсlнsiоп yet. 1О. Tl1e secretary (to miss) several words as sl1e (to talk)
all the time. 11. The lectшer (to mentioп) this nаше several times Ьвt 1 caпnot
remember it. I'll write it dowп as sооп as he (to meпtioп) it agaiп. 12. Не (to
work) at the laпgнage all tl1e time апd (to make) great progress.

Exercise Vl
Use the required preseпt tense iпstead oftl1e infiпitives iп brackets.
1. 1 (to Ье) l1ere too loпg. 1 (to waпt) to get away. 2. What he (to do) for а liviпg?
-Не (to siпg) and (to play) tl1e gвitar.- Не (to play) for his friends or jвst for
mопеу? -1 (поt to kпow) ... - Не (to have) а coпcert sооп?- Yes, оп Satшday.
3. Wl1ere уов (to Ье), Tommy? Look at уош face!- Mнmmy, уон always (to
grumble)! 4. Everybody (to Ье) l1ere?- No, Mr Smit\1 (поt to соте) yet. 1 (to
tblпk) I1e (поt to rеtшп) from abroad yet. Не (to arrive) оп Satшday. 5. The old
mап (to sit) iп froпt ofthe fire siпce diппer-time. б. 1 (поt to have) а holiday fог
two years. 7. l (to try) all tl1e afterвooп to get а miпвte аlопе with you. 8. We (to
1

take) two rooms iп DаЬпеу Street апd we (to furпis\1) tl1em поw. 9. "What yotJ
11 '

!
',1'
111 (to write) him about?" she asked lookiпg over my shoнlder. 10. I (to read) the
'i,l'
book you (to hold). 11. You always (to forget) sometblпg. 12. 1 (to grow) too fat.
1
13. Уон (to wait) loпg? - Yes, I (to staпd) here for more thaп l1alf ап hour.
11

14. I (to try) to get agoodjob for mапу moпtl1s Iюw. 15. 1wantyou to нпderstan(i
'11 that everytl1iпg l1e jнst (to say) to you is рше imagiпatioп.
!

Exercise Vll
Translate the senteпces into English usiпg the Present Simple, tl1e Preseпt Con-
tiпнoнs, the Preseпt Perfect or the Preseпt Perfect Сопtiпвонs.
1. Ты понимаешь, что ты наделал?- Ничего особенного. 2. Где же ты был вес
это время? Мы искали тебя повсюду. 3. О чем ты думаешь, Катя? 4. Ты с
ними переписываешься? - Да, конечно. Но что-то давно от них не было

166
писем. - А где они сейчас? 5. Мы работаем вместе уже пятнадцать лет и ~

привыкли пониматьдруг друга. б. Что вы здесь делаете? Разве вы не знаете,


:~
что здесь опасно сидеть? 7. Ты не слушаешь, что я говорю? Что с тобой
случилось? 8. Я хочу поговоритьстобой с тех пор, как ты вернулась домой.
::"~
9. Я думаю о твоем решении с тех пор, как мы расстались. 10. Я жду с
нетерпением твоего письма всю неделю. 11. Я ищу Ника. Вы видели его?
12. Почему ты не носишь новую одежду? 13. Студенты сдают экзамен с
девяти часов утра. 14. Что ты слушаешь?- Мне кажется, я слышу какой-то
странный звук. 15. Неужели ты не понимаешь, что он смеется над тобой?

Exercise Vlll
Traлslate iпto Eпglish usiпg tl1e required preseпt teлse.

1. Дирижер еще не вышел, а оркестранты уже на своих местах и настраи­


вают инструменты. 2. Неужели эта книга все еще у него? Сколько време­
ни он ее читает? 4. Он закончил первую главу диссертации и пишет вто­
рую. Он работает над диссертацией уже 2 года. 5. Они уже приняли
резолюцию по первому вопросу?- Нет. Они все еще спорят. Они обсуж­
дают этот вопрос уже два часа и еще не пришли ни к какому соглаше­

нию. 6. Уже двадцать лет, как я живу в этом городе. 7. Студенты пишут
контрольную работу уже почти два часа. Время подходит к концу, а пока
только двое сдали работы. 8. Художники работают с утра, так как мы
хотим выпустить новый номер журнала еще сегодня вечером. 9. Сергей
приехал?- Да, он здесь уже два дня. 1О. Мы работаем над этой проблемой
уже год. 11. Я пытаюсь связаться с ним в течение долгого времени, но я
вижу, что это бесполезно. 12. Они помирились?- Я не знаю. Я только
знаю, что они не разговаривают в течение нескольких дней. 13. Я рабо­
таю над этим переводам уже десять дней и сделала больше половины.
14. Вы нашли ключ? - Да, нашла. Я нашла его в собственном кармане.

Exercise IX
Traпs1ate iлto Eлglisl1 usiлg
tl1e required present teлse.
1. Сколько времени вы за ни маетесь музыкой? 2. Этот студент изучает ита­
льянский язык самостоятельно. Он занимается итальянским уже в тече­
ние многих месяцев. 3. Что ты слушаешь?- Я слушаю концерт из филар­
монии. 4. Вы, кажется, очень интересуетесь медициной?- Да, я прочел
много книг по медицине. 5. Какой журнал вы сейчас просматриваете?
6. Не входите в комнату, она разговаривает с врачом. 7. Я только что на­
шел ответ на этоттрудный вопрос. 8. Я преподаю в этом университете уже
двадцать лет. 9. Теперь, когда мы проработали столько времени и приобре­
ли достаточный опыт и знания, мы видим, чему нам еще нужно научиться.
10. Как вы написали ваше упражнение? Покажите его мне. 11. Почему вы
открыли окно? В комнате довольно холодно. Лучше закройте его опять.

167
:,:::
The Past Perfect Continuous ( Progressive) Tense
::с

с::
Person 1 lnterrogative Negative
<С: Number Form Form
:?:
2 had (l'd) been Hadlbeenspea~ng? 1had not (hadn't)
<
::L speaking been speaking
'..d Не had not been
Не 1 had been speaking Hadhebeenspea~ng?
::r: speaking
'l)

She 1 had been speaking 1 Had she been speaking? 1 She had not been

speaking
z
~ lt 1 had been speaking 1 Had it been speaking? llt had not been speaking
We had been speaking Had we been speaking? We had not been
speaking
You 1 had been speaking 1 Had you been speaking? 1 You had not been

speaking
They 1 had been speaking 1 Hadtheybeenspeaking? 1 Theyhad not
been speaking

The Past Perfect Continuous is formed with the Past Perfect of the auxiliary verb
to Ье and Participle 1of the notional verb.
The Past Perfect Continuous is used:
1) to denote an action in progress which began before а certain moment in the
past and continued up to а certain period oftime in the past:
S/1e had been living in the country for а fortnight when а letter са те from
her sister.
2) to denote а past action of certain duration which had visiЫe results in the past:
They were wet because they had been wa/king in the rain.
The Past Perfect Continuous is usually used with the prepositions for and since.

MEXERCISES

Exercise 1
Put the verb in brackets into the Past Perfect Continuous.
1. You (to wait) for halfan lюur before tl1e taxi came. 2. 1 (to l1ave а rest) at tl1e
sanatorium for two weeks wl1en tl1e doctor arrived. 3. We (to work) in the gardeп
for some lюurs wheп it began to rain. 4. She (to Iive) in the mouпtains t'or а
moпth wheп а telegram came from her motl1er. 5. We (to walk) for two hoшs
when we saw а lake in tl1e distaпce. 6. 1 (to work) at my Eпglisl1 for about two
hours wl1en my frieпd саше. 7. Ву the time sl1e (to study) Englisl1 Гоr three
168
years. 8. She rose from the bench w\1ere she (to sit) for half an \юur. 9. TI1e
wind which (to Ьlow) lыrder tlыn ever from tl1e south all day, dropped at suпset. ~-

~
1О. They (to walk) quickly and now they are approaching tl1e place. ...:J
::r:
f-<
Exercise 11
Make up seпtences accordiпg to the model.
Model 1 We Ьеgап playing volleyball. After ап lюur it Ьеgап raiпiпg.
We lыd Ьееп playiпg volleyball for an hour wheп it Ьеgап raiпiпg.
1. Tl1e scieпtist worked at tl1e experimeпt. After а year the proЬiem was solved.
The scientist .................... for а year .................... wheп .................... .
2. We packed up our things. After two hours it was time to go to t\1e rai\\vay
station.
We ...................... w\1en it
3. The youпg man worked at tl1e laboratory. After two years l1e decided to eпter
tl1e нniversity.
Tl1e young man ...................... wl1en 11е
4. The members ofthe expeditioп made preparatioпs. After some moпtl1s t\1ey
started for the Nortl1.
The members ....... . when they ..... .

Exercise 111
Answer tl1e questioпs.
Mode/ 1 Did you write а compositioп yesterday? - Yes, 1 did.
How \ong had you Ьееп writing а composition before you weпt for а
walk? (fortwo lюшs)- I lыd been writing а compositioп for two hours.
1. Did it snow yesterday?
How long had it Ьееп snowiпg when you left home? (for 2\юurs)
2. Did you stay at the lюtel when you Jived in Paris?
How long lыd you Ьееп stayiпg at tl1e hotel when you lived in Paris? (for 10 days)
3. Did you study Eпglish before you went to Englaпd?
How loпglыd you been studying Englis\1 before you went to Englaпd? (for а year)
4. Did you watch ТУ yesterday?
How long had you been watching ТУ before 1 саше home? (for an hour)
5. Did your frieпd play chess?
How Jong I1ad he been playing chess before he took part iп the competitioп
(for 3 years)

Exercise IV
Use the Past Perfect Continuous or Past Perfect iп the following sentences.
1. Нег nате was Helen. She (to Ье) а widow for fifteen years and had no
childreп. 2. We talked about what we (to do) siпce we left school. 3. We told
169
~
::;::. them that in our аЬsепсе the garden (to Ье) looked afterby ап old тап wlю (to
С· live) iп tl1e area siпce the war. 4. Now they were floating in the little greeп boat
с:::
нроп the perfectly calm sea iп which they (to swim) lately. 5. Jack was l1alfaп
"::?.< hош Iate and l1e asked what we (to eat) because he wanted to order the same.

::;; 6. Nick said tlшt he (to write) all day and (not to eat) aпythiпg. 7. lt was cokl
<: апd dark in tl1e small room Ьесанsе it (to rain) for five days. 8. I weпt iпto tl1e
::::;
<: kitcl1en. Notl1iпg (to Ье) toнched iп it siпce tl1e morпiпg before. 9. Не said l1e
(поt to write) to те because l1e (to work) оп tl1e пеw play tor some шoпtl1s.
и
1О. It (to freeze) for the Iast few days, Ьнt it (not to snow). 11. I was sше tl1ey (to
~....J

·:; kпow) eacl1 other since tl1e war and поw (to correspoпd) for years. 12. 1 told
2 him I (to Ье) in all eveniпg. I (to wait) to talk with him for an lюur.
""
Exercise V
Traпslate iпto Eпglish нsiпg the required past teпses.

1. Мальчики уже больше двух часов собирали велосипед, когда пришел


отец и сказал, что им придется все снова разобрать, так как они непра­
вильно его собрали. 2. Я уже долго работал, когда пришел мой брат.
3. Дождь шел уже два часа, когда я вышел из дома. 4. Хотя солнце свети­
ло, было еще холодно, так как в течение двух часов шел сильный снег.
5. Она спала уже три часа, когда мы вернулись домой. 6. Его сестра уже
жила там три года, когда началась война. 7. Она работала на заводе без
отдыха в течение долгого времени. 8. Он выглядел очень усталым, когда
я пришел к нему, nотому что он готовился к экзаменам в течение не­

скольких дней. 9. Они пльmи десять дней, когда, наконец, увидели зем­
лю. 10. К
12 часам он уже говорил больше часа; это было оченьдлинное
выступление. 11. Когда я пришел в библиотеку, он работал над докладом
более двух часов. 12. Она работала nолтора часа, когда Ник сказал, что
он больше работать не может.

Exercise Vl
Translate iпto Eпglish using the Past Coпtiпuous or the Past Perfect CoпtiпLIOLIS.
1. Он несколько лет работал в школе, прежде чем стал преподавать в уни­
верситете. 2. Когда я уехала на дачу, мой брат все еше работал.
3. Когда nошел дождь, мы бродили по лесу. 4. Мы долго бродили по лесу,
прежде чем увидели озеро. 5. Они три года жили в Луге, прежде чем пере­
ехали в Санкт-Петербург. 6. Когда разразилась война, они жили в Новго­
роде. 7. Моя сестра жила в Москве уже три года, когда мы приехшш туда.
8. Я просматривал журналы около 2-х часов, nрежде чем нашел нужную
мне статью. 9. Дети спали, когда мы вернулись домой. 1О. Дети уже давно
спали, когда мы вернулись домой. 11. Мы обсуждали новый сборник сти­
хотворений, когда он пришел на собрание нашего литературного кружка.
12. Мы обсуждали новый сборник стихотворений уже более часа, когда он

170
пришел. 13. Моя сестра говорила по телефону, когда я решила лечь спать. L:
14. Она говорила по телефону уже около получаса, когда я легла спать.
"""
Exercise Vll '-<
Tгaпslate iпtoEnglish using the Past Contiпuoнs, tl1e Past Perfect CoпtiпLIOLJS or
the Past Simple.
1. Был вечер. Моя мама читала книгу, а я писал письмо. Вдруг вошел
мамин брат. Мы разговаривали около часа, когда позвонила его жена и
напомнила ему о театре. 2. Что ты делала вчера в это время? -Я писала
доклад в библиотеке. Я писала его час, когда в библиотеку пришли 1\ЮИ
друзья.- Когда ты вернулась домой?- Поздно. 3. С кем ты вчера разrооа­
ривал, когда я встретил тебя на улице? - С другом. Он два дня назад при­
ехал из Киева. Мы говорили уже 15 минут, когда ты вчера нас увидел.
4. Что ты делал вчера в 10 часов утра?- Я был в больнице. Я осматривал
больных. Я осматривал их уже час, когда приехал профессор Сергеев.

Revision of А/1 the Past Tenses

51 EXERCISES
Exercise 1
Use the Past Simple or tl1e Past Coпtinuous iпstead ofthe iпtinitives iп brackets.
1. Аrонпd нs people (to talk) Germaп, ltaliaп апd Eпglisl1. 2. Robeгt (to talk)
to some of tl1e otheг gнests wheп Nick (to соте iп). 3. MichaeJ (to Jook)
constaпtly at 11is watcl1. 4. All night loпg the stars (to glitter).
5. Lizzie (to eat) busily and (поt to raise) l1er l1ead. б. I (to see) Ireпe yesterday
at the Stores: she апd Mr Smith (to have) а пiсе little cl1at.
7. А few minнtes later he (to hнrry) througl1 tlle streets to tlle Ьнs stop.
8. She (to try) to openherbag as slle (to walk) а1опg tlle corridor, talkiпg. 9. Не
(to driпk) some oft11e wiпe апd (to eat) several pieces ofbread w11i!e lle (to wait)
for his dinпer to соте нр. 1О. Aпdrew (to write) а 1etter wheп tl1e bell (to гiпg)
апd preseпtly а slюrt mап (to eпter). А dog (to follow) 11im. Tl1ere (to Ье)
sileпce while tlle mап (to look) Aпdrew нр апd down. 11. Pete, turпiлg from
the door, пoticed that l1e (to staпd) uроп а letter wllich (to lie) оп tl1e mat.
12. Tl1ey (to move) iпto the shelter. The raiп (to соте) down swiftly.

Exercise 11
Use tl1e Past Simple or tl1e Past Perfect iлstead oftl1e iлfiпitives iп brackets.
1. Jt (to Ье) perfectly tше tlыt !1е never (to take) tl1e slig11test iпterest iп Ilis clothes.
2. At о псе He1en (to smile) at me; yet I (to see) that it (to Ье) ап eftort for her to
171
У:
~
clear l1er mind oГwhat (to go) before. 3. Не (to learп) already tlшt wl1eп l1e (to
'""'
~ waпt) aпythiпg it was better to ask 11is mot\1er first. 4. Не (ноt to l)e) well for а Геw
:;.:=,
weeks tlшt's why he (поt to meet) her. 5. lлqLiiring tor l1er at tea-time \те (to lеагп)
;:С

< that she (to Ье онt) iп the саг siпce two. 6. Не (to wake) early tlтat morniпg
...?..:
possiЬly becaLise the ringiпg oftlтe fire alarm (to Ье) in his miпd most oГthe night.
:?:
·< 7. Their frieпds (to call) for tl1em before tl1ey (to Ье) ready. 8. Не (to recogпize)
с.:;
me опlу after 1 (to recoJlect) l1im wl1ere we (to meet) \vit.h lliш. 9. It vvas tеп
o'clock iв tl1e eveпiвg Ьнt tl1e twiligl1t (not to соте) yet. 1О. Не (to соте) iпt.o tl1e
room and (to say) tl1at !те (to win) tl1e competitioпs. 11. Не said tlтat !те ( поt to
·-
7
-~
remember) тапу details iп tl1e пovel as he (to read) it iвl1is cllikil10od. 12. Т11еу
(to complete) all tl1e preparatioпs for tl1e meetiпg Ьу 4 o'clock.
~

Exercise 111
Use tl1e Past Simple, the Past Perfect о г tl1e Past Perfect ContiпuotJs iпstead oftlтe
iпfiпitives iп brackets.

1. Wl1eп we (to leave) lюme, tl1e raiп already (to stop). 2. Не (to sit) iпl1is room
witl1 two letteгs Ьеfоге him, оп е tl1at l1ejust (to write) to М icl1ael, авd оп е tlшt l1e
just (to receive) froml1im. 3. Not а word (to Ье spokeп) till tl1ey (to Ье) Ollt iп tlle
lапе, апd (to walk) fош or five yards, wl1eп Апп, wl1o (to look) straigl1t Ьеtоге l1er
all t11e wllile, (to tuгп) agaiп to walk back. 4. 1 (to ask) to tellme tlle way to t\1e
British М нsенm, апd 1 (to explaiп) tlшt 1 (to \ook) for it for tl1e last two \юшs.
5. Tl1e bell (to stop) riпgiпg апd tiley (to guess) tilat Betty (to go away). 6. Не (to
tlliпk) 11е (to stay) iп tl1e water for а Ioпg time. 7. SI1e (to realize) tl1at sl1e ( поt to
I1ear) l1er l<шgh like tlтat siпce before l1er illпess. 8. All\1er aпger ( to go), t\1e last
traces oП1ysteria (to disappear). Нег miпd (to Ье) clear as it (поt to Ье) clear iп
mапу weeks. 9. Tl1e doctor (to examiпe) Jaпe's t\1roat. "Not\1iпg wrong tl1ere".
Не (to attend) iler before апd it always (to Ье) t\1e same, wheпeveг l1e (to соте)
iпto tile rоош, lтis easy maпner (to give) \1er comfort. 1О. Sнddeпly wl1eп l1e (to
work) six moпtl1s l1is wife (to fall) i1l апd (to write) askiпg llim to соте.

Exercise IV
Make up а compoLiпd or сошр\ех sепtепсе usiпg tl1e giveп clause iп tl1e past teпses.
Model 1 ... уон left tile towп ...
Не 11ad been working at t\1e laboratory for severalшoпtl1s Ьу October
Iast апd wl1e11 yoнleft the towп l1e was still workiпg tl1ere.
Or: I lшd lleard tl1e пews before you leГt tlтe towп, bLJt 1 colllclп't \et
уон kпow.

1. . .. sl1e l1ad Ьееп speakiпg over tl1e telep\1oпe ...


2. . .. 11е was readiпg а newspaper .. .
3. . .. tl1ey did поt aпswer tl1e letter .. .
4. . .. ile llad coпsLilted tl1e doctor .. .

172
5.... tl1e s11ip was nearing Jand .. . :У

6. ... tl1ey саше to an agreemeпt .. . ...


7. ... he missed the traiп ...
8.... we had met ...
9.... it lыd Ьееп sпowiпg ...
.--
10 .... tl1ey l1ad lost t11eiг way ...

Exercise V
Tгaпslate iпto Eпglisl1 usiпg tl1e Past Simp!e, the Past Coпtiпuous, tl1e Past Per-
fect апd tl1e Past Peгfect Contimюus.

1. Когда я пришел,доктор был занят: он осматривал больного. Я сначала


собирался обратиться к другому врачу, но затем решил подождать. Я ждал
около 20 минут, прежде чем вошел в кабинет. Кдвум часамдоктор осмот­
рел меня и разрешил на следующий день идти на работу. 2. Дети катал ись
на коньках, когда мать позвала их домой. Хотя они гуляли с самого утра,
им не хотелось идти домой. Но мать сказала, что они слишком долго
были на улице. После того как они отдохнули дома и пообедшти, они сно­
ва пошли на каток. 3. Денни работал у себя в кабинете до восьми часов.
Потом они поужинали и почти до полуночи говорили о своих планах на
будущее. 4. Анна, которая жила в соседнем доме и, которая осталась с
детьми, когда ее сестра уехала, сидела в гостиной и что-то шила.

Exercise Vl
Tгaпslate iпto English using tl1e reqLJired past teпses.
1. Это случилось так давно, что я забыла об этом. 2. Стояла поздняя осень.
Почти вселистьяуже опали, и последние птицыулетели на юс 3. Едватоль­
ко она начала говорить об этом, как неожиданно заплакала. 4. Она выклю­
чила свет и сиделаn полной темноте. 5. Он уеха.п год тому назад и с тех пор не
написал нам ни одного письма. 6. Письмо пришло десять минут спустн
после того, как ты уехала. 7. Она взглянула на часы. Было уже около шпи.
Она прождала более получаса. 8. Тучи собирались целый день, и наконец
полил дождь. 9. Том, который громко смеялся, вдруг замолчал. 1О. Не отье­
хали они и трех километров, как погода изменилась. 11. Почему вы так
поздно вернулись домой вчера? 12. Когда вы были здесь в последний раз?

Exercise Vll
Traпslate iпto Eпglish using tl1e гeqLJired past teпses.
1. Вчера, когда я пришла в кино, мои друзья ждали там уже 15 минут.
2. Когда мы приехали на практику, студенты нашей групnы работали там
уже неделю. 3. Придя в театр, Миша обнаружил, что сnектакль начался и
что актеры играют на сцене уже несколько минут. 4. Петр жил в универси­
тетском общежитии почти полгода, когда его двоюродный брат Н и кол ай

173
:'L приехал навестить его. 5. После того как доктор ушел, она еще долго сиде­
ла у кроватки девочки. б. За стеной кто-то смеялся. Смех был такой весе­
лый, какою она давно не слыtшша. 7. К счастью, он не заметил ее крас­
о<
·< ных глаз и не догащшся, что она плак::1ла. 8. Не успела она добежать до
7f станции метро, как хлынул дождь. 9. Он позвонилс1етверть часа то111у на­
::2
< зад и сказал, что выезжает. 1О. Мы выехали рано утром, надеясь добраться
::L
до станции к полудню. Но не успели мы проехатьдва километра, как у нас

::с
лопнула шина (tyre), и мы потратили около часа на ее починку.
'l;

Exercise Vlll
/. Translate iпto Eпglisl1 using tl1e required past teпses.
1. Когда я пришел, она уже вернулась и сидела у камина. 2. Часы только
что пробили семь, когда я проснулся. 3. Едва успели мы убрать комнату,
как пришли гости. 4. Он не знал, какдолго он шел, но было уже поздно.
5. Ветер, дувший с самого утра, прекратился, и стало опять тепло. 6. Про­
шлым летом н посетил места, где жил в детстве. 7. Вы пообедали прежде
чем пошли в университет? 8. Я встретил своего друга, когда он шел из
университета. 9. Мы прожили в деревне два месяца, когда моя сестра при­
ехала навестить нас. 1О. Мы ехали часа два, когда, наконец, увидели озе­
ро. 11. Я бродил по лесу около часа, когда я увидел маленький домик.
12. Дом стоял среди деревьев, и тропинка, по которой н шел, вела к нему.

The Future Perfect Continuous ( Progressive) Tense


Person Affirmative 1 lnterrogative Negative
Number Form Form Form

1 shall/will (1'11) have Shall/willl have 1will not (won't)/ shall not
Ьееп speakiпg been speaking? (shan 't) have been speakir g
Не will have been Willhehave Не will not have been
speaking been speaking? speaking
She willl1ave been Willshe have She will not have been
speaking been speaking? speaking
lt will have been Will it have been lt will not have been
speaking speaking? speakir1g
We shalljwill have Shall/will we have We shall/will not have Ьее n
been speaking been speaking? speaking
You will have been Will you have You will not have been
speaking been speaking? speaking
They willhavebeen Will they have Theywill not have been
speaking been speaking? speaking

11 174
The Future Perfect Continuous denotes an action which begins before а certain
moment of time in the future and goes on up to that moment or into it:
;"""
1wil/ have been living in this house for five years next February. U..J
The Future Perfect Continuous is used with the following time expressions: ,...
Ьу ... for:
Ву next year he wilf have been working here for two years.
The Future Perfect Continuous is used rather seldom.

~EXERCISES
Exercise 1
Рпtthe verb in brackets iпto tl1e Fпture Peгfect Coпtinuolls.

1. At tl1ree o'clock l (to wгite) for six hoшs. 2. 1 (to work) tor tlнee 110Lirs Ьу
five o'clock toшorrow. 3. Не (to listeп iп) for some time Ьеfоге you соте
hоше. 4. We (to traveJ) Ьу sea for seveгal 110L1ГS already Ьу tl1is tiшe tошопоw.
5. Sl1e (to skate) for шоrе tl1a11 an houг wl1eп you саше home. 6. Tl1ey (to
play) the Tclшikovsky Рiапо Coпcerto for about tweпty miппtes Ьу tl1e tiшe
1 get lюme. 7. Не (to woгk) at tl1is plant for tweпty years Ьу tl1e first of June.
8. Wheп you returп home at five o'clock I (to work) tor seveп hoшs. 9. Ву
next Мау l (to live) hereforten years. 10. Howloпgyoп (towrite) а testbefore
you give it to tl1e teacl1er?

Exercise 11
Traпslate iпto Eпglisl1.

1. Я начну работать в десять часов утра. Когда вы вернетесь домой в


пять часов, я буду уже работать семь часов. 2. На будущий год к
этому времени они будут изучать английский язык уже четыре года.
3. Мы уже будем обедать полчаса, когда вы заедете за нами. 4. Он
будет писать статью уже два часа, когда ты придешь. 5. Я буду учить
новые слова уже час, когда ты позвонишь :мне. 6. На будущий год к
этому времени она уже будет работать над диссертацией два года.
7. К следующему сентябрю она будет преподавать французский язык
уже десять лет. 8. Я буду играть на скрипке шесть лет, когда мне
будет двадцать один год. 9. В будущем июне будет шесть месяцев,
как я живу в этом доме. 1О. К 1 декабря будет уже 15 лет, как я рабо­
таю здесь.

175

!!! •• •......... ,_,~~--·mщмнь.... rн . ---·--~---------


::4
~ Revision of А/1 the Future Tenses
~

;:::: rYf EXERCISES


<
г.
::;? Exercise 1
~
..-:~
Use tl1e correct tenses: Future Siшple, Future Continuoнs апd Fнture Pertect .
\!)
А: (уон- to соте) for а picnic witl1 те toтorrow, Kate?
~
--~
~./"':
К: Yes.
А: If l саше to уош house at 7, (you- to l1ave) уош breakfast already?
с
К: No, I (probaЬiy still- to eat). And ту parents (still- to sleep) so don't
z
~ шаkе а noise.
А: All rigl1t, 1 (to саше) at 7.15 апd I (not to make) апу пoise.
К: Good. Where (you- to take) те?
А: То Zvenigorod. We (to walk) throнgl1 tl1e woods and up tl1e hill, апd Ьу 1
o'clock we (to Ьесоше) very lшngry, so we (to eat) our sandwicl1es tl1en. If
we are lucky, the clouds '.Vl1ich are iн tl1e sky ноw (to disappear) Ьу t11e11
and the suн (to shiнe ).
К: Yes, ifthe weather is good, we (to l1ave) а lovely tiтe.
А: Do you kнow, I have already Ьееп to Zvenigorod 24 times, so aftertoшorrow,
I (to Ье) tl1ere 25 times!
К: That (to Ье) fine. At what time (we- to соте) l1ome?
А: Five.
К: Tl1at's good. Му motl1er (already to fiнisl1) her housework Ьу tl1eп, and
sl1e (probaЬiy to listeн) to the radio, but ту fatl1er (still - to work) iн his
office.
А: М у parents (to returн) froт the сiнеша bytl1en and (to wait) for ше to l1ave
sнpper witl1 them.

Exercise 11
Put the verb iн brackets iнto tl1e Future Simple, the Future Coнtiнuous апd the
Preseпt Simple.

1. We (to саше) at 5 o'clock.- Good, 1 (to wait) for you. 2. When l (to get)
home, ту dog (to sit) at the door waiting for ше. 3. lt (to Ье) the middle of
Juнe. They (to соте) soon. 4. lfyou (to want) to see us, соте to Tom's on
Suпday. We (to wait) for you there at midday. 5. At this time next week tl1ey
(to sit) in tl1e traiп оп tl1eir way to Moscow. 6. Don't leave, we (to lшve)
supper in twenty шiпutes. 7. Tl1ey (to have) Englisl1 from пine to tен iп tl1is
room. Don't let аnуопе disturb them tl1en. 8. 1 (to wait) for you wheп you
(to саше). 9. 1 (to call) for her at eight. - No, doп't, she still (to have)
breakfast theп. 1О. It's begiппiпg to get dark, the street lights (to go) on iп а
few miпutes.

176
Exercise 111 :0::
Use the reqнired future tense and the Present Siшple. :..:.;
;;,..
1. We (to work) hard this tiшe toшorrow. 2. Не (to pass) his examiпatioпs
·~

before you (to returп) froш Moscow. 3. They (to learn) Spaпis\1 for ten тoпths ~

:-
Ьу the first ofJuly. 4. The expeditioп (to leave) fortl1e Nort11 Ьу April. 5. She (to
take) а тusic lesson at this tiтe toтorrow. 6. Ву 6 o'clock she (to take) her
lessoп. 7. She (to take) two lessoпs this week. 8. At 5.30 sl1e (to take) l1er lesson
for forty тinнtes. 9. They (to build) а пеw tl1eatre iп OLJr street.. 1О. Tl1ey (to
bнild) it wheп you (to Ье) iп tl1e coнntry in suштer.

Exercise IV
Put the verb in brackets into the Preseпt Siтple, t11e Futшe Siтple апd tl1e Future
Perfect.
1. 1 (to sнppose) when 1 (to соте) backin two years' time tl1ey (to build) all tl1ese
new hoнses. 2. Уон l1ave jнst тissed the last traiп. - Never mind, 1 (to walk).
3. Wl1eп we (to take) our exams we (to Jшve) а lюliday. 4. Уон (know) tl1e way to
t\1e Mariinsky Tl1eatre? - No. - Тhеп 1 (to slюw) уон. 5. Ву tl1e tiтe уон (to
finisl1) cookiпg tl1ey (to do) t11eir work. 6. Ву tl1e tiшe 11е (to соте) tl1ey (to go ).
7. I still (to Ье) l1ere пехt sнmmerbнt Тош (to leave ). 8. 1 hope it (to stop) snowiпg
Ьу tomorrow morning. 9. Ifyoн (to tblпk) it over you (to see) I am rigl1t. 1О. 1'm
goiпg to Hyde Parkto hearthe people makingspeecl1es.- You (to Ье) late. Bythe
епd ofthe day t11ey (to fiпish) their speeches and everybody (to go) !юте.

Exercise V
Translate the fo11owiпg seпteпces iпto Englis\1 giviпg special atteпtioп to tl1e fLJtшe tenses.
1. Давно ваш брат учится в медицинском университете? - В июне уже
будет пять лет, как он там учится. А к июлю следующего года он уже
закончит университет и будет работать врачом уже около шести меся­
цев. 2. В будущем году, когда профессор уйдет на пенсию, будет 46 лет,
как он проработает в университете. 3. Весной уже будет десять лет, как
мы учимся в этой школе. К маю мы закончим занятия и начнем сдавать
экзамены. 4. Он отлично играет в волейбол. -Ничего удивительного. В
мае будет пять лет, как он играет. 5. Вы знаете, в следующем месяце будет
25 лет, как наша семья живет в этом доме. -Да, значит, будет 25 лет, как
мы соседи. 6. Ты скоро сделаешь уроки? Ведь через десять минут уже
будет три часа, как ты пишешь.- Не беспокойся. К тому времени, когда
начнут показывать матч по телевизору, я уже сделаю все уроки.

Exercise Vl
Traпslate
the text iпto Eпglish giviпg special attentioп to tl1e future teпses.

Родители Коли навестят своего сына в санатории. К тому времени, ког­


да они приедут туда, он уже позавтракает и будет, вероятно, играть в

177
:L
~
волейбол. Сначала они поговорят с врачом. К этому времени Коля уже
'-"
с,
кончит играть в волейбол и будет готов провести с родителями целый
""::::: день. Они будут гулять в лесу, а в 2 часа Коля вернется в санаторий к
< обеду. К трем часам все уже пообедают. Потом ребнта немного отдохнут.
2: К тому времени, как Коля проснетсн, его родители уже выкупаютсн в
~
< реке и наберут ягод. Колн проводит родителей на станцию. Они уверены,
-- что Коля отдохнет хорошо и, когда он вернетсн домой, он будет здоро­
:r: вым, загорелым и посвежевшим.
,:r;,

:z
w

The Sequence of Tenses


The sequence of tenses is а dependence of the tense form of the predicate of а
subordinate clause on the tense form of the predicate of its main clause. The rule
mainly concern object clauses. The rules are as follows:
1. lf the verb in the main clause is in the present or future tense the verb in the
subordinate clause may Ье in anytense (according to the sense).
1know that he always makes mistakes in spel/ing.
1know that l1e made а mistake.
1know that he has made two bad mistakes in his dictation.
1know that he wi/1 make mistakes in the use of tenses.
2. lfthe verb in the main clause is in the past tense, the verb in the subordinate
clauses must also Ье in one of the past tenses.
а) lf the actions in the main and in the subordinate clauses take place at the
same time the Past Simple orthe PastContinuous is used.
1thought that you corresponded with your penfriends regularly.
1supposed that she was playing the piano in the next room.
Ь) lf the action of the subordinate clause took place before the action of the
main clause, the Past Perfect orthe Past Perfect Continuous is used in the
subordinate clause.
1thought that the young тап had worked as а teacher in that towп.
1imagined that the students had been travel/ing bytrain.
с) lf the action ofthe subordinate clause follows the action ofthe main clause
the Future in the Past is used in the subordinate clause.
Не knew she wou/d read the book the next weekend.
Remember how the tenses are changed according to the rule of the sequence of
tenses.

178
'/:
Present Simple с::> PastSimple 'с

v:
lwork ~ lworked z
PresentContinuous с::> Past Continuous
Не is working ~ Неwas working --
,-
~

Present Perfect с::> Past Perfect


-._,
1have worked ~ 1hadworked
Z-
PastSimple с::> Past Perfect ( or stays the same) -
: :,
lworked ~ 1had workedjworked о
;_,.:

Past Continuous с::> Past Perfect Continuous :1]

1was working ~ 1had been working --


;:...j
Past Perfect с::> does not change
1hadworked
Future Simple с::> Future in the Past
will ~ would
can ~ could
may ~ might
must ~ must or had to

The rules of the sequence of tenses may not Ье observed in the following cases:
1) where the subordinate clause describes а general truth, or something which
the speaker thinks to Ье one.
The other day 1read in а book that everything a/ive consists тostly of water.
2) where the verb ofthe subordinate clause is one ofthe modal verbs having no
past tense forms.
She said 1тust соте at о псе.
Не said 1needn 't try it again.
3) when the subordinate clause is an attributive one. Then its verb may Ье in any
tense (according to the sense).
Yesterday 1saw the тап who wi/1 deliver us fectures in cheтistry.
4) when the action ofthe subordinate clause refers to а definite past moment (in
1935, two years ago, when he rang me up ).
Не told те that his youngest son was born in 1950.

[Й EXERCISES
Exercise 1
Say whether t11e actioп oftl1c object clause precedes, follows or is sirnultaneous
witl1 the actioп of tl1e priпcipal clause iп the followiпg senteпces.
1. Не asked ше ifi was goiпg to study at нniversity. 2. She said tl1at sl1e lшd met
l1ег frieпd оп J1erway to sclюol. 3. She asked if I woнld corne to tJ:1e сопfеrепсе.

179
'"""·· ' ===м

~
~
4. Не made sше tlшt tl1e cl1ild was providcd lor. 5. Т11еу l1earcJ tl1at l1c would Ье
,..._
~

quite well again. 6. Sl1e kпc\V it woнld l1арреп оле day. 7. Не dicJ поt kJIO\\' what
С{~
l1e was talkiпg аЬонt. S. l wrote апd said I \Vas comiпg. 9. l replied tlшt 1 \Vas vсгу
е::
< weJI, апd tl1at 1hoped sl1e was the same. 1О. P~te telep1юпed lrom tt1e of1ice to say
~
tl1at he l1ad agreed to our pюposal. 11. l t was str::шge tl1at sl1e didп 't speak to yoLl.
~
<
е:: Exercise 11
о
Make t11e actions iп the followiпg object clauses simLtltaпeoLts with tl1ose oГtl1eir
=
-
ifJ principal claнses.
....J
:; 1. I was surprised you (to kпow) my telephone пumber. 2. Sl1e саппоt
z uпderstand what l1e (to do) iп tl1e room. 3. 1could поt remcmbcг \vlыt l1e (to
"'" look) like. 4. Sооп l1e will Ье askiпg ifall tl1e doors (to Ье) Jocked tor tl1e пig!Jt.
5. We saw 111at tl1e lectLirer (to соте). 6. Everybody kпew tl1at l1e (to atteпd)
eveпing c1asses. 7. Father said l1e (to work) 11ard the \vlю1e day. 8. I was sше tl1at
he (to wait) for me iп the library. 9. Не admitted that he (to speak) Freпcl1 very
well. 1О. Не asked me wl1ere my brotl1er (to work).

Exercise 111
Make tl1e actioпs iп tl1e folJowiпg object clauses precede tlюse oftl1eiгpriпcipal clal!ses.
1. Не said that he (to ask) permissioп to go lюme earlier. 2. Nobody kпew
where he (to speпd) 11is l1olidays. 3. r was sше tlшt l1e (to leave) Moscow.
4. They iпformed нs tl1at tl1ey (to seлd) tl1e books Ьу parcel post. 5. Не said tl1at
l1e (to go) to tl1e tl1eatre tlle day before. 6. Оп е day I '11 tell yoll \VI1y 1 пever (to
marгy). 7. 1 woпdered wl1at sl1e (to do) tl1ere so late at пigllt. 8. I didп 't kпow
wl1at (to go) wrong bet\V'eeп tl1em. 9. She was glad I (to соте) early.
10. I thoL1gl1t tllat l1e (to graduate) from tl1e Llпiversity two years before.

Exercise IV
Make the actioпs iп tl1e followiпg object clal!ses follow tlюse oftl1eiг priпcipal claнses.
1. Не decided tllat 11е (to go) to Lопdоп as sооп as possiЬJe. 2. Tl1ey said tl1ey (to
work) seveп lюurs а day. 3. Н е prom ised tlыt l1e (to give) а lectшe i 11 пеаг
futшe. 4. Did tl1ey decide that tl1ey (to Jeave) for Paгis? 5. TJ1ey woпderecl if11e
(to соше) back. 6. lt is impossible tlшt they (to лшkе) апу coпsideraЬle progгess
iп so slюrt а time. 7. I t!Jiпk yoll (to stay) iп towп tor а nig1lt at least. 8. Веtоге
leaviпg tl1e lюLJse, sl1e told 11er motl1er sJ1e (to woгk) iп tlle !1ospital tllat
afterпooп. 9. I scпt tl1em а telegram to say 1 (to go) to Епg1апd апd tlшt I (to
write). 10. It was нпderstood tl1at he (to iпvite) L!S to IL!пch оп Satшday.

Exercise V
Use the required teпse-aspect. forшs in tl1e followiпg seпteпces, observiпg tl1e ГLJies
oft11e sequeпce oftenses.
1. Не 11asteпed back home in tl1e hope tlшt the gllests (поt to go) all yet.
180
/,
2. 1doп't tl1iпk 1ever (to see) you before. 3. She felt tlыt l1er frieпd (поt to want)
to distшb her. 4. Не teleplюned his wite to the office to say t\1at her brotl1er (to ',/';
z
return) troт abroad. 5. An old frieпd raпg нр to ask her brotl1er ifl1e (to have) ""'
~
а good tiтe iп the USA. 6. Sl1e kпew that l1e (to Ье worried) Ьу the Jetter. 7. Не 1.:.
kпew tlыt l1is тother (to speak) to tl1e teac\1er. 8. Tl1e qнestioп was why l1e (to Q

do) it at all. 9. Sl1e coнldп't нпderstand w\1y l1e (to tell) her sнcll а lie. 10. Slle \..,_,;

said that l1er sisteг (to go) to Wasl1iпgtoп too. z


~

:~
(;i
Exercise Vl с.,;

ел
Use tl1e гequired teпse-aspect foпns iп the following seпteпces, observiпg tl1e rules L:..;
oftl1e sеqнепсе ofteпses. ::r:
i-
1. I tlюllght that уон ( to arrive) at sоте decisioп. 2. Не believed tl1at а fiпe
memory (to Ье) abso1lltely пecessary for tl1at work. 3. 1 did поt know ifyoLI (to
арр\у) for tllis job. 4. Не promised tlыt l1e (to give) а lecture iп the nearest
flltшe. 5. I did поt kпow how ту bag (to disappear). 6. Tl1e teacl1er said lle (to
call оп) the stlldents iп alplыbetical order. 7. Did s\1e say tllat tl1ere (to Ье) а Jot
ofтistakes iп уош compositioп? 8. Did s\1e fiпd out that he (to соте) late at
пigl1t? 9. Sl1e asked те ifl (to get on) well witl1 my classmates. 10. 1 was sure
tlыt his brotl1er (to go) !юте. 11. Did they decide that they (to leave) for Moscow?
12. Sl1e didп't kno\v wl1y sl1e (to iпveпt) sнddeпly tl1e story.

Exercise Vll
Translate the followiпg into Eпg\is\1 observiпg tl1e rнles oftl1e sеqнепсе ofteпses.

1. Я был уверен, что он уже жалеет, что был невежлив с ней. 2. Он еще не
знал, что будет делать в Нью-Йорке. 3. Я был уверен, что вы дадите мне
телеграмму, когда приедете в Москву. 4. Вы знали, что я ее жду вечером?
5. Мы еще не решили, кто пойдет на конференцию. 6. Все полагали, что
у негоестьбратьн и сестры. 7. Он ответил, что он еще не обедал. 8. Елена
не была уверена, что она подготовится к докладу завтра. 9. Учитель спро­
сил, кто хочет отвечать. 10. Ему сказали, что все студенты пошли в зал.
11. Кто-то спросил, кто будет жить с ним в этой комнате.

Exercise Vlll
Traпslate the followiпg iпto Eпglisl1 observing tl1e гules ofthe sequeпce ofteпses.

1. Я не заметила, что идет снег. 2. Я не знала, что снег идет с самого утра.
3. Он надеялся, что погода будет хорошая. 4. Она не знала, что в Англи.и
зимой редко идет снег. 5. Я знала, что в Африке температура почти ни­
когда не бывает ниже нуля. 6. Нам сказали, что в Африке выпал снег.
7. Я была уверена, что вы пойдете на эту выставку. 8. Я думала, что вам
понравится эта выставка картин. 9. Я не слышала, что говорил экскур­
совод, когда мы вошли в зал. 10. Она сказала, что провела в музее около

181
:":
,.... трех часов. 11. Она сказала, что все это время она осматривала коллек­

Q цию старинных монет. 12. Я была уверена, что она снова пойдет в музей,
CQ
как только у нее будет свободное время.
с::
<
2: Exercise IX
~
< Traпslate
the foliowiпg iпto Eпglish observiпg tl1e rules ot'the sequeпce ot'teпses.
с::
с.; 1. Я подумал, что он устал, и спросил его, что он делал все это uремя.
2. У меня было впечатление, что он находится там уже некоторое время.
"./";

....J
3. Я кивнул и сказал «да>>, чувствуя, что это именно то, чего ей хочется .
v 4. Я понял, что он ничего не сделает, чтобы помочь мне. 5. У меня было
z подозрение, что она забыла упомянуть, что я жду. б. Он знал, о чем она
~

думает. 7. Я не имею понятия, знает ли она, что ее мать будет здесь.


8. Кстати,Аня знает, что мойбрат приезжает завтра? 9. Он еще не знал, что
будет делать в Нью-Йорке. 10. Он сказал, что читает лекции в универси­
тете. 11. Петр сказал другу, чтоего отецлетом болел. 12. Он сказал, что был
в театре два дня тому назад. 13. Он напомнил, что знает ее с 1995 года.
14. Он повторил, что занимался уже два часа, когда вы ему позвонили.

Exercise Х
Translate tl1e followiпg iпto Englisl1 observing tl1e rвles oftl1e sequeпce ot'teпses.

В прошлом году я встретил одного из студентов нашего курса. Я спросил


его, что он сейчас делает. Он ответил, что учится в аспирантуре. Я спросил
его, когда он поступил и кто его научный руководитель. Он сказал, что
учится в аспирантуре уже год и его научный руководитель заведующий
кафедрой. Меня интересовало, сдал ли он какие-либо экзамены и опуб­
ликованы ли у него статьи по теме диссертации. Он ответил, что одна ста­
тья напечатана, две другие печатаются сейчас, и он надеется, что они бу­
дут напечатаны к концу года. Он добавил, что уже сдал два экзамена по
языку и философии. Он сказал, что давно мечтает о преподавательской
карьере и хочет читать лекции после окончания аспирантуры.

Direct and Reported Speech


Direct Speech is the exact words someone said. We use inverted commas in
Direct Speech.
"/ play footba/1 for ту school team, "he said.
Reported Speech is the exact meaпing ofwhatsomeone said but not the exactwords.
We do not use inverted commas in Reported Speech.
Не said he p/ayed footba/1 for his school team.

182
{/:;_

Cl1anging from Direct into Reported Speech LL.:


t'./)

z.
Statements
..:-.
Direct Speech
·------------------------~-------------------·------~----·-·-------
_t:t~~p~~~_!J Sp~~~h~~-···-~-----­ '"'
~

r:'

"Weworkhard," hesaid. They said (that) theyworked hard. --·z


"We are working hard," they said. They said (that) theywere working hard. li..)
~---,

"We have worked hard," they said. They said (that) theyhad worked hard. СУ
{о)

"Weworked hard," they said. They said (that) they had worked hard. :J:
"We will work l1ard," they said. They said (that) theywould work hard. L..j

"We l1ave been working hard," they said. They said (that) they had been working =
....
hard. ·
"We are going to work harder," they said. They said (tlшt) theywere going to work
t1arder.
"We can work harder," they said. They said (that) they could work harder.
"We may work harder," t11ey said. They said (that) they might work harder.
"We must work harder," they said. They said (that) they had tojmust work
harder.
"We shoLrld wor·k harder," they said. They said (that) they should work harder.
"We ought to work harder," they said. They said (that) they ought to work
harder.

1. Say is used in Direct Speech.lt isalso used in Reported Speech when sayis
not followed Ьу the person the words were spoken to.
"/сап play chess, "he said. Не said he could р/ау chess.
Telf is used in Repor·ted Speech when it is followed Ьу the person the words
were spoken to.
"/сап speak Eпg/ish, "he said to те. Не told те he could speak Eпglish.
11. Persoпal pronouns and possessive adjectives clшnge according to the context.
1said, "/ ат busy. "Не said that he was busy.
"/ wi/1 show you ту пеw dress, "she said. She said she wou/d show те
her пеw dress.
111. The conjuпctioп that is introduced before indirect sentences.
Hesaid(that) he was happy.
Certain words change as follows dependiпg on the context.

!?_!!_~~!_~_е~_~<::'!...~-- ~---~--­ ~_eor!_ed Sp~~~_<::!!__~-­


this that
these those
her·e ther·e
now tl1en

183
-------------------------------------·li<~'""-'flt~&_,.. . ,,,Y,"

:.::
~
nowthat since
'-"
~
'-' today thatday
~
tomorrow the next day, the following day
0::
< yesterday the day before, the previous day
:?. ago before

< lastnight the previous night
0::
(.;; tonight that night
=
и
hence
thus
thence
so
v
z Time words and tenses can change or remain the same depending on the time
\о)

reference. lfthe reported sentence is out of date, the tenses change. lf the reported
sentence is up to date, the tenses can remain the same.
"They are leaving nextweek, 11 he said. Не said theywere leaving the fol/owing
week. (speech reported after they had left- out of date).
"They are leaving next week, 11 he said. Не said they are leaving next week.
(speech reported before they have left- upto date).
When the reporting verb is in the past Reported Speech is formed according to
the rules of the sequence of tenses.
"1/ike music, "she said. She said she liked music.

The Tense Shift when Changing from Direct Speech


to Reported Speech
Direct Speech q Reported Speech
Present Simple q PastSimple
Present Continuous q Past Continuous
Present Perfect q Past Perfect
PastSimple q Past Perfect
Past Continuous q Past Perfect Continuous
Future Simple q Future in the Past
Future Continuous q Future Continuous in the Past
Future Perfect q Future Perfect in the Past

Direct Speech Reported Speech


The student said, "1 do my homework The student said that he did his
in the evening." homework in the evening.
Mother said, "Nick is reading for his Mother said that Nick was reading
exam." for his exam.
184
:r;
Тот said to те, "1 have finished ту Тот told те that he had finished his ~

course paper." course paper. ""z


Тот said to те, "1 finished тycourse Тот told те that he had finished his L:...
'-
paper yesterday. " course paper the day before. ,,
The old таn said, "ltwas snowing hard The old таn said that it had been ::
thisweek." snowing hard thatweek. """
(_;
The girls said, "We will Ье free after The girls said that theywould Ье free after z
:.:..:
the classes." the classes.
Thepupilssaid, "Wewill bewritingour The pupils said that theywould Ье writing ---
СУ
,,,
test paper for two hours." their test paper for two hours. и:

The graduate said, "1 will have finished The graduate said that he would have l..;J

~.J..,

ту report Ьу the end of the week." finished his report Ьу the end of the week.
"'"'
The tenses do not change in Reported Speech when:
а) the reporting verb (said, told etc) is in the Present Siтple, Future Siтple or
Present PerfectTense.
"The post office is near here, "he says. Не says the post office is near
here.
Ь) the speaker expresses general truths, perтanent states and conditions.
"Water turns into ice, "he said. Не said water turns into ice.
с) the speaker is reporting soтething iттediately after it was said (up to date ).
"/ wi/1 ring you up, "he said. Не said he wi/1 ring те up.

1. lf the speaker expresses soтething which is believed to Ье true, the tenses


та у change or reтain unchanged.lf soтething untrue is expressed, then the
tenses definitely change.
"She likes cherries very тuch, "she said. She said she /ikesjliked cherries
veryтuch.
"Latvia is а poor country, "he said. Не said Latvia was а poor country.
The Past Siтple changes into the Past Perfect or сап reтain the sате.
11. When the reported sentence contains а tiтe clause, the tenses do not change.
"When 1was staying in London 1теt Ann twice, "she said.
She said she had тetjтet Ann twice when she was staying in London.
111. The Past Perfect and the Past Continuous usually reтain the sате in Reported
Speech.
"/ was doing ту hoтework whi/e ту тother was cooking, "he said. Не
said he was doing his hoтework while his тother was cooking.
IV. lfthe reported sentence dealswith unreal past, conditional sentences orwishes,
the tenses reтain the sате.
"lf 1were you, 1would apologize, "he said.
Не said that if he were те, he would apologize.

185

'·C,::<!ШIIi
0<:
с
~
Reported Questionsjlndirect Questions
~

~ Direct Questions f=t~P!>_r:!~~-Qu~~!i_()_!'l~_ lndirect Qнestions


~-·-·-·--------------

<
:Е Heaskedme 1 "Didyou Не asked me if/whether 1 Не wonders wt1eH1er 1

enjoythe party?" had enjoyed the party. enjoyed the party.
<
~ Не asked mel "What Не asked me what time it Doyou knowwhattime
"":r:; time is it?" was. it is?
:л Heasked mel "Whatare Не asked me what 1was Hewantsto krюwwhat
-l youdoing?" doing. lamdoing.
с

~ ln reported questions we use the word order of an affirmative seпtence and the
question mark becomes а full stop.
То report а question we use:
а) ask + wh-word (who, where etc) when the cJirect q1Jestion begins with а vJh-
word (а wh-question).
Ь) ask + ifjwhether when the direct question begins with an auxiliary verb ( do,
have, сап etc) (а yesjno question).
Pronouns, possessive adjectives, teпsesl time expressions etc change as in
statements.
Не said, "What are you reading?" Не asked what 1was reading.
Не said, "Do you like sports?" Не asked ifjwhether lliked sports.
We use indirect questions to ask for informationjadvice and reported QLJestions
to report someone else's questioпs, suggestions, offers or requests.
lndirect questions are introduced with:
Could you tell me ... ?, Do you know ... ?1 1wonder ... ?1 1wantto know ... ?1 1doubl ... ? etc.
lf the indirect question starts with:
1wonder ... , 1 wantto know ... 1 1 doubl ... Then the question mark is omitted.

Reported CommandsjRequestsjSuggestions
DirectCommands, Requests, Reported Commands, Requests,
Suggestions ~!!_Q~_~sti~l!_~-~ --~~------------·
"Go to bed," father said to me. Fathertold meto goto bed. (command)
"Don 't make such а noisel" the teacher The teacher ordered not to make SLICh
said. а noise. (command)
"Piease staywith us tonight 1 " she said She asked her to stay with them that
to her. night. (request)
"Сап 1 go for а walk?" he asked. Не asked to go for а walk. (request)
"Letls play hockey1 " they said. They suggested playing hockey.
(suggestion)

186
:../";
То report coттands, requests, suggestions, we use an introductory verb ( to :...;_;

advise, to ask, to beg, to offer, to order, to suggest, to te/1 etc.) followed Ьу а to- и

z
infinitive, an -ing form or а that- clause according to the introductoryverb. L:..J
f-<
When we report а speaker's words we don't just use rules тechanically, we LL.
interpretwhat we hear or read, so we use proper introductoryverbs like the following. с
L.;,J
\,.":
;z_
lntroductory Verbs L~.l

-·'
о
lntroductoryVerb Direct Speech
--~~-~-----------··-
Reported Speech ш
r./),

agree to + inf "Yes, 1'11 go to the shop." Не agreed to go to the ;.Ц

соглашаться shop. :r::


f-<
demand требовать "Tell те the truth." Не deтanded to Ье told
thetruth.
offer предлагать "Would you like те to Не offered to help те.
helpyou?"
promise обещать "1 will riпg you up." Не proтised to ring те up.
refuse отказываться "No, lwon'tcoтetosee Не refused to соте to
you." sеете.

threaten угрожать "1 punishyou." Не threatened to punish


те.

claim утверждать "1 witnessed the criтe." Не claiтed to have


witnessed the criтe.
advise +sb+ to-inf "You should consult а Не advised те to consult
советовать doctor." а doctor.
allow разрешать "You сап take ту Не allowed те to take
dictionary." his dictionary.
аskпросить "Piease open the Не asked те to о реп the
window." window.
beg просить, молять "Piease, please don't hit Не begged те notto hit
thedog." the dog.
command приказывать "Standup." Не coттanded те to
stand up.
encourage "Tell те everything." Не encouraged те to tell
воодушевлять hiт everything.
forbld запрещать "You тustn't соте hоте Не forbade us to соте
late." hoтelate.
instruct обучать "Mix the eggs with the Не instructed те to тiх
flour." the eggs with the flour.
invite sb приглашать "l'd like you to соте to Не invited те (to go) to
theparty." his party.
order приказывать "Don'tforgetto tell Ann." Не ordered те not to
forgetto tell Ann.
187
permit разрешать "You may speak to the Не permittedjallowed me
""
о
с doctor." to speak to the doctor.
со
remind напоминать "Don 't forget to turn the Не rerninded me to turn
х
< gas off." Н1е gas off.
2 urge убеждать "Tryto Ье patient." Не urged me to try to Ье
:г:
< patient.
~
с.;;
warn предупреждать "Don't leave your room." Hewarned me notto
:r:: leave my room.
:/:
wапtхотеть "l'd likeyou to Ье polite." Н е wanted me to Ье polite.
-
:.:; accuse sb of + ing form "You behaved as ifyou Не accused me of
;z обвинять wereguilty." behaving as if 1were guilty.
~
apologize for "l'msorryl offendedyou." Не apologized for
извиняться offeпding me.
admit(to) признавать "Yes, 1waswrong." Не admitted (to) being
wrong.
ЬоаstаЬоиtхвастаться "l'm the bestfootball Не boasted about being
player." the best football player.
comp/ain to sb about "You are always Не complained to me
жаловаться displeased." about my being
displeased.
deny отрицать "No, 1 didn'ttell а lie." Не denied tellingjhaviпg
told а lie.
insiston настаивать "You must buy that coat." Не insisted on my buying
that coat.
sиggеstпредлагать "Let's go to the theatre." Не suggested going to
the theatre.
agree + that-clause "Yes, she's very clever." Не agreed that she was
соглашаться very clever.
claim заявлять "1 saw the accideпt." Не claimed that he had
seen the accident.
complain жаловаться "You don 't think about Не complained that 1
me." didn 't thiпk about him.
deny отрицать "1 have never heard Не denied that he had
about it." ever heard about it.
exclaim восклицать "lt's а problem." Не exclaimed ttшt itwas
aproblem.
explain объяснять "lt's уош mistake." Не explained that itwas
mymistake.
inform sb сообщать "Pete is sick." Не informed that Pete
was sick.
promise обещать "1 won't Ье late." Не promised tt1at he
wouldn't Ье late.

188
explain to sb + how "That' s how 1 got а Не explained to те how V:
i.,.;..l

объяснять prize." he had got а prize. /;


z
wonder wherejw!Jat Не asked himself, "How Hewondered howold l:..!
,....
whyjhow+ clause
интересоваться,
old is she?"
Не asked himself,
shewas.
Не wondered where his
-
~
~

L..
задавать(себе)вопрос "Where is my umbrella?" umbrella was. u
(when the subject of the Не asked t1imself, "Why Не wondered why she 7
ц.;

introductoryverb is not is she so nervous?" was so nervous. -J

с.-~
tl1e same as the subject Не asked himself, "What Не wondered what the
w
in the indirect question) is the right answer?" rig ht answer was. {f)

L.J
wonder + whether + to- Не asked himself, "Shall Не wondered whether to .....
·~

,....
inforclause 1 invite them?" invite them.
wonder wherejwl1atj Не asked himself, Не wondered whether he
how+ to-inf "Where shall 1 go?" should invite them.
(when the subject of the Не asked himself, "What Не wondered where to go.
infiпitive is the same as shall 1 do tirst?" Hewoпdered whatto do
tl1e subject of the verb) Не asked himself, "How first.
shalll tell her?" Hewondered howto tell
her.

fИ' EXERCISES
Exercise 1
TtiП1
tl1e followiпg seпteпces iпto Reported Speecl1.
1. "1 ат busy," l1e said. 2. "1 sa\v the tllт yoti rесоттепdеd last пight," sl1e said
to l1er. 3. "1 didн't agree witl1 you," Lucy said. 4. "I iпvited some boys to ту
Ьirtl1day party," Nick said. 5. "I 'т goiнg to Spain пехt week," 11е said. 6. "Water
freezes below О ос,'' he said. 7. "1 l1ave saved eпough тоnеу to buy а preseпt for
ту motl1er," sl1e said. 8. "I wiiJ соте to see уон tomorrow," Lucy said to те.
9. "Ifl tlпisl1 mywoгk tllis eveпiнg, 1'll go out," he said to l1er. 1О. "I llave brought
some fruit," she said. 11. "I \vill геасl1 tl1e top of t11e motшtaiп,'' t11e traveller
said. 12. "1 saw l1im yesterday but he didп 't recogпize me," sl1e said to l1ег.

Exercise 11
Turп tl1e followiпg seпteпces iпto Reported Speec11.
1. "l woп't go to tl1e party," sl1e said to l1er frieпd. 2. ''Апп11аs gопе away," Тот
said. 3. "1 'т 11uпgry," l1e said to Ьis motl1er. 4. "I'm \Vorkiпg tomorrow," Mike
said. 5. "He's пever writteпlюme before," Kate said to l1er frieпd. 6. "Tl1e sш1
is а Ьig star," tl1e teacl1er explaiлed. 7. "Уош spelliпg l1as become better," tl1e
teacher said. 8. "TI1is place is поt vacant, '' tl1e passeпger said. 9. "I 11ave c11aпged
ту miпd апd 1 iпteпd to speпd tl1e eveпiпg at Jюme," s11e said to me overtl1e

189
-------------""--""····""-·""""""'~"""-' . ----~---~····--·~-·-···~~-·-~···

;:;;.:
с
telep\юne. 1О. "This song is поt popular апу loпger," tl1e уонпg man saicl.
"" 11. "I liked this play very mucl1," ту frieпd said after retнmiпg f'rom tl1e theatre.
.:Q
12. "We will settle tl1is question tomorrow," Mary said to her motl1eг.
::::::
<
:?. Exercise 111
:2:
< Report tl1e followiпg using а proper introdLtctory verb trom tl1e Jist bellow.
::::::
(.;) promise, apologize, remind, complain, deny, inform, ordeг, allmv,foгbld, encoшage
::с
r...r;_ 1. "I !1aven't marked tl1e exam papers," tl1e teacl1er said to ше. 2. "I '11 tidy ttp
when 1 return home," Nick said to his motl1er. 3. "Doп't forget to tlшпk уош
.._,
2 father," sl1e said to her daugl1ter. 4. "You mostп't соте !10ше so late," sl1e
~
said to her sоп. 5. "l'm sorry I forgot to seпd а letter," she said. 6. "Yotl may
take my dictionary," Mike sakl to his brotl1er. 7. "1 didп't 11it l1im," Неlеп
said. 8. "Get offthe grass at опсе," J1e said to tl1e kids. 9. "Try it agaiп," sl1e
said to те. 10. "Уон'rе always forgetting to slшt tl1e dоог," sl1e said to l1er
lшsband.

Exercise IV
Turn tl1e tollowiпg iпto iпdirect qнestions.

1. Where is tl1e post office? (Do you know ... )


2. Wl1at have you dопе? (I woпder ... )
3. Are we goiпg for а walk? (I waпt to kпow ... )
4. Have r made а mistake? (1 dонЬt ... )
5. Wlюse uтbreila is tl1is? (У woпder ... )
6. Does tl1e bus stop l1ere? (Could you tellme ... )
7. Wl1at tiтe is it? (Do you kпow ... )
8. Will you соте with те? (l waпt to know ... )
9. Wl1eп do you l1ave уош diппer? (Could yoll tell те ... )
10. Where does your sister live? (I want to kпow ... )

Exercise V
Change the follo\viпg fгот Direct into Reported Speec\1.
1. "Ореп tl1e parcel, please," s\1e said to те. 2. "Go to your rоот and stay
there," his father said. 3. "Doп't walk оп tl1e grass," sl1e said to нs. 4. "WI1ere
will уон show те your staтps?" Boris asked те. 5. ''Wl1ere did you gatl1er
these plaпts?" the teacher asked. 6. "Do you like t.o read Eпglis\1 books?" Kate
asked те. 7. "What size shoes do you take?" the shop assistant said to him.
8. "Did you рау the electricity Ьill?" he said to his wife. 9. "Do it at опсе,"
father said to the Ьоу. 1О. "Will you diпe with us?" she said to те. 11. "We
bought this thiпg а week ago," тother said to те. 12. "Doп't stay нр reading
too late," ту father said to те. 13. "Let's paiпt the walls Ьlue," ту little sister
said. 14. "I'll phone you at seveп o'clock toпigl1t," she said to hiт.
190
'J:
Exercise Vl ;_;j
:r;
Turn the following sentences into Reported Speech.
L,;,;
1. "She will соте toтorrow," I1e said. 2. "I ат busy," she said to те. 3. "Do
you speak French?" they asked те. 4. "When did you leave !юте yesterday?" -
~

ту father asked те. 5. "Will you соте to see нs tomorrow?" 1 asked her.
6. "I wiJI apply for this post," tl1e doctor said. 7. "Не sl1ares tl1e room witl111is
brotl1er," I answered. 8. "Wait for me at tl1e scl1ool епtrапсе," Jапе said. z
9. "WI1eп did you l1ave Iuпch today?" 11е asked. 10. "Are you ready to listen to
С'
the lecture?" the professor asked the studeпts. 11. "Will you get offtl1e Ьнs at tl1e (..;J
С/)

пехt stop?" she asked me. 12. "I have пever еаtеп sucl1 а dish iп ту life," tl1e i..:.J
Ьоу said. 13. "Уон сап buy а new coat next year," ту father said. :::::
r-·
Exercise Vll
Sнpply tl1e priпcipal clauses нsiпg as predicates verbs best sнited to ti1e seпse of
each sепtепсе.
1. .. ....... (that) he had пever seen tl1e white пights before.
2 .......... (that) he was delighted.
3 .......... (that) he woнld тiss us greatly.
4 .......... (that) they would Ье аЬlе to take the tickets beforehand.
5 .......... (that) he had пever expected to see sнch а beautiful city.
6. .. ....... whether I I1ad ever Ьееп to Kiev.
7. .. ....... ifl slюнld like to go dowп tl1e Yolga with tl1em.
8. .. ....... whetl1er we woнld тееt.
9. .. ....... which 1 preferred: travelliпg Ьу laпd or Ьу sea.
10 .......... what kind ofsport 1 was kееп оп.
11. .. ....... which of tl1e players would win.
12. .. ....... Jюw many records I had got.
13 .......... iп wlыt directioп we iпteпded to go.
14. .. ....... (that) tl1ey woнld have left already Ьу tl1e пехt Sнпdау.
15 .......... (tllat) 1 slюuld have to see them off.
16. .. ....... ifl l1ad ever takeп part iп а boat-race.

Exercise Vlll
Turn the following iпto Reported Speech; нsе differeпt introdнctory verbs.
Model 1 Do уон ever work in the gardeп? Sl1e asked me ifl ever worked in the
gardeп.

1. What sort offlowers do yoнlike?


2. Do you like pansies?
3. Where wШ уон plaпt those lovely poppies?
4. Are these gardeп or wild flowers?
5. Do you water t11e flowers in the morпing or iп the eveпiпg?
6. Are tнlips shade-Joving flowers?
191

....
,,," ------------------------------
~"'"'" """"" ~:<;'!"'="'"-"""""""""""

~ 7. Who has broken the boughs ot'the lime-tree?


~
~
~
8. Why have these flowers opened so soon?
;::::
9. Have you ever seen а cherry orchard in Ьlossom?
::0::
< 10. Will you grow vegetaЬles in your kitcl1en garden next year?
:?:
< Exercise IX
~
·~
Comp!ete tl1e following sentences.
""'
:т: А
(/;

1. She asked if .........


с 2. She wondered wheп .........
z 3. She waпted to know wl1ere ........ .
щ

4. SI1e was iпterested to know how ........ .


5. Sl1e inquired for wi1at purpose ........ .
6. SI1e wou!d like to know lюw much ........ .
в
1. Не told them to .........
2. М у moti1er asked me to ........ .
3. М у brotl1er advised me to ........ .
4. TI1e doctor forbade l1er to ........ .
5. Tl1e guide warned us поt to ........ .
6. Ti1e пurse persuaded the patieпt поt to .........
с
1. .. ....... поt to worry about me.
2. .. ....... to do physical exercises regu!arly.
3 .......... not to go skating on suc11 thin ice.
4. .. ....... to рау more attention to 11is hea!t\1.
5 .......... not to a11ow her cl1ildren to play оп the road.
6 .......... to keep up correspondence witi1\1im.

Modal Verbs in Reported Speech


The forms of some modal verbs change in Reported Speech when the reported
sentence is out of date.
willjshall ~ would
can ~ couldjwould Ье аьtе to
may ~ might
shall ~ should (asking for advice)
would (asking for information)
offer (expressing offers)
must ~ mustjhad to ( oЬiigation)
needn't ~ didn 't need to, didn 't have tojwouldn 't have to

192
:.r;
Would, could, need to, mustn 't, shou/d, might, ought to, had better reтain the ~

J:
sате.
z
,-..
!)irect Speech Reported Speech Li...
/"'

Не said, "1'11 seeyou later." Не said (that) he would see те later. ~..:..;

Не said (that) he could run fast. .,.,


z
Не said, "1 can run fast." Не said (that) he would Ье аЫе to ring
те up the next day.
~

о
;..:...;
Не said, "1 can ring you up toтorrow." Не said (that) he тight see Pete. :1:
Не said, "1 тау see Pete." Не asked how he should repair the tap. [.:_i
~

Не asked how to repair the tap. .....


Не said, "Howshould 1repairthetap?" Не asked when theywould соте back.
Не offered to tidy up the rоот.
Не said, "When shallwe соте back?" Не said (that) 1тustjhad to return the
Не said, "Shalll tidy up the rоот?" book.
Не said, "You тust return the book." Не said (that) 1тust Ье kind.
Не said, "You тust Ье kind." Не said (that) 1should rest тоге.
Не said, "You should rest тоге." Не said (that) 1had better help hiт.
Не said, "You had better help те." Не said (that) 1didn 't need to/1 didn 't
Не said, "You needn'tdo it now." havetodo itthen.
Hesaid, "You needn'tcoтetoтorrow." Не said (that) 1wouldn't have to go tl1e
nextday.

Reporting а Dialogue or а Conversation


ln conversations or dialogues we use stateтents, coттands and questions.
When we report dialogues or conversations, we use: and, as, adding that, and he/
she added that, explaining that, because, but, since, so, and then hejshe wenton
to say, while, then etc or the introductoryverb in the present participle forт.
Exclaтations such as: Oh! Oh dear! We/1! etc are oтitted in Reported Speech.

Direct Speech
-----
Reported Speech
"Oh, thatisaverynicedress!" shesaid. She reтarkedjexclaiтed that it was а
"Where did you buy it?" very nice dress and she asked where
1had bought it.
"lt is so difficult for you," she said. She said itwas so difficultfor те,
"Shalll help you?" offering to help.
"Why don 't you соте over for dinner She invited те to dinner on Friday,
on Friday?" she said. "We could suggesting that we could discuss ту
discuss your рrоЫет then." probleт then.

' 2i 11> 193


~
о ExclamationsjYesjNo Short AnswersjQuestion
о
:::: Tags
=r:
...1: Exclaтations are introduced in Reported Speech with exclaiт, thank, wis/1, say,

""
;; cry out in pain, give an exclaтation of surprisejhorrorjdisgustjdelight, scream
with painjsurprise etc.
<
=r:
;.;:-, The exclaтation тark Ьесотеs а full stop. Exclaтatory words such as Oh!,
:: Еее!, Wow! etc are oтitted in the reported sentence.
'./:.
"Oh dear! l've torn тydress!" ~ She exclaiтed that she had torn her dress.
;,:; Yesjno short answers are expressed in Reported Speech with the subject +а
;--:_
;.:J
proper auxiliary verb or the subject +а proper introductory verb.
"Сап you соте to see те?" he said. - "No, "she said. ~Не asked her if she
cou/d соте to see hiт and said she couldn 't.
or Не asked her if she could соте to see him, but she refused.
Question tags are oтitted in Reported Speech. We can use а proper introductory
verb.
"Не isn 't /ying, is he?" she said. ~ She wondered if he was lying.

Conversational Formulas
Direct Speech ~~ported Speech

"Pete," said Kate, "тeetтyfriend, Kate introduced Mike to Pete.


Mike."
Theteachersaid, "Hello. (Good The teacher greeted her pupils.
тorning, good afternoon)."
"Hello, Ann," said Nick.- "Hello, Nick," Ann and Nick exchanged greetings.
saidAnn.
"Good тorning, darling," said тother. Motherwished good тorning to те.
Alice said, "Мапу l1appy returns ofthe Alice greeted Kate on her Ьirthday.
day, Kate." Alice wished Kate таnу happy returns
ofthe day.
"Congratulations," said тother. "1 ат Mother congratulated те on passing
so glad you passed your finals!" тyfinals.
Marysaid, "Excuse тyringing upso Магу apologized to те for ringing up
early(late)." so early (late).
"You' re always welcoтe to ou r hоте," Ann's тother expressed а warт
said Ann's тother to Nell. welcoтeto Nell.

194
V':
MEXERCISES ~.:
(/:
''l
"'·-~

Exercise 1 ;..~-

Rewrite the followiпg coпversatioпs iп Reported Speec\1.


А "How сап 1 lose weight?" Nick said.
·_;;
"Уон тнstп 't eat sweets. Внt уон сап eat vegetaЬles апd frнit. You shoнld also z~
get plenty of exercise," said tl1e doctor. w

"SI1all I go in for gyтпastics?" said Nick. ::::>


...;
"No, you пееdп't. You can go joggiпg every day," said the doctor. ·л

В "Are you Eпglish?" Jапе said. LLi


:::
"Yes, 1 ат. I соте from Maвchester," said Mr Kelly. !-·
"Is it уонr first visit to Moscow?" said Jапе.
"No, I've Ьееп here оп се before. I visited Moscow апd St Petersburg two years
ago," said Mr Kelly.
"Are you l1ere оп holiday?" said Jапе.
"No, I have соше to Moscow оп busiпess," said Mr Kelly.
"How long are you stayiпg?" said Jапе.
"1 s!1all Ье Ьеrе for tl1ree weeks," said М r Kelly.
"Are you goiпg to visit St Petersburg again?" said Jапе.
"No, I'ш afraid поt. I've Ьееп very busy. Апd we are flyiпg to Eвglaвd from
Moscow," said Mr Kelly.
С "1 doп't want to go to tlle сапtееп а}опе. Will youjoiп те for !uпch?" Mary
said.
"I'dloveto," Anпsaid.
"W!1еп will уон Ье tree?" Mary said.
"lп а qнarter of ап hour," Апп said.
"All rigl1t, tl1eп, we'll go togetl1er," Mary said.
D On eпteriпg the old !ady's room !1е said, "l hope 1 haveп't iпterrupted your
work!"
"Of сошsе поt. Sit dowп, p!ease. Have а cup oftea?"
"Tlшпks, 1've had ту tea."
SЬе said, "I l1aven't seen you for ages. How is your wife?"
"SI1e is aJI rigl1t поw!" l1e answered. "Don't you waпt to соте апd see our
ЬаЬу? Му wife says she is а darling."
"Don't уон think so?"
"Of course, 1 do. Внt 1 thiпk I'll!ove l1er тоrе when she grows up," he
added.
The old lady sшiled. "That's а tender father!"

195
~
~
Exercise 11
~
Turn tl1e followiпg into Reported Speech.
с:::
1. "Онс\1!" he said, as tl1e пшsе gave !Jiш tl1e iвjectioп. 2. "Уон '11 try to do it as
< qнick as possiЬle, \\'оп't you?" he said to l1er. 3. "Wow!" she said wheп sl1e first
:?;
,?. saw the Pyraшids. 4. "Yoн'JJ try not to Ье late, woп't уон?" I1e said to llis
< mother. 5. "Would yoнlike апоthег cup oftea?" she asked. "Yes, please," he
~

·~
~ replied. 6. "Will уон leave уош dictioпary?" she asked. "Of сошsе," he said.
:r: 7. "Уон raпg те нр yesterday, didп't you?" l1e asked. 8. "Уон coнld Jeпd me
:/;
some mопеу, coнldл't уон?" he asked те. 9. ''Ugl1!" sl1e said, as sl1e stepped
iпto tl1e пшd. 10. "Damп! l've twisted my thнmb," she said. 11. "Ol1 dear! I
:z пever tгavel оп traiпs tl1at Jeave from platfoпn 13! lt's ап uпlнcky пumber, '' she
~!

cried. 12. "Tl1e teac!1er gave me tl1e wroпg mark, didп't sl1e?" l1e said.

Exercise 111
Traпslate iпto Eпglisl1.

1. Мы хотели знать, кто будет нашим классныl\1 руководителем на сле­


дующий год. 2. Учитель спросил Аню, почему она пропустила первый
урок. 3. Я спросил Лену, пошла бы она со мной в кино, если бы я пригла­
сил ее. 4. Я спросил Колю, сколько ему было лет, когда он начал играть
в хоккей. 5. Мама хотела знать, следует Нине принимать лекарство два
или три раза в день. 6. Я спросил женщину, сколько лет было ее сыну,
когда она начала учить его кататься на коньках. 7. Мать надеялась, что
сын вернется через неделю. 8. Директор сказал, что не разрешает менять
расписание. 9. Мама сказала, чтогости приедут в субботу, а сейчас только
пятница. 10. УсiИтельница сказала, что мы можем провалиться на экза­
мене, если не повторим все правила. 11. Олег не мог понять, что говорит
учитель. 12. Она сказала полчаса назад, что ее сын приезжает ровно в
три. Значит, он будет здесь через час. 13. Мне хотелось бы знать, кто
рассказал вам об этом замечательном романе. 14. Пассажирам велели
пристегнуть ремни. 15. Мальчику велели не перебивать взрослых.
16. Учитель предупредил учащихся, спобы они не засиживались поздно
накануне экзаменов. 17. Пассажиров просят не курить в автобусе.
18. Тренер предложил, чтобы все приняли участие в соревнованиях. 19. Я
спросил Лену, пригласили ли ее на вечер.

Exercise IV
Traпslate iпto Eпglis\1.

l. В нашем классе новый мальчик. Он сказал, что он болгарин по наци­


ональности. Он сказал, что в Болгарии почти не бывает снега и поэтому
он не умеет кататься на коньках. Неля сказала, что она его научит.
2. Когда мама уходила, она сказала, что вернется позднее, чем обычно,

196
потому что у нее много работы. Папа сказал, что он, возможно, тоже
~,r;
вернется позднее, так как у них будет собрание и, потом, он слишком 7.
занят, чтобы приходить вовремя. Я сказал, что я приду позднее всех,
t-
потому что у нас соревнования по шахматам, но, если я приду раньше

их, я приготовлю ужин. Мама вздохнула и сказала, что она постарается -::;;
i..:..J
прийти пораньше.
v
2
;..:-{

Exercise V
о
Traпslate iпto Englisl1. :.;.J
(/)
1. Знаете ли вы, что мы не пришли ни к какому решению? 2. Я был уве­ L:..J
рен, что он может повторить эти предложения слово в слово. 3. Отец не =
.....
думал, что он выберет эту комнату. 4. Все знали, что мы не приедем в
воскресенье. 5. Наш учитель сказал, что для успешного изучения ино­
странных языков нужна хорошая память. 6. Мальчик надеялся, что
его возьмут в цирк. 7. Я не была уверена, что подготовлюсь к докладу
завтра. 8. Я чувствовал, что она на меня сердится. 9. Она думала, что он
работает, и поэтому не вошла в ком н ату. 1О. Он сообщил, что взял билет
на самолет в Адлер. 11. Он заявил, что не поедет с ним. 12. Он обещал
сыну, что они проведут лето на юге. 13. Она напомнила мне, что я соби­
ралась навестить тетушку. 14. Она заметила, что ремонт квартиры сле­
дует делать летом. 15. Он уверял нас, что езда на мотоцикле совсем не
опасна.

Exercise Vl
Translate into Eпglish.
1. Мы решили, что в следующее воскресенье мы nокатаемся на лодке.
2. Он признал, что его брат гребет лучше, чем он. 3. Он думал, что в вос­
кресенье он сможет посетить больную. 4. Мы предполагали, что скоро
встретимся. 5. Он утверждал, что я ошибаюсь. 6. Они сказали, что ни­
когда здесь раньше не бывали. 7. Она спросила меня, нравятся ли мне
эти песни. 8. Она спросила, где и когда я купила этот журнал. 9. Она
спросила, слышатшли я этотроманс раньше. 10. Он сказал, что предпо­
читает послушать что-нибудь классическое. 11. Командир приказал сол­
датам строиться. 12. Председатель призвал собравшихся соблюдать ти­
шину. 13. Секретарша попросила нас немного подождать. 14. Мы
ответили, что никогда не согласимся на изменение программы соревно­

ваний. 15. Он попросил ее повторить адрес. 16. Я очень просил их не


делать этого. 17. Он воскликнул, что целую вечность не видел нас.

197
~
~

:: The Voice
~

~
< There are two voices in English: the active voice and the passive voice.
;r:

lf the subject is the doer of the action, the verb is in the active voice:
<: She speaks German.
~
1always repeat the words a/oud.
""
:т.:
(/";
lfthe subject is the receiver ofthe action, the verb is in the passivevoice:
-....J The exercise was written Ьу the pupi/ very quick/y.
v The picture is painted Ьу а famous artist.
z
:...;)

The Formation of the Passive Voice


r=Yo Ье + Participle 11 1

<1 . .......·.
Tense. Passive · ·.·.· .

Present am
ф
is asked
а. are
Е Past
сп was 1 asked
were
Future will beasked

(/)
Present am
::;, is being asked
о
::;, are
с:
:;:; Past
с: was 1 beingasked
о were
(.)
Future -
....
(J
Present have 1 beenasked
has
~ф Past had been asked
а.
Future will have been asked

The passive is formed byusing the propertense oftheverb to Ье + Participle 11.


The Present Perfect Continuous, the Past Perfect Continuous, the Future Continuous
are not used in the passive.

198
........ ·. .• .·. Active Voice .... . Passive Voice .
-··
'-'

с
Present They ask questions Questions are asked at >
Simple atthe lesson. thelesson.
Present They are asking Questions are being
Continuous QLJestions now. asked now.
PastSimple They asked questions Questions were asked at
atthe lesson. thelesson.
Past Theywere asking Questionswere being
Continuous questionsatthe lesson. asked at the lesson.
Future Theywill ask questions Questions will Ье asked
Simple atthe lesson. atthe lesson.
Present They have asked Questions have been
Perfect questions at. the lesson. asked at the lesson.
Past They had asked Questions had been
Perfect questions at the lesson. asked at the lesson.
Future Theywill have asked Questions will have been
Perfect questions atthe lesson. asked at the lesson.
Present They should ask Questions should Ье
lnfinitive questions at the lesson. asked at the lesson.
Perfect They should have asked Questions should have
lnfinitive questionsatthe lesson. been asked at the lesson.
-ing form Не likes people asking Не likes questions being
questions at the lesson. asked at the lesson.
Perfect Having asked questions ... Questions having been asked ...
-ing form
Modals+be You must ask questions Questions must Ье asked
+ participle 11 atthe lesson. atthe lesson.

The Use of the Passive Voice


The passive is used:
а) when the person who does the action is uпl<nown, unimportant or obvious
from the context:
The door had been /ocked ( unknown doer of the action ).

199
~~
Ь) when we are interested more in the action than in the doer of the action, such
';:)
о as in news reports, instructions, processes, headlines, advertisements etc.
~

;:,;:
Breakfast is served froт 8. 00 to 1О. 00.
<. с) to make statements more formal or polite:
;f
Му newcoat has been ruined. ( More polite than saying "You ruined тусоаt").
:?:
< d) to put emphasis on the doer of the action:
~
о
The Pyraтids were built Ьу the ancient Egyptians.
.., Sometimes to getis used in colloquial English instead of Ье in the passive to say
:/)
that something happens to someone or something, Ьу chance:
_;
The dog got run over Ьу а саг.
'"'
;z:
w
Changing from Active into Passive:
Subject Verb Object Doer of the action
Active W. Shakespeare wrote "Hamlet"
Passive "Hamlet" was written byW. Shakespeare

When the verb is changed from the active voice into the passive voice, the whole
sentence changes:
1) the object of the active verb becomes the subject in the new sentence.
The active verb changes into а passive form and the subject of the active verb
becomes the doer of the action which is either introduced with "Ьу" or is
omitted.
The passive can Ье used onlywith transitive verbs (verbs which take an object
as give, write, take, open etc).
Verbs such as: happen, sfeep, соте, go, sеет etc are not used in the passive.
2) ln the passive we use Ьу + the doer of the action to say who or what did the
action. We use with + instrument or material to say what the doer of the action
used:
The paper was cut with а knife.
3) lfthe activeverb has two objects (i.e., directand indirect), it is more usual to
begin the passive sentence with the person:
Не gave те sоте appfes.
1was given sоте apples.
Sоте app/es were given to те.
4) We putthe doer ofthe action in the passive onlyif itadds information. When
the doer is unknown, unimportant or obvious from the context, it is omitted.
Doerssuch as soтeone, people, /, you etcare omitted.
Haтlet was written Ьу Shakespeare. (the doer is not omitted; it adds
information)
Soтebody helped hiт. Не was he/ped ( Ьу soтebody). (unknown doer;
Ьу + doer are omitted)

200
5) Make, hear, help, see arefollowed Ьуа to-infinitive in the passive:
Не helped her tidy up the room. ~ She was helped to tidy up the room.
Note that hear, see, watch can Ье followed Ьу а participle 1in the active and >
passive: .!.

1heard her p/ayiпg the рiапо. She was heard playiпg the рiапо.
'"""
6) The verbs believe, expect, feel, hope, kпow, report, say, thiпk etc are used in
the following passive patterns in personal and impersonal constructions:
а) subject (person) + passive + to-infinitive (personal construction)
Ь) it + passive + that-clause (impersonal construction)
Реор/е thiпk he is а boaster.
Не is thought to Ье а boaster. lt is thought that he is а boaster.
7) We use Ье + past participle or have been + past participle after modal verbs
(will, can, mayetc)
Не сап 't repair the /ock. The /ock сап 't Ье repared.
They тау have repaired the Ьicycle. The Ьiсус/е may have Ьееп repaired.
8) Verbs followed Ьу а preposition (to look after, to laugh at etc) take the
preposition immediately after them when turned into the passive:
They seпt for the doctor. ~ The doctor was seпt for.
9) ln passive questions with whojwhomjwhich we do not omit Ьу:
Who gave you this book? ~ Who were you giveп this book Ьу?

Неге are some of the most important prepositional verbs which can Ье used
passively:
to account for объяснять что-нибудь
to agree upon договориться о

toallude to намекатьна,касатьсячего-нибудь
toarrive at достигатьчего-нибудь
to call forjon зайти за
to comment upon комментировать что-нибудь
tocounton надеяться, рассчитывать на кого-либо
to hearof слышать о

to insist onjupon настаивать на

to interfere with мешать чему-нибудь, кому-нибудь


to laugh at смеяться над

to listen to слушать кого-нибудь, что-нибудь


to look after ухаживать за

to look at смотреть на

to look for искать

to provide for предусматриватьчто-нибудь


to put up with примиряться с

to refer to ссылаться на

to rely onjupon полагаться на

201
~ to send for посылать за
""'
~

с to speak ofjabout, to говорить ojc


ос
to talk about говорить о
~
< to think of думать о

to take саге of заботиться о
:;;s
< to lose sight of потерять из виду кого-нибудь, что-нибудь
:>::
~ to рау attention to обращать внимание на
:r: to make fun of насмехаться над
rz.
to make а full of дурачить
-J
to make use of использовать
2 to put an end to положить конец
"'" to take (no) notice of (не) замечать
The decision was arrived at.
Не only spoke when he was spoken to.
The film was much talked about.
The agreemen t was widely commen ted оп.

MEXERCISES

Exercise 1
Chaпge frorn tl1e active iпto tl1e passive.
1. Tcl1aikovsky used тапу folk-tuпes iп his compositioпs. 2. The agronomist
Iшs iпtroduced пеw metlюds ofwork in agriculture. 3. Tl1e Jecturer s!юwed
his studeпts а receпtly devised apparatus. 4. We all must Jook after the
childreп. 5. The populatioп of France gave tl1e Russiaп delegatioп а hearty
welcome. 6. Tl1e gardeпer asked me to l1elp him in tl1e garden. 7. Т11е studeпts
of this group are translating tl1e English text. 8. They tiпished their \vork
earlier than нsual. 9. We lшve seпt him а telegram. 10. Т11е studeпts were
discussing tl1e proЫem at 6 о 'clock yesterday. 11. You 111LJst Ьну а пеw Eпglisl1
dictionary.

Exercise 11
Change from t11e active iпto t11e passive.
1. Т11е guide met tl1e tourists at tl1e statioп. 2. 111ave jнst read l1is letter. 3. Ош
studeпts are discussing an iпterestiпg subject. 4. Т11еу will tiпish tl1eir \vork iп
time. 5. They 11ad alгeady traпslated the article wheп I gave tl1em my dictioпary.
6. Will tl1ey have planted the trees Ьу t11e begiппiпg of М ау? 7. Wl1e11 did tl1ey
erect tl1e moпumeпt? 8. Т11еу build тапу beautifullюнses iп our city eYery
year. 9. She was writiпg а Jetter wl1eп 1 саше in. 10. Russian scieпtists have
made many wonderful discoveries. 11. W11o answered the рhопе? 12. Who did

202

--- - -----------------------·----------------
tl1ey give the prize? 13. Two teacl1ers asked us at tl1e examinatioп last year.
14. The police are qнestioпiпg him поw. 15. We have already dопе tlle work. ~

;:.'>
16. Who discovered America?
:..:...~


&-оо~
Exercise 111
Chaпge tlle seпte11ces as i11 tl1e model usi11g tl1e Passive Voice oftlle verbs. Give two
passive coпstructio11s.
Model 1 They offered 11im iпterestiпg work.
Не was offered iпterestiпg work.
l11terestiпg work was offered to Ьiш.
1. The guide showed us all the beautiful pictures iп the picture gallery. 2. Tlley
give us six lessons а day. 3. I paid him the mопеу yesterday. 4. Tl1e jшу awarded
а premiuш to the youпg sportsman. 5. The doctor prescribed а пеw mediciпe
to the sick man. 6. They will give you tl1e answer пехt week. 7. Tl1ey promised
him iшшediate help. 8. The parents forgave the Ьоу his шistakes. 9. The director
offered the young man а good situation. 10. They told hiш the пews. 11. The
doctor recoшmeпded the patient а severe diet. 12 They paid her the money at
once.

Exercise IV
Chaпge tl1e se11teлces into tl1e Passive Voice. Give two passive coпstrLJctioпs.

1. Tl1e coach gave the boxer sоше iлstructioпs. 2. Tl1ey will graлt ше а leave iп
July ifthere is 110 шgепt work. 3. Нis friends never forgave 11im l1is disho11esty.
4. The шanagemeпt offered me several jobs апd 1 can't decide whic\1 to take.
5. The commaпder charged him with а very respo11siЬle missioп. 6. Тl1еу will
promise you mucl1, but doп't imagine they will give you everything. 7. His
pareпts regularly seпt 11im parcels with fruit from their garden. 8. Tl1e doctor
ordered him а loпg rest. 9. Tl1ey usнally sent the childreп to camp iп SLШ1mer.
1О. l gave 11im ап E11glish magaziпe. 11. The teacher showed us some interestiпg
diagrams. 12. They gave us а ticket to tl1e concert.

Exercise V
Put the verЬ in brackets into the correct passive form.
1. At tl1e puЬlishing house l (to tell) that tl1e book (to pнЬlisl1) Ьу tl1e епd ofthe
year. 2. А 11ew metro line (to coпstrнct) now. 3. А second talk оп how to lшndle
tl1e new machine (to give) tomorrow at the same time Ьу one oftl1e inventors.
4. Everybody was busy as а welcoming party (to prepare) in honoш of the
distiпguished visitors. 5. ProbaЬly t11e tea (to sweeten) before 1 put sugar into it.
6. The Reconstruction Plan of Moscow (to draw up) with ап еуе to the city's
futнre growth and work. 7. Jt (to carry out) 011 а giaпt scale. 8. No objections to

203
:L the рlап (to offer) so far, but it (поt to iпtroduce) until it (to put) to vote. 9. Sоте
о
~.
final toucl1es (to put) to the picture; it (to coтplete) iп а quarter of an hour.
а::
1О. А great пuтЬеr of new houses for the resideпts of our city (to erect) Ьу tl1e
~
< new year.
;;;
2
< Exercise Vl
"' Put the verbs in brackets iпto tl1e correct active or passive forтs.
'-"
:с 1. Sоте kiпd of puЬlic demoпstration (to рlап) to take place at t11e airport
J<J
•..J
toпigl1t. 2. Tl1e t1igi1t (поt to аппоuпсе) yet. 3. 1Ъе тessage, as Апп (to dictate)
it, (to type) Ьу а girl clerk. 4. It (to Ье) ап old house that (to divide) iпto flats.
'L
r.LJ 5. Each apartтent usually (to share) Ьу two or three girls. 6. Wl1eп we (to
соте) to tl1e seashore, tl1e sl1ip (to lose) sigl1t of. 7. Iп our couпtry cl1ildreп (to
take саге of). 8. А new Metro line (to coпstruct) поw. Опе of its stations (to
bнild) iп OL!r street. 9. 1 am sure tl1is event (to commeпt uроп) iп пewspapers.
1О. Little childreп (to look after) always. 11. His suggestioпs пever (to object
to ). 12. Tl1ese liпes of"poetry oГten (to refer to ).

Exercise Vll
State the kind oftlle passive coпstшctioп in t11e followiпg seпtences. Traпslate iпto
Russian.
1. Tl1e questioп was often рнt to те Ьнt I пever answered it. 2. 1 пoticed at о псе
that the rоот had Ьееп receпtly tidied. 3. Sтall feet \Vere !1eard rшшiпg iп tl1e
hall. 4. Mike is поt in the room, and his bed hasп't been slept iп. 5. The driver
was тysterioнsly sileпt. Тот was sileпt, too, woпderiпg uпeasily wl1ere he was
being taken. 6. I l1ad been given а card to the Club апd in tl1e afterпooп 1 used
to go to play billiards. 7. The outstaпdiпg violiпist was much spokeп of. 8. Has
tl1e doctor Ьееп called for? 9. The scientific articles oftllis specialist are ofteп
referred to. 1О. Tbls cellar lшs пever beeпlived iп. 11. Little cl1ildreп are always
looked after. 12. Everybody is sure tlыt ап agreeтeпt will Ье arrived at. 13. Не
does поt like to Ье iпterfered witl1. 14. Wi!J this material Ье таdе нsе of?
15. Why is he always таdе fuп of? 16. Wheп we came to tl1e seaslюre, the ship
had beeпlost sigl1t of. 17. Сап his words Ье relied оп? 18. His proposal may Ье
objected to.

Exercise Vlll
Put questioпs to tl1e parts ofthe seпteпces giveп in bold type.
1. When 1 entered the pavilioп ofthe exhibltion, а пеw model оfап airport was
beiпg looked at Ьу everybody. 2. Our reading English books in the original is
always insisted upon. 3. English spelling must Ье paid atteпtioп to. 4. His plan
has Ьееп mнch spokeп of. 5. The secretary will Ье sent for. 6. This apparatнs
must Ье checked from time to time. 7. Tl1e youпg mнsiciaп had been takeп

204

·---~ ~---------~-
notice of Iong before he entered the conservatoire. 8. Tllis idea сап Ье рнt in ;_;
practice only Ьу an experienced specialist. 9. Tl1is old cotmtry-hollse l1as поt ~

;,....
beeпlived iп these tеп years. 1О. The роет was writteп Ьу ап uнkпоwн autlюr.
11. А new railway liпe is beiпg coпstrнcted across tiJe desert. 12. Tl1e tlowers :r.:
will Ье p1aпted next week. 13. А place where people go skating is called а <""'

skating-rink. 14. Tl1e p1ant l1ad Ьеел run Ьу the head engineer for а fortnigl1t
before а пеw director was appoiпted.

Exercise IX
Traпslatetl1e seпteпces iпto Eпg\is\1 llsiпg the Passive Voice.
1. За ним послали двадцать минут назад. 2. Этот вопрос сегодня обсуж­
даться не будет. 3. В прошлом году на нашей улице построили новый
магазин. 4. Эта книга еще не переведена. 5. Я чувствую, что готовится
какой-то опасный план. 6. Если за вами пришлют, не отказывайтесь
прийти. 7. Почему на эту статью нигде не ссылаются? 8. Как только
вещи были уложены, послали за машиной. 9. Этого лектора всегда слу­
шали с интересом. 10. Ему еще ничего об этом не говорили. 11. Книги
этого автора часто спрашивают. 12. Вам задавали дополнительные воп­
росы на экзамене? 13. Девочку бранят, вот почему она плачет. 14. Я по­
чувствовала, что на меня смотрят. 15. Эта книга уже переведена. 16. Не
входите, там экзаменуют последнего студента. 17. Мне сказали, что уже
ничего нельзя изменить, так как решение принято. 18. Какой вопрос
обсуждали, когда вы вошли?

Exercise Х
Traпs1atethe seпtences
Passive Voice. into Eпglish нsing

1. Эта книга скоро будет переиздана. 2. Его всегда любили и ему всегда
доверяли. 3. О ней заботятся ее друзья. 4. Об этом фильме много говорят.
5. Пока готовился завтрак, мать пошла к постели ребенка. 6. Ей дадут
квартиру в этом доме. 7. «Где врач?»- прошептал он. «За ним послали.>>
8. К концу недели его имя будет известно всем. 9. Лене сказали, что око­
ло железнодорожного мостастроятся два новых дома. 10. По радио было
объявлено, что погода меняется к худшему. 11. Я сомневаюсь, что сейчас
что-либо может быть объяснено. 12. Ожидал ось, что он вернется как раз
к собранию. 13. Ему объяснили, почему он не прав. 14. Почему здесь так
холодно?- 3<UI только что проветрили. 15. Надеюсь, что об этом факте
больше не будут упоминать. 1б. Этот вопрос все еще обсуждается?- Да,
его обсуждают уже два часа. 17. Интересно, будет ли опубликована эта
статья до того, как откроется конференция? 18. К тому времени когда
мы вернулись, ворота уже были закрыты. 19. Как жаль, что булочная
закрыта. Сколько времени осталось до того, как она снова откроется?

205

"'' 1 '1Jillid!Ш0bl!ilitiitliiliJW.Jшh:ьirfJOji:lbliJLiшнMШtшl!:.Ш>CLЬшw''""i"l'J,J"-"''"'"~'. ;.-., .• """'~'с.О.:i-ш,,,,,"",~."""·"'""'"'-" ,.-, i"i н· ,.,,,1 "'


:,;::
20. Сколько времени обсуждался этот nопрос до того, как вы попросили
""'
~
слово? 21. Не входите n комнату. Ее убирают. 22. Ваши бумаги печатают.
~
Подождите немного. 23. Вас ждут внизу. 24. В будущем году здесь будет
:х:
< построена станция метро. 25. Его часто посылают за границу.
2
:;;;:
< Exercise Xl
cL
Translate the sentences into Eпglisl1 usiпg Passive Voice.
1. На этой улице строится новый кварта.,rr домов. 2. Тебя интересует рабо­
'./]
та, которую тебе предложили? 3. Со мной так никогда не разговаривали.
4. На день рождения ей подарили коробку шоколадных конфет. 5. Тебе
%
;.....; скажут, когда отправляется поезд. 6. Я почувствовал, что ему уже зада­
вали этот вопрос раньше. 7. Ему дали первоклассное образование.
8. Советую вам пойти на этот концерт: будут исполнены ваши любимые
произведения. 9. Об этой картине много говорят. Я сам не был на выс­
тавке, но мне ее такживо описали, что мне кажетсн, что я ее видел соб­
ственными глазами. 10. Нам объяснили новое правило, затем продикто­
вали несколько примеров и дали упражнения для домашней работы.
11. Проект был одобрен, но инженеру указали на отдельные недостатки.
12. Телеграмма была принята поздно ночью, и, так как она была очень
важной, капитана тут же разбудили и передали ему ее.

Exercise Xll
Traпslate
tl1e seпteпces iпto Eпglisl1 usiпg Passive Voice.
1. В прошлом году на нашей улице построили новый ресторан. 2. Этого
учителя всегда слушают с интересом. 3. Эти новости были только что
переданы по радио. 4. Это и есть человек, о котором так много говорят.
5. За книгу уже уплачено. Можете взять ее. 6. Новая библиотека была
построена до того, как вы поступили в университет? 7. Книги, которые
хорошо читаются, редко найдешь на полках библиотеки. 8. К сожапе­
нию, этот словарь уже распродан. 9. Эти новости будут опубликованы в
вечерних газетах. 10. Послышался выстрел, но ничего не было видно.
11. Он награжден многими медалями и орденами. 12. Когда я приехал в
этот город, этот дом строился. 13. Все телеграммы отправлены? - Нет
еще. Половина телеграмм отправлена вчера. Остальные, кроме трех, на­
печатаны. Последние сейчас печатают. Их напечатают к часу дня.

206

- --·-···-·-··---·--··-·-· ..···------------
',f;

ModaiVerbs ;:;::;
!..~
....
Modal verbs do not denote actions, but only show the attitude of the speaker -<
towards the action. Modal verbs are used onlywith the infinitive. ~

There are 12 modal verbs in English. They are: сап, may, must, should, oughtto,
sha/1, will, would, пееd, dare, to Ье, to havejto have got. The latter two are modal
-
:.:)
,с:,

only iп оп е oftheir meaпiпgs.


Теп of them (that is all but to Ье апd to have) are also called defective verbs as
they lack some features characteristic of other verbs, that is
1) they do поt take -s iп the third person siпgular;
2) they have пoverbals (iпfinitive, participle or geruпd);
3) they саппоt Ье used iп compound teпses (по future teпse, no perfect teпses);
4) they have (except for сап апd may) опlу оп е form апd по past teпse;
5) they are followed (except for ought) Ьу а bare iпfiпitive (that is bythe iпfinitive
without particle to );
6) they пееd no auxiliary to build up the interrogative апd пegative forms.
All modal verbs have 2 negative forms, full апd coпtracted.
Full Form Contracted Form
maynot mayn't
mustnot mustn't
саппоt can't
would поt wouldп't
should not shouldп't
shall поt shaп't
will not woп't
neednot пееdп't

We use modal verbs to express: ability, advice, criticism, пecessity, offers, oЫigatioпj
duty, permissioп, possibility, probaЬility, prohiЬition, requests or suggestioпs.

Сап
The modal verb has two forms: сап for the preseпtteпse and couldfor the pastteпse:
1сап 't dапсе поw but 1could wheп 1was youпg.
The negative forms are: Present- саппоt (сап 't), Past- could поt( couldп 't).
All the other teпses are expressed Ьу the construction to Ье аЬ/е to wh ich has all
thetenses:
You will Ье аЬ/е to fiпish your work iп so short а time.
1have Ьееп аЬ/е to do this exercise today.
There is а slight differeпce in usage betweeп сап апd Ье аЬ/е in the Past Simple
Tense. You can 't always have оп е for the other. lf you speak about something you

207
:"::
._. could do because of skill or knowledge, you can use either could or was (were)
с аЬ/е:
~
1could ( was аЬ!е to) read апd write wheп 1was six.
:::::;
< But if you mean something you managed to do, it is wrong to say could. ln this
:?.: case was(were) аЬ/е is the correct expression.
::Е
< Though he was i/1 апd missed classes, he was аЬ!е to do his examiпatioпs we/1.
:::::;
Сап expresses:
v
::r.: 1) physical and mental aЬility:
и
She сап lift this heavy Ьох.
_;
v She cou/d поt so/ve the proЬ/em.
z 2) possiЬility (or permission) depending on circumstances:
"'" You сап have mydictioпary( because 1dоп 't пееd it поw).
Сап 1see your brother? -/а т afraid поt, he is i/1.
3) prohiЬition (only in the negative form ofthe modal verb):
You сап 't cross the street here. Здесь нельзя переходить улицу.
4) request:
Сап 1have some water?
Could suggests а greater degree of politeпess:
Could you соте agaiп tomorrow?
5) Сап ( could} is also used to express douЫ or astonishment:
Сап it Ье so late as а/1 that?- Неужели уже так поздно?
Не сап 't bejcouldп 't Ье so old. -Не может быть, что он так стар.
As you see, iп these meanings сап ( cou/d) is used only in interrogative and
negative sentences; astonishment is expressed only in interrogative sentences.
lfthe action refers to the present orfuture, the Present lnfinitive is used:
Не сап 't Ье late. Не сап 't Ье as aпgry as that.
lfthe action refers to the past, the Perfect lnfinitive is used after can (could):
Сап she have kпоwп her before?- Неужели она знала ее раньше?
Cou/d they have sееп us there? They could поt have sееп us there.
ln the above sentences сап and cou/d have the same meaning but could shows
thatwe feelless certain about the subject.

Note 1. The Russian negative questions of the type- неужели он не ... can
betranslated into English in differentways:
а) Ьу complex sentences:
Сап it Ье thatyou haveп 'tseeп him? Неужели вы его не видели?
Ь) Ьу different lexical means:
Сап you have failed to see him? Неужели вы не видели его?
Сап you dislike the book? Неужели вам не нравится эта книга?
Сап поЬоdу have sееп him? Неужели никто его не видел?
Сап he have пever writteп that letter? Неужели он так и не
написал письмо?

208
V:.·

Note 2. The Russian negative statements of the type- он не мог не ... , не ::::::
может быть, чтобы он не ... сап Ье translated into English in the ->
same way as the negative questions of this type.
Тhеусап 't have failed to fiпish their work. Не может быть, чтобы <
:::::
они не закончили работу. ;_;
.,..
Shecaп'thavemisuпderstoodyou. Не может быть, чтобы она ~

не поняла вас.

Не сап have пever read this пovel. Он не мог не читать этот роман.

6) Could is used to express the Subjunctive Mood (мог бы):


lf 1had а dictioпary, 1could traпslate this article.
You real/y could do it without ту he/p.

Note. Some set expressions with the modal verb сап:


Саппоtjсап 't he/p doiпg smth. -Не могу не делать что-то.
Wheп 1saw him 1couldп 't he/p /aughiпg. - Когда я увидел его, я
не мог не смеяться.

Саппоtjсап 't but do smth. - Не могу не ...


1саппоt but suggest... -Я не могу не предложить ...
We саппоt but hope he is right. - Нам остается только
надеяться, что ... (не можем не надеяться ... ).
Оп е саппоt but woпder. - Нельзя не задуматься.
as сап Ье- ап iпteпsifyiпg expressioп
They are as p/eased as сап Ье. - Они очень (страшно) довольны.
lt's as ug/y as сап Ье. -Это необычайно уродливо (трудно
себе представить что-либо более отвратительное).

~EXERCISES
Exercise 1
Comment on tl1e meaning ofthe modal verb сап (could). Translate the sentences
iпto Russian.

1. Не can't walk so quickly. 2. 1 сап memorize many words at once. 3. I could


not go to your place yesterday, as 1 was busy. 4. We can choose our profession
according to our taste. 5. Could you give me your notes on plюпetics for а day
or two? 6. I don't believe him. It can't Ье so! 7. Sl1e сап take her examiпatioп
пехt Juпe. 8. Не cannot Ье iп the street now: it's pouriпg! 9. You canпot have
dопе it. l don't believe it. 10. 1 wonder where she is. She саппоt have Ьееп

209
:L
~
sleepiпg all tl1is time! 11. Could you let me know about tl1e meeting? 12. 1 am
~

::::. aпxious about her. Sl1e саппоt Ье takiпg а walk so late.


<::::
~
< Exercise 11
Replace the words was (were) аЫе Ьу could where possiЬie .
..?.;

2
< 1. The ship was badly damaged iп the storm, but tl1e captaiп was аЬ!е to briпg
~
~ l1er safely to laпd. 2. Неlеп was а brigl1t girl апd she was аЬlе to do the
::r: sclюlarship examinatioп well. 3. Wolfgaпg Mozart, tl1e famous Aнstriaп

composer, was аЬ!е to play the рiало at tl1e age oftl1ree. 4. Wl1eп а Ьоу Mike
с was аЬlе to do tl1iлgs with his left lшпd as easily as witll his rigl1t lшпd. 5. Tl1e
2
firemen were аЬ!е to put the fire онt iл less thaл tел minutes. б. Afte1· 1 l1ad
"" studied the пеw words, 1was аЬ!е to write the dictatioл withoнt а siпgle mistake.
7. There was лоt а siпgle cloнd iл the sky, апd we were аЬ!е to see the stars. 8. Не
was аЬ!е to fiпish аН the preparatory work withoнt апу help. 9. М у mother was
аЬlе to make l1er оwп c!othes wl1eп а girl iп l1er teens. 1О. Tl1e citizeпs of
Leniпgrad were аЬlе to detend their city against the Nazi lюrdes.

Exercise 111
Use tl1e verb сап iп tl1e correct form followed bytl1e reqнired form oftl1e infinitive.
1. Не ..... (to recite) loпg poems wlleп lle was six. 2. Уон ..... поt (to take) tl1e
books онt oftl1e reading hall. 3. Ifyou meet l1im iп the street уон ..... (to pass)
him witlюнt taking пotice. 4. Не !1ated l1imself for his belшvioщ Ьнt ..... (to
do) пothiпg to alter it. 5 ...... 1 (to соте) iп for а momeпt? 6. Уон ..... поt (to do)
it. I doп't believe it. 7. I woпder where she is. She ..... (поt to stay) at ller frieпd's
al\ tl1is time. 8. I ..... (to help) him but I didп't kпow l1e пeeded llelp. 9. Sucl1
problems ..... (to solve) easily. 1О. Не ..... (to see) that everytl1ing iп tl1e flat was
iп full order. 11. How ..... she (to work) iп the garden поw? It is already dark.
12. Of сошsе, tl1ere were тапу tl1iпgs 1 ..... (to aпswer) to this. But I kept sileпt.
13. I simply ..... поt (to refнse). Theywoнld have been lшrt. 14. Не wasп't old.
Не ..... (not to Ье) more than forty. 15 ...... уон (to work) all tl1is tiшe without
any break? 16. She ..... (поt to forget) what had l1appened tl1e day betore.

Exercise IV
Use the verb сап iп the correct form followed Ьу the required form ofthe infinitive.
1...... you (to call) а little later? I'm afraid I shall Ье busy till seven. 2 ...... it (to
Ье) ajoke? 3. You ..... (not to see) him at tl1e meetiпg. Не was ill. 4 ...... we (to
cover) fifteeп kilometres? The village is not yet seen. 5. Не ..... (not to forget)
your address; he has visited уон several times. 6. Ifyou let нs know, we ..... (to
send) ош car for you. 7. 1 sllould Ье very mнcl1 oЬ!iged to you if you ..... (to
lend) me уош dictioпary for а couple of days. 8. I doп't believe her, she ..... (to
fail) to recogпize me. 9. Не said he ..... (to manage) the task Ьу 11imself.

210
С':
10. Wl1y didп't you ask ше? I ..... (to do) it for you. 11. ltblпk you ..... (to do) it
ifyou tried. 12 ...... this old wошап (to Ье) Kate? She ..... поt (to chaпge) like ;х;

that. 13. Somebody drew а pair ofspectacles on tl1e t'ace ot'tl1e portrait. "Who ~

do you think ..... (to do) it?" 14. Не was quite young. Не ..... (not to Ье) mucll ~

<
over twenty. о
о
-~
Exercise V
Use tlle reqнired form ot'the infinitive at'ter сап (could) in tl1e followiпg senteпces.
1. Her face was quite нnliпed апd sl1e coнld (to Ье) more tl1a11 tblrty. 2. l'm
wondering ifsomethiпg сап (to do) аЬонt it. 3. It is impossiЬle. Не сап't (to do)
it. 4. There wasn't aпythiпg wrong witll tea. There coнldn't (to Ье). 5. Не
couldn't (to llear) the news at diппer because his sister lшdn't arrived yet. 6. 1
сап easily (to walk) to tl1e rail\vay statioп. 7. For several secoпds l1e stared at
\1er, terrified. "I сап 't (to staпd) it апу !oпger," he said. 8. Sl1e сап 't (to tell) you
tl1at 1 doп't believe yot!. 9. What is not done today, could (to do) tomorrow.
10. There was notlliпg he couJd (to do) about it at the momeпt. 11. Сап slle (to
Ье) so cold to this Jittle creature? 12. Tl1e windows were ореп, апd tl1e sceпt of
roses coнld (to smell). 13. Апп tried to imagiпe what апнпsеriонs talk coнld (to
Ье) like. 14. Slle was so tired, she couldn't (to make) l1erse!Ho go нpstairs to dress.

Exercise Vl
Rewrite tl1e followiпg seпteпces usiпg canпot (сап 't).
Model 1 1 doп't believe it is bls faнlt.- lt сап't Ье llis fault.
1. It is impossiЬle that he llas clшпged his miпd. 2. I сап't believe tЬat they have
kпоwп it before. 3. I don't tblпk she is good at laпguages. She Ьаs always had а
bad ear and по memory for words. 4. l doп't believe it is ajoke. 5. It is impossiЬJe
that slle is fifteeп. Sl1e looks much older. 6. 1сап't believe that he has left \Vithoнt
sayiпg good-bye to нs. 7. I сап't believe that l1e lшs forgotteп to post your letter.
8. Не doesп't believe tl1at his 1\\'О friends have betrayed blm. 9. I doп't thiпk sl1e
was aпgry wit\1 а sick child. 10. lt is iшpossiЬle tlшt she llas told а lie.

Exercise Vll
Paraphrase the followiпg seпteпces нsing сап 't.

1. l doп't believe tl1at lle had dопе tlle work carelessly. 2. I doп't believe it is true.
3. 1doп't believe l1e is as old as that, he looks mucll youпger. 4. It is impossiЬle
that the ship saпk iп the harbour. 5. I don't believe that уон sнggested such а
sil\y tblпg. 6. 1 doп't believe tlшt tl1e teacl1er was satisfied with our work. 7. 1
doп't believe I lost my suitcase, it was here а miпute ago. 8. I dоп 't believe tbls
mediciпe is а good cure for а coнgh. 9. lt is impossiЬle tlшt she has wrongly
interpreted yourwords. 1О. I don't believe tl1eywill postpoпe sнch ан importaпt
meeting.

211
::.<: Exercise Vlll
о
о Translate into English usiпg tl1e verb сап (could).
а::

::>:: 1. Эту книгу можно купить в любом магазине. 2. В комнате темно, я не


< могунайти свои вещи. 3. Не может быть, чтобы она ошиблась. 4. Неуже­
:?.
..,.. ли они все еще ждут нас? 5. Не может быть, чтобы вас послали ко мне .
""'
< 6. Он сказал, что мы можем идти. 7. Я мог бы вернуться на автобусе.
::>::
(,!;; 8. <<Не может быть, что она тебя поняла>>, - повторял он. 9. Не может
::r: быть, чтобы они об этом забыли. 1О. Неужели он уже уехал? 11. Неужели
rr;

.....: она все еще работает? 12. Не может быть, что она все еще пишет сочине­
v ние. 13. Неужели она заболела? 14. Неужели вам нравится такая музы­
z ка? 15. Ты можешь взять словарь. Мне он больше не нужен. 16. Неужели
:;:.;J

они опоздали на поезд? Они же вышли из дома очень рано.

Exercise IX
Translate into Eпglish usiпg tJ1e verb сап (could).
1. Я думаю, что я смогу помочь вам. 2. Не может быть, что он забыл об
этом. 3. Неужели он отказался помочь вам? 4. Неужели это правда? Не
может быть, чтобы это была правда. 5. Неужели он учится в девятом
классе? Он такой маленький на вид. 6. Не может быть, чтобы они уже
переехали на новую квартиру. 7. Неужели ты старше меня на целых пять
лет? 8. Прочтите эти статьи. Вы могли бы сослаться на них в докладе.
9. На лестнице нет света. Вы не могли бы посветить мне, пока я спущусь
вниз? 10. Я думаю, что мы могли бы попытаться еще раз убедить его в
том, что он неправ. 11. Не может быть, чтобы сейчас былолишьтри часа.
Ваши часы остановились. 12. Нет, малыш, зимой мороженое на улице
есть нельзя. 13. Неужели он был прав? 14. Вы не могли бы продиктовать
мне эту страницу? 15. Неужели они ждут нас у другого выхода?

Exercise Х
Traпslate iпto Eпglish usiпg the verb сап (could).
1. Не может быть, чтобы он опоздал. Он всегда такой пунктуальный.
2. Неужели он произвел на вас впечатление рассеянного человека? 3. Не
может быть, чтобы я не правильно вас понял. 4. Он не мог прочитать эту
книгу так быстро; она трудна для него. 5. Не может быть, чтобы она не
нашла вашего дома. 6. Врядли она забыла об этом; я об этом напоминала
ей только вчера. 7. Вы не могли бы привести свой при мер? Нельзя давать
примеры только из учебника. 8. Неужели она и сейчас думает обо мне?
9. Я могла бы вам это сразу сказать, но мне не хотелось расстраивать
вас. 1О. Не может быть, чтобы вы этому действительно поверили. 11. Не
мог он принять вас за другого. 12. Разве мог кто-нибудь подумать, что
эта команда займет первое место? 13. Неужели вы не нашли мою книгу?
14. Врядли они приедут сегодня. Уже поздно.
212
:.r
Exercise Xl
Traпslate iпto Eпglisl1 нsiпg сап
~

t11e verb (could). !..;:..;

1. Не может быть, чтобы они об этом забыли. 2. Неужели он уже уехал?


3. Неужели она забыла сообщить вам о моем отьезде? 4. Неужели она все
-<
:::::
еще работает? 5. Не может быть, чтобы они приехали в понедельник! 6. Я .~
'-'
думаю, что вы сможете уговорить его, если попытаетесь. 7. Сможет ли :;
ваша сестра купить нам завтра билеты'? 8. Мы не могли добраться до
университета к 9 часам. 9. Неужели он обманул вас? 10. Неужели вам
нравится такая музыка? 11. Не может быть, что они слышали наш раз­
говор. 12. Неужели она заболела? 13. Можно мы возьмем Джека с собой?
14. У детей богатое воображение. Они могут легко придумывать разные
истории. 15. Не может быть, что он ещё спит. Уже поздно.

Exercise Xll
Translate into Eпglish using tl1e verb сап (cou/d).
1. Не может быть, чтобы он вам сказал такую вещь. Вы его не поняли.
2. Когда мы сможем сделать это? 3. Она не сможет научиться хорошо
петь. 4. Она не могла окон•шть школу в прошлом году. 5. Неужели она
все еще читает? Пора спать. 6. Никто не смог бы произвести на меня
большее впечатление, чем это сделал ты. 7. Он сказал, что мы можем
идти. 8. Он мог бы сделать это на прошлой неделе. 9. Он был настолько
не грамотным, что он просто не мог написать ни одного слова этого док­

лада. 1О. Уже темнеет. Сколько же сейчас может быть времени'? 11. Ему
не могло быть больше тридцати лет, когда мы с ним познако.мились впер­
вые. 12. Не может быть, чтобы она ошиблась. 13. Не может быть, что она
забыла об этом. 14. Неужели он отказался помочь вам? 15. Не может
быть, что эта студентка выполнила эту работу сама. 16. Не может быть,
что вас посшlJ1И ко мне.

М ау

The modal verb mayhas two tenses: mayforthe presenttense and mightforthe past.
The negative forms are:
present- т ау not past- might not
All the other tenses are expressed Ьу to Ье aflowed to, to Ье permitted to.
The form might is used in indirect speech according to the rules of the sequence
oftenses:
Не told те that 1might go home.
Might is used only in object clauses, if the main clause refers to the past.

213
~
Mayexpresses:
о
,...,. 1) permission
= You тау go поw ( you are allowed to go).
с::
< 2) possiЬility of the fact
;:;:
You тау fiпd а/1 the books you waпt iп this library.
::Е
< 3) prohiЬition { onlywith the negative form of the modal verb ):
с::

'-" You т ау поt go swiттiпg ( You are поt al/owed to .... ) -Не смей.
:с 4) Мау {and тight, as well) is also used to express supposition and uncertainty
и
in affirmative sentences. ln this case it is translated into Russian as «может
:.; бЫТЬ», «ВОЗМОЖНО».
z Dоп 't worry! The childreп т ау Ье оп tf1eir way hоте a/ready.
t:.<
Why is Lепа abseпt today? -/ dоп 't kпow. She тight Ье i/1. ( Perhaps she
is i/1).
Might does not refer to the past here. lt only makes the uncertainty somewhat
stronger.
То give the idea of past time т ау is used with the Perfect lnfinitive.
Не т ау have arrived already, let's go апd fiпd out.
То give the idea ofthe present moment, the Continuous lnfinitive is used after
тау ( or тight}.
Where is Nick? Не т ау Ье workiпg iп the gardeп.
5) Might (and only тight} is used to express reproach.
You тight help те with this heavy suitcase.
You тight have called оп те last week. 1was i/1.
6) Мау and тight are used to form the Subjunctive Mood:
а) in simple sentences to express а wish:
Mayyou Ье happy!
Ь) in subordinate clauses:
Speak /ouder so that everybody т ау hear you.
She hurried hоте so that she тight help her тother with the diппer.
Неге are some expressions with the modal verb тayjтight:
1тayjтight as we/1 + infinitive expresses intention.
1т ау as we/1 take you with те.
Mightjust as we/1 means "itwould Ье equally good to'' and it is used to suggest
some other actions.
1'11 go оп Мопdау Ьу а slow traiп. - You тight just as we/1 wait ti/1 Tuesday апd
go Ьу the fast оп е.

214
l

~EXERCISES
:/.
а::
~
\..:..)
;;..
Exercise 1
Сошшепt ttpoп tl1e meaпiпg oftl1e verb may (migl1f). -<
с
1. 1 think we шау have а fire sоше distaпce away from tl1e trees. 2. Не may ~

.,.
-'

arrive оп the пехt train. 3. You шight lыve got to kпow your frieпds better Ьу this ~

time. 4. Ве carefнlпot to miss the turniпg, in tbls mist you migl1t easily pass it
Ьу. 5. You may riпg me up at апу Jюur iп the aftemooп. 6. \Уhеге are Kate апd
Jапе? -- 011, t11ey may Ье crossing t11e river Ьу tl1e bridge. 7. Уон mig11t at least
take your youпger brot11er for а walk sometimes. 8. We 11ad а t'eeliпg that we
шight 11ave sееп t11at mап betore. 9. 1 woпdered wl1etl1er 1 mig11t ask tог а
secoпd helping. 1О. Make your haпdwritiпg legiЬie so that everybody шау read
wl1at уон wrote dO\VП. 11. She \Vas so goad а nнrse that everybady tlюugl1t she
шigl1t 11ave already had experieпce with childreп. 12. Уан шight l1ave саше ta
see те wheп J was ill.

Exercise 11
Rewrite the seпtences нsiпg may (might).
1. Peгhaps the tide will саше iп vегу sооп. Laak анt! 2. Perl1aps tl1e praЬiem
was tao difficнlt fаг theш. 3. Тгу tl1is mediciпe, perl1aps it will cure yau.
4. 1l1ad better take my raiпcaat, perhaps it will raiп. 5. Wl1y didп't yau гeшind
Аnп af11er pramise? lt is passiЬJe that sl1e faгgot all abaut it. 6. Perhaps уан are
right, but J am паt sше yau are. 7. lt is passiЬJe we live iп the same street, but 1
doubt whetl1er I have sееп 11im befare. 8. Perlшps she was рганd ofher daughter,
but she never shawed it ta l1er пeighboшs. 9. It is passiЬle yaur letter has пever
reacl1ed 11iш, atherwise l1e wauld l1ave aпsv.·ered it immediately. 10. Perhaps
tl1ey tried ta get iп toнch witl1 нs, but failed. 11. 1t is passiЬle you gat iпta the
wraпg carriage, tlшt's why уан did паt fiпd yaur frieпd tr1ere. 12. Perl1aps they
will arrive here Ьу tl1e пехt traiп.

Exercise 111
Paraphгase the fo!Jawing senteпces using may (might).
1. Perhaps, yau clыпged at tl1e \\'ГОПg statioп, tlшt's \Vl1y it taak yau sa Iang ta
get l1еге. 2. Регlшрs, l1e has а1геаdу aпived, let's ga and fiпd онt. 3. Perlшps it
was trнe, I аш паt sure. 4. It is possiЬle ttшt they lшve refused ta help yau.
5. Perhaps they knew everytlliпg about it. 6. Peгt1aps tl1e driver gat а fright.
7. Perhaps t11e larry averturпed whiJe gaiпg round the Ьепd. 8. Perhaps they
have already left. 9. Perhaps the perfarшance was over as тапу peaple were
Ieaving the theatre. 10. Perhaps it was all prepared bet'arelшnd. 11. Perhaps this
ald mап is yaur brather. 12. Perhaps the message was delivered iп time as we
received ап immediate aпswer.

215
::.::
,..._ Exercise IV
~
Fill iп the blanks witl1 may (might) or to Ье allowed to, to Ье permitted to iп tl1e
с:::
required teпse.
х
< 1. Не asked if he ...... таkе sоте suggestioпs. 2. After the new year tree l1ad
:?.:
..".
.г.
Ьееп decorated, the childreп ...... eпter the hall. 3. Не ...... joiп the yacht club
< as sооп as he is through with his 1ast ехат. 4. The teacher said that everybody
х
...... take part iп the discussion. 5. Не ...... go his оwп way if he 1ikes. 6. No
--:::
!~

sooner ...... the chi1dreп ...... 1eave tl1e rоот, than they sprang to their feet апd
и

....;
rвshed out ofthe playground. 7. The doctor says Nick is тuch better. Не ..... .
"--' walk in the open a1ready. 8....... I ask уон to exp\ain the ru1e о псе тоге? 9. She
z asked те if she ...... to switch offthe radio. 10. No тatter how bad the \veatl1er
;.:;,)

...... Ье she пever тissed 11er everyday stroll after diпner. 11. Tell hiт he ..... .
have warпed те апd поt to put те in such ап awkward position. 12. Doп't Ье
aпgry with her. She ...... have dопе it Ьу тistake.

Exercise V
Use the required forт oftl1e infiпitive after may (might) in the followiпg senteпces.
1. Оп the wlюle there was less said than тigl1t (to expect). 2. Уон'vе acqнired а
great deal of experieпce. You тight (to write) а book. 3. There was по sigп of
John in the street. Ofcourse, I said to тyself, l1e тight (to detaiп) at his office.
4. Who said Mr Sтith had gопе to Aтerica? - Не тigl1t (to tell) it 11iтse1f.
5. But wlшt you tell те тау поt (to Ье) trвe. 6. What's I1appeпed to the dog?-
lt isп't here. Dап тау (to take) it with hiт. 7. SI1e 1oпged for aletter from Jolш.
It тigl1t (to contaiп) ап explaпation ofwhy I1e had gопе away. 8. Harry тigl1t
ofteп (to see) sittiпg on tl1e porch with а book iп his haпds. 9. 011, Тот, she
exclaiтed, your boots are тuddy! You тight (to go) Ьу tl1e side door. 1О. Не
was very ill. Не тау (to die ). 11. Тhеп why оп earth all this secrecy? - Оп е
пever knows who тау (to listeп). 12. Of course I'т too young to Ье а really
good writer yet, but I try hard, and опе day I тау (to achieve) soтethiпg.

Exercise Vl
Traпslate iпto Eпglish usiпg тау iп all of its possiЬle теапiпgs.