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COMSATS University

DECLARATION OF THESIS / UNDERGRADUATE PROJECT PAPER AND


COPYRIGHT

Author’s full name: Hamza Asmat Waleed Murtaza Ali Raza


Taimoor Nasir Muzammil Ikram Muhammad Saif
Date of birth: 26-09-1997 29-12-1997 09-09-1995
23-11-1996 10-11-1995 17-02-1996
Title: Production of 170 MTPD of Ethylene by catalytic dehydration
of Ethanol
Academic Session: 2014 – 2018
I declare that this thesis is classified as:
CONFIDENTIAL (Contains confidential information under the Official
Secret Act 1972)
RESTRICTED (Contains restricted information as specified by
the Organization where research/ project was done)
OPEN ACCESS I agree that my thesis to be published as online
open access (full text)
I acknowledged that COMSATS University reserves the right as follows:
1. The thesis is the property of COMSATS University.
2. The Library of COMSATS University has the right to make copies for
research only.
3. The Library has the right to make copies of the thesis for academic exchange.

Certified by:

SIGNATURE SIGNATURE OF SUPERVISOR

DDP-FA14-BEC-039 Dr. Ume Salma Amjad


(STUDENT ID /PASSPORT NO.) NAME OF SUPERVISOR

Date: 04 Sep 2017 Date: 12 June 2018


I hereby declare that I have read this thesis and in my opinion this thesis is
sufficient in terms of scope and quality for the award of the degree of Bachelor of
Chemical Engineering

Signature :_______________________

Name of Supervisor : Dr. Ume Salma Amjad

Date :_______________________
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* If the thesis / project involves collaboration.

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This thesis has been examined and recognized by:

Name and Address of External Examiner: ________________________________


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Approved by the Head of the Department:

Signature :__________________________ Date:________________

Name : Dr. Asad Ullah Khan


i

PRODUCTION OF 170 MTPD OF ETHYLENE BY CATALYTIC


DEHYDRATION OF ETHANOL

Hamza Asmat

Waleed Murtaza

Taimoor Nasir

Ali Raza

Muzammil Ikram

Muhammad Saif Ullah

A report submitted in partial fulfilment of the

requirements for the award of the degree of

Bachelor of Science in Chemical Engineering

Department of Chemical Engineering

COMSATS University

JUNE 2018
ii

DECLARATION

We declare that this thesis entitled “Production of 170 MTPD of Ethylene by


Catalytic Dehydration of Ethanol” is the result of our own research except as cited
in the references. This thesis has not been accepted for any degree and is not
concurrently submitted in candidature of any other degree.

Signature: ………………......... Signature: ……………….........

Name: Hamza Asmat Name: Waleed Murtaza

Date: …………………………. Date: ………………………….

Signature: .………………......... Signature: ……………….........

Name: Ali Raza Name: Taimoor Nasir

Date: …………………………. Date: …………………………

Signature: ………………......... Signature: ……………….........

Name: Muzammil Ikram Name: Muhammad Saif Ullah

Date: …………………………. Date: ………………………….


iii

DEDICATION

“This is dedicated to our Parents, Respected Teachers and to our beloved friends who
helped us complete this Project.”
iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First, we are thankful to the grace of Allah (SWT), who has bestowed upon
us the dedication and determination required to complete this thesis and present a
good account of our learning experience throughout the duration of our final year
design project. We would extend our gratitude to Dr. Ume Salma Amjad, who gave
us the opportunity to work under her supervision and complete our final year design
project. Her dedication towards our project and her tireless efforts in assisting us
throughout the entirety of our project has helped us immensely and further enhanced
our concepts to a greater level.

Secondly, we are extremely thankful to the Department of Chemical


Engineering for accommodating us throughout the entirety of our project and
enabling us in grasping an in-depth knowledge of a design project. The department’s
invaluable help and guidance has been an immense asset for us and helped enhanced
our learning curve by leaps and bounds.

Finally, we offer our regards and gratitude to all of those who supported us in
any respect during the completion of this thesis.
v

ABSTRACT

This project considers using ethanol dehydration to mass-produce ethylene. The


mixture of a 95% ethanol / 5% water feed will be converted into 99.9% pure ethylene
per year using a series of adiabatic, fixed-bed catalytic reactors operating at 750°F
and 600psi. The catalyst is gamma-alumina in the form of spherical pellets. After the
dehydration process, the product will be purified using two flash separation units, an
adsorption unit with zeolite 3A sorbent, and finally a cryogenic distillation unit.
Ethylene is the most significant organic chemical as it is the feedstock of many
industrial processes.
vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER TITLE PAGE


DECLARATION ....................................................................... ii
DEDICATION .......................................................................... iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ........................................................ iv
ABSTRACT ............................................................................... v
TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................... vi
LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................... x
LIST OF TABLES ................................................................... xii
LIST OF SYMBOLS .............................................................. xiii
1. LITERATURE REVIEW .......................................................... 1
1.1 Introduction .................................................................... 1
1.2 Background and History ................................................ 1
1.3 Structure of Ethylene...................................................... 2
1.4 Properties of Ethylene .................................................... 3
1.5 Uses of Ethylene ............................................................ 3
2. MANUFACTURING PROCESSES OF ETHYLENE .............. 5
2.1 Types of Manufacturing Processes ................................ 5
2.1.1 Ethylene from Pyrolysis of Hydrocarbons ............ 5
2.1.2 Ethylene from Ethanol Dehydration ..................... 6
2.1.3 Ethylene from Coal ............................................... 6
2.1.4 Ethylene from Vacuum Gas Oil ............................ 7
2.2 Selection of Process ....................................................... 7
2.3 Merits & Demerits of Dehydration of Ethanol .............. 9
2.4 HAZARDS ................................................................... 10
2.4.1 Health Information .............................................. 10
2.4.2 Process Safety ..................................................... 11
3. PROCESS DESCRIPTION AND PFD ................................... 12
3.1 Process Description and PFD ....................................... 12
vii

3.2 Selection of Production Capacity ................................. 13


4. MATERIAL BALANCE ......................................................... 15
4.1 Material Balance on Ethylene Column ........................ 15
4.2 Material Balance on Adsorption Column .................... 18
4.3 Material Balance on Absorber ..................................... 20
4.4 Material Balance on Quench Tower ............................ 22
4.5 Material Balance on Reactor ........................................ 24
5. ENERGY BALANCE .............................................................. 27
5.1 Energy Balance on Ethylene Column .......................... 27
5.2 Energy balance on Heat Exchanger ............................. 29
5.3 Energy Balance On Adsorption column ...................... 30
5.4 Energy balance on Absorber ........................................ 31
5.5 Energy balance on Quench Column............................. 32
5.6 Energy balance on Heat Exchanger ............................. 34
5.7 Energy balance on Heat Exchanger ............................. 35
5.8 Energy balance on Dehydration Reactors .................... 36
6. EQUIPMENT DESIGN ........................................................... 38
6.1 Design Adiabatic Fixed Bed Reactor ........................... 38
6.1.1 Choice of reactor (BATCH, CSTR, OR PBR) ..... 38
6.1.2 Selection of the Bed ............................................. 39
6.1.3 Design Calculation ............................................... 41
6.2 Design of Heat Exchanger ........................................... 51
6.2.1 Energy Balance .................................................... 51
6.2.2 Tube selection ...................................................... 52
6.2.3 Pressure Drop Calculation for shell side .............. 54
6.2.4 Pressure Drop calculations for tube side .............. 55
6.3 Design of Quench Tower ............................................. 56
6.3.1 Flooding (Flood point) ......................................... 57
6.3.2 Pressure drop at flooding ..................................... 57
6.3.3 Dry Gas Pressure drop ......................................... 58
6.3.4 Pressure Drop when bed is irrigated .................... 60
6.3.5 Actual pressures drop ........................................... 61
6.3.6 Overall Heat Transfer Co-efficient ...................... 64
viii

6.4 Design Of Absorber ..................................................... 66


6.4.1 Types Of Absorption ............................................ 66
6.4.2 Physical Absorption: ............................................ 66
6.4.3 Chemical Absorption: .......................................... 66
6.4.4 Types Of Absorber ............................................... 66
6.4.5 Designing steps of Absorber ................................ 66
6.5 Adsorption column design ........................................... 74
6.5.1 Adsorption ............................................................ 74
6.5.2 Importance of adsorption column in the process . 74
6.5.3 Selection of adsorbent .......................................... 74
6.5.4 Selection of appropriate adsorption cycle ............ 75
6.5.5 Design Calculations of Adsorption column ......... 76
6.5.6 Pressure drop calculation ..................................... 80
6.5.7 Head and shell calculations .................................. 82
6.6 Design Of Distillation Column .................................... 84
6.6.1 Choice between Plate and Packed Column .......... 84
6.6.2 Plate selection....................................................... 84
6.6.3 Designing Steps of Distillation Column. ............. 84
7. INSTRUMENTATION AND PROCESS CONTROL .......... 110
7.1 Introduction: ............................................................... 110
7.1.1 Hardware Elements of a Control System: .......... 111
7.1.2 Different types of controllers ............................. 112
7.2 Instrumentation of Reactor ......................................... 114
7.3 Instrumentation Of Heat Exchanger........................... 115
7.4 Instrumentation of Quench Tower ............................. 116
7.5 Instrumentation on Absorber...................................... 117
7.6 Instrumentation of Adsorption Column ..................... 118
7.7 Instrumentation of Distillation Column ..................... 119
8. HAZOP STUDY .................................................................... 121
8.1 Hazop ......................................................................... 121
8.1.1 When to Perform Hazop? ................................... 121
8.2 HAZOP on Quench tower .......................................... 123
8.3 Hazop on Adsorption Column ................................... 124
ix

8.4 HAZOP On Heat Exchanger ..................................... 127


8.5 HAZOP on Reactor ................................................... 128
8.6 HAZOP On Absorber ................................................ 129
8.7 HAZOP study for Distillation Column ..................... 131
9. COST ESTIMATION ............................................................ 132
9.1 Costing Of Absorber ................................................. 133
9.2 Costing on Heat exchanger ....................................... 133
9.3 Adsorption Column Cost Estimation ........................ 134
9.4 Cost Estimation of Quench Tower ............................ 135
9.5 Costing Of Reactor .................................................... 137
9.6 Cost of Distillation Column ...................................... 139
9.7 Total Cost of The Plant ............................................. 141
10. PLANT LAYOUT ................................................................. 142
10.1 Plant Site Selection ................................................. 142
10.2 Plant Layout Problems ............................................ 143
10.3 Proposed Project Process Plant ............................... 144
REFERENCES....................................................................... 145
x

LIST OF FIGURES

CHAPTER 1
Figure 1.1: Structure of Ethylene 2
CHAPTER 3

Figure 3. 1: Production Capacity of different plants 13


Figure 3. 2: PFD of Ethylene production by catalytic dehydration of ethanol 14
CHAPTER 4

Figure 4. 1: Ethylene column 15

Figure 4. 2: Adsorption column 18


Figure 4. 3: Absorption column 20
Figure 4. 4: Quench column 22
Figure 4. 5: Reactor 24
CHAPTER 5

Figure 5. 1: Ethylene column 27


Figure 5. 2: Heat exchanger 29
Figure 5. 3: Adsorption column 30
Figure 5. 4: Absorber 31
Figure 5. 5: Quench tower 32
Figure 5. 6: Heat exchanger 34
Figure 5. 7: Heat exchanger 35
Figure 5. 8: Reactor 36
CHAPTER 6

Figure 6. 1: Fixed bed Reactor 41


Figure 6. 2: Heat Exchanger 51
Figure 6. 3: graph 62
Figure 6. 4: packing data 68
xi

Figure 6. 5: matrix for adsorption cycle selection 75


Figure 6. 6: adsorber 76
Figure 6. 7: Equilibrium data of water on 3A zeolite 78

CHAPTER 7
Figure 7. 1: Fixed bed reactor 114
Figure 7. 2: Heat Exchanger 115
Figure 7. 3: Quench tower 116
Figure 7. 4: Absorber 117
Figure 7. 5: Adsorption column 118
Figure 7. 6: Distillation column 119
xii

LIST OF TABLES

CHAPTER 1
Table 1. 1: Properties of Ethylene 3
Table 1. 2: Comparison of different manufacturing processes 8
CHAPTER 4
Table 4. 1: Mole fractions of components 17
Table 4. 2: Overall and component material balance on Ethylene Column 17
Table 4. 3: Mole fraction of components 19
Table 4. 4: Overall component and material balance 19
Table 4. 5: Mole fractions of components 21
Table 4. 6: Overall and Component Balance of Components in the Streams 21
Table 4. 7: Mole Fractions of Components 23
Table 4. 8: Overall and Component Material Balance 24
Table 4. 9: Mole Fractions of Components 25
Table 4. 10: Overall and Component Material Balance 26
CHAPTER 5
Table 5. 1: Values of constants 28
CHAPTER 6
Table 6. 1: Feed to Reactor 42
Table 6. 2: concentration calculations 43
Table 6. 3: Calculation of Rates At Given Concentrations 44
Table 6. 4:Trapezoidal Formula Application 44
Table 6. 5: Reactor data 49
Table 6. 6: Specification Sheet 50
Table 6. 7: Mole fractions of components 76
Table 6. 8: Fractions of components 85
CHAPTER 8
Table 8. 1: HAZOP of Quench tower 123
Table 8. 2: HAZOP of Adsorption column 124
Table 8. 3: HAZOP of Heat exchanger 127
Table 8. 4: HAZOP of Reactor 128
Table 8. 5: HAZOP of Absorber 129
Table 8. 6: HAZOP of Distillation column 131
xiii

LIST OF SYMBOLS

d - Diameter
F - Force
g - Gravity = 9.81 m/s
l - Length
m - Mass
P - Pressure
Q - Volumetric flow-rate
r - Radius
Re - Reynolds number
V - Velocity
H - Height
θ - Angle
ρ - Density
μ - Viscosity
o
C - Degree Celsius
X - Conversion
D - Dilution Rate
H - Height of reactor
AR - Aspect Ratio
H′ - Working Depth
∝ - Relative Volatility
𝑚 - Minimum number of plates
𝑅𝑚 - Minimum reflux ratio
E - Efficiency
N - Theoretical number of plates
𝑎 - Actual number of plates
Δ𝑃 - Total pressure drop
𝐿𝑚 - Liquid flow rate
𝑚 - Vapor flow rate
xiv

𝐶 - Column diameter
A - Area
J - Joint efficiency
C - Corrosion allowance
F - Allowable stress
𝑃 - Heat capacity
𝜆 - Latent heat
U - Overall heat transfer coefficient
𝑟 - Prandtl number
𝑢 - Nestle number
xv
1

CHAPTER 1

LITERATURE REVIEW

1.1 Introduction

This project considers using ethanol dehydration to mass-produce ethylene.


2.3MM tons of a 95% ethanol / 5% water feed will be converted into 99.9% pure
ethylene per year using a series of adiabatic, fixed-bed catalytic reactors operating at
750°F and 600psi. The catalyst is gamma-alumina in the form of spherical pellets.
After the drying out process, the item will be filtered utilizing two blaze detachment
units, an adsorption unit with zeolite 3A sorbent, lastly a cryogenic refining unit.
Ethylene is the most critical natural compound as it is the feedstock of numerous
modern procedures. It has a huge application in the creation of polymeric materials,
for example, manufactured plastics, filaments, films, saps, glues, and elastomers.
Other essential employments of ethylene subordinates are solvents, liquid catalyst,
surfactants, and plasticizers.[1]

1.2 Background and History

Ethylene was first obtained from ethanol in the 18th century, when ethanol
was passed over a heated catalyst[5]. The plastics industry gave rise to several ethanol
dehydration units which operated from the 1930s up until the 1960s. The advent of
naphtha (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) cracking rendered these dehydration units
2

defunct. Naphtha cracking involves a liquid feed of saturated hydrocarbons diluted


with steam and heated to extreme temperatures in the absence of oxygen.

1.3 Structure of Ethylene

Figure 1.1: Structure of Ethylene

Ethylene (IUPAC name: ethene) is a hydrocarbon which has the


formula C2H4 or H2C=CH2. It is a colorless dull combustible gas with a black out
"sweet and musky" smell when unadulterated. It is the least difficult alkene (a
hydrocarbon with carbon-carbon twofold bonds). This hydrocarbon has four
hydrogen particles bound to a couple of carbon iotas that are associated by a twofold
bond. Every one of the six particles that contain ethylene are coplanar. The H-C-H
point is 117.4°, near the 120° for perfect sp² hybridized carbon. The atom is likewise
moderately unbending i.e. pivot about the C-C bond is a high vitality process that
requires breaking the π-bond[7].
3

1.4 Properties of Ethylene

Table 1. 1: Properties of Ethylene

ETHYLENE PROPERTIES

Formula C2H4

Molecular Weight (lbs./mole) 28.05

Critical Temp. (°F) 49.1

Critical Pressure (psia) 742.7

Boiling Point (°F) -154.7

Melting Point (°F) -272.5

Gas Density @ 70°F 1 atm (lbs./ft3) 0.0730

Specific Volume @ 70°F 1 atm 13.70

Specific Gravity 0.992

Specific Heat @ 70°F (Btu/lbmol-°F) 10.28

Appearance Colorless Gas

Density 1.178 kg/m3 at 15 °C, gas

1.5 Uses of Ethylene

Ethylene is the most important organic chemical. It is the building block for a
vast range of chemicals from plastics to antifreeze solutions and solvents. The
principal uses of ethylene are to produce:
4

A. POLYMERS

• Polyethene.
• Chloroethene (vinyl chloride) and hence poly(Chloroethene), i.e. poly
(vinyl chloride), PVC.
• Ethylbenzene and hence Phenylethene and Poly(phenylethene),
i.e. Polystyrene

B. OTHER CHEMICALS

• Epoxyethane and hence the diols, such as ethane-1,2-diol


• Ethanol
5

CHAPTER 2

MANUFACTURING PROCESSES OF ETHYLENE

2.1 Types of Manufacturing Processes

Following methods are used to produce ethylene.

• Pyrolysis of Hydrocarbons
• Ethanol Dehydration
• Ethylene from Coal
• Ethylene from Vacuum Gas oil

2.1.1 Ethylene from Pyrolysis of Hydrocarbons

A reactant pyrolysis process for creation of ethylene and propylene from


substantial hydrocarbons, includes that overwhelming hydrocarbons are reached with
a pillared interlayered earth atomic strainer and P. furthermore, Al. or on the other
hand magnesium or calcium adjusted high silica zeolite having a structure of pintail
contained impetuses in a riser or downstream move line reactor within the sight of
steam and chemically pyrolyzed at a temperature of 650° C. to 750° C. furthermore,
a weight of 0.15 to 0.4 MPa for a contact time of 0.2 to 5 seconds, a weight
proportion of impetus to feedstock of 15:1 to 40:1 and a weight proportion of steam
to feedstock of 0.3:1 to 1:1. The yields of ethylene and propylene by the present
creation are more than 18 wt. %[2].
6

2.1.2 Ethylene from Ethanol Dehydration

To produce ethylene from ethanol, acidic catalysts are often used.


Homogeneous catalysts that traditionally have been used are sulfuric acid or
phosphoric acid. More modern catalysts are acidic heterogeneous catalysts such as
zeolites treated with e.g. alumina or manganese. These catalysts provide a high
selectivity to ethylene, which results in a relatively straightforward process. A
general process flow diagram is depicted in Figure, where the main parts needed for
ethylene production are presented. Ethanol with a certain composition is vaporized
and delivered to the reactor. The specification of the ethanol depends on the
robustness of the catalyst. After dehydration reaction in the reactor the gaseous
product is separated from the non-reacted ethanol. By-products are removed and
transported to wastewater treatment. The crude ethylene is separated from heavier
products in a distillation tower and is then further purified in a separate section. In
the process of ethanol-to-ethylene, ethanol is converted to ethylene by passing
vaporized ethanol through a catalytic reaction system in a fixed bed reactor. In the
catalytic dehydration of ethanol to form ethylene, an acid catalyst first protonates the
hydroxyl group, which leaves as a water molecule[1]. The conjugate base of the
catalyst then deprotonates methyl group, and the hydrocarbon rearranges into
ethylene. The ethylene is cooled and any acidic components are removed with the
condensed water[2].
Chemical reaction

C2H5OH  H2O + C2H4

2.1.3 Ethylene from Coal

There are several possible routes from coal to ethylene by conventional and b
y novel technology. Synthesis gas produced from coal by commercially proven coal
gasification processes or second-generation processes hydrocarbons by Fischer-Trop
sch processes[6]. Fischer-Tropsch reactions have produced higher molecular weight s
aturated and olefinic hydrocarbons as well as oxygenated compounds. Ethylene may
be produced by cracking of hydrocarbons and by dehydration of recovered ethanol. S
7

ome ethylene may also be recovered directly. Conventionally Fischer-Tropsch techn


ology is presently not economically viable for ethylene production. In addition, indir
ect processes for ethylene manufacture have also been proposed which are based on c
oal-derived methanol. In one process ethanol is produced by methanol homologation
with synthesis gas, using conventional oxo catalysts that increase the yield, followed
by ethanol dehydration[4].

2.1.4 Ethylene from Vacuum Gas Oil

Vacuum gas oil utilizes a solitary stage reactor as opposed to the two phases
in the Uncracking/FPP. What's more, vacuum gas oil works at a lower weight and a
higher temperature. Despite the fact that these distinctions result in various item
yields, the properties of the hydrocracked VG0 for ethylene generation from as far as
feedstock cost vacuum gas oil is the touchiest feedstock for ethylene creation
principally in light of the huge commitment of encourage stock cost and of item
credits which stay unaltered and turn out to be relatively less on the ethylene
generation cost. The lighter the feedstock the littler turned into the commitment to
the encourage cost[13].

In contrasting the ethylene esteems from a few fluid feedstocks, it creates the
impression that hydrocracked VGO has a monetary preferred standpoint over full
range naphtha, however it isn't as conservative a feedstock as hydro desulfurized
VGO (light H2 assimilation). In fact, be that as it may, hydrocracked VGO has
numerous alluring properties as an ethylene feedstock which hydro desulfurized
VGO needs.[11]

2.2 Selection of Process

After detailed comparison of all the discussed processes, we have selected


“Ethylene from dehydration of Ethanol” process for our final year design project.
The reasons for the selection of this process are as under,
• Raw Material (i.e. Ethanol) easily available in Pakistan.
8

• Highest yield as compared to alternate processes.


• Straightforward process as compared to Ethylene obtained from Vacuum Gas
Oil or by the Pyrolysis of hydrocarbons.
• Nominal temperature conditions as compared to other processes.

Table 1. 2: Comparison of different manufacturing processes

ETHYLENE ETHYLENE ETHYLENE ETHYLENE


FROM FROM FROM FROM
COAL VACUUM HYDROCARBON ETHANOL
GAS OIL PYROLYSIS

Raw Coal Gas oil Ethane Ethanol


materials Synthesis gas Propane
Methanol Butane
Natural gas
Naphtha

Catalyst SAPO-34 Zeolite Phosphorous Alumina


Aluminum Zsm-5
modified high silica SAPO
zeolite

By-products Butenes Hydrogen Hydrogen Acetaldehyde


Higher Methane Methane Diethyl Ether
olefins Ethane Acetylene Water
Butene Ethanol

Yield 40% 22 wt% 35% for naphtha 99 %


80% for ethanol

Temperature 350-600 oC 590-820 oC 750 -850 oC 300-500 oC

Pressure 0.1-0.3 MPa 0.076- 0.15-0.4 MPa 0.1-5 MPa


0.141MPa
9

Conversion 96-98% 40-60% 60-80% 98-99%

2.3 Merits & Demerits of Dehydration of Ethanol

Merits

• Easy availability of raw material especially for our country.


• Production from renewable resources.
• Higher conversion
• It reduces the greenhouse gas emissions and dependency on limited fossil
fuels.
• the ability of the process to be entirely powered by bagasse adds to its
sustainability content because it requires little excess fossil fuel power
• It can be distilled easily using a distillation column
• It can potentially help decrease the amount of global warming created
compared to that contributed by the Petrochemical industry

Demerits

• Not as economically competitive as using fossil fuels (due to higher prices of


pure ethanol)
• The cost of growing sugarcane compared to drilling or extracting natural gas.
• For this, the sugarcane first must be grown whereas for Petro based ethylene,
fossil fuels are a naturally occurring source.
• It is important to remember the Petro based ethylene pathway has been used
for much longer and most companies in the business have already invested in
the machinery needed for producing ethylene via cracking. This significantly
brings down costs if you consider the price that comes with investing in the
machinery needed to extract/distill ethanol and later process it to ethylene.
10

2.4 HAZARDS

Ethylene is a colorless, extremely flammable gas with a faintly sweet odor


that can be detected at 270 ppm. The major hazard is due to its flammable and
explosive character. Ethylene is easily ignited and on release can quickly form a
flammable mixture in air[17].
Exposure to high concentrations of ethylene (thousands of parts per million)
may cause headache, dizziness, anesthesia, drowsiness, or other central nervous
system effects. In confined or poorly ventilated areas, ethylene vapor can accumulate
and result in unconsciousness or asphyxiation by displacing oxygen. Eye or skin
contact with liquefied ethylene can cause frostbite. For further details, see Health
Information.
• Ethylene tends to migrate to the atmosphere because of its high vapor
pressure. In the presence of oxygen, it biodegrades with an estimated half-life
of 1.9 days. It degrades more quickly in sunlight. It does not persist. Ethylene
is slightly toxic to aquatic organisms and has a low bio concentration
potential.
• Ethylene is an extremely flammable liquid or vapor
• Exposure to high concentrations of ethylene (thousands of parts per million)
may cause headache, dizziness, anesthesia, drowsiness, or other central
nervous system effects. In confined or poorly ventilated areas, ethylene vapor
can accumulate and result in unconsciousness or asphyxiation by displacing
oxygen. Eye or skin contact with liquefied ethylene can cause frostbite[14].

2.4.1 Health Information

EYE CONTACT– Contact with liquefied ethylene can cause frostbite.


SKIN CONTACT – Contact with liquefied ethylene can cause frostbite. No adverse
effects are expected from absorption through the skin.
11

INHALATION – Because ethylene is a gas at normal temperatures and pressures,


inhalation is the primary route of exposure. Ethylene has a low level of toxicity. No
risk to human health has been identified from occupational exposure or exposure of
the public to atmospheric levels of ethylene. However, excessive exposure by
inhalation may cause headache, dizziness, anesthesia, drowsiness, unconsciousness,
or other central nervous system effects. In confined or poorly ventilated areas, the
gas can accumulate and result in unconsciousness due to displacement of oxygen.
INGESTION – Ingestion is unlikely because ethylene is a gas at normal
temperatures. Ingestion of liquefied gas can cause frostbite of the lips, mouth, and
throat.

2.4.2 Process Safety

Ethanol and ethylene are both exceptionally combustible, and all things
considered watchful consideration must be paid to their transportation to and from
and capacity at the office. Ethanol unexpectedly combusts at around 790°F. Since the
reactors work close as far as possible (750°F), it is vital to put resources into precise
and cautious controllers to guarantee that the temperatures in the heaters and
compressor outlet stream never achieve this level. The plant is at no danger of
ethylene accidently autoigniting as ethylene's start temperature is 914°F and it spends
the greater part of the procedure under cryogenic conditions.[3]
12

CHAPTER 3

PROCESS DESCRIPTION AND PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM

3.1 Process Description and PFD

Ethylene is the most significant organic chemical as it is the feedstock of


many industrial processes. It has a vast application in the production of polymeric
materials such as fabricated plastics, fibers, films, resins, adhesives, and elastomers.
Other important uses of ethylene derivatives are solvents, antifreeze, surfactants, and
plasticizers[8]. Currently, there is no such major industry installed in Pakistan. The
major producers of ethylene in the world are Saudi Basic Industries Corp., Dow
Chemical Co.(Netherlands), ExxonMobil Chemical Co.(Texas) and many others.
Following methods are used to produce ethylene[3].

• Pyrolysis of Hydrocarbons.
• Ethanol Dehydration.
• Ethylene from Coal.
• Ethylene from Vacuum Gas oil.

In the process of ethanol-to-ethylene, ethanol is converted to ethylene by passing


vaporized ethanol through a catalytic reaction system in a fixed bed reactor. In the
catalytic dehydration of ethanol to form ethylene, an acid catalyst first protonates the
hydroxyl group, which leaves as a water molecule[12]. The conjugate base of the
catalyst then deprotonates methyl group, and the hydrocarbon rearranges into
ethylene. The ethylene is cooled and any acidic components are removed with the
condensed water.[3]
13

The aim of this study is to introduce the method of production of ethylene


from ethanol by using domestic resources rather than imported hydrocarbons as raw
materials for petrochemical industries, therefore making it more economical and
environmentally friendly[1].

3.2 Selection of Production Capacity

Since there is no production of Ethylene in Pakistan, but in various countries


Ethylene is produced in a large quantity due to its major Petrochemical applications.
We have designed our product capacity according to the production capacity of
Solvay Indupa (Santo Andre, Brazil) i.e. 60000 Tons/year (170 MTPD).[4]

Figure 3. 1: Production Capacity of different plants


14

Figure 3. 2: PFD of Ethylene production by catalytic dehydration of ethanol

PRODUCTION OF ETHYLENE BY CATALYTIC DEHYDRATION OF ETHANOL


(PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM)

20

R-100 R-101 R-102 R-103 16


3 5 7 9 15a

D-100 E-102
C-100

13 24

Cooling Water 25 26
15

10 ETHYLENE PRODUCT
E-45
4 6 8 11
Q-100 AB-100
1 E-101 14 17
2
AD-100
P-100
18 19
Steam Steam Waste to Purification Section Waste to Purification Section E-55 21

H-100 22 23
E-103

H-100 E-50 (HEAT Q-100 (QUENCH E-55 (HEAT


(FURNACE) E-102 (CONDENSER)
E-45 (HEAT EXCHANGER) COLUMN) EXCHANGER)
EXCHANGER)

P-100 (CENTRIFUGAL R-100 R-101 R-102 R-103 E-101 (HEAT C-100 AD-100
AB-100 (ABSORBER/ D-100 (ETHYLENE E-103 (REBOILER)
PUMP) (REACTOR) (REACTOR) (REACTOR) (REACTOR) EXCHANGER) (COMPRESSOR) (ADSORBER
CAUSTIC WASH COLUMN / CRYOGENIC
WITH HEAT
COLUMN) DISTILLATION COLUMN)
EXCHANGER)
DEHYDRATION REACTORS

TEMPERATURE PRESSURE CONDITIONS


15

CHAPTER 4

MATERIAL BALANCE

4.1 Material Balance on Ethylene Column

Figure 4. 1: Ethylene column

BASIS = 170 metric tons/day of Ethylene

= 7083.33 kg/hr. of Ethylene in product.


16

So, in moles,
7083.33
Ethylene in product (S26) =
28
= 252.98 kmol/hr.
Thus,
252.98
S26 = = 253.36 kmol/hr
0.9985
We assume that 95% of ethylene in S19 is recovered in the S26. This means that we
have ethylene in S19, which will be
252.98
C2 H4 in S19 = = 266.29 kmol/hr.
0.95
So, we have overall material balance equation as:
S19 = S23 + S26
Component Balance of C2H4

XC2H4 (S19) = XC2H4 (S26) + XC2H4 (S23)


266.29 = (0.9985) (253.36) + 0.40 (S23)
S23 = 33.29 kmol/hr
So,
C2H4 in S23 = 0.40 (33.29) =13.31 kmol/hr
Now, from overall equation we calculate the molar flowrate of S19.
S19 = 253.36 + 33.29
S19 = 286.64 kmol/hr
Now applying component balance to find all the components in the feed S19.
For CH4
XCH4 (S19) = XCH4 (S26)
XCH4 (S19) = 0.0005 (253.36)
XCH4 (S19) = 0.13 kmol/hr
For H2
XH2 (S19) = (0.001) (253.36)
= 0.25 kmol/hr
17

For (C2 H5)2 O


X(C2 H5)2O (S19) = 0.47 (33.29)
X(C2H5)2O (S19) = 15.64 kmol/hr
For C2 H4O
XC2H4O (S19) = 0.12 (33.29)
XC2H4O (S19) = 3.99 kmol/hr
For C2H6
XC2H6 (S19) = 0.01 (33.29)
XC2 H6 (S19) = 0.33 kmol/hr

Table 4. 1: Mole fractions of components

Streams
Components S19 (mole fraction) S26 (mole fraction) S23 (mole fraction)

ETHYLENE 0.9290 0.9985 0.40


DIETHYL ETHER 0.0546 0.0000 0.47
METHANE 0.0004 0.0005 0.00
ACETALDEHYDE 0.0139 0.0000 0.12
ETHANE 0.0012 0.0000 0.01
HYDROGEN 0.0009 0.0010 0.00
Total 1.00 1.00 1.00

Table 4. 2: Overall and component material balance on Ethylene Column

Streams
Components S19 (kmol/hr) S26 (kmol/hr) S23 (kmol/hr)
ETHYLENE 266.29 252.98 13.31
DIETHYL ETHER 15.64 0.00 15.64
METHANE 0.13 0.13 0.00
ACETALDEHYDE 3.99 0.00 3.99
ETHANE 0.33 0.00 0.33
HYDROGEN 0.25 0.25 0.00
Total 286.64 253.36 33.29
18

4.2 Material Balance on Adsorption Column

Figure 4. 2: Adsorption column

We assume that all the water is removed or absorbed. Only a negligible


amount of water goes to the product. Since we use zeolite 3A sorbent in the
adsorption column which also adsorbs ethylene. The adsorption selectivity of
ethylene is lower than that of water in zeolite 3A sorbent. The amount of ethylene to
be adsorb depends on the weight of the sorbent used. Since we don’t know the
weight of the sorbent. So, for further calculations we assume that 99% of ethylene is
recovered in the product.

266.29
C2H4 in feed = = 268.98 kmol/hr.
0.99
As, we have assumed the flow rates of product components equal to that of feed
except for ethylene and water. We know the mole percentage of water in feed that is
0.1%. Now we calculate the flowrate of S16.
The mole percent of water in feed is 0.1% which means that the sum of moles of
other components is 99.9% of the feed. So,

268.98+15.64+0.13+3.99+0.33+0.25
S16 =
0.999
19

S16 = 289.622 kmol/hr.


H2O in feed = (289.622) (0.1%) = 0.290 kmol/hr.

Stream W is not a continuous stream that’s why it is shown with dotted line. Stream
W contains adsorbed water and ethylene.
C2H4 in W = (268.98 – 266.29)
= 2.69 kmol/hr.
H2O in W = 0.290 kmol/hr.

Table 4. 3: Mole fraction of components

Streams
Components S16 (mole fraction) S18 (mole fraction) W

WATER 0.001 0.00 0.10


ETHYLENE 0.92873 0.929 0.90
DIETHYL ETHER 0.05402 0.05458
METHANE 0.00044 0.00044
ACETALDEHYDE 0.01379 0.01393
ETHANE 0.00115 0.00116
HYDROGEN 0.00087 0.00088
Total 1.00 1.00 1.0

Table 4. 4: Overall component and material balance

Streams
Components S16 (kmol/hr) S18 (kmol/hr) W (kmol/hr)
WATER 0.28962 0.00 0.290
ETHYLENE 266.2805 266.29073 2.69
DIETHYL ETHER 15.64458 15.64458
METHANE 0.12668 0.12668
ACETALDEHYDE 3.99436 3.99436
ETHANE 0.33286 0.33286
HYDROGEN 0.25336 0.25336
Total 286.622 286.64 2.98
20

4.3 Material Balance on Absorber

Figure 4. 3: Absorption column

It is assumed that only CO2 is removed with absorbent (NaOH(aq).) and traces
of CO2 goes to product which are negligible. Thus, moles of feed component will be
same as that of product except that there is no CO2. For now, we apply balance only
on main streams.
We know the composition of CO2 in feed that is 0.173%. Now we calculate the
flowrate of S15
For S15
268.98+0.28962+15.64458+0.12668+3.99436+0.33286+0.25336
S15 =
(1-0.00173)

S15 = 290.12 kmol/hr.


CO2 in feed = (290.12) (0.173%)
= 0.50191
21

Table 4. 5: Mole fractions of components

Streams
Components S16 (mole fraction) S15 (mole fraction)

WATER 0.001 0.001


ETHYLENE 0.92873 0.92712
DIETHYL ETHER 0.05402 0.05392
METHANE 0.00044 0.00044
ACETALDEHYDE 0.01379 0.01377
ETHANE 0.00115 0.00115
HYDROGEN 0.00087 0.00087
CARBON DIOXIDE 0.00 0.00173
Total 1.00 1.00

Table 4. 6: Overall and Component Balance of Components in the Streams

Streams
Components S16 (kmol/hr) S15 (kmol/hr)
WATER 0.28962 0.28962
ETHYLENE 268.98 268.98
DIETHYL ETHER 15.644 15.644
METHANE 0.12668 0.12668
ACETALDEHYDE 3.99436 3.99436
ETHANE 0.33286 0.33286
HYDROGEN 0.25336 0.25336
CARBON DIOXIDE 0.000 0.50191
Total 289.622 290.12
22

4.4 Material Balance on Quench Tower

Figure 4. 4: Quench column

The quench tower is gas/liquid separator. In quench tower water showers


from the top resulting in separation of gaseous and liquid phase by reducing
temperature. It is assumed that it majorly separates ethanol and water from stream
12. Traces of ethanol goes to the product which are negligible. The water used in the
quench tower has the tendency to absorb CO2 but it depends on the amount of water
used. We assume that water absorbs 20% of CO2 from the feed. [1]
All of the components in the product are tie components except water and carbon
dioxide.
For S12
268.9805
S12 =
0.43
= 625.54 kmol/hr.
C2H5OH in S12 = (625.54) (0.9%)
= 5.61 kmol/hr.
For H2O in S12
Moles of stream 12 is equal to the sum of moles of components in stream 12.
S12 = C2H4 + (C2H5)2O + CH4 + C2H4O + C2H6 + H2 + H2O + CO2 + C2H5OH
23

625.54 = 268.9805 + 5.61 + 15.6446 + 0.1267 + 3.9944 + 0.3329 + 0.2534 + 0.6274


+ H2 O
Moles of H2O = 329.96 kmol/hr.
Now we calculate for stream 14. This stream majorly contains water and ethanol.
C2H5OH in S14 = C2H5OH in S12
We have assumed that approximately all the ethanol is removed from the feed.
C2H5OH in S14 = 5.61 kmol/hr.
Water in the stream 14 is
H2O in S14 = 329.96 – 0.2896
= 329.673 kmol/hr.

Table 4. 7: Mole Fractions of Components

Streams
Components S12 (mole S13 (mole S14 (mole
fraction) fraction) fraction)
ETHYLENE 0.43 0.92712 0.000
ETHANOL 0.009 0.00000 0.0167
WATER 0.5275 0.00100 0.9829
DIETHYLE 0.0250 0.05392 0.000
ETHER
METHANE 0.0002 0.00044 0.0000
ACTELDEHYDE 0.0064 0.01377 0.000
ETHANE 0.0005 0.00115 0.0000
HYDROGEN 0.0004 0.00087 0.0000
CARBONDIOXIDE 0.0010 0.00173 0.0000
TOTAL 1.00 1.00 1.00
24

Table 4. 8: Overall and Component Material Balance

Streams

Components S12 (kmol/hr) S13 (kmol/hr) S14(kmol/hr)


ETHYLENE 268.9805 268.9805 0.00
ETHANOL 5.61 0.000000 5.61
WATER 329.96 0.2896 329.673
DIETHYLE 15.6446 15.6446 0.00
ETHER
METHANE 0.1267 0.1267 0.0000
ACTELDEHYDE 3.9944 3.9944 0.00
ETHANE 0.3329 0.3329 0.0000
HYDROGEN 0.2534 0.2534 0.0000
CARBONDIOXIDE 0.6274 0.5019 0.0000
TOTAL 625.54 290.12 335.3

4.5 Material Balance on Reactor

Figure 4. 5: Reactor
25

Overall conversion of Ethanol is 98.2% and the Ethanol in the product is


1.8% of the feed that is S1.
For C2H5OH in S1
FA = FAO(1-X)
FA
FAO =
(1-X)
5.61
C2H5OH in S1 = FAO =
(1-0.982)

= 311.869 kmol/hr.
311.869
S1 = = 354.40 kmol/hr.
0.88
H2O in S1 = (354.40) (12%)
= 42.528 kmol/hr.

Table 4. 9: Mole Fractions of Components

Streams
Components S1 (mole fraction) S10 (mole fraction)
ETHANOL 0.88 0.009
WATER 0.12 0.5275
ETHYLENE 0.0 0.4300
DIETHYL ETHER 0.0 0.0250
METHANE 0.0 0.0002
ACETALDEHYDE 0.0 0.0064
ETHANE 0.0 0.0005
HYDROGEN 0.0 0.0004
CARBON DIOXIDE 0.0 0.0010
TOTAL 1.00 1.00
26

Table 4. 10: Overall and Component Material Balance

STREAMS
Components S3 (kmol/hr) S10 (kmol/hr)
ETHANOL 311.869 5.61
WATER 42.528 329.96
ETHYLENE 0.0 268.98
DIETHYL ETHER 0.0 15.64
METHANE 0.0 0.13
ACETALDEHYDE 0.0 3.99
ETHANE 0.0 0.33
HYDROGEN 0.0 0.25
CARBON DIOXIDE 0.0 0.63
TOTAL 354.40 625.54
27

CHAPTER 5

ENERGY BALANCE

5.1 Energy Balance on Ethylene Column

Figure 5. 1: Ethylene column

Temperatures (K)
S19 S26 S23
245.15 247.45 257.15

Reference temperature will be taken as 273.15 K.


28

Qin + Qreboiler = Qcondenser + Qout

Table 5. 1: Values of constants

Cp CONSTANTS [7][9]

COMPONENTS A B C
ETHYLENE 3.806 0.15659 -0.0000835
ETHANOL 9.014 0.21407 -0.0000839
WATER 32.243 0.0019238 0.000010555
DIETHYL ETHER 21.424 0.33587 -0.0001035
METHANE 19.251 0.052126 0.000011974
ACETALDEHYDE 7.716 0.18225 -0.0001007
ETHANE 5.409 0.17811 -0.00006938
HYDROGEN 27.143 0.0092738 -0.00001381
CARBONDIOXIDE 19.795 0.073436 -0.00005602

We have the formula to calculate Enthalpy as under:


𝑇
∆𝐻 = 𝑚 ∫𝑇 (𝑎 + 𝑏𝑇 + 𝑐𝑇 2 ) 𝑑𝑇[7]
𝑟𝑒𝑓

2 3
𝑏(𝑇 2 −𝑇𝑟𝑒𝑓 ) 𝑐(𝑇 3 −𝑇𝑟𝑒𝑓 )
∆𝐻 = 𝑚 (𝑎(𝑇 − 𝑇𝑟𝑒𝑓 ) + + ) [7]
2 3

For S19 (Feed)


Qin = 𝑚 ∑ 𝐶𝑝 ∆𝑇 [7]
Qin = ΔHC2H4 + ΔH (C2H5)2O + ΔHC2H6 + ΔHCH4 + ΔHC2H4O + ΔHH2
Qin = -289107.6243 - 44464.97234 - 119.0524732 - 5388.175173 - 437.1367465 -
203.0149382
Qin = -339719.976 KJ/hr
For S26 (Product)
Qout = ΔHC2H4 + ΔHCH4 + ΔHH2
Qout = -252943.6698 - 109.4912071 - 186.3553628
Qout = -253239.516 KJ/hr

For S23 (Waste)


Qout = ΔHC2H4 + ΔH (C2H5)2O + ΔHC2H6 + ΔHC2H4O
29

Qout = -8405.208182 - 25832.63231 - 254.3377809 - 3128.880282


Qout = -37621.05855 KJ/hr

5.2 Energy balance on Heat Exchanger

Figure 5. 2: Heat exchanger

Temperatures (K)

S18 S19

288.15 250.15

For S18 (Feed)


Qin = ΔHC2H4 + ΔH (C2H5)2O + ΔHCH4 + ΔHC2H4O + ΔHC2H6 + ΔHH2
Qin = 164472.4606 + 25234.36145 + 66.17065077 + 3051.551749 + 249.2960276 +
108.9090864
Qin = 193182.7496 KJ/hr
For S19 (Product)
Qout = ΔHC2H4 + ΔH (C2H5)2O + ΔHCH4 + ΔHC2H4O + ΔHC2H6 + ΔHH2
Qout = -239224.0914 - 36779.23746 - 98.21747039 - 4456.010788 - 361.8052879 -
166.7943048
Qout = -281086.1567 KJ/hr
30

5.3 Energy Balance On Adsorption column

Figure 5. 3: Adsorption column

Temperatures (K)
S16 S18 W
301.15 299.15 299.15

For S16 (Feed)


Qin = ΔHC2H4 + ΔHH2O + ΔH (C2H5)2O + ΔHCH4 + ΔHC2H4O + ΔHC2H6 + ΔHH2
Qin = 315432.4758 + 273.0150193 + 47891.02766 + 124.8790632 + 5786.629731 +
473.7260382 + 203.3584506
Qin = 370185.1118 KJ/hr

For S18 (Product)


Qout = ΔHC2H4 + ΔH (C2H5)2O + ΔHCH4 + ΔHC2H4O + ΔHC2H6 + ΔHH2
Qout = 289224.9657 + 44358.13637 + 115.7644816 + 5360.461471 + 438.6966597
188.8247299
Qout = 339686.8495 KJ/hr
For W (Waste)
Qout = ΔHH2O + ΔHC2H4
31

Qout = 2921.4643 + 253.45


Qout = 3174.917479 KJ/hr
Heat Duty
Qduty= Qin – Qout
Qduty = 27323.34484 KJ/hr

5.4 Energy balance on Absorber

Figure 5. 4: Absorber

Temperatures (K)
S15 S16
298.15 301.15

For S15 (Feed)


Qin = ΔHC2H4 + ΔHH2O + ΔH (C2H5)2O + ΔHCH4 + ΔHC2H4O + ΔHC2H6 + ΔHH2 + ΔHCO2
Qin = 280546.4124 + 243.6758399 + 31598.27129 + 111.2184585 + 5148.107914 +
421.250151 + 181.5582504 + 454.2083047
32

Qin = 318704.7026KJ/hr
For S16 (Product)
Qout = ΔHC2H4 + ΔHH2O + ΔH (C2H5)2O + ΔHCH4 + ΔHC2H4O + ΔHC2H6 + ΔHH2
Qout = 315432.4758 + 273.0150193 + 47891.02766 + 124.8790632 + 5786.629731 +
473.7260382 + 203.3584506
Qout = 370185.1118KJ/hr
Heat Duty
Qduty= Qin – Qout [7]
Qduty = -51480.40915 KJ/hr

5.5 Energy balance on Quench Column

Figure 5. 5: Quench tower


33

Temperatures (K)
S12 S13 S14
323.15 314.75 314.75

For S12 (Feed)


Qin = ΔHC2H4 + ΔHC2H5OH + ΔHH2O + ΔH (C2H5)2O + ΔHCH4 + ΔHC2H4O + ΔHC2H6 +
ΔHH2 + ΔHCO2
Qin = 579049.1037 - 442125.4546 + 1034818.136 + 87876.86541 + 227.1292402 +
601.29161 + 870.9473719 + 363.2810077 + 969.4466094
Qin = 1272650.747 KJ/hr
For S13 (Product)
Qout = ΔHC2H4 + ΔHH2O + ΔH (C2H5)2O + ΔHCH4 + ΔHC2H4O + ΔHC2H6 + ΔHH2 + ΔHCO2
Qout = 476792.5579 + 406.2924671 + 72367.30744 + 187.6568466 + 8735.767817 +
716.7204321 + 302.2105754 +762.794445
Qout = 560271.3079 KJ/hr
For S13 (Waste)
Qout = ΔHC2H5OH + ΔHH2O
Qout = -359490.3718 + 1033910.106
Qout= 674419.7343 KJ/hr
Heat Duty
Qduty= Qin – Qout
Qduty = 37959.70455KJ/hr
34

5.6 Energy balance on Heat Exchanger

Figure 5. 6: Heat exchanger

Temperatures (K)
S10 S11
643.15 363.15

For S10 (Feed)

Qin = ΔHC2H4 + ΔHC2H5OH + ΔHH2O + ΔH (C2H5)2O + ΔHCH4 + ΔHC2H4O + ΔHC2H6 +


ΔHH2 + ΔHCO2
Qin = 5680041.705 + 183864.9625 + 4330514.82 + 882150.8481 + 2145.866579 +
101869.5429 + 8825.068242 + 2656.221215 + 8022.976578
Qin = 11200092.01 KJ/hr

For S11 (Product)


Qout = ΔHC2H4 + ΔHC2H5OH + ΔHH2O + ΔH (C2H5)2O + ΔHCH4 + ΔHC2H4O + ΔHC2H6 +
ΔHH2 + ΔHCO2
Qout = 1092251.019 + 34644.18576 + 1007926.067 + 165772.2731 + 422.4648371 +
19929.56903 + 1647.831494 + 654.1066834 + 1780.76489
Qout = 2325028.282 KJ/hr
35

5.7 Energy balance on Heat Exchanger

Figure 5. 7: Heat exchanger

Temperatures (K)
S11 S12
363.15 323.15

For S11 (Feed)

Qin = ΔHC2H4 + ΔHC2H5OH + ΔHH2O + ΔH (C2H5)2O + ΔHCH4 + ΔHC2H4O + ΔHC2H6 +


ΔHH2 + ΔHCO2
Qin = 1092251.019 + 34644.18576 + 1007926.067 + 165772.2731 + 422.4648371 +
19929.56903 + 1647.831494 + 654.1066834 + 1780.76489
Qin = 2325028.282KJ/hr

For S12 (Product)

Qout = ΔHC2H4 + ΔHC2H5OH + ΔHH2O + ΔH (C2H5)2O + ΔHCH4 + ΔHC2H4O + ΔHC2H6 +


ΔHH2 + ΔHCO2
Qout = 579049.1037 + 18346.31507 + 557095.5974 + 87876.86541 + 227.1292402 +
10601.29161 + 870.9473719 + 363.2810077 + 969.4466094
Qout = 1255399.977 KJ/hr
36

5.8 Energy balance on Dehydration Reactors

Figure 5. 8: Reactor

Temperatures (K)
S1 S10
698.15 650.25

For S1 (Feed)

Qin = ΔHC2H5OH + ΔHH2O


Qin = 12184256.5 + 647520.4025
Qin = 12831776.91KJ/hr

For S10 (Product)


Qout = ΔHC2H4 + ΔHC2H5OH + ΔHH2O + ΔH (C2H5)2O + ΔHCH4 + ΔHC2H4O + ΔHC2H6 +
ΔHH2 + ΔHCO2
37

Qout = 5814029.297 + 188343.4373 + 4419334.629 + 903849.0721 + 2198.004485 +


104236.5167 + 9041.493231 + 3926.236023 + 8187.491082
Qout = 11453146.18KJ/hr
38

CHAPTER 6

EQUIPMENT DESIGN

6.1 Design Adiabatic Fixed Bed Reactor

6.1.1 Choice of reactor (BATCH, CSTR, OR PBR)

Selection of the reactor type for a given process is subjected to many considerations:
• Temperature and pressure of the reaction.
• Need for removal or addition of the reactants and products.
• Required pattern of the product delivery.
• Catalyst use consideration such as requirement for solid catalyst particle and
contact with fluid reactants and products.
• Relative cost of the reactor.

Some guideline for the reactor selection is:


• For conversion up to 90%, the performance of five or more CSTRs connected
in series approaches to that of PFR.
• Batch reactors are best suited for small scale production, very slow reactions
or those requiring intensive monitoring and control. For large operations
CSTR or PER is used.
• CSTRs are used for slow liquid phase and slurry reactions. For gas phase
reactions PER is preferable.
• For endothermic reactions, the plug flow reactor is used. For exothermic
reaction that has a large temperature raise during the reaction, recycle
reactors are the best choice.
• For small Cp ⁄-∆Hr mixed flow reactor is used. For large Cp ⁄-∆Hr plug flow
reactor is best choice.
39

Since our reaction is the gaseous phase and exothermic reaction so the choice is the
tubular reactor

.
6.1.2 Selection of the Bed

Use of the catalyst requires modifications to basic reactor design to fixed bed
reactors, moving bed reactors or fluidized bed reactors.

Fixed Bed Reactors

These are used in the heterogeneous catalyst reactions and pressure drop across the
bed is small. The design of the fixed bed reactor is very easy as compared to the
moving bed and fluidized bed reactors. Their size is also compact as compared to
other fluidized bed and moving bed reactors. The energy requirement is also small
because no amount of energy is needed as in fluidized bed and moving bed required
to fluidize or move the bed.

Fluidized Bed Reactor

These are the reactors with a gas phase working fluid that requires gas flow around
and across the fine particles at a rate sufficient to fluidize the particles suspended
within the reactor. Since the catalyst bed has to be fluidized so the energy
requirement in these reactors is large. Pressure drop is also large as compared to the
fixed bed reactors because the pressure is dissipated to fluidize the bed. The volume
of the reactor required is also large as compared to fixed bed reactor, because the
void spaces between the fluidized beds occupy the more volume.

Moving Bed Reactor

These units are fluid reactors used where the fluid contain solid particles that can be
separated from the suspension fluid. Mostly suitable for liquid phase reactions or
where the slurry travels through the reactor. Moving bed reactors are not preferred
40

for the gas phase reactions. In these reactors, the pressure drop is the greater among
all.
From above points we see that the suitable reactor for our process is fixed bed
tubular reactor, with the reaction occurring in the tubes and the heat exchanging
material flowing outside the tubes.

Design Step for Reactor

Standard design steps for the reactor are given below:


• Collect together all the kinetic and thermodynamic data on the desired
reaction and the side reactions (if present). The kinetic data required for
reactor design will normally be obtained from laboratory or pilot plant
studies. Values will be needed for the rate of reaction over a range of
operating conditions: pressure, temperature, and flow-rate and catalyst
concentration.
▪ Obtain the physical property data required for the design.
▪ Mark the major rate-controlling mechanism: kinetic, mass or heat transfer.
▪ Choose a suitable reactor type, based on experience with similar reactions, or
from the laboratory and pilot plant work.
▪ Make an initial selection of the reactor conditions to give the desired
conversion and yield.
▪ Size the vessel and evaluate its performance. Exact analytical solutions of the
design relationships are rarely possible; semi empirical methods based on the
analysis of idealized reactors will normally have to be used.
▪ Select suitable materials of construction.
▪ Make a preliminary mechanical design for the reactor: the vessel design,
heat-transfer surfaces, internals and general arrangement.Cost the proposed
design, capital and operating, and repeat steps 4 to 8, as necessary, to
optimize the design.
41

Figure 6. 1: Fixed bed Reactor

6.1.3 Design Calculation

The reaction occurring in Adiabatic Fixed Bed reactor is heterogeneous reaction, the
reactants are in gaseous phase and the catalyst is in solid phase. The process is
continuous. Since the Adiabatic Fixed Bed reaction is endothermic reaction so heat
will be not be generated.

Performance equation for the reactor:

The performance equation for the fixed bed reactor is:


XA dX A
W = FAo *
o -rA
Where W is the weight of the catalyst, FAo is the flow rate of the C2H5OH, −rA is the
rate of the reaction. The weight of the catalyst is found from this performance
equation.

Catalyst Selection:

Density of catalyst = 650 kg/m3


Void fraction (Porosity) = 0.4
42

Table 6. 1: Feed to Reactor

Since the rate equation is


-rA=kCA
k=Aexp−Ea/RT
k=3x10^exp(-26.6/0.001985x698.15)
Operating Condition

T=698.15 K
Po=410 kPa
P=378 kPa

Parameter Evaluation

-rA=kCA
k=Aexp−Ea/RT
A=3x108exp(-E/RT)
Ea=-26.6 kcal/mol
R=0.001985 kcal/K.mol
T=698.15K
k=3x10^exp(-26.6/0.001985x698.15)
k=1.40s-1 (REF) J. Chem. Soc. B, 1968,0, 905-908 REF
43

Reaction

C2H50HC2H4+H2O

Rate of reaction on depends on the single reactant i.e Ethanol

GAS PHASE ENDOTHERMIC CATALYTIC


REACTION

Ϩ (sigma)= Product Moles-Reactant moles


Ϩ (sigma)= 1
yAo=0.88 (Ethanol Mole Fraction in Feed)
ξ = yAo x Ϩ = 0.88
X=28.7%

Table 6. 2: concentration calculations

Calculation of Concentrations
Cao (yAo x Po) /RTo 0.062205367 kmol/m3
CA1 (At 0% Conversion) 0.061526196 kmol/m3
CA2 (At 3.1889% Conversion) 0.05797304 kmol/m3
CA3 (At 6.377% Conversion) 0.054541909 kmol/m3
CA4 (At 9.566% Conversion) 0.051320407 kmol/m3
CA5 (At 12.755% Conversion) 0.048261469 kmol/m3
CA6 (At 15.944% Conversion) 0.045353094 kmol/m3
CA7 (At 19.133% Conversion) 0.042584431 kmol/m3
CA8 (At 22.322% Conversion) 0.03994565 kmol/m3
CA9 (At 25.511% Conversion) 0.037427822 kmol/m3
CA10(At 28.700% Conversion) 0.035022815 kmol/m3

Solving For The First Reactor


CAo=YAo x CTo
CTo=Po / RTo
CAo= YAo x Po / RTo
44

GAS PHASE REACTION CONCENTRATION


(H.SCOTT FOGLER) REF

At 28.7% conversion –rA is


-rA=kCA

Table 6. 3: Calculation of Rates At Given Concentrations

rA=kCA0 0.086826431 kmol/m3.(s)


rA=kCA1 0.085878441 kmol/m3.(s)
rA=kCA2 0.080918937 kmol/m3.(s)
rA=kCA3 0.076129754 kmol/m3.(s)
rA=kCA4 0.071633172 kmol/m3.(s)
rA=kCA5 0.067363498 kmol/m3.(s)
rA=kCA6 0.063303979 kmol/m3.(s)
rA=kCA7 0.059439472 kmol/m3.(s)
rA=kCA8 0.055756254 kmol/m3.(s)
rA=kCA9 0.052241861 kmol/m3.(s)
rA=kCA10 0.048884947 kmol/m3.(s)
(H.SCOTT FOGLER) REF

Table 6. 4:Trapezoidal Formula Application

Table For Trapezoidal Formula


X (CONVERSION) FAo/-rA (m3) 1/-rA (m3.s)/kmol
0% 0.998 11.517
2.87% 1.009 11.644
5.74% 1.071 12.358
8.61% 1.138 13.135
11.48% 1.209 13.960
14.35% 1.286 14.845
45

17.22% 1.368 15.797


20.09% 1.457 16.824
22.96% 1.554 17.935
25.83% 1.658 19.142
28.70% 1.772 20.456
(H.SCOTT FOGLER) REF

DATA (PROPERTIES)
REFERENCED BY US PATENT
Density of ɤ-Al2O3 Catalyst (kg/m3)
650
Pore Volume of ɤ-Al2O3 Catalyst
0.60 cc/g or 0.00060 m3/kg
US4301033A (REFRENCE US PATENT)

GIVEN DATA

Adiabatic Fixed Reactor (Pbr)


TEMPERATURE (INLET)(To) 698.15 K
TEMPERATURE (OUTLET)(T) 650.25 K
PRESSURE (INLET)(Po) 410.325 kPa
PRESSURE (OUTLET) (P) 378 KPa
OVERALL CONVERSION (X) 98.2 % of Ethanol
MOLAR FLOW RATE OF ETHANOL 311.869 kmol/hr
(FAo)
MOLAR FLOW RATE OF ETHANOL 0.086630278 kmol/s
(FAo)
DENSITY OF ETHANOL (Liquid) 789 kg/m3
MOLAECULAR WEIGHT OF ETHANOL 46 kg/kmol
CATALYST ɤ-Al2O3
R (IDEAL GAS CONSTANT) 0.00831446 kPa(m3)/mol.K
R (IDEAL GAS CONSTANT) 0.001985878 kcal/ K.mol
46

MOLE FRACTION OF ETHANOL (yAo) 0.88 mol fraction


MASS FLOW RATE OF FEED 3.692182439 kg/s
VOLUMETRIC FLOW RATE OF FEED 0.004679572 m3/s

Weight of catalyst is
XA dX A
W = FAo *
o -rA
where (H.SCOTT FOGLER) REF

XA dX A
 o -rA
= Area under the curve

Area under the curve is found by applying Trapezoidal rule

Applying trapezoidal rule,


-
0.287−0
= 𝑥 (0.998+2(1.008754659)+2(1.070581021)+2(1.137929301)+2(1.20935
2

9791)+2(1.28601217)+2(1.368480776)+2(1.457453702)+2(1.553732033)+2(1.6582
54041)+ 1.7721259)
W=2450.43 Kg
Weight Of Catalyst= Volume x Density Of Catalyst

Volume of Catalyst= 3.77m3

Volume of Reactor

Volume Of Reactor= Weight Of Catalyst/ (Density Of Catalyst*(1-Porosity)


Porosity=0.4 (Ref)
Porosity=Pore Volume of Catalyst x Density of the Catalyst (Ref)
47

Volume of Reactor 6.18 m3

Space Time of Reactor


Space Time of Reactor = Volume of Reactor/Volumetric Flow =0.367 h

Space Velocity of Reactor


Space Velocity of Reactor= Volumetric Flow/Volume of Reactor= 2.726 h-1

Calculation of Structural Data (Height And Diameter)

L/D Ratio= 3 (Optimum Range = 2-5 for PBR)


Volume= л/4d^2*l
L=3D
Volume= (3л/4)d^3
Diameter= ((4 x v)/3*л) ^ 1/3
Diameter =1.38m (4.52ft)
Length =3D= 4.14m (13.57ft)

Height Of Reactor
Height of the reactor is equal to the height of the tubes plus 20% allowance

H=(4.14+(2x0.2(4.14)) = 5.8m

Calculation Of Thickness Of Cylinder And Ellipsoidal Head

𝐏𝐢 𝐃𝐢
е= + C.A
𝟐𝐟−𝐏𝐢
(COUSLON VOL 6 REF)

e= Thickness (m)
Pi= Internal Pressure (kPa)=1.1 x 410.325= 451.3575kPa
Di= Internal Diameter (m)=1.38m
48

Thickness For Cylinderical 0.00560m 5.60 mm


Section (m)

Closure Selection Of Ellipsoidal Head

𝐏𝐢 𝐃𝐢
е= + C.A
𝟐𝐉𝐟−𝟎.𝟐𝐏𝐢

J= Fully radiographed 100%

Ellipsoidal Head Closure (m) 0.00259m 2.59 mm

(COUSLON VOL 6) REF

Pressure Drop Calculation


For the fixed bed reactor to operate economically the pressure drop along the
length of the reactor should be less than the 10% of the operating pressure. The
pressure drop along the length of the packed bed is calculated by using the Ergun
equation. The Ergun equation is:

𝒅𝑷 𝑮 (𝟏 − 𝝋) 𝟏𝟓𝟎(𝟏 − 𝝋)
= 𝒙 [ 𝝁 + 𝟏. 𝟕𝟓𝑮]
𝒅𝒛 𝝆𝑫𝒑 𝝋𝟑 𝑫𝒑

(COULSON VOL 2)REF

∆P = Pressure drop along the length of reactor


z= Length of reactor
μ = Viscosity of the gaseous feed
G = Mass velocity
ρ = Feed density
Dp = Diameter of the particle
φ = Porosity
g = Gravitational acceleration
49

Calculated Data
DATA (PROPERTIES)
Water (Viscosity Calculation)
A=-36.826
B=4.2900 X 10-1
C=-1.62 X 10-5

CONSTANTS
Ethanol (Viscosity Calculation)
A=1.499
B=3.0741 X 10-1
C=-4.4479 X 10-5
(REF)

Parameter evaluation
AREA= 𝝅/𝟒 𝒙 𝑫𝟐 = 1.49m2

Table 6. 5: Reactor data

ɸ (POROSITY) 0.4
(Dp) DIAMETER OF
CATALYST PARTICLE 0.005 m
Mw x P / RT
DENSITY OF ETHANOL 3.249 kg / m3

DENSITY OF WATER 1.271 kg / m3

VISCOSITY OF WATER Ƞ=A+BT+CT2


254.78 micropoise
0.0000254784 kg / m.s
VISCOSITY OF ETHANOL 194.44 micropoise
0.0000194438 kg / m.s

AVERAGE VISCOSITY OF
FEED 0.0000201679 kg / m.s

AVERAGE DENSITY OF 3.012 kg / m3


50

FEED

Mw (AVERAGE
MOLECULAR WEIGHT) 42.62 kg / kmol

MASS VELOCITY
Mass Flow Rate
(G)= Area 2.471734464 kg / m2s
VELOCITY OF FEED
𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐 𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒
V= 0.003132743 m/s
𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎

Re 645.2109233 LAMINAR

Pressure Drop (ΔP) 3.12 Psi

The pressure drop is in appropriate range and within 10% of the Operational
pressure

Table 6. 6: Specification Sheet

Reactor
ID number: R-100
Design data
Type Fixed Bed
Position Vertical
Material of construction Stainless steel
Weight of catalyst (kg) 2450.43
Diameter of Reactor (m) 1.38
Height of Reactor (m) 5.8
Volume of Reactor (m3) 6.18
Pressure Drop(psi) 3.12
51

6.2 Design of Heat Exchanger

Figure 6. 2: Heat Exchanger

9328.17 kg/h \
15111.06 kg/h

T =hot fluid
t = cold fluid
T1= 363.15 k
t1=298.15 k
T2= 313.15 k
t2= 355.15 k

6.2.1 Energy Balance

Q = mCp∆T
= 15111.06 * .75* (53.5)
= 606331.28 Kj/ hr
Qhot = Qcold
606331.28 = m * (1) * (65)
m = 9328.17 kg/h
∆Tln= { ( T1 – t2) - ( T2 – t1) } / ln { ( T1 – t2) / ( T2 – t1) }
52

∆Tln=(363.15-355.15) – ( 313.15 – 298.15 ) / ln{ (363.15-355.15) / (313.15 –


298.15) }
∆Tln=12.69 k
R=(T1-T2)/(t2-t1)
R=0.87

S=(t2-t1)/(T1-t1) =0.87
Ft = 0.8
[From D.Q kern fig. 18]
∆Tm= ∆Tln * Ft
∆Tm=10.152
Assume:
U=250 kj /hr.m2
[From Coulson vol. 6]
Q=UA∆Tm
A= Q / U∆Tm
A=238 m2
(Since Area is large enough , so we will select Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger)

6.2.2 Tube selection


Assume
3/4 inch, 16 BWG L = 16 ft ( from table B.1 Serth)
Tube length = 16 ft = 5.48 m
OD= 3/4 = 0.02 m
ID = 0.58 in = 0.0148 m
a’t=.266 in
a’t=.000172 m
so
Nt=A/3.14* Do * L
No.of Tubes= 700
Velocity
V= {m (np/nt)} / { ρ * ∏ (din )2/4 }
V= {.4543 * (2 / 700) / 0.43 * 3.14 * (0.0148)2/4 }
53

V= 4.3 m/s
V= 14.07 ft/s

Our velocity is in range


ID shell = 36 inch
Nt=700 [from Kern table 9]
Ureq = Q/(Nt*3.14*Do*L*∆Tm)
Ureq = 193.34 kj/m2h

Calculate Reynolds number Tube Side


at=Nt*a’t/*np at=0.0786 ft2 Gt=m/at
Gt=21400kg/m2hr
Re = Id*Gt/viscosity
μ= .4356 kg/m.hr
k=0.76 Cp=4.18
Re =7270
From kern graph value of Jh= 25
Jh∗K 𝐶𝑝 𝜇 −1 𝜇 -0.14
Hi = *( ) 3 *( )
D 𝐾 𝜇𝑤

As viscosity of mixture is less than the viscosity


of water Hi= 999.51 kJ/m2.k
hio=hi*ID/OD
hio=739.64 kJ m2.k
Shell side
Baffle spacing 0.2 (Dalware assumption Robert Serth Ch#3)
B= 0.2*36= 7.2inch
C’ = Pt – OD
C’ = 1 – 3/4 = .25 inch
𝑑𝑠∗𝐶∗𝐵
Area shell =
144∗𝑃𝑡

Area shell = .0353 m2


G= m/as

G= 129866.45kg/h.m2
54

𝜂
4∗(𝑃𝑡− ∗𝐼.𝐷2 )
4
de=
𝜂∗𝐼.𝐷

de = .01978 m

𝐷𝑒∗𝐺
Re = ( )
𝜇
viscosity=0.0562Kj
Re= 45727.16
Jh=110
K=0.504KJ/kg.m.k
Jh∗K 𝐶𝑝 𝜇 −1 𝜇
Hi = *( ) 3 *(𝜇 𝑤)-0.14
D 𝐾

ho= 1960.35 KJ/kg.m2.k


Uc =1/hio + 1/ho
Uc = 537 KJ/kg.m2.k
Uc > Ureq satisfactory
Rd=0.003 [from Coulson vol 6]
UD = 1/ Uc + Rd
UD = 197.54kJ/kg.m2.k.
Q= UD * A * ∆Tlm

𝑄
A=
𝑈𝑑∗ ∆Tlm

A= 238 m2
nt = actual area/(3.14*L*OD)
nt=853
6.2.3 Pressure Drop Calculation for shell side
𝑓∗𝐺𝑠 2 ∗𝑑𝑠 (𝑛+1)
∆P =
Sg∗De∗ɸs∗5.22∗1010

N + 1=L/B
N + 1=18/.616
N + 1= 29 ft
f = .002ft2/in2
(from D.Q KERN)
Sg = 0.75
55

Ds= 3.08. ft
De=.065 ft
∆P= .101 psi<10
6.2.4 Pressure Drop calculations for tube side
f= 0.003 From graph
D= 0.0485 ft
S.g=.268
G= 4384 lb/ ft2 h
∆Pt= 1.43 psi
4∗𝑛𝑝 𝑉2
∆Pr = *
𝑆𝑔 2𝑔

∆Pr= 0.049 psi


Ptotal = 1.43+.049 Ptotal = 1.47psi
Allowable pressure drop is 10 so our system is satisfactory as it is less than 10
56

6.3 Design of Quench Tower

Gas flow rate = VG = 4.19 kg/s


Temperature = 378.15 K
Liquid flow rate = L = 0.867 kg/s
Temperature = 303.15 K
Pressure = 136 kPa

Density of Gas mixture


Density of gas mixture can be calculated as:

𝑃𝑀
Density of Gas mixture =
𝑅𝑇

𝑁𝑚
R = 8.314×103
𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐾

M = 0.43×28+0.009×46.07+0.5275×18+0.0250×74.12+0.0002×16.04+0.0064×44.05
+ 0.0005×30.07+0.0004×2+0.0010×44.01
𝑘𝑔
M =24.147
𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙

13600×24.147
So, ρg =
8.314×103 ×378.15
ρg = 1.045kg/m3

Volumetric flow Rate

Now, we will calculate volumetric flow rate of gas mixture:


𝐺
Q=
ρ
4.19
Q=
1.04457
Q = 4.02 m3/s > 1, so we will use 50 mm Packing
57

6.3.1 Flooding (Flood point)

Now, we will calculate flood point for our tower.


This flood point can be obtained mathematically by polymer regression and is given
as:
lnYFlood = - [3.5021+1.028lnX+0.11093(lnX) 2]
This equation will give us our flood point, but for this we must calculate X, flow
Parameter, which is:
L ρg
X = ×[ ]0.5
𝐺 𝜌𝐿

Where ρL, ρg are the densities and L,G are the liquid and gas flow rates of liquid and
gas respectively.
0.867 1.045 0.5
X= ×[ ]
4.195 1000
X = 0.0067
Now we will be able to calculate flood point as:
lnYFlood = - [3.5021+1.028(ln0.0067)+0.11093(ln0.0067)2]
YFlood = 0.32
Now, we will calculate capacity Factor, Cs,flood at flooding :
𝑌𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑜𝑑 0.5
Cs,flood = [ ]
𝐹𝑝 ×𝜇 0.1

Select metal pall ring packing, for this type of packing Fp = 27 ft2/ft3
0.32
Cs,flood = [ ]0.5
27×(0.001)^0.1

Cs,flood = 0.154

Calculate superficial gas velocity at flooding:


𝐶𝑠𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑜𝑑
VG,F = 𝜌𝑔
( )0.5
𝜌𝐿 −𝜌𝑔

0.154
VG, F = 1.045
( )0.5
1000−1.045

VG, F = 4.76 m/s

6.3.2 Pressure drop at flooding


58

We will now calculate the pressure drop at flooding:


ΔPflood = 93.9(FP) 0.7
This pressure drop strongly depends upon the packing factor.
Where Fp is the packing factor,
Therefore,
ΔPflood = 93.9 × (27)0.7
ΔPflood = 943 Pa/m
Now for our tower to operate normally in the preloading region, it must operate at 70
% of flooding velocity.
Therefore our superficial velocity in the preloading region becomes:
VG = 0.7 × 4.76
VG = 3.33 m/s
At this superficial velocity we will calculate our diameter,
4×𝑄
D=[ ]
𝑉𝐺×π
4×4.02
D=[ ]0.5
3.33×3.14
D = 1.24 m
Now we can calculate area,
𝛑
A = 𝐷2
4
𝛑
A = (1.24)2
4
A = 1.207 m2

6.3.3 Dry Gas Pressure drop

Suppose there is no or very less liquid flow rate, we can calculate dry gas pressure
drop:
∆𝑃𝑜 ψ×a×ρg×v2g
=
∆𝑍 𝜀^2×2×𝑘𝑤
Now for this equation we must know, kw, ψ, and 𝜀.
KW = wall factor, it can be found as:
1 2 1 𝑑𝑝
=1+ ( )
𝑘𝑤 3 1−𝜀 𝐷
1−𝜀
For effective particle diameter, dp = 6×( )
𝑎
59

For metal Pall ring, 𝜺= radial void fraction = 0.951 and a = 112.6 m2/m3
1−0.951
dp = 6×( )
112.6

dp = 0.002611 m
Now, for wall factor,
1 2 1 0.002611
=1+ ×( )×
𝑘𝑤 3 1−0.951 1.23
Kw = 0.972
For dry packing resistance co-efficient, ψ, we will first calculate Reynold’s number,
ReG.
𝑣𝐺 ×𝑑𝑝 ×𝜌𝑔 ×𝑘𝑤
ReG = [ ]
(1−𝜀)𝜇𝑔

µg = 0.00002145 Pa.s
3.33×0.002661×1.045×0.972
ReG =
(1−0.951)×0.00002145

ReG = 8411
Now, calculate ψ.
64 1.8
Ψ = Cp × [ ]+[ ]
𝑅𝑒𝐺 (𝑅𝑒𝐺)^0.08

For metal pall ring, Cp = 0.763


64 1.8
Ψ = 0.763 × [ ]+[ ]
8411 (8411)^0.08

Ψ = 0.6723
Finally, we can calculate dry gas pressure drop:
∆𝑃𝑜 ψ×a×ρg ×v2g
=
∆𝑍 𝜀 2 ×2×𝑘𝑤
∆𝑃𝑜 0.6723×112.6×1.045×3.332
=
∆𝑍 0.9512 ×2×0.9721
∆𝑃𝑜
= 499.67 Pa/m
∆𝑍

For determining the pressure drop when the bed is irrigated, we will find liquid
hold-up for this:

Liquid Hold-up
60

12𝐹𝑟𝐿 1/3 𝑎ℎ 2/3


hL = [ ] [ ]
𝑅𝑒𝐿 𝑎

For this we should first find ReL, FrL and ah/a.


𝑥 𝐺
ReL = 𝑎×𝜇
𝐿

𝐿
And mass velocity, Gx, = 𝐴
0.867
GX =
1.204
GX = 0.719 kg/m2s
0.719
ReL =
112.6×0.001
ReL = 6.38
𝐺𝑥2 × 𝑎
Now FrL =
𝜌𝐿2 × 𝑔

For metal pall ring packing, specific area, a =112.6 m2/m3 𝝆𝑳 = 1000 kg/m3
0.7192 ×112.6
FrL =
10002 ×9.8
FrL = 5.94183 × 10-6
For ReL > 5
The ratio of specific area is given as:
𝑎ℎ
= 0.85×Ch×ReL0.25 × FrL0.1
𝑎
Ch =0.784 (For metal Pall Ring)
𝑎ℎ
= 0.85×0.784×6.38970.25 × (5.94183 × 10-6)0.1
𝑎
𝑎ℎ
= 0.3095
𝑎
12𝐹𝑟𝐿 1/3 𝑎ℎ 2/3
hL = [ ] [ ]
𝑅𝑒𝐿 𝑎

So, Specific Liquid hold-up is given as:


12×5.941×10−6 1/3
hL = [ ] [0.3095]2/3
6.389
𝑚3 ℎ𝑜𝑙𝑑 𝑢𝑝
hL = 0.01023
𝑚3 𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑘𝑒𝑑 𝑏𝑒𝑑

6.3.4 Pressure Drop when bed is irrigated

∆𝑃 𝜀 𝑅𝑒𝐿
=[ ]1.5 × exp[ ]
∆𝑃𝑂 𝜀− ℎ𝐿 100
61

∆𝑃 0.951 6.389
= [0.951− 0.0102253]1.5 × exp[ ]
∆𝑃𝑂 200

So, Pressure drop would increase by a factor,


∆𝑃
= 1.02
∆𝑃𝑂

So,

6.3.5 Actual pressures drop

∆𝑃 ∆𝑃
× = 1.02×499.67
∆𝑃𝑂 ∆𝑧
∆𝑃
= 508 Pa/m
∆𝑍

Column height

Now, we will calculate column height, Z = HOG × NOG


To find Number of gas transfer unit, NOG we will first calculate y1/y2,
0.5275
y1/y2 = 0.0010

y1/y2 = 527.5
𝑚𝐺𝑚
We can take = 0.6 - 0.8
𝐿𝑚
𝑚𝐺𝑚
Take, = 0.6
𝐿𝑚

NOG = 13 (as it can be seen in the graph):


62

Figure 6. 3: graph

𝒎𝑮𝒎
Now, for HOG = HG + ×HL
𝑳𝒎
𝐺𝑚
And, HG =
𝐾𝐺×𝑎ℎ ×𝑃

𝐿𝑚
Also, HL =
𝐾𝐿×𝑎ℎ ×𝐶𝑡

For this we will calculate effective area, ah, mass transfer co-efficient KL and KG
Lw* = liquid mass flow rate per unit area = 0.7194 kg/m2s
µL= 0.001 Pa.s
g = 9.8 m2/s
a = 112.6 m2/m3
𝑎ℎ
= 0.309533174
𝑎
ah= 112.6 × 0.309533174
ah = 34.853 m2/m3
DL (Diffusivity of Liquid) = 6.0116×10-10 m2/s (Chapter 8, Coulson and
Richardson)
Now, we will determine liquid film mass transfer coefficient, KL
𝜌𝐿 1 𝐿∗𝑤 2
𝜇𝐿 −0.5
KL ( )3 = 0.0051×( )3 × ( ) ×(𝑎×𝑑𝑝 )0.4
𝜇𝐿 𝑔 𝑎ℎ×𝜇𝐿 𝜌𝐿 𝐷𝐿
1
1000
KL (0.001×9.8)3
63

0.719
2
0.001 −0.5
= 0.0051×( )3 × ( ) ×(112.6 ×
34.853×0.001 1000×6.0116×10−10

0.002661)0.4
KL = 1.23405 ×10-5m/s
𝟏
𝒌𝑮 ×𝑹×𝑻 𝑽∗𝒘 𝟎.𝟕 𝝁𝒗 𝟑
𝒂×𝑫𝒗
= 𝑲𝟓 ×(
𝒂×𝝁𝑽
) ×(
𝝆𝒗 𝑫𝒗
) ×(𝒂×𝒅𝒑 )−𝟐.𝟎

Dv (Diffusivity of Gas) = 2.22459×10-5 m2/s


R = 0.08314 bar m3/kmol
K5 = 5.32 (for packing sizes above 15 mm.
For Gas mass flow rate per unit area
4.1958
V*w = 1.2064

V*w = 3.4830
µv = 0.00001055 Pa s
𝑘𝐺 ×0.08314×378.15
112.6×2.22459×10−5
1
3.4830 0.7 0.00002145 3
= 5.32×(112.6×0.00002145) × ( ) ×(112.6×
1.045×2.22459×10−5
−2.0
0.002661)

KG = 0.7766 kmol/s m2 bar


𝑮𝒎
HG =
𝑲𝑮 ×𝒂𝒘 ×𝑷

P = 1.36 bar
625.4
Molar gas flow, Gm = = 0.14424 kmol/m2 hr
1.2046×3600

0.14424
HG =
0.7766×34.853×1.36
HG = 0.00391 m
𝑳𝒎
HL =
𝑲𝑳×𝒂𝒘×𝑪𝒕
𝜌𝐿
ct =
𝑀.𝑊
1000
ct = = 55.5 kmol/hr
18
64

Lm = 0.7194/18
Lm = 0.039971 kmol/ m2 s

0.039971
HL =
1.23405×10−5 ×34.85×55.5
HL = 1.673 m
Then, Height of gas transfer unit, HOG will be:
𝐦×𝐆𝐦
HOG = HG + HL
𝐋𝐦
𝒎×𝑮𝒎
= 0.6 - 0.8 is an optimum value. Select 0.6.
𝑳𝒎

HOG = 0.0030204 + 0.6 × 1.673


HOG = 1.006705 m
z = HOG × NOG
z = 1.006705 × 13
z = 13.1 m

6.3.6 Overall Heat Transfer Co-efficient

To calculate heat transfer co-efficient,


We must find,
Liquid phase heat Transfer co-efficient (hLa) and volumetric gas phase heat transfer
co-efficient (hga.).
Now, hga = c1GmLn. Also hLa = c1GmLn

For metal pall ring packing

For hLa: c1 = 1.164, m = 0.31 and n = 0.80


And, for hga: c1 = 0.011, m = 1.28 and n = 0.26
G = superficial gas mass velocity (lb/ hr ft2)
L = superficial Liquid mass velocity (lb/ hr ft2)
3.334 𝑚 1.0445 𝑘𝑔 1 𝑙𝑏 1 𝑚2 3600𝑠
G= × × × ×
𝑠 𝑚3 0.454 𝑘𝑔 3.282 𝑓𝑡 2 1 ℎ𝑟

G = 2567.174 lb/ ft2 hr


0.7194 𝑘𝑔 𝑚2 1 𝑙𝑏 3600 𝑠
Now, for liquid, L = × ×
𝑠 0.454 𝑘𝑔 1 ℎ𝑟
65

L = 530.303 lb/ ft2 hr


Now, hga = 0.011 × (2567.174)1.28 × (530.303)0.26
hga = 1299.79 BTU/ hr ft3 ᵒF
For, hLa = 01.164 × (2567.1741)0.31 × (530.30324)0.80
hLa = 2006.79 BTU/ hr ft3 ᵒF
For Overall heat transfer co-efficient,
1 1 1
= +
𝑈𝑎 ℎ𝐿𝑎 ℎ𝑔𝑎

1 1 1
= +
𝑈𝑎 2006.797 1299.785

Ua = 788.852 BTU/ hr ft3 ᵒF


66

6.4 Design Of Absorber

6.4.1 Types Of Absorption


1) Physical absorption,
2) Chemical Absorption.
6.4.2 Physical Absorption:
In physical absorption mass transfer take place purely by diffusion and
physical absorption is governed by the physical equilibria.
6.4.3 Chemical Absorption:
In this type of absorption as soon as a particular component comes in contact
with the absorbing liquid a chemical reaction take place. Then by reducing the
concentration of component in the liquid phase, which enhances the rate of diffusion.
6.4.4 Types Of Absorber
There are two major types of absorbers which are used for absorption purposes:

1. Packed column
2. Plate column

6.4.5 Designing steps of Absorber

1. Selection of column.
2. Selection of packing and material
3. Calculating the size of packing
4. Calculating the diameter of column
5. Determining the no. of transfer units (NOG)
6. Determining the height of packing
7. Determining the height of the column
8. Calculating the operating velocity
9. Calculating the flooding velocity
10. Determining the pressure drop.
11. Select and design the column internal features: packing support, liquid
distributer and redistributer.
67

Equation for equilibrium curve:


Let

Y1= Mole fraction of CO2 in entering gas stream = 0.00173

Y2 = Mole fraction CO2 in leaving gas stream = 0.000150

Y1/Y2 = 11.5

Colburn has suggested that the economic range for mGm/Lm lies from 0.7 to 0.8. For
our process,
mGm/Lm = 0.70

Area under the curve= NOG = 2.7

Reference (From graph Richardson and Coulson)

Calculation of diameter of column:

Flow rate of entering gases = G = 8906.3 kg/hr

Flow rate of entering solvent=L= 133.82 kg/hr

Temperature of entering gas= Tg = 41.6oC = 314.6 K

Temperature of entering solvent = TL = 41.6 oC = 314.6 K

Pressure of entering gases = P = 1.046 atm

Average molecular weight of entering gases = 30.74 g/mol

Density of gas mixture =ρg=Xaρa+ Xbρb+……=1.245 Kg/ m3

Density of liquid solvent at 41oC =ρL =1436 Kg/m3


68

Viscosity of liquid solvent at 41oC = µL = 0.133 cp

Viscosity of gaseous mixture = µg = 0.0105

Now,

fig (from Richardson & Coulson vol 6)

L g
G L = 0.00042

K4 = 0.02 (Richardson & coulson vol 6)

Packing factor for 2-inch ceramic intalox - saddles = Fp = 130 m-1

Figure 6. 4: packing data


69

 k 4 *ρg *  ρ L -ρ g  
0.5

G*    (from Richardson & Coulson vol 6)


 13.1*Fp* µL /ρ L 0.1 
 
G*= 0.230434 Kg/m2-sec.

Flow rate of gas entering = G = 8906.3Kg/s.

As,

G
Area = A = = 10.71 m2
G*

4*A
Diameter of column = D =
π

D = 2.085 m

Calculation of height of transfer units:


Equation for calculation of effective interfacial area is given as.
(from Richardson & Coulson vol 6)

aw   
0.75
 Lw 
0.1
 Lw 2 a 
0.05
 Lw 2 
0.2

 1  exp  1.45 c        
  2g    a
a 
 l   a L   L   L L  

Where

aw = effective interfacial area of packing per unit volume m2/m3

Lw = liquid mass velocity kg/m2s

a = actual area of packing per unit volume = 108 m2/m3

σc = critical surface tension for particular packing material = 0.061 N/m


70

σL = liquid surface tension = 0.000794 N/m

Lw = 0.003452 kg/m2s

µL= 0.133 cp

ρL = 1436 Kg /m3

putting valves in above formula

aw = 36.79012 m2/m3

Calculation of liquid film mass transfer coefficient:

(from Richardson & Coulson vol 6)

1 2 1

  3  Lw  3  L 
ad 
2
K L  L   0.0051    0.4


 L 
g  aw  L    L DL 
p

KL = liquid film coefficient m/s

dp = packing size = 51 mm

DL = diffusivity of liquid = 6.69*10^-7 m2/s

Then, by substituting the values,

KL = 6.57*10^-7 m/s

Calculation of gas film mass transfer coefficient:

(from Richardson & Coulson vol 6)


71

1
0 .7
 V   g 3
 ad p  2
K G RT g
 K5  w  
aD g  a   D 
 g   g g 

Where
KG = Gas film coefficient, kmol/m2s.bar

VW = Gas mass velocity = 0.230434 Kg /m2.s

K5= 5.23 (For packing size above 15mm)

Dg = Diffusivity of gas = 1.60*10^-5m2/s

Then, by substituting the values,

KG = 2.96*10^-5 kmol/m2s.atm
Now,
G
H  m
G K a P
G w

Where,

HG = Gas-film transfer unit height

Gm = 5.24*10^-3 Kmol/m2.s

Then,

HG = 4.54 m

Calculation of liquid transfer unit height

(from Richardson & Coulson vol 6)

L
H  m
L K a C
L w t
72

And ,
HL= Liquid-film transfer unit height

Lm= 8.63*10^-5 Kmol/m2.s

Ct = Concentration of solvent = = 3.59*10^1 Kmol/m3

HL = 3.366 m

Calculation of height of transfer units:

(from Richardson & Coulson vol 6)


mG m
H oG  H G   HL
Lm

HG = 4.54 m

HL = 3.366 m

So,

HOG = 6.89 m

Calculation of height of tower:

Total height of packing = Z = NOG × HOG

Z = 2.7*6.89 = 18.62 m

Allowances for liquid distribution = 1m

Allowances for liquid Re-distribution =1m


73

Total height of tower = 18.62 + 1 + 1

Zt = 20.62 m

Calculation of total pressure drop:

Gx y
Gy  x   y  = 0.00041

And,

G2 × Fp × μ0.1
l
= 0.000352
ρg (ρl - ρg) gc

From figure 22.6,MCcab & Smith (5thEd.)

ΔP =0.656 in/mm of packing

ΔP =16.66 mm/m of packing

Total pressure drop = 343.6 mm/m of packing


74

6.5 Adsorption column design

6.5.1 Adsorption

Adsorption is a division procedure by which certain segments of liquid stage are


exchanged to the surface of a strong adsorbent. The little particles of adsorbent are
held in a settled bed, and liquid is gone constantly through the bed until the point that
the strong is almost soaked and the coveted partition is accomplished.

Adsorption process can be delegated either mass detachment or purging relying upon
the centralization of the adsorbate in the fluid or gas stream being dealt with. The
warmth freed in the two procedures might be altogether unique, the more prominent
being in mass partition. For decontamination, this discharge isn't as imperative.

Even though adsorption has been utilized as a physical/synthetic process for a long
time, it is just finished the most recent four decades that the procedure has created to
a phase where is currently a noteworthy modern strategy. Adsorption is generally
done in settled beds, as this is observed to be generally practical.

6.5.2 Importance of adsorption column in the process

The procedure creates exceedingly cleansed substance of ethylene, to accomplish this


virtue the ethylene stream must go through the cryogenic refining tower which is
performed at low temperatures. Along these lines, adsorption step is basic in
guaranteeing that positively no water stays in the stream that will next be bolstered
into the cryogenic refining tower. On the off chance that water remains, the
cryogenic conditions could make them stop and harm the section.

6.5.3 Selection of adsorbent

Recommended adsorbent for commercial drying is molecular sieve type 3A. It has
the advantage that is adsorbs water only leaving ethylene pure in contrast to other
adsorbents which adsorb ethylene as well. Molecular sieve is the effective option for
eliminating water from gases and liquids. Usually products like silica gel have been
75

used for such purposes but molecular sieve desiccants can give cleaner outcomes.
The sieves have tiny and uniform pores, which makes them ideal adsorbents.

6.5.4 Selection of appropriate adsorption cycle

Keller et al. has developed a simple matrix that can rapidly serve as a guide for
making this choice with essentially no calculations. The table is shown below: (plant
design and economics for engineers by peter timmerhaus)

Figure 6. 5: matrix for adsorption cycle selection

From the table, the temperature swing adsorption seems the most appropriate.
Molecular sieves require elevated temperature (300oC) for regeneration at high
pressure (far above 30 bar). But life time of 3A molecular sieve would be shortened
extremely using such a temperature. The reduction in pressure helps decreasing the
o
regeneration temperature. A temperature of 200-230 C is recommended for
regeneration.
76

6.5.5 Design Calculations of Adsorption column

S16 = 287.730 kmol/hr

Figure 6. 6: adsorber

Table 6. 7: Mole fractions of components

Components S16 mole % S18 mole % W mole %


Water 0.1 0 90
Ethylene 92.87 92.9 10
Diethyl ether 5.40 5.45
Methane 0.04 0.04
Acetaldehyde 1.379 1.393
Ethane 0.11 0.12
Hydrogen 0.09 0.09
Total 100 100 100

Feed to the column

Temperature of incoming feed = T = 28.3 oC or 301.45 K.


Pressure of incoming feed = P = 27 Bar.
Molar flowrate of feed = F1 = 287.730 kmol/hr.
287.730 × 92.87
Molar flowrate of ethylene = Feth =
100
77

= 267.21 kmol/hr.
287.730 ×0.1
Molar flowrate of water = Fwater =
100
= 0.29 kmol/hr.
It is assumed that all the water present in the feed is removed through adsorption,
only a small amount of water is present in the product which is negligible.

Product from the column

Molar flowrate of product = F2 = 286.64 kmol/hr.


286.64 × 92.9
Molar flowrate of ethylene = Feth =
100
= 266.29 kmol/hr.
For design calculations, the negligible amount of water in the product stream is
assumed to be 0.01 percent.
286.64 ×0.01
Molar flowrate of water = Fwater =
100
= 0.03 kmol/hr.
Adsorbent properties

Adsorbent 3A zeolite is selected for the following adsorption. It has the advantage
that is adsorbs water only leaving ethylene almost pure in contrast to other
adsorbents that adsorb ethylene as well. The properties of adsorbent 3A zeolite are
taken from the research article on 3A zeolite molecular sieve regeneration.

Porosity of particle = ε = 0.665


Bed porosity = ε = 0.372
Bulk density = ρb = 848 kg/m3
Particle size = dp = 6 mm = 0.006 m. (varies from 0.06 to 6 mm) from Perry’s
handbook.
Pore diameter = dpore = 3 nm
78

Figure 6. 7: Equilibrium data of water on 3A zeolite

Now, the next step to calculate the partial pressure of water in feed to determine the
maximum adsorbent loading from given isotherm data for the adsorption of water on
zeolite 3A.
27 ×0.1
Partial pressure of water in feed at 27 bars = = 0.027 bar or 2.7 kPa.
100

Isotherm of water adsorption on 3A zeolite

From the above graph, it is observed that the maximum adsorbent loading at 27 bars
is 20 wt.%. The above isotherm is taken from the research article on water adsorption
on molecular sieve 3A.
20 kg of water
So, maximum adsorbent loading = m1 =
100 kg of adsorbent
0.2 kg of water
=
kg of adsorbent
79

Now, for the minimum adsorbent loading after regeneration if the fresh or
completely regenerated adsorbent is used then the minimum adsorbent loading
becomes zero (m2 = 0); but complete regeneration is often too costly. So, for our
calculations we take it to be the 20 percent of the maximum adsorbent loading.
Reference is Unit Operation by McCabe and Smith
0.2 × 20
So, minimum adsorbent loading = m2 =
100
0.04 kg of water
=
kg of adsorbent

Now the next step is to calculate the mass of adsorbent used in the adsorption
column. For calculating the mass of adsorbent, we use the mass balance equation of
the bed that is taken from the book Chemical Engineering Design vol. 6. Ed. 5.
The mass balance on the bed gives

(F1 y1 - F2 y2 )Mw ta =1000(m1 - m2 )Ma fL

where F1 = feed molar flow rate (mol/s)


F2 = product molar flow rate (mol/s)
y1 = feed mole fraction of adsorbed component
y2 = product mole fraction of adsorbed component
Mw = molecular weight of adsorbed component (g/mol)
ta = time the bed is in the adsorption stage of the cycle (s)
m1 = maximum adsorbent loading (g/g adsorbent)
m2 = minimum adsorbent loading (g/g adsorbent)
Ma = mass of adsorbent per bed (kg)
fL = fraction of bed that is fully loaded at the end of adsorption phase of cycle

The total cycle time is equal to the time spent in adsorption multiplied by the number
of beds in sequence. The selected fL is 0.7 and cycle time is 60 minutes. For two
beds, the fL is taken 0.7 when lead lag arrangement is used and cycle time is taken as
60 minutes because less time results in less mass of adsorbent used which results in
smaller length of bed and less pressure drop so, the adsorption time is (from
Chemical Engineering Design vol. 6. Ed. 5.)
80

60
Time the bed is in adsorption stage of the cycle = ta =
2
= 30 minutes or 1800 sec.
Substituting values into mass balance equation
1000
{(287.730 × 0.001)-(286.64 ×0.0001)} × × 1800 × 18 = (0.2-0.04) × Ma × 0.7
3600
0.259 ×9000
Ma =
0.112
Hence, mass of adsorbent = Ma = 20817 kg
20800
Volume of adsorbent bed = V = = 24.55 m3
848

Allow 20% of total volume for vessel calculations.


24.55
So, tangent-to-tangent volume = =30.69 m3
0.8

πD2 L 3πD3
Assume L/D = 3:1 cylinder, volume = =
4 4

3 4V
So, diameter of the vessel = DT = √

3 4×30.65
=√ = 2.35m

Tangent-to-tangent length = Lv = 3 × 2.35 = 7.06 m


4V
Length of adsorbent bed = Lp =
π D2
4 ×24.55
= = 5.65 m
π ×2.352

Since, we have selected two vessels so, the total quantity of adsorbent =
2 × 20817 = 41635 kg
The next step is to calculate the pressure drop across the adsorbent bed.

6.5.6 Pressure drop calculation

Ergun equation is used to calculate the pressure drop across the adsorbent bed. The
equation is as follows (from Unit Operation by McCabe and smith, research article
on fixed bed adsorber pressure drop).
∆P (1-ϵ)2 μ (1-ϵ) ρ 2
= 150 u + 1.75 u
L ϵ2 d2p ϵ dp

Where, ∆𝑃 = pressure drop across the bed.


𝜖 = porosity of the bed.
81

𝜇 = viscosity of gas mixture.


𝜌 = density of gas mixture.
𝑢 = velocity of gas.
𝑑𝑝 = diameter of a particle.
𝐿 = length of the adsorbent bed.
For the calculation of pressure drop we must estimate the viscosity and density of the
mixture.
The following viscosity estimation method is taken from the Chemical Engineer’s
Handbook, Perry Vol. 1.
The equation is
M1/2 P2/3
c 1.858 )
μ-μo = 5.0×10-8 [e(1.439ρr ) - e(-1.11ρr ]
T1/6
c

The properties of pure components are taken from the table 2-141 from Perry’s vol. 1
From these properties, the critical temperature, pressure and molecular weight of a
mixture are calculated.
The calculated properties for mixture are:
Tpc = 294.9565 K, Ppc = 4.9755 MPa, Mm = 30.668
ωm = 0.09934, Vpc = 0.140213 m3/kmole
301.45
Now, reduced temperature = Tr = 294.9565 = 1.022
2.7
Reduced pressure = Pr = 4.9755 = 0.5427

Now, using Pitzer corresponding states to calculate Z, then calculate 𝜌𝑟 ,


Z = Z(0) + ωZ(1)
Using figure 2-35 from perry vol. 1
Z(0) = 0.8
Using figure 2-36 from perry vol. 1
Z(1) = -0.02
Z = 0.8 + (0.099345) (-0.02)
Z = 0.79801
Hence,
P
ρ=
ZRT
(2.7)
ρ=
(0.79801) (8.314×10-3 ) (301.45)
82

kmol
ρ = 1.35
m3
kg
ρ = 1.35 × 30.668 = 41.4018
m3
So, the density of gaseous mixture = 41.4018 kg/m3 or 2.58 lb./ft3
ρr = ρVpc
ρr = (1.35) (0.140213)
ρr = 0.18928
1 2
-8 30.6682 4.97553 1.858 )
μ - μo = 5×10 × 1 [e(1.439(0.18928)) - e(-1.11(0.18928) ]
294.95656
μ - μo = 1.132×10-7

μo = 8.1922×10-5 poise or 0.008192 centipoise


lb
μ = 8.192×10-3 centipoise or 5.5047×10-6
ft.sec
Substituting the values in pressure drop equation in British units
∆P (1 - 0.372)2 5.5 × 10-6 (1 - 0.372) 2.58
= 150 × 2 × 2 × 0.5 + 1.75 × × × 0.52
L 0.372 0.0197 0.372 0.0197
∆P
= 3.029 + 96.727
L
∆P
= 99.756
L
Length of adsorbent bed = 5.65 m or 18.524 ft
lb
∆P = 99.756 × 18.524 = 1847.48112 ft
ft2
Pressure drop in bar = 0.88457 bar.
Pressure drop in adsorbers can be changed by changing the diameter to bed depth
ratio and by changing the particle size as well as velocity. The allowable pressure
drops for gas adsorption ranges from 5 kPa to 100 kPa. Hence the pressure drop is
acceptable because it lies in the range. (Perry’s handbook ed. 1)

6.5.7 Head and shell calculations

Diameter of the vessel = Di = 2.35 m or 2350 mm


Design pressure, taken as 10% above operating pressure,
= (27 - 1) × 1.1
83

= 28.6 bar
N
Pi = 2.86 mm2

Design temperature 28.3 oC


From table 13.2 in chemical engineering design vol. 6
Typical design stress = 135 N/mm2

Cylindrical section calculation:


(from chemical engineering plant design vol. 6)
Pi Di
e= + CA
2f - Pi
2.86 × 2350
e= +2
2 (135) - 2.86
e = 27 mm or 0.027 m
Domed head calculation:
Standard tori spherical heads are most commonly used end closure for vessels up to
operating pressures of 15 bar. Above 15 bar an ellipsoidal head will usually prove to
be most economical closure to use.
Pi Di
e= + CA
2Jf - 0.2 Pi
2.86 × 2350
e= +2
2 (135) - 0.2 (2.86)
e = 27 mm or 0.027 m
84

6.6 Design Of Distillation Column

6.6.1 Choice between Plate and Packed Column

Vapor liquid mass transfer operation may be carried out either in plate column or
packed column. These two types of operations are quite different. A selection
scheme considering the factors under four headings .
• Factors that depend upon the system i.e. scale, foaming, fouling factors,
corrosive systems, heat evolution, pressure drop, liquid holdup.
• Factors that depend upon the fluid flow moment.
• Factors that depends upon the physical characteristics of the column and
its internals i.e. maintenance, weight, side stream, size and cost.
• Factors that depend upon mode of operation i.e. batch distillation,
continuous distillation, turndown.

6.6.2 Plate selection

There are three main plate types, the bubble cap, sieve plates, and ballast or valve
plates. Sieve plate is selected because:
• They are lighter in weight and less expensive. It is easier and cheaper to
install.
• Pressure drop is low as compared to bubble cap trays.
• Efficiency is generally high.
• Maintenance cost is reduced due to the ease of cleaning.
• High turnover

6.6.3 Designing Steps of Distillation Column.


• Calculation of minimum reflux ratio
• Calculation of total reflux ratio
• Calculation of Minimum number of plates
• Calculation of actual number of stages
• Overall Efficiency
85

• Provisional plate design


• Calculation of weeping point
• Calculation of pressure drop
• Calculation of the height of the column
• Down-comer liquid backup
• No of holes
• Height of column

Process Design
Temp. of feed = -28oC
Temp. of top = -25.7oC
Temp. of bottom = -16oC

Table 6. 8: Fractions of components

Component Feed(Xf) Distilled(Xd) Bottom(Xb)


Ethylene 0.9290 0.9972 0.3950
Diethyl ether 0.0546 0.4676
Methane 0.0004 0.0005
Acetaldehyde 0.0139 0.1288
Ethane 0.0012 0.0001 0.086
Hydrogen 0.0009 0.0022
1.00 1.00 1.00

Column Operating Pressure=22 bar


Heavy Key Component=Ethane
Light Key Component=Ethylene
Heavy Non-Distributed Key Component=Diethyl ether, Acetaldehyde
Light Non-Distributed Key Component=Methane , Hydrogen

Assuming relative volatility is constant with constant molar flow rates. We


can estimate Rmin by Underwood‘s method(Coulson V6).
86

𝟐.𝟓𝟐
Ethylene=𝟎.𝟖𝟗 = 2.83
𝟎.𝟗𝟖
Acetaldehyde=𝟎.𝟖𝟗 = 1.15
𝟎.𝟖𝟗
Ethane=𝟎.𝟖𝟗= 1.0
𝟏.𝟖
Hydrogen=𝟎.𝟖𝟗 = 1.8
𝟎.𝟗𝟗
Diethyle ether=𝟎.𝟖𝟗 = 1.12
𝟐.𝟏
Methane = = 2.35
𝟎.𝟖𝟗

Underwood’s Equation:

𝛼𝑥𝑓𝑎 𝛼𝑥𝑓𝑏 𝛼𝑥𝑓𝑐 𝛼𝑥𝑓𝑑 𝛼𝑥𝑓𝑒 𝛼𝑥𝑓𝑓


+ + + + + =1−q
𝛼𝑎 − 𝜃 𝛼𝑏 − 𝜃 𝛼𝑐 − 𝜃 𝛼𝑑 − 𝜃 𝛼𝑒 − 𝜃 𝛼𝑓 − 𝜃

2.83×0.9290 1.12×0.0546 2.35×0.0004 1.15×0.0139


+ + +
2.83 − 𝜃 1.12 − 𝜃 2.35 − 𝜃 1.15 − 𝜃
1.0×0.0012 1.8×0.009
+ + = 1 − 1.41
1.0 − 𝜃 1.8 − 𝜃
By hit and trial,

θ = 1.17
Rm for Distillate:
𝛼𝑥𝑑𝑎 𝛼𝑥𝑑𝑏 𝛼𝑥𝑑𝑐 𝛼𝑥𝑑𝑑
+ + + += Rm + 1
𝛼𝑎 − 𝜃 𝛼𝑏 − 𝜃 𝛼𝑐 − 𝜃 𝛼𝑑 − 𝜃

2.83×0.9972 0.0005 1.0×0.0001 1.8×0.0022


+ + + = Rm + 1
2.83 − 1.17 2.35 − 1.17 1.0 − 1.17 1.8 − 1.17

(1.7202262048)+(9.95×10-4)+(-5.88×10-4)+(8.20×10-3)=Rmin+1

Rmin+1=1.71
Rmin=0.71
87

We know, the optimum reflux ratio lies 1.2-1.5 times of minimum reflux ratio
(Coulson V6);
R=1.31Rmin
R=1.31(0.71)
R=0.9301
q line Calculation
we know,
λ + hfs − hf
q=
λ
So,λ at feed pressure and feed boiling temperature is
kJ
λ = 2.9550 ∗ 10^4
kgmol
So,

hf = CP,f (Tf )

kJ
hf = 80322.23.
kgmol

hfs = CP,fs (Tfs )

kJ
hfs = 67992.235
kgmol

Now,
λ + hfs − hf
q=
λ
29550 + 80322.23 − 67992.235
q=
29950
q = 1.41168
So equation root value satisfied.

So,
88

Ln=(R)(D)
Ln=(0.9301)(253.56)
kgmol
Ln=235.65 hr

Vn=Ln+D
Vn=235.65+253.36
kgmol
Vn=489.01 hr

As the
Lm=Ln+F
kgmol
Lm=522.29 hr
kgmol
Vm=489.65 hr

Theoretical No. of stages


By applying Lewis-Matheson method to find number of Stages;
(coulson V6)
Assumptions;
o Constant molar overflow

The following variables must be specified, or determined from other specified


variables:
o Feed composition, flow rate and condition
o Distribution of the key components
o One product flow
o Reflux ratio
o Column pressure
o Assumed values for the distribution of the non-key components

The equation for the bottom operating lines may then be written as;
Lm W
ym = ( ) (xm+1 ) − ( ) (xb )
Vm Vm
Ethylene:
522.29 33.29
ym,ethylene = ( ) (xm+1 ) − ( ) (0.3950)
489.65 489.65
ym,ethylene = (1.06)(xm+1 ) − 0.02689
Diethyl ether;
89

522.29 33.29
ym,diethyl ether = ( ) (xm+1 ) − ( ) (0.4676)
489.65 489.65
ym,diethyl ether = (1.06)(xm+1 ) − 0.03183

Acetaldehyde;
522.29 33.29
ym,aceteldehyde = ( ) (xm+1 ) − ( ) (0.1288)
489.65 489.65
ym,acetaldehyde = (1.06)(xm+1 ) − 0.0087684
Ethane;
522.29 33.29
ym,ethane = ( ) (xm+1 ) − ( ) (0.086)
489.65 489.65
ym,ethane = (1.06)(xm+1 ) − 0.005854
Since starting from bottom to top

Table 6.6.2

Component 𝜶 Bottom XS*𝜶 Ys


Compositions XS
(mol fraction)
Ethylene 2.83 0.3950 1.11785 0.00098
Diethyl ether 1.12 0.4676 0.523712 0.00387
Acetaldehyde 1.15 0.1288 0.14812 0.06015
Ethane 1 0.086 0.086 0.935
Methane 2.35 0.000 0.000 0.000
Hydrogen 1.8 0.000 0.000 0.000

Stage no.1:
Table 6.6.3

Component 𝜶 Bottom XS*𝜶 Ys


Compositions XS
(mol fraction)
Ethylene 2.83 0.1975 0.558925 0.0098
Diethyl ether 1.12 0.2338 0.261856 0.02774
Acetaldehyde 1.15 0.182 0.2093 0.05046
90

Ethane 1 0.3867 0.3867 0.912


Methane 2.35 0.000 0.000 0.000
Hydrogen 1.8 0.000 0.000 0.000

Stage no.2:

Table 6.6.4

Component 𝜶 Bottom XS*𝜶 Ys


Compositions XS
(mol fraction)
Ethylene 2.83 0.0697 0.197251 0.00005
Diethyl ether 1.12 0.1738 0.194656 0.000150
Acetaldehyde 1.15 0.160 0.184 0.0148
Ethane 1 0.5965 0.5965 0.985
Methane 2.35 0.000 0.000 0.000
Hydrogen 1.8 0.000 0.000 0.000

Stage no.3:

Table 6.6.5

Component 𝜶 Bottom XS*𝜶 Ys


Compositions XS
(mol fraction)
Ethylene 2.83 0.007 0.01981 0.00009
Diethyl ether 1.12 0.1015 0.11368 0.000350
Acetaldehyde 1.15 0.135 0.15525 0.03956
Ethane 1 0.7565 0.7565 0.960
Methane 2.35 0.000 0.000 0.000
Hydrogen 1.8 0.000 0.000 0.000
91

Stage no.4

Table 6.6.6

Component 𝜶 Bottom XS*𝜶 Ys


Compositions XS
(mol fraction)
Ethylene 2.83 0.0005 0.001415 0.00075
Diethyl ether 1.12 0.0131 0.014672 0.00550
Acetaldehyde 1.15 0.0267 0.030705 0.08175
Ethane 1 0.9597 0.9597 0.912
Methane 2.35 0.000 0.000 0.000
Hydrogen 1.8 0.000 0.000 0.000

The equation for the top operating lines may then be written as;
Ln D
yn = ( ) (xn+1 ) + ( ) (xd )
Vn Vn
Ethylene;
yn,ethylene = (0.4818)(xn+1 ) + 0.5166
Methane;
yn,methane = (0.4818)(xn+1 ) + 0.0003

Ethane;
yn,methane = (0.4818)(xn+1 ) + 0.00005
Hydrogen;
yn,methane = (0.4818)(xn+1 ) + 0.0011
92

Table 6.6.7

Component 𝜶 Bottom XS*𝜶 Ys


Compositions XS
(mol fraction)
Ethylene 2.83 0.9972 2.822076 0.9992
Methane 2.35 0.0005 0.001175 0.00010
Ethane 1 0.0001 0.0001 0.000005
Hydrogen 1.8 0.0022 0.00396 0.000695
Acetaldehyde 1.15 0.000 0.000 0.000
Diethyl ether 1.12 0.000 0.000 0.000

Stage no.5

Table 6.6.8

Component 𝜶 Bottom XS*𝜶 Ys


Compositions XS
(mol fraction)
Ethylene 2.83 0.9980 2.82434 0.9994
Methane 2.35 0.0011 0.002596 0.00008
Ethane 1 0.00005 0.00005 0.0000004
Hydrogen 1.8 0.0017 0.00306 0.0005196
Acetaldehyde 1.15 0.000 0.000 0.000
Diethyl ether 1.12 0.000 0.000 0.000

Stage no.6

Table 6.6.9

Component 𝜶 Bottom XS*𝜶 Ys


Compositions XS
93

(mol fraction)

Ethylene 2.83 0.9986 2.826038 0.9996


Methane 2.35 0.00124 0.002914 0.00004
Ethane 1 0.00003 0.0003 0.0000003
Hydrogen 1.8 0.00013 0.000234 0.0003597
Acetaldehyde 1.15 0.000 0.000 0.000
Diethyl ether 1.12 0.000 0.000 0.000

Stage no.7

Table 6.6.10

Component 𝜶 Bottom XS*𝜶 Ys


Compositions XS
(mol fraction)
Ethylene 2.83 0.9992 2.827736 0.9997
Methane 2.35 0.000679 0.00159565 0.00002
Ethane 1 0.000001 0.000001 0.000000005
Hydrogen 1.8 0.00012 0.000216 0.00009995
Acetaldehyde 1.15 0.000 0.000 0.000
Diethyl ether 1.12 0.000 0.000 0.000

Stage no.8

Table 6.6.11

Component 𝜶 Bottom XS*𝜶 Ys


Compositions XS
(mol fraction)
Ethylene 2.83 0.9998 2.829434 0.9998
94

Methane 2.35 0.000779 0.001830 0.0000015


Ethane 1 0.0000002 0.0000002 0.000000001
Hydrogen 1.8 0.000015 0.000027 0.000198499
Acetaldehyde 1.15 0.000 0.000 0.000
Diethyl ether 1.12 0.000 0.000 0.000

Calculated no of stages is from Lewis-Matheson are 8

N=8
Column Efficiency:

O’Connell’s correlation eq().


Eo = 51 − 32.5 log(μa αa )
μa is the molar average viscosity
Tdew,top + Tbubble,bottom
Taver. =
2
247.15 + 257.15
Taver. =
2
Taver. = 252.15 K
log(𝑙𝑜𝑔 10 μ𝑚 ) =
xethylene Iethylene +xDe IDe +xmethane Imethane + xact Iact +xethane Iethane +xhydrogen Ihydrogen +
ρm [x ]×
ethylene Methylene +xDe MDe +xmethane M𝑚𝑒𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑒 xact Mact +xethane Methane +xhydrogen Mℎ𝑦𝑑𝑟𝑜𝑔𝑒𝑛

10−3 − 2.9
I = Souder’s’ index(Table 8.1Coulson V6)
µm = viscosity of mixture
ρm= density of mixture
x1& x2 & x3 = mol fraction of components
M1& M2& M3 = molecular masses of components.
Iethylene = 95.7
Iact = 153
Ihydrogen = 5.4
Methane = 116.6
Mmethane = 61
MDe = 278
95

PV=ZnRT
Z from chart for this we require Tr and Pr so for that Tc and Pc taken from plant
design book and the from T/Tc and P/Pc we get Pr and Tr(Appendix C Coulson V6)
ρm = 17.33
log(𝑙𝑜𝑔 10 μ𝑚 ) = 17.33×
0.9290×95.7+0.0139×150.9+0.0009×5.4 0.0012×116.6+0.0004×61+0.0546×278
[ 0.9290×28+0.0139×44.05+0.0009×2.0 ] ×10−3 − 2.9
0.0012×30+0.0004×16+0.0546×74.12

log(𝑙𝑜𝑔 10 μ𝑚 )
= 17.33[3.41785 + 3.4256 + 2.7 + 3.8867 + 3.8125 + 3.75]×10
− 3 − 2.9
μ𝑚 = 1.19
αa Isthe average relative volatility of Lk,
αa = 2.83

So,
Eo = 51 − 32.5 log(1.19999×2.83)
Eo = 33.86
We know,
N
Nactual =
Eo
8
Nactual =
0.3386
Nactual = 24

Feed Point calculation :

Using Kirkbride equation (Coulson V6);


2
Nr B xf,HK xb,LK
log [ ] = 0.206 log [( ) ( )( ) ]
Ns D xf,LK xd,HK
96

Where Nr = number of stages above the feed, including any partial condenser
Ns = number of stages below the feed, including the reboiler
B = molar flow bottom product
D = molar flow top product
Xf,HK = concentration of the heavy key in the feed
Xf,LK = concentration of the light key in the feed
Xd, HK = concentration of the heavy key in the top product
XB, LK =concentration of the light key if in the bottom product

Nr 33.29 0.0012 0.3950 2


log [ ] = 0.206 log [( )( )( ) ]
Ns 253.36 0.9290 0.0001
Nr
log [ ] = 0.8920
Ns
Nr
= 2.44
Ns
Nr = (2.44)(Ns )
We know,
Nr + Ns = Nactual
Nactual = 24
Nr + Ns = 14
(2.44)(Ns ) + Ns = 14
24
Ns =
3.44

Say,
Ns = 7
And
Nr =17

Mechanical Design

Physical properties
For top at operating pressure:
Vapor density at top=14kg/m3
97

Liquid density at top=1020 kg/m3


Surface tension at top=0.01073N/m (Coulson V6 Table 8.7);
Slope of top operating line;
Ln 235.65
=
Vn 489.01
Ln
= 0.4818
Vn
Molecular Weight
Mw = (0.9972)(28) + (. 0005)(16) + (0.0001)(30) + (0.0022)(2)
Kg
Mw = 27.937
Kgmol
For bottom:
Vapor density at bottom=16 kg/m3
Liquid density at bottom=990 kg/m3
Surface tension at bottom=0.01241 N/m (Coulson V6 Table 8.7);
Slope of bottom operating line:
Lm 522.29
=
Vm 489
Lm
= 1.068
Vm
Molecular Weight
Mw = (0.3950)(28) + (0.4676)(74) + (0.1288)(44) + (0.086)(30)
Kg
Mw = 48.7576
Kgmol

Column Diameter

Lw ρv
FLV = √
Vw ρL

Where Lw=liquid molar flow-rate, kgmole/day


Vw= Vapor molar flow-rate, kgmole/day

Lm ρv
FLV,bottom = √
Vm ρL

16
FLV,bottom = 1.068√
990
98

FLV,bottom = 0.13577

Ln ρv
FLV,top = √
Vn ρL

14
FLV,top = 0.4818√
1020

FLV,top = 0.05644
Taking as First trial,
Plate spacing=0.6m
From Figure (Coulson V6);

base K1 = 0.074
top K1 = 0.13
We know, if liquid surface tension will other than 0.02 N/m, then surface tensions
would multiply the value of K1 by [σ/0.02]0.2
So,
Surface tension at top=0.01072N/m
Say,
Surface tension at top=0.01072N/m
1.073 0.2
top K1 = (0.13) ( )
20
top K1 = 0.07241

For base:
Surface tension at bottom=0.01213 N/m
1.2141 0.2
base K1 = (0.074) ( )
20
base K1 = 0.0422
The flooding velocity can be estimated;

ρL − ρv
uf = K1 √
ρv

Where uf = flooding vapor velocity, m/s


99

K1=constant
Flooding Vapor Velocity for bottom;

ρL − ρv
base uf = K1 √
ρv

990 − 16
base uf = 0.0422√
16
m
base uf = 0.3296
s
Flooding Vapor Velocity for top;

ρL − ρv
top upf = K1 √
ρv

1020 − 14
top uf = 0.07241√
14
m
top uf = 0.613
s
Design for 80 percent flooding at maximum flow rate;
base uv = 0.8uf
base uv = (0.8)(0.3296)
m
base uv = 0.2636
s
top uv = 0.8uf
top uv = (0.8)(0.613)
m
top uv = 0.4904
s

Maximum Volumetric flow-rate:


We know,
Kgmole
Vn = 489.01
hr
Kgmole
Vm = 490
hr
100

So,
Vm Mw
base =
3600ρv
(490)(48.7576)
base =
(3600)(16)
m3
base = 0.413
s
Vn Mw
top =
3600ρv
(489.01)(27.937)
top =
(3600)(14)
m3
top = 0.27106
s
Net area required:
0.413
bottom =
0.2636
bottom = 1.56m2
0.27106
top =
0.4904
top = 0.552 m2
So, taking down comer as 12 percent of total;
Column cross sectional area;
1.56
base =
0.88
base = 1.77m2
0.552
top =
0.88
top = 0.6272 m2
Column diameter

(1.77)(4)
base = √
π

base = 1.50 m

(0.6272)(4)
top = √
π

top = 0.89 m
101

Liquid flow pattern


Lm Mw
Maximum Volumetric liquid rate =
3600ρL
Kgmole
Lm = 522.29
hr

(552.29)(48.7576)
Maximum Volumetric liquid rate =
(3600)(990)
m3
Maximum Volumetric liquid rate = 0.07147
s
So, column area is from the Figure (coul.V6).we can use single pass plate.
Provisional plate design
Column diameter;
Dc = 1.50 m
Column Area;
Ac = 1.77 m2
Down comer area taking as 12 percent of total;
Ad = 0.12(1.77)
Ad = 0.2124 m2
Net area;
An = Ac − Ad
An = 1.77 − 0.2124
An = 1.5576m2
Active area;
Aa = Ac − 2Ad

Aa = 1.77 − 2(0.2124)
Aa = 1.3452 m2
Taking hole area as 10 percent of active area;
Ah = .10(Aa )
Ah = .10(1.3452)
Ah = 0.13452 m2
Weir length (coul.V6);
lw = 0.77(Dc )
102

lw = 0.77(1.50 )
lw = 1.155 m
Weir height;
Weir height will normally 40 to 50 mm is recommended.
So, taking weir height=50 mm
Hole size;
Taking hole diameter=5mm
By using carbon steel;
Plate thickness=5mm

Check weeping
Lm Mw
Maximum liquid rate =
3600
Kgmole
Lm = 522.29
hr
(522.29)(48.7576)
Maximum liquid rate =
(3600)
kg
Maximum liquid rate = 7.07
s
Minimum liquid rate, at 70 percent turn-down;
Minimum liquid rate = .70(7.07)
kg
Minimum liquid rate = 4.95
s
Weir liquid crest;
Lw 2⁄3
how = 750 [ ]
ρL lw
Where lw = weir length, m
how = weir crest, mm liquid
Lw = liquid flow-rate, kg/s.
Lw 2⁄3
maximum how = 750 [ ]
ρL lw
2⁄3
7.07
maximum how = 750 [ ]
(990)(1.155 )

maximum how = 25.26 mm liquid


103

Lw 2⁄3
minimum how = 750 [ ]
ρL lw
2⁄3
4.96
minimum how = 750 [ ]
(990)(1.155 )
minimum how = 18.94 mm liquid
At minimum rate;

hw + how = 25.26 + 18.94 = 44.203 mm


From figure (Coulson V6);
K 2 = 26.7
The minimum design vapor velocity is given by:
[K 2 − 0.90(25.4 − dh )]
uh =
(ρv )1⁄2

where uh= minimum vapor velocity through the holes, m/s,


dh = hole diameter, mm
[26.7 − 0.90(25.4 − 5)]
uh (min) =
(16)1⁄2
m
uh (min) = 2.086
s
Actual minimum vapor velocity;
mimmum vapor rate
Actual minimum vapor velocity =
Ah
0.7(0.413) m
Actual minimum vapor velocity = = 2.14
0.13452 s
So, minimum operating rate will be well above weep point.

Plate pressure drop


Dry plate drop;
Maximum vapor velocity through holes;
0.413
uh =
0.13452
m
uh = 3.07
s
104

plate thickness 5
= =1
hole diameter 5

Ah Ah 0.1537
≃ = = 0.1
Ap Aa 1.537

From figure (Coulson V6);


C0 = .84

Dry plate drop:


The pressure drop through the dry plate can be estimated by,
uh 2 ρv
hd = 51 [ ]
C0 ρL
3.07 2 16
hd = 51 [ ]
0.84 990
hd = 11.0 mm liquid
Residual head;
12.5×103
hr =
ρL
12.5×103
hr =
990
hr = 12.62 mm liquid

Total drop:
ht = hd + (hw + how ) + hr
ht = 11.0 + (44.203 ) + 12.62
ht = 67.823 mm liquid

Down comer liquid back-up


Down comer pressure loss;
hap = hw − (5 to 10 mm)
So, taking
hap = hw − 10
hap = 50 − 10
105

hap = 40 mm
Area under apron;
𝐴𝑎𝑝 = 𝑙𝑤 ℎ𝑎𝑝
Aap = 1.155(0.04)
Aap = 0.0462 m2
Lwd 2
hdc = 166 [ ]
ρL Am
Where Lwd = liquid flow rate in down comer, kg/s,
Am = either the down comer area Ad or the clearance area under the down comer Aap;
whichever is the smaller, m2
We know,
Ad = 0.2124
So, Aap is less than Ad. We will use Aap in above equation.
2
Lwd
hdc = 166 [ ]
ρL Aap
2
7.07
hdc = 166 [ ]
990(0.0462)
hdc = 3.96636 mm
Back-up in down comer;
hb = (hw + how ) + ht + hdc
Where hb = down comer back-up, measured from plate surface, mm
hdc = head loss in the down comer, mm.
hb = (67.823 ) + 44.203 + 3.96636
hb = 115.99 mm
hb = 0.1159
1
0.1159 < (plate spacing + weir height)
2
1
0.1159 < (0.6 + 0.05)
2
0.1159 < 0.325
It’s satisfied b/c it’s less than 0.32
Check residence time;
The down comer residence time is given by:
106

Ad hbc ρL
tr =
Lwd
wheretr = residence time, sec.
hbc = clear liquid back-up, m.
(0.2124)(0.1159)(990)
tr =
7.07
t r = 3.44
>3 s, satisfactory.

Check entrainment
Maximum volumetric flow rate of vapors
uv =
An
0.413
uv =
1.5576
m
uv = 0.2651
s
The percentage flooding is given by;
uv
percentage flooding =
uf
0.2651
percentage flooding =
0.3296
percentage flooding = 80.430
We know,
FLV,bottom = 0.13577

From Figure 11.29(Coulson V6);


Ψ = 0.07 < 0.1
As the percent flooding is 80.
Trial layout:
Use cartridge-type construction. Allow 50 mm unperforated strip round plate edge;
50 mm wide calming zones.
107

Perforated Area
lw 1.155
= = 0.77
Dc 1.50
From Figure11.32(Coulson V6), we obtain;
θc = 105∘
angle subtended by the edge of the plate = 180 − 105
angle subtended by the edge of the plate = 75∘
Mean length, unperforated edge strips=Mlues:
Width of unperforated strip =wus;
π ∗ angle subtended
Mlues = (Dc − wus) ( )
180
π ∗ 75
Mlues = (1.50 − 0.05) ( )
180
Mlues = 1.898045562 m
Area of unperforated edge strips = wus ∗ Mlues
Area of unperforated edge strips = 0.05 ∗ 1.898045562
Area of unperforated edge strips = 0.094945 m2
Mean length of calming zone, approx.=Mlcz:
Mlcz = weir length + wus
Mlcz = 1.155 + 0.05
Mlcz = 1.205 m

Area of calming zones=Acz:


Acz = 2(Mlcz ∗ Wide of claming zones )
Acz = 2(1.205 ∗ 0.05 )
Acz = 0.1205 m2

Total area of perforations

Ap = Aa − Acz − Area of unperforated edge strips


Ap = 1.345 − 0.1205 − 0.094945
Ap = 1.12995 m
108

Ah 0.13452
=
Ap 1.12955
Ah
= 0.1190
Ap
Hole pitch:
lp
From (Coulson V6),Figure 11.33d =1.898045562=2.56
h

The hole pitch (distance between the hole centers) lp should not be less than 2.0-hole
diameters, and the normal range will be 2.5 to 4.0 diameters.

Number of holes
π (dh )2
Area of one hole = ( )
4
We know;
dh = 0.005 m
π (0.005)2
Area of one hole = ( )
4
Area of one hole = 1.964×10−5 m2
We have calculated area of hole;
Ah = 0.13452 m2
So, Number of holes;
Ah
Number of holes
Area of one hole
0.13452
Number of holes =
1.964×10−5
Number of holes = 6851.04

Height of the column:

Hc = (Nactual − 1)Hs + ∆H

Where, Nactual=No. of Actual Trays


109

Hc = Height of column
HS=Tray spacing=1.968 ft. (standard)
∆H=Top clearance +Bottom Clearance
Assume:
Top clearance = 12 in = 1 ft.
Bottom Clearance = 12 in = 1ft
Hc = (24 − 1)(1.968) + 2
Hc = 14 m
110

CHAPTER 7

INSTRUMENTATION AND PROCESS CONTROL

7.1 Introduction:

The presence of a properly designed control system along with its supporting
instruments is essential for the efficient operation and performance of a process. The
purpose of installing control systems in a process is to ensure that proper conditions
for the process are maintained such as level, temperature, flow, pressure and
composition. The control systems responsible for maintaining these conditions are
level control, temperature control, flow control, pressure control and composition
control.
NOTE: A control system has to satisfy:

I. Suppressing the influence of external disturbances


II. Ensuring the stability of a chemical process
III. Optimizing the performance of a chemical process

Suppressing the influence of external disturbances: The negative impact of


external disturbances can affect the output of any process. As a result, it is important
to install a control system that will minimize/eliminate the impact of external
disturbances on a chemical process.

Ensuring the stability of a chemical process: The stability of a chemical plant


is dependent on the regulation and stability of the chemical processes taking place
inside it. The control system installed should be able to regulate and maintain the
stability of all the chemical processes and ensure the efficient operation of the plant.
111

Optimizing the performance of a chemical process: Control systems should be


installed such that they are able to increase the profitability of the process, by
operating the process in the most efficient way possible.

7.1.1 Hardware Elements of a Control System:

The Chemical Process: It denotes the physical or chemical operation


together with material equipment that is occurring in the process.

The Measuring Instrument: To measure the disturbances, the instruments


used are called the measuring instruments. The measuring means depend upon the
types of variable, which is to be measured, and these variables must be recorded also.
Some typical sensors, which are used for different variable measurements are:
• Pressure sensors
• Temperature sensors
• Flow rate sensors
• Level sensors
• Composition sensors

Transducers: The instruments which convert the measurements of measuring


instruments into the physical quantities are known as transducers. In this case,
transducers convert measurements into electric and pneumatic signals.

Transmission Lines: Devices used to carry the measuring signals to the


controller. The principle signals used are pneumatic signal and air pressure, normally
ranges between 3 and 15 psig, the electrical signal which ranges from 4 to 20 mA.
Less often, a range of 10 to 50 mA, 1 to 5 V, or 0 to 10 V is used, whereas the third
one being the digital or discreet, signal. Earlier the compressed air or liquid is used
for the transmission of signals but after the advance usage of analog and digital
electronic controllers and use of computer converts the pneumatic signals into
electric signal transmissions. Mostly these transmitters are equipped with the
amplifiers to amplify the weak signals.
112

Controller: A controller is a hardware piece of equipment that employs


pneumatic, electronic, and/ or mechanical energy to perform a system’s control
operation. These units are designed to maintain a process variable at a predetermined
value by comparing its existing value to that of a desired system value or set point.
Final Control Element: The device which is used to implement the action of the
controller to fulfill the control action is known as final control element. For example,
if the controller decides that action should be taken such that to decrease the flow
rate then this control element performs the action by closing the control valve.

7.1.2 Different types of controllers

Flow Controllers: These are used to control flow rates. Orifice plates are by
far the most type of flow rate sensor. Normally, orifice plates are designed to give
pressure drops in the range of 20 to 200 inches of water. Venture tubes and turbine
meters are also used.

Temperature Controller: Thermocouples are the most commonly used


temperature sensing devices. The two dissimilar wires produce a millivolt emf that
varies with the "hot-junction" temperature. Iron constricting thermocouples are
commonly used over the 0 to 1300°F temperature range.

Pressure Controller: Bourdon tubes, bellows, and diaphragms are used to


sense pressure and differential pressure. For example, in a mechanical system the
process pressure force is balanced by the movement of a spring. The spring position
can be related to process pressure.

Level Controller: Liquid levels are detected in a variety of ways. The three
most common are:
• Following the position of a float, that is lighter them the fluid.
• Measuring the apparent weight of a heavy cylinder as it buoyed up more or
less by the liquid (these are called displacement meters).
• Measuring the difference in static pressure between two fixed elevations, one
in the vapour above the liquid and the other under the liquid surface. The
113

differential pressure between the two-level taps is directly related to the liquid
level in the vessel

Transmitter: The transmitter is the interface between the process and its control
system. The job of the transmitter is to convert the sensor signal (millivolts,
mechanical movement, pressure differential, etc.) into a control signal 3 to 15 psig
air-pressure signal, 1 to 5 or 10 to 50 milliampere electrical signal, etc.

Control Valves: The interface with the process at the other end of the control
loop is made by the final control element is an automatic control valve which
throttles the flow of a stem that open or closes an orifice opening as the stem is raised
or lowered. The stem is attached to a diaphragm that is driven by changing air-
pressure above the diaphragm. The force of the air pressure is opposed by a spring.
114

7.2 Instrumentation of Reactor

Figure 7. 1: Fixed bed reactor

Here the reactor temperature is measured at three different positions and compute an
error by Auctioneering system, and an error signal is sent from this point to the
Temperature controller; Temperature controller then compares the output with set
point and sends the signal to Valve V1. Hence feed is manipulated before entering
the reactor. Flow transmitter transmits the signal to Flow Controller to control the
output of reactor from valve V2.
Pressure inside the reactor is measured with the help of PT and signals are send to
the PC. It compares it with set point and computes an output either increase or
decrease the flow rate of feed stream with the help of controller installed.
Coolant is not used as this reactor is adiabatic and endothermic reaction is occurring.
Temperature drops from inlet to outlet. Hence it is maintained at 425 C at inlet and
377 C at outlet.
115

7.3 Instrumentation Of Heat Exchanger

Figure 7. 2: Heat Exchanger

Temperature transmitter is installed on the hot side of the exchanger in which the hot
water is flowing in and coming out of the heat exchanger from the tube.
Temperature sensor such as thermocouple is installed to sense the temperature and
temperature transmitter converts the value and send it back to the temperature
controller. Temperature controller is already given a set point from the control room.
Controller compares the value of the signals and the set point and then sends the
signal to the valve installed at the shell side inlet of the heat exchanger where hot
fluid such as methanol is flowing. If temperature of the output of the tube side is low
as compared to the set point given to the controller, controller will send the signal to
the open the valve more. Now it depends on the type of valve used, whether it is a
Fail open or Fail close valve.
Depending upon the type of the valve used, controller output is set according to the
type of the valve. If Fail close valve is installed, then to open the valve less signals
should be sent to the valve by controller.
116

7.4 Instrumentation and Process Control of Quench Tower

Figure 7. 3: Quench tower

There are mainly two main disturbances in the operation of quench tower - feed flow
rate and temperature. Feed flow rate is to be maintained because if there were a high
gas flow rate there would be a high gas pressure drop and it would give rise to a
condition called flooding. And we will install temperature controller so as to shower
the required amount of water needed for cooling.
117

7.5 Instrumentation on Absorber

Figure 7. 4: Absorber

Ratio Control for Absorber

A control loop in which the controlling element maintains a predetermined


ratio of one variable to another. Usually this control loop is attached to such as
system where two different steams enter a vessel for reaction that may be of any
kind. To maintain the stoichiometric quantities of different streams this loop is used
to ensure proper process going on in process vessel.
118

7.6 Instrumentation of Adsorption Column

The adsorption column is installed before cryogenic distillation, its function is to


remove the remaining amount of water in the gas stream to prevent freezing in the
cryogenic distillation. The major control objective of adsorption column is to
minimize and maintain the moisture content of exit stream to 20 ppm or less than 20
ppm. The other control objective is to maintain the temperature of regeneration gas
required for regeneration.
The main disturbances can be, temperature of the regeneration gas stream that exits
the heater, concentration of moisture in the exit stream from adsorption column. To
overcome these disturbances, the control measurements are temperature and
concentration. The vessel is provided with different transmitters to alert the operator
to blockages. The high alarm will alert the operator when regeneration of the
adsorbent bed is required. The TT installed on the exit stream detects the temperature
of gas and regulates the fuel supply of heater through the valve.CT installed between
adsorption column detects the concentration of moisture in the product gas and
regulates the flow of feed and product gas if concentration increase the setpoint
value. Feedback control system is suitable for temperature control and split-range
control system is suitable for concentration control.
Figure 7. 5: Adsorption column
119

7.7 Instrumentation of Distillation Column


Figure 7. 6: Distillation column

Operation of distillation column is to separate out multi-component


mixture having component Ethylene, Diethyl ether, Methane Acetaldehyde,
Ethane, and Hydrogen. Ethylene and minor amount of Methane, Ethane,
Hydrogen is vaporized from top and then condensed in condenser and
Ethylene, Diethyl ether, Acetaldehyde, and minor amount of Ethane is
obtaining from bottom side as bottom product.

Feed flow-rate may cause disturbance in the operation of distillation


column because it changes the reflux ratio which cause flooding and weeping
the distillation column hence it is important to maintain inlet feed flow-rate to
the distillation column, feed forward control system is put up at inlet stream of
column so that disturbance may suppress before entering the column.

Level of reflux drum must be maintained as condensed Vapor of


Ethylene and minor amount of Methane Ethane Hydrogen is collected in it,
120

for this purpose feed backward control system is installed over the ref ilux drum
so that after occurrence of disturbance level is measure by level measuring
sensor and signal send to level controller where value is compared with set
point and flow rate of distillate will be controlled by opening or closing the
valve. Reflux flow rate is also controlled by valve that receives data of
concentration from distillate.
121

CHAPTER 8

HAZOP STUDY

8.1 Hazop

Hazop is the structured and systematic analysis of operational plant or current


process or running plant operation to locate and identify the potential hazards and
evaluate operability problem. It is a systematic process technique which is used to
identify the possible deviation of the plant from normal routine conditions. HAZOP
analysis is also helpful to prevent disaster, accident or horrible situation. It is
combined with process condition through systematic channel and detects all possible
deviation from normal condition.

8.1.1 When to Perform Hazop?

HAZOP studies may also be used more extensively, including:

• At the initial concept stage when design drawings are available


• When the final piping and instrumentation diagrams (P&ID) are available
• During construction and installation to ensure that recommendations are
implemented
• During commissioning
• 140
• During operation to ensure that plant emergency and operating procedures are
regularly reviewed and updated as required
122

Characteristics:

A systematic, more organized judgment relying on HAZOP guide words and


team hardworking to create a complex review and ensure that suitable safeguards
against accidents are in place.
• Applicable to any system or process
• Mostly used as a system-level risk judgment technique
• Generates primarily qualitative results

Procedure for Hazop Analysis:

• Definition of some useful items


• Define the system or activity
• Main process of the HAZOP analysis
• Conduct HAZOP reviews
• Use the results in decision making
123

8.2 HAZOP on Quench tower

Table 8. 1: HAZOP of Quech tower

GUIDE DEVIATION POSSIBLE CONSEQUENCS ACTION


WORDS CAUSES REQUIRED
NO No liquid flow Pipe blockage Colum dry out Install low level
Valve fails No operation alarm

More More gas flow Control valve Flooding in the Install high level
fully open column alarm
Install
Control valve Flow controller
failure

More More pressure Pressure Whole process will Pressure


Valve is not get disturbed controller should
working Ethylene will not be be
produced in good repaired/replaced
quantity
More More Temperature If the temperature of Temperature
temperature sensor is not Feed will increase, it sensor should be
working will affect our product repaired/replaced
Quality.
Less Less flow Pipe blockage Column dry Install low level
Valve fails Change in quality alarm
Install flow
Cooling will not occur controller
properly
124

8.3 Hazop on Adsorption Column

Table 8. 2: HAZOP of Adsorption column

PARAMETER GUIDE DEVIATION CAUSE CONSEQUE ACTION


AND LINE WORD NCE
NO.
none Flow V-1 NO GAS INSTALL
FAILURE SUPPLY TO FLOW
HEATER, INDICAT
HEATER OR AND
FLOW OVERHEAT ALARM
ING
LINE :1 less Flow V-1 LESS GAS INSTALL
PARTIALLY SUPPLY TO FLOW
CLOSE HEATER, CONTRO
HEATER LLER
OVERHEAT
ING
more Flow V-1 FULLY LESS INSTALL
OPEN UTILIZATI FLOW
ON OF CONTRO
HEAT, LLER
HEAT IS
WASTED
none Flow V-7 NO INPUT INSTALL
FAILURE TO HIGH
REGENERA PRESSU
TOR, RE
PRESSURE ALARM
BUILDUP AND
FLOW IN THE FLOW
LINE INDICAT
LINE :2 OR TO
IMMEDI
ATELY
OPEN
THE
VALVE
less flow V-7 LESS INPUT INSTALL
PARTIALLY TO FLOW
CLOSE REGENERA CONTRO
TOR, LESS LLER
OUTPUT,
ENERGY
AND TIME
WASTED
125

more Flow v-7 FULLY NO PROPER INSTALL


OPEN UTILIZATI FLOW
ON OF GAS CONTRO
LLER
less LOW HEATER REGENERA INSTALL
TEMPERAT NOT TION TEMPER
URE WORKING EFFICIENC ATURE
PROPERLY, Y IS SENSOR
LESS FUEL DECREASE AND
TEMPERATU SUPPLY TO D, TIME CONTRO
RE HEATER CONSUMIN LLER TO
G, GAS REGULA
LINE :2 WASTAGE TE FUEL
SUPPLY
AND
RETURN
THE GAS
TO
HEATER
FOR
MORE
HEATIN
G
more HIGH HEAT ADSORBEN INSTALL
TEMPERAT GENERATI T TEMPER
URE ON IS HIGH, STRUCTUR ATURE
MORE E RUPTURE SENSOR
FUEL DUE TO AND
SUPPLY TO HIGH CONTRO
HEATER TEMPERAT LLER TO
URE REGULA
TE FUEL
SUPPLY
none FLOW V-8 NO FEED INSTALL
FAILURE SUPPLY TO FLOW
ADSORBER, INDICAT
PROCESS OR AND
STOPPED ALARM
FLOW less FLOW V-8 LESS FEED INSTALL
PARTIALLY TO FLOW
LINE :4 CLOSE ADSORBER, CONTRO
EFFICIENC LLER
Y
REDUCED,
TIME
CONSUMPT
ION
126

more FLOW V-8 FULLY UNTREATE INSTALL


OPEN D GAS AT FLOW
THE END, CONTRO
LESS LLER
EFFICIENC
Y
none FLOW V-8 PRESSURE FLOW
FAILURE BUILDUP INDICAT
IN THEOR AND
FLOW LINE, NOALARM,
OUTPUT CONTRO
LINE :5 L
SYSTEM
THAT
IMMEDI
ATELY
OPENS
IT
less FLOW V-8 LESS FLOW
PARTIALLY EFFICIENT, CONTRO
CLOSE LESS LLER
OUTPUT AND
FLOW
SENSOR
more HIGH ADSORBEN UNDESIRE INSTALL
CONCENTRA CONCENTR T IS D CONC.
TION ATION OF SATURATE PRODUCT, INDICAT
MOISTURE D AND POOR OR AND
LINE :5 NEEDS EFFICIENC CONTRO
REGENERA Y LLER TO
TION SHIFT
THE
FLOW
FROM
SATURA
TED TO
NEW
ADSORP
TION
COLUM
N
none FLOW V-11 PRESSURE FLOW
FAILURE BUILDUP INDICAT
IN OR AND
FLOW REGENERA ALARM,
TOR AND CONTRO
LINE :3 LINE L
SYSTEM
THAT
IMMEDI
127

ATELY
OPENS
IT
less FLOW V-11 PRESSURE FLOW
BUILDUP, CONTRO
TIME LLER
CONSUMIN AND
G FLOW
SENSOR

8.4 HAZOP On Heat Exchanger

Table 8. 3: HAZOP of Heat exchanger

Guide word Deviation Causes Consequences Action

Less flow of Temperature of Install low


ethanol or the ethanol does not temperature
Less products from Pipeline blockage change alarm at the
the distillation significantly outlet of the
column exchanger

Install low
More flow of hot Failure of flow Not enough temperature
water control valve contact between alarm at the
More the two fluids outlet of the
resulting in less exchanger
heat transfer

Contamination Hotspot/leakage of Less heat transfer. Proper


As well of process fluid process flow line Pressure drop will maintenance
as line be high and operator
alert
128

Other than Corrosion of Corrosive nature Cracks of tubes Proper


tube of process fluid maintenance

8.5 HAZOP on Reactor

Table 8. 4: HAZOP of Reactor

Process Deviation Possible causes Possible Action


parameter (guide word) consequences required

Flow NO Pipe broken or Loss of feed into Schedule


plugging reactor. inspection.
pressure
decrease

Flow HIGH High pressure Increase in Install check


from pump. reaction rate valves
Flow LOW Pipe partial Off specification Install check
plugged or product. valves. / Non
leakage. Back flow of Return Valves
material.
Pressure HIGH Valve failure. Increase in Install relief
V1 V2 / Temperature / Valve.
Pressure Reactor Vessel / Install pressure
controller fails may explode alarming device
Pressure LOW Pressure Reactor Vessel Install Pressure
Controller fails may implode alarming device
(PC-01)
Pressure Sensor
failure (PT-01)

Temperature HIGH Increased Off specification Install


pressure. product. temperature
Increased indicator and
reaction rate. cooling water
Decrease in flow rate
flow of controller.
cooling media.
Reaction NO Input line Shutdown of Check reactor
rupture/ complete input for
Catalyst process rupture,
deactivation/ Change the
129

Feed pump catalyst.


down

Reaction LOW Low temp, Decreased Check catalyst


low pressure, Production for
partial catalyst regeneration/
deactivation, Check inlet
Inlet pipe pipe for
leakage leakage

8.6 HAZOP On Absorber

Table 8. 5: HAZOP of Absorber

Parameter Guide Cause Action Stream


Word Consequences

Flow NO Line Fracture. No Absorption in Shutdown the 1


Closed valve the column due to liquid feed to the
due to error. no supply of gas. column.
Gas will escape Install no/low gas
into the flow alarm.
surrounding Emergency plant
Pressure buildup shutdown
in the line procedures.

No gas in the No mass transfer Inspect all the gas 3


column. will take place. inlet lines
Gas inlet valve Gas inlet line regularly.
closed may rapture due Install low gas
to pressure level alarm in the
buildup column.

No liquid flow Pressure buildup Install alarms in 4


in. Line may be due to increased the column that
fractured. liquid in the helps identifying
column.
the loss of liquid
Higher liquid
in the column.
level in the
column may
cause flooding
problems.

Less Leakage in the Line fracture Install low level 1


gas feed line. gas alarm.
130

Check the gas feed


line regularly.

Flooding Less emission of Install low level 3


gasses alarm. Ensure
proper inspection
of all the gas lines.

More Increased feed. There would be a Install high level 1


. less mass transfer alarm.
in the absorption
column.
Flooding.

Pressure More Valve may be Column may Install high 1


closed burst or get pressure alarm
flooding ruptured due to
pressure buildup.
Gas may escape
into the
surroundings.

Less Unsuitable Flood can occur use suitable 1


packing, packing for
High liquid absorber
loading

Temperature Less More cooling Efficiency of Use controller for


absorption the measurement
reduces of the temperature

More Failure of Less absorption Install high


cooling system / column temperature alarm
less cooling efficiency. on feed streams.
131

8.7 HAZOP study for Distillation Column


Table 8. 6: HAZOP of Distillation column

System:
Distillation
Column

Parameter Guide Word Cause Consequences Safeguard

High level
Level HGH LEVEL Level controller Level rises and alarm
Fault re-boiler
operation stops

Temperature HIGH Increased re- Composition can Temperature


boiler duty be affected controller,
control reflux
ratio

More reflux
LOW than Composition can Control reflux
optimum be affected ratio

Pressure HIGH Blockage at Column can Pressure


outlets burst controller and
alarm,
Pressure relief
valve

Composition MISDIRECTED Disturbed Inferior product Composition


analyzer at
column feed quality inlet,
Recycle
bottom
product
132

CHAPTER 9

COST ESTIMATION

Before the plant is made operational, a specific amount of money must be


supplied to purchase and install the equipment. The capital needed to supply the
necessary plant facilities is called fixed capital investment while that for the
operation of the plant is called the working principal and sum of two capitals is
called total capital investment.
An acceptable plant design must present a process that can operate under
conditions which will yield a profit. Since, Net profit total income-all expenses it is
essential that chemical engineer be aware of the many diverse types of cost involved
in manufacturing processes. Capital must be allocated for direct plant expenses; such
as those for raw materials, labour, and equipment. Besides direct expenses, many
other indirect expenses are incurred, and these must be included if a complete
analysis of the total cost is to be obtained.
133

9.1 Costing Of Absorber

Absorber (Ceramic Intalox Saddles Packing)

Pressure = 1.06 bar

Height = 20.6 m

Diamter = 2.08 m

Purchased cost = (bare cost from fig * Material factor* Pressure factor)
Bare cost = 100*1000 = $100000
Material Factor = 100000*2 =$200000
Pressure Factor = 200000*1= $200000
Purchase cost = $200000
Cost in year 2018 = Cost in year 2004*(cost index in year 2018/cost index in year
2004)
Cost in year 2018 = 200000*(548.9/411)
Cost in year 2018 = $267104.6

9.2 Costing on Heat exchanger

The costing of Heat exchanger is calculated from page 321 -323 & table 7.2 and by
using cost Escalation method page 335 for shell and tube heat exchanger

C=a+bSn
a = 2800
b = 54
134

A = 291.15
n = 1.2
by putting the values in above equation
C = 51702 US dollars
Now by cost Escalation method
CPEIC 2010=532.9
CPEIC 2018=567.5
Cost in year A =cost in year B*cost index in year A/cost index in year B
Hence cost in 2018 = 55058.89 US dollar

9.3 Adsorption Column Cost Estimation

The physical specifications of adsorption are following


Volume of vessel = 30.69 m3
Diameter of vessel = 2.35 m
Length of vessel = 7.06 m
Thickness of cylindrical shell = 0.027m
Mass of adsorbent per adsorption column = 20817.80 kg
Material of construction is carbon steel
Density of carbon steel = 7850 kg/m3
The cost estimation is done based on year 2010 data available in chemical
engineering design vol. 6
Table 7.2 from vol. 6 is used for calculations. The correlations in table 7.2 are of the
form
Ce = a + bSn
Where Ce = purchased equipment cost
a,b = cost constants
S = size parameter
n = exponent for that type of equipment
Cost of pressure vessel:
Shell mass = π Dc Lc tw ρ
135

Where Dc = vessel diameter


Lc = vessel length
tw = wall thickness
𝜌 = metal density
Shell mass = π × 2.35 × 7.06 × 0.027 × 7850
= 11047.29 kg
From table 7.2, a = 11600, b = 34, n = 0.85
Ce = 11600 + 34(11047.29)0.85
Ce = $104549.34
From literature, the price of zeolite 3A adsorbent = $1200/ton.
1200
Price of adsorbent bed = 1000 × 20817.80

= $24981.36
Volume of inert packing (ceramic) = 6.138 m3
Cost of packing = 2000(6.138)
= $12276
Total cost of one adsorption column = 12276 + 24981.36 + 104549.34
= $141806.7 (2010)
Now we calculate cost on basis of cost index of 2017 which is 567.6
Cost index of 2010 = 532.9
141806.7 ×567.5
Cost adsorption = 532.9

= $151,014 or 17,464,653.45
Since we have two adsorption columns so cost is 34,929,306 PKR.

9.4 Cost Estimation of Quench Tower

Cost of Quench Tower can be calculated as follows:

Bare vessel cost = 25000$


136

Material factor 2.0, pressure factor 1.0

Purchased cost as of 2003:

Vessel cost

= 20,500×2.0×1.0

= 50,000 £

Volume of packing

= π/4 (13.1)

= 10.28 m3

Packing cost

= 830 £ / m3

= 830 ×10.28

= 8532.4 £

Total cost of column

= 50,000 + 8532.4

= 58532.4 £

Purchased Cost as of 2018:

𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑡 𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑥 𝑖𝑛 𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟 2018


Cost in year 2018 = Cost in year 2003 ×𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑡 𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑥 𝑖𝑛 𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟 2003

567.5
Cost in year 2018 = 58532.4 × 411

Cost in year 2018 = 80820 £

Or

Cost in year 2018 = 12775620 Rs.


137

9.5 Costing Of Reactor

Reactor
ID number: R-100
Design data
Type Fixed Bed
Position Vertical
Material of construction Stainless steel SS-304
Weight of catalyst (kg) 2450.43
Diameter of Reactor (m) 1.38
Height of Reactor (m) 5.8
Volume of Reactor (m3) 6.18
Thickness of Wall (m) 0.0560
SS-304 Metal density (kg/m3) 7999.49

The cost estimation is done based on year 2010 data available in chemical
engineering design vol. 6

Table 7.2 from vol. 6 is used for calculations. The correlations in table 7.2 are of the
form
Ce=a+𝒃𝑺𝒏

Where Ce = purchased equipment cost


a,b = cost constants
S = size parameter
n = exponent for that type of equipment
Cost of pressure vessel:
Shell mass = π Dc Lc tw ρ
Where Dc = vessel diameter =1.38m
138

Lc = vessel length =5.8m


tw = wall thickness =0.0560m
ρ = metal density =7999.49 kg/m3
Shell mass =
π×1.38×5.8×0.0560×7999.49
= 11264.379 kg

From table 7.2, a = 17400, b = 79, n = 0.85


Ce=a+𝒃𝑺𝒏
Ce = 17400 + 79(11264.379)0.85
Ce = $236972.65
Purchase cost of Reactor = Material Factor * Vessel Cost
Purchase cost of Reactor = $236972.65 x 1.0= $236972.65~ Rs.2.37 Crores

Applying Cost Index


CEPCI 2010 (532.9)
CEPCI 2018 (567.5)
𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑡 𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑥 𝑖𝑛 2018
Cost in year 2018 = Cost in year 2010×
𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑡 𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑥 𝑖𝑛 2010
567.5
= $236972.65×532.9 = $252358.76 ~ $252359

Cost of Catalyst
Price range of activated Gamma Alumina catalyst = $1.5- $1.8 per kg (ref)
Weight of Catalyst= 2450.43 kg
$1.8
Cost of Catalyst= 2450.43 𝑘𝑔 𝑥 = $4411
𝑘𝑔

Total Cost of Reactor= $252359+$4411= $256770 ~ $256770


OR
2.57 Crores
139

9.6 Cost of Distillation Column

As from designing, we know that:

Height of vessel = 14 m

Diameter = 1.5 m

From graph, (Richardson & Coulson Vol. 6, pg 256)

From figure 2 (Appendix A):

Cost in USD =?

Cost = 24 × 1000

Cost = 24,000 $

Factors:

Distillation column is made up of Stainless steel, So:

Stainless steel factor = 2

Cost = 24,000 × 2

Cost = 48,000 $

Pressure Factor = 1.4 For 20-30 bars

So,

Cost = 24,000 × 1.4

Cost = 33,600 $

Now, for plates:

Area of column = 1.77 m2

Down-comer area = 0.2124 m2

Net area = 1.5576 m2

A = 𝜋 4 d2

d 2 = (4) (1.5576) / 3.14


140

d 2 = 1.98

Plate diameter = d = 1.40 m

From graph, (Richardson & Coulson Vol. 6, pg 258)

From figure 3 (Appendix A):

Type = sieve

Cost in USD = ?

Cost = 370 $

Material factor = Stainless steel = 2.0

So,

Cost = 370 × 2.0

Cost = 740 $

Cost for 1 plate = 370 $

Total number of plates = 24

So,

Cost = 370 × 24

Cost = 8880 $

Total cost of Distillation Column:

Total Cost = 1,05,600 + 8880

Total Cost = 114480 $

Cost in year 2018 = $114480 x (Cost index ratio 2018 / cost index in 2003) Cost in

2016 = ×index 2016-2004

Cost = (114480) (536.5) / (444.2)


141

9.7 Total Cost of The Plant

By Lang Method,
Total ISBL of the Plant C= F(∑𝐶𝑒)
Where,
C= Total Plant ISBL Capital cost
∑𝐶𝑒 = Total delivered cost of all equipment items; reactors, tanks etc
F= Lang Factor
Now,
F=3.1 for Solids processing plant
F=4.74 for fluids processing plant
F=3.63 for mixed fluids solid processing plant
Sum of all costs of equipment Ce= Cost of Reactor + Cost of Quencher + Cost of
Absorber + Cost of Adsorber + Cost of Distillation Column + Cost of Heat
Exchanger
Ce= $256770 + $127756 + $267104.6 + $(1.3*349293) + (138267.7172) + 55058.89
Ce= $1299038.11 ~Rs. 149908997.6 OR 14.99 ~ 15 Crores
TOTAL ISBL = 4.74*14.99= Rs.71.056 Crores
OSBL=40% x 71.056=Rs. 28.43 Crores
FIXED CAPITAL COST= 71.056+28.43 = Rs. 99.48 Crores
WORKING CAPITAL COST= 10% x 99.48= RS. 9.9486 Crores
TOTAL INVESTMENT= Working Capital Cost + Fixed Capital Cost =Rs.109.43
Crores
142

CHAPTER 10

PLANT LAYOUT

10.1 Plant Site Selection

Site selection is integral part of setting up an efficient industry. There are many
factors that contribute in selecting a proper site for a chemical plant. Major factors
among these are:

• Raw Materials
• Market
• Energy Supply
• Availability of Utilities (Water)
• Climate
• Labor
• Transport Facilities
• Material Handling
• Safety
• Waste Disposals
• Buildings
• Structural Designs
• Federal state and Local Laws and State

For a preliminary survey the factors of utmost importance are: Raw Materials,
Transport, Market and Energy Source.
143

10.2 Plant Layout Problems

• Design Problems
- Locations of Activities
- Dimensions
- Configurations
- Greenfield to Location of one new machine
• Reasons
- Changes in Demand
- Changes in Product Design
- New Machines
- Bottle Necks
- Too Large Buffers
- Too Long Transfer Times

Restrictions

• Legislation on Employees Working Conditions


• Present Building (Colums / Water works)

Methods

• IMMER. The right equipment at the right place to Permit Effective Processing
• APPLE. Short Distances and Short Times

Goals

• Plant For the Preferred Situation in The Future


• Layout Must Support Objective Of The Facility
• Flexible Layout
• Minimal Material Handling Costs
• Minimal Investments
144

• Minimal Throughput Times


• Flexibility
• Efficient Use of Space

10.3 Proposed Project Process Plant

For our process the basic raw material is Ethanol from Sugarcane. Selected site is in
Chanar Tandlianwala Region district Faisalabad. All the site selection criteria
mentioned above are met here. In this region sugar cane is cultivated in ample
amounts and has many sugar mills situated so ample supply of ethanol is available at
optimum costs. Also the Regulatory bodies set standard rules are also easily met i.e.
related to safety of people and environment.
145

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