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Production &

operations management

Chapter 7

Plant Utilities
Plant Utilities
A.Lighting
™Lighting includes both artificial light sources such as
lamps and natural illumination of interiors from daylight.
™ Lighting represents a major component of energy
consumption, accounting for a significant part of all energy
consumed worldwide.
™Artificial lighting is provided today by electric lights, but
previously by gas lighting, candles or oil lamps. Proper
lighting can enhance task performance or aesthetics, while
there can be energy wastage and adverse health effects of
lighting.
™Indoor lighting is a form of fixture or furnishing, and a key
part of interior design. Lighting can also be an intrinsic
component of landscaping.
Plant Utilities
A.Lighting
™Plant Utilities refers to services such as lighting,
air-conditioning, sanitation and noise control.
™Lighting is one of the physical facilities most
required in a factory.
™Adequate and good Lighting is necessary for a
worker so that he may see the minute details of his
job with ease and accuracy.
™Lighting is said to be good when it is free of glare
and is properly diffused.
™Illumination between 14 to 18 lumens is considered
to be ideal in an industry establishment.
Plant Utilities
A.Lighting
Sources of Lighting
™Day Light is that light which is received from the
sun through the apertures in the building.
™ Day Light is suitable for general lighting purposes.

Advantages of day-light
1) It is available in abundance.
2) It is free of cost.
3) Requires no maintenance.
4) Free from problems like load shading,power failure
5) Suitable for general purpose lighting
Plant Utilities
A.Lighting
™Take advantage of the sun to heat, light, and power your
work space. If your company is building or retrofitting an
office, help make sure that it meets or exceeds the energy and
lighting codes.
™Turn the lights off whenever they are not being used, or
use sensor devices to turn lights on and off. Retrofit older
lighting fixtures with fluorescent lighting and energy-saving
electronic ballasts. Use task lighting (oriented to the task at
hand) rather than general,overhead lighting.
™Energy-efficient lighting, ventilation, heating, and cooling
technologieshave cut many companies’ total energy bills by
30 percent or more.
Plant Utilities
A.Types of Lighting
™Lighting is classified by intended use as general, localized,
or task lighting, depending largely on the distribution of the
light produced by the fixture.

wGeneral lighting fills in between the two and is intended


for general illumination of an area. Indoors, this would be a
basic lamp on a table or floor, or a fixture on the ceiling.
Outdoors, general lighting for a parking lot may be as low as
10-20 lux (1-2 footcandles) since pedestrians and motorists
already used to the dark will need little light for crossing the
area.
Plant Utilities
A.Types of Lighting
wTask lighting is mainly functional and is usually the most
concentrated, for purposes such as reading or inspection of
materials. For example, reading poor-quality reproductions
may require task lighting levels up to 1500 lux (150
footcandles), and some inspection tasks or surgical
procedures require even higher levels.

™Accent lighting is mainly decorative, intended to highlight


pictures, plants, or other elements of interior design or
landscaping.
Plant Utilities
A.Artificial Lighting
wDownlighting is most common, with fixtures on or
recessed in the ceiling casting light downward. This tends to
be the most used method, used in both offices and homes.
Although it is easy to design it has dramatic problems with
glare and excess energy consumption due to large number of
fittings.
wUplighting is less common, often used to bounce indirect
light off of the ceiling and back down. It is commonly used
in lighting applications that require minimal glare and
uniform general illuminance levels. Uplighting (indirect)
uses a diffuse surface to reflect light in a space and can
minimize disabling glare on computer displays and other
dark glossy surfaces.
Plant Utilities
A.Artificial Lighting
wIt gives a more uniform presentation of the light output in
operation.
wFront lighting is also quite common, but tends to make the
subject look flat as its casts almost no visible shadows.
Lighting from the side is the less common, as it tends to
produce glare near eye level. Backlighting either around or
through an object is mainly for accent.
w Over-illumination is the presence of lighting intensity
(illuminance) beyond that required for a specified activity.
Over-illumination was commonly ignored between 1950
and 1995, especially in office and retail environments;
only since then has the interior design community begun
to reconsider this practice.
Plant Utilities
A.Artificial Lighting
wThe concept of over-illumination encompasses two
separate but related concerns:
1.Use of more artificial illumination than required is
expensive and energy-intensive. This includes consideration
both of the appropriate level of illumination when spaces are
in use, and when they are unoccupied.
wSome people find excessive levels of artificial light to be
irritating, and some studies have shown that they may lead to
adverse health effects. These effects may depend on the
spectra of the light rather than or as well as the overall
illuminance
B.Ventilation
™Ventilation refers to the supply of air to an enclosed space
and to the removal of air there from.
™Ventilation is the intentional movement of air from
outside a building to the inside.
™It is the V in HVAC. With clothes dryers, and combustion
equipment such as water heaters, boilers, fireplaces, and
woodstoves, their exhausts are often called vents or flues —
this should not be confused with ventilation.
™The vents or flues carry the products of combustion which
have to be expelled from the building in a way which does
not cause harm to the occupants of the building. Movement
of air between indoor spaces, and not the outside, is called
transfer air.
B.Ventilation
™When people or animals are present in buildings,
ventilation air is necessary to dilute odours and limit the
concentration of carbon dioxide and airborne pollutants such
as respirable suspended particles (RSPs) and volatile organic
compounds (VOCs).
™Ventilation air is often delivered to spaces by mechanical
systems which may also heat, cool, humidify and dehumidify
the space. Air movement into buildings can occur due to
uncontrolled infiltration of outside air through the building
fabric or the use of deliberate natural ventilation strategies.
™ Advanced air filtration and treatment processes such as
scrubbing, can provide ventilation air by cleaning and
recirculating a proportion of the air inside a building.
B.Ventilation
™For residential buildings, which mostly rely on infiltration
for meeting their ventilation needs, the common ventilation
rate measure is the number of times the whole interior volume
of air is replaced per hour, and is called air changes per hour
(I or ACH; units of 1/h). ACHs of 0.5 to 1.5 are common in
modern U.S. homes under winter design weather conditions.
™If smoking is allowed indoors, of tobacco or other
substances, ventilation air is needed in great quantities to
dilute the airborne contaminants
™Exposure to secondhand smoke cannot however be
eliminated. Banning indoor tobacco smoking and the use of
candles, air fresheners, incense, and other generators of air
contaminants is much more effective for improving indoor air
quality
B.Ventilation
™A chimney causes infiltration or natural ventilation
because it moves air from inside to outside. The
resulting negative pressure change induced in the
building typically causes a flow of air to move into the
building replacing the warmer air that leaves by
buoyancy through the chimney.
™Ventilation in a structure is also needed for removing
water vapor, produced by respiration, burning, and
cooking, and for removing odors, e.g., from a toilet or
kitchen. If water vapor is permitted to accumulate, it may
damage the structure, insulation, or finishes. When
operating, an air conditioner usually removes excess
moisture from the air.
B. Types of Ventilation
•Mechanical or forced ventilation: through an air
handling unit or direct injection to a space by a fan. A local
exhaust fan can enhance infiltration or natural ventilation,
thus increasing the ventilation air flow rate.
•Natural ventilation occurs when the air in a space is
changed with outdoor air without the use mechanical
systems, such as a fan. Most often natural ventilation is
assured though operable windows but it can also be
achieved through temperature and pressure differences
between spaces.
Infiltration is separate from ventilation, but is often used to
provide ventilation air
B.Sources of Ventilation

Natural ventilation
™Natural ventilation is the process of supplying and
removing air through an indoor space by natural
means. There are two types of natural ventilation
occurring in buildings: wind driven ventilation and
stack ventilation.
™ The pressures generated by buoyancy, also known
as 'the stack effect', are quite low while wind
pressures are usually far greater.
™Demand Controlled Ventilation (DCV)
™DCV makes it possible to maintain proper ventilation and
improve air quality while saving energy.
B.Sources of Ventilation

™ASHRAE has determined that: "It is consistent with the


Ventilation rate procedure that Demand Control be
permitted for use to reduce the total outdoor air supply
during periods of less occupancy."
™That means the unit - using CO2 sensors and a CO2
setpoint selected for the required ventilation rate - will
control the amount of ventilation for the actual number of
occupants.
™During design occupancy, a unit with the DCV system
will deliver the same amount of outdoor air as a unit using
the ventilation-rate procedure.
C.Air Conditioning
™The term air conditioning most commonly refers to the
cooling and dehumidification of indoor air for thermal
comfort. In a broader sense, the term can refer to any form
of cooling, heating, ventilation or disinfection that modifies
the condition of air.
™] An air conditioner (AC or A/C in North American
English, aircon in British and Australian English) is an
appliance, system, or mechanism designed to extract heat
from an area, typically using a refrigeration cycle but
sometimes using evaporation, most commonly for comfort
cooling in buildings and transportation vehicles.
C.Air Conditioning
™The concept of air conditioning is known to have been
applied in Ancient Rome, where aqueduct water was
circulated through the walls of certain houses to cool them.
™ Similar techniques in medieval Persia involved the use of
cisterns and wind towers to cool buildings during the hot
season.
™ Modern air conditioning emerged from advances in
chemistry during the 19th Century, and the first large-scale
electrical air conditioning was invented and used in 1902 by
Willis Haviland Carrier.
C.Air Conditioning
™Air conditioning applications
™Air conditioning engineers broadly divide air conditioning
applications into comfort and process.
™Comfort applications aim to provide an indoor
environment that remains relatively constant in a range
preferred by humans despite changes in external weather
conditions or in internal heat loads.
™The highest performance for tasks performed by people
seated in an office is expected to occur at 72°F (22.2 °C)
Performance is expected to degrade about 1% for every 2 °F
change in room temperature.]
™ The highest performance for tasks performed while
standing is expected to occur at slightly lower temperatures.
C.Air Conditioning
™The highest performance for tasks performed by larger
people is expected to occur at slightly lower temperatures. The
highest performance for tasks performed by smaller people is
expected to occur at slightly higher temperatures. Although
generally accepted, some dispute that thermal comfort
enhances worker productivity, as is described in the Hawthorne
effect.
™Comfort air conditioning makes deep plan buildings feasible.
Without air conditioning, buildings must be built narrower or
with light wells so that inner spaces receive sufficient outdoor
air via natural ventilation. Air conditioning also allows
buildings to be taller since wind speed increases significantly
with altitude making natural ventilation impractical for very
tall buildings.
C.Air Conditioning
™Comfort applications for various building types are quite
different and may be categorized as
wLow-Rise Residential buildings, including single family
houses, duplexes, and small apartment buildings
wHigh-Rise Residential buildings, such as tall dormitories
and apartment blocks
wCommercial buildings, which are built for commerce,
including offices, malls, shopping centers, restaurants, etc.
wInstitutional buildings, which includes hospitals,
governmental, academic, and so on.
™Industrial spaces where thermal comfort of workers is
desired.
D.Sanitation
™Sanitation is the hygienic means of preventing human
contact from the hazards of wastes to promote health.
Hazards can be either physical, microbiological, biological or
chemical agents of disease.
™Wastes that can cause health problems are human and
animal feces, solid wastes, domestic wastewater (sewage,
urine, sullage, greywater), industrial wastes, and agricultural
wastes.
™ Hygienic means of prevention can be by using
engineering solutions (e.g. sewerage and wastewater
treatment), simple technologies (e.g.latrines, septic tanks), or
even by personal hygiene practices (e.g. simple handwashing
with soap).
D.Sanitation
™The term "sanitation" can be applied to a specific aspect,
concept, location, or strategy, such as:
™Basic sanitation - refers to the management of human
feces at the household level. This terminology is the indicator
used to describe the target of the Millennium Development
Goal on sanitation.
™On-site sanitation - the collection and teatment of waste is
done where it is deposited. Examples are the use of pit
latrines, septic tanks, and imhoff tanks.
™Food sanitation - refers to the hygienic measures for
ensuring food safety.
D.Sanitation
™Environmental sanitation - the control of environmental
factors that form links in disease transmission. Subsets of this
category are solid waste management, water and wastewater
treatment, industrial waste treatment and noise and pollution
control.
™Ecological sanitation - a concept and an approach of
recycling to nature the nutrients from human and animal
wastes.
E.Noise Control
™In architectural acoustics and environmental acoustics,
noise control refers to the set of practises employed for noise
mitigation.
™Within architectural acoustics these practises include:
interior sound reverberation reduction, inter-room noise
transfer mitigation and exterior building skin augmentation.
™ More specific architectural noise control methods include
the installation of acoustical gypsum, ceiling tiles, ceiling
panels, carpet and draperies.
™In the field of environmental sound, common noise control
practises include: design of noise barriers, development and
enforcement of noise abatement legal codes and urban
design.
E.Noise Control
Materials used in architectural acoustics
™Acoustical wall and ceiling panels can be constructed of
many different materials and finishes.
™The ideal acoustical panels are those without a face or
finish material that interferes with the acoustical infill or
substrate. Fabric covered panels are one way to maximize the
acoustical absorption.
™The finish material is used to cover over the acoustical
substrate. Mineral Fiber Board, or Micore, is a commonly
used acoustical substrate. Finish materials often consist of
fabric, wood or metal.
E.Noise Control
™Fabric can be wrapped around substrates to create what is
referred to as a "pre-fabricated panel" and often provides the
best noise control if laid onto a wall, and require no
modifications.
™Prefabricated panels are limited to the size of the substrate
ranging from two by four feet to four by ten feet in
dimension.
™Fabric retained in a wall-mounted perimeter track system,
is referred to as "on-site acoustical wall panels" This is
constructed by "framing" the perimeter track into shape,
infilling the acoustical substrate and then stretching and
tucking the fabric into the perimeter frame system.
™
E.Noise Control
™On-site wall panels can be constructed to work around
door frames, baseboard, or any other intrusion. Large panels
(generally, greater than 50') can be created on walls and
ceilings with this method. Wood finishes usually consist of
punched or routed holes or slots and provide a warm and
natural look to the interior space, although acoustical
absorption is not as high.
™Control Methods
1 Control at Source.
2) Control by enclosures.
3) Control by ear protection
Plant Utilities

End Of

Chapter 7