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Energy Generation:

During aerobic respiration, molecular oxygen (O2) is used for which of the following purposes?
At the end of the electron transport chain to accept electrons and form H2O
Why is the citric acid cycle called a cycle? (Which redox reaction involves oxygen during
cellular respiration? The formation of water) Because the four carbon acid that accepts the
acetyl coA in the first step of the cycle is regenerated by the last step of the cycle
In the citric acid cycle, for each pyruvate that enters the cycle, 1 ATP, 3 NADH, and 1 FADH2
are produced. For each glucose molecule that enters glycolysis, how many ATP, NADH, and
FADH2 are produced in the citric acid cycle? (Consider how glycolysis and the citric acid cycle
are connected) 2 ATP, 6 NADH, and 2 FADH2 Then the NADH and FADH2 go through the
electron transport chain
The function of cellular respiration is to (Why do you need to eat?) extract usable energy from
glucose
Sports physiologists at an Olympic training center wanted to monitor athletes to determine at
what point their muscles were functioning anaerobically. They could do this by checking for
the buildup of which of the following compounds? (Consider which of these is a product of
fermentation in muscle cells) Lactate. In humans, muscle cells switch to lactate fermentation
after becoming anaerobic
Most of the ATP produced in cellular respiration comes from which process? (Think of the three
major groups of reactions in cellular respiration) Oxidative phosphorylation. After hydrogen
ions are pumped into the mitochondrial intermembrane space, they flow back through
ATP synthase, which produces most of the ATP associated with cellular respiration
During respiration in eukaryotic cells, reactions of the citric acid cycle occur (What is the fate of
pyruvate produced in glycolysis under aerobic conditions?) in the matrix of the mitochondria
where it completes the degradation of glucose
Which of the following sequences correctly describes the synthesis of ATP associated with
electron transport in mitochondria? (Recall the flow of energy among the processes in the
mitochondria) NADH, electron transport, proton gradient, chemiosmosis
Most of the NADH that delivers electrons to the electron transport chain comes from which of
the following? (Consider the stage that produces NADH and FADH2) the citric acid cycle. Both
NADH and FADH2 are produced during the citric acid cycle
Which of the following best describes the electron transport chain? Electrons are passed from
one carrier to another, releasing a little energy at each step. NADH and FADH2 deliver
electrons from the breakdown products of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle to the electron
transport chain, which passes these electrons from one molecule to another, releasing a
small amount of energy at each step
Each ATP molecule contains about 1% of the amount of chemical energy available from the
complete oxidation of a single glucose molecule. Cellular respiration produces about 38 ATP
from one glucose molecule. What happens to the rest of the energy in glucose? (Remember your
thermodynamics) It is converted to heat. The process of cellular respiration is only 38%
efficient with the rest of the energy lost as heat
How many molecules of ATP are gained by substrate level phosphorylation from the complete
breakdown of a single molecule of glucose in the presence of oxygen? (Remember that substrate
level phosphorylation occurs both in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle) 4 ATPs are produced
from substrate level phosphorylation. (2 ATPs are produced in glycolysis and 2 are
produced in the citric acid cycle)
If muscle cells in the human body consume oxygen (O2) faster than it can be supplied, which
of the following is likely to result? (Consider the consequences of anaerobic conditions for
cells) The muscle cells will have more trouble making enough ATP to meet their energy
requirements and will be unable to carry out oxidative phosphorylation. The muscle cells
will also consume glucose at an increased rate.
What provides the best explanation for why the oxidation of organic compounds by molecular
oxygen (O2) yields so much energy? (Consider what happens when the organic compound is
oxidized and oxygen gas is reduced) The oxygen atom has a higher affinity for electrons
than the carbon atom. The high electronegativity of oxygen to carbon is the reason that
oxidation of organic compounds released so much energy
What is the source of the energy that produces the chemiosmotic gradient in mitochondria? (This
involves the inner mitochondrial membrane of your cells) Electrons moving down the electron
transport chain. Energy from the flow of electrons down the electron transport chain is
used to pump hydrogen ions (protons) across the inner mitochondrial membrane creating
the chemiosmotic gradient
The overall efficiency of respiration (the percentage of the energy released that is saved in
ATP) is approximately 40% (This number is typical of most catabolic pathways in cells) The
efficiency of respiration is 7.3 kcal per mole times 38 moles (maximum ATP yield per mole
of glucose) divided by 686 kcal (the amount of energy contained in one mole of glucose) or
about 40%
Which of the following accompanies the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl coA before the
citric acid cycle? (Consider the reactions that occur during the metabolism of pyruvate from
glycolysis) Formation of CO2 and NADH. The carboxyl group of pyruvate is removed as
a carbon dioxide molecule. The remaining 2 carbon fragment is oxidized to acetate while
NAD+ is reduced to NADH
A molecule becomes oxidized when it loses an electron
During respiration in eukaryotic cells, the electron transport chain is located in or on the inner
membrane of the mitochondria. The electron transport chain is an energy converter that
uses the exergonic flow of electrons to pump hydrogen ions across the membrane from
matrix to intermembrane space
In glycolysis, there is no production of carbon dioxide as a product of the pathway. What is the
best explanation for this? (Consider the fate of the carbon atoms in glucose during glycolysis)
The 2 pyruvate molecules produced from each glucose molecule each contain 3 carbon
atoms
When protein molecules are used as fuel for cellular respiration, amino groups are produced
as waste. (Consider what portion of an amino acid is not a carbon chain that can be oxidized by
cellular respiration) The amino group is a residual product of amino acid catabolism
Which of the following represents the major (but not the only) energy accomplishment of the
citric acid cycle is the formation of NADH and FADH2. Each turn of the citric acid cycle
releases carbon dioxide, forms 1 ATP by oxidative phosphorylation, and passes electrons to
3 NAD+ and FAD
Which of the following substances are involved in oxidative phosphorylation? ADP, ATP, and
oxygen. ADP is converted to ATP during oxidative phosphorylation, and oxygen functions
as the terminal electron acceptor in oxidative phosphorylation
What statement provides the best explanation for why the oxidation of organic compounds by
molecule oxygen yields so much energy? The high electronegativity (affinity for electrons)
of the oxygen atom relative to carbon is the reason that oxidation of organic compounds
releases so much energy)
What is the name of the process in which glucose is converted to pyruvate with the production of
ATP and NADH? Glycolysis, or the splitting of sugar, splits a six carbon glucose into 2 three
carbon pyruvate molecules
Which compound is reduced as a result of the reaction C6H12O6 + 6O2 CO2 + 6H2O? Oxygen.
In cellular respiration, glucose is oxidized to carbon dioxide and oxygen is reduced to water
In glycolysis in the absence of oxygen, cells need a way to regenerate which compound? NAD+
needs to be regenerated which is why ethanol or lactate is formed
A small amount of ATP is made in glycolysis by which of the following processes? Transfer of
a phosphate group from a fragment of glucose to ADP by substrate level phosphorylation.
Remember that glucose is phosphorylated at the beginning of glycolysis
Most of the electrons removed from glucose by cellular respiration are used for which of the
following processes? Reducing NAD+ to NADH in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle and
producing a proton gradient for ATP synthesis in the mitochondria
Muscle tissues make lactate from pyruvate to do which of the following? Regenerate NAD+
Human muscle cells make ATP by lactic acid fermentation when oxygen is scarce. This
allows them to regenerate NAD+ so that glycolysis can continue
The ATP synthase in a human cell obtains energy for making ATP directly from which of the
following processes? The flow of H+ across a membrane through the ATP synthase enzyme.
Hydrogen ions flow along an electrochemical gradient across the inner mitochondrial
membrane. The gradient is the source of the energy for ATP production