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The Baroque Clarinet in Public Concerts, 1726-1762

Author(s): Albert Rice


Reviewed work(s):
Source: Early Music, Vol. 16, No. 3 (Aug., 1988), pp. 388-395
Published by: Oxford University Press
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3127292 .
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Albert Rice
The baroque clarinet in public concerts, 1726-1762

1 GobelintapestryMercureet Argus(1718),Museedu Louvre,Paris

The earliest appearance of the clarinet, attributedto the 18th century. The prospect of financial gain led
the Nurembergworkshopof Johann ChristophDenner performers to England in particular. In 1713, the
(1655-1707), may be dated around the first decade of musician and theorist, Johann Mattheson, observed
the 18th century. Its use in public concerts is traced that most European musicians went to England in
through sources such as concert notices, reviews, and order to earn a good deal of money:
listings of orchestral players. This article sets out to WerbeydiesenZeitenetwasin derMusiczu praestirenvermeinet/
examine the concert appearancesof travellingvirtuosi, derbegibtsich nachEngellandIn ItalienundFrankreich
etwaszu
and the orchestralpositions held by clarinet players in horen und zu lernen,;in Engellandetwas zu verdienen;im
various parts of Europe. Vaterlandeaberam bestenzu verzehren.'
He who in the present time thinks of playing music travels to
Travellingvirtuosi England. In Italy and Franceone plays to hear and learn, in
Travelling virtuosi played an important part in Englandone plays to gain [money],but in the fatherlandit is
the best to consume.
introducingthe clarinet to the concert-going public of
Germany,GreatBritainand France in the first half of Another contemporarywriterclaimed that the Italian

388 EARLYMUSIC AUGUST 1988


singer, Francesca Margherita de l'Epine, had'since her Fields Theatre.10 He continued to appear as a soloist
Arrival in England, by Modest Computation; ... got by on this instrument, but on 1 April 1735 gave a benefit
the Stage and Gentry, above 10000 Guineas'.2 concert at the Swan Tavern,performing'several new
TheDaily Courantfor 24 March 1726 mentioned the Pieces on the French Horn and Clarinet'.1 It appears
first clarinettists to be identified by name, two that he used the French form of his name when
Germans who gave benefit concerts in London during composing; The Daily Advertiser for 10 October 1735,
1726 and 1727: for instance, lists the following worksto be performed
For the Benefit of M. August Freudenfeld, and Francis on the flute: 'Solo on the GermanFlute by Burchinger,
Rosenberg, Clarinets. Se Largoby Burchingerand Charle'.12Two years later,
At Mr.Hickford'sGreatRoomover against the Tennis-Court, Charle began to play the chalumeau in his concerts.
in James's Street, near the Hay-market,To morrow being On 11 March 1737, admission to the Stationers' Hall
Friday,the 25th of March, will be performed a Consort of was advertised at a cost of five shillings for a concert
InstrumentalMusick by the best Hands. To begin precisely of music 'By the best hands, with a Solo; and several
at Sevena-Clock.N.B.Youaredesiredto comein atJames's- new Pieces on the French Horn, Clarinette, and
StreetSide.3
Sharlarno[sic] by Mr Charles. Also several pieces on
The identical announcement was repeated in TheDaily the French Horn by an English Gentlewoman, and a
Couranta year later, with an admission price of five Negro boy of ten years old, both scholars of Mr
shillings.4 Freudenfeld or Rosenberg may also have Charles'.13 Charle was now active as a teacher of the
played the chalumeau in concerts at the Richmond- French horn and possibly also the clarinet.
Wells Theatre,for TheDaily Post of 31 June 1722 had He may have been the chalumeau soloist in Parisat
announced: a Concert Spirituel on 21 February1728, when it was
RICHMOND-WELLS... on Mondayswillbe a selectbandof reported in the Mercure de France that
Musick from the Opera . . . N.B. There will be several Onjoua ensuiteun Concertode chalumeau,avecles accompagne-
Concerto'severy Evening on a new Instrumentfrom mentsde la Simphoniequiformentles choeurs,Cetinstrumentqui
Germanycall'd The Shalamo;never play'd in Publick estforten usageen Allemagne,imitele Haut-Boiset la Flite ~iBec.
before.5 Le tout ensembleparutassez singulieret fin plaisir. . .14
In the 18th century, musicians were often initially They played a concerto for chalumeau with the accom-
trained to play a number of wind, string and paniment of the symphony, who formed the choruses. This
percussion instruments in a Stadtpfeifereior town instrument, which is greatly used in Germany,imitates the
pipers' school, rather than specializing in a single oboe and the recorder.The whole thing had quite a singular
instrument.6 effect and gave pleasure...
Both the 'shalamo' and clarinet were played in An interesting illustration of French origin, which may
London from 1737 by another foreign-bornvirtuoso, a have been intended to portray the little-known
'Mons. Charle' also known as 'Mr Charles', whose chalumeau or clarinet, is found in a 1718 tapestry of
careerhas been documented in some depth.7Originally Gobelin manufacture, entitled 'Mercureet Argus'(see
from France,he appearedin various cities throughout illus.1).15 Here, Mercury holds in his left hand an
Great Britain for twenty-two years, and made a instrument with an oboe bell-key for the note c', but a
significant contribution to the clarinet's new-found mouthpiece that suggests either the fipple of a
popularity. He was first mentioned on 6 October 1733 recorderor the beak mouthpiece of the chalumeau or
in the 'ThirdMusick'between the acts of the play, The clarinet. 16
Relapse, by Sir John Vanbrugh, at the Haymarket According to Pamela Weston, Charle travelled to
Theatre.This included 'I. Concerto for French Horns, Dublin in March 1742, where he was heralded as 'the
the French Horns by Charle and Giay, lately arriv'd famous French-Horn' and 'Master of Musick from
from Paris'and 'III. Solo for French Horn by Charle'.8 London'. It is possible that he made this journey at the
Both Charle and Giay performed again at the Hay- suggestion of Handel, who had preceded him by a few
marketTheatreon 20 October 1733, this time in a 'Duo days, and whose works were often included in his
for Two French Horns'.9Charle'sfirst name is never concerts. Charlelived in Caple Street at the house of
mentioned in a concert advertisement; he began to MrHunt, an upholsterer;7 he played in the pit band at
call himself 'MrCharles'in September 1734, when he the Aungier Street Theatre and is known to have
played a concerto on the French horn at Goodman's advertised for pupils. Faulkners Dublin Journal referred

EARLYMUSICAUGUST1988 389
to him as 'the Hungarian',18and this is how he was struments, the shallamo and clarinet'.25 At Vauxhall
advertisedin the DublinMercuryfor his benefit concert Gardens, London, they were employed as orchestral
on 12 May 1742.19This included popular works such players, accompanying vocal solos, and probably
as 'Mr Handel's Water-Music, with the March in playing concertos on the horn and clarinet.26
Scipio, and the grand Chorus in Atalanta'. Charle The last concert appearance of Charle and his son
himself played 'ASolo on the Hautbois de Amour',and was on 22 March 1755 at the Assembly Rooms in
'A select Piece on the Shalamo',and according to the Edinburgh,where the style of the announcement-
announcement in the Dublin Mercury,'The Clarinet, 'several select Pieces on the clarinet and other in-
the Hautbois de Amour, and Shalamo, were never struments'--suggests the clarinet had become suf-
heard in this Kingdom before'. ficiently importantto be the only instrumentthat was
As Charlewas himself a composer it is probablethat named.27Its popularityin the city continued, and from
the solos for horn, oboe d'amourand chalumeau, and the 1760s it was played at the EdinburghAssembly, an
possibly the clarinet concerto, were all writtenby him. aristocratic dancing club.28
His success at performingon four differentinstruments A number of newspapers contain reports of other
was widely noted in the newspapers, where it was virtuoso clarinettists active before 1760. The Frank-
announced that he would, at popular request, give a furter Frag- und Anzeigungs-Nachrichten for 13 October
repeat performance. This was given on 2 June at the 1739 advertised
fashionable Playhouse or Theatre Royal in Aungier sind allhierin der Windmiihlauf der
Zwey gute Clarinettisten
Street. In November, the papers announced that he anhommen;wersolchezu horenbeliebetkann
Allerheiligen-Gass
had taken over 'Mr. Geminiani'sConcerns and Great sich dasselbstmelden.
MusickRoomin Dame Street',20the violinist, Francesco Two good clarinettists have arrived at the Windmill in All
Geminiani, having left in 1741.21 Here, Charle gave SaintsLane;anyonewishingto hearthem performwill be
lessons to gentlemen 'and others'from8 a.m. to 3 p.m., welcome.29

stating his terms as follows 'If to the Room, a guinea At a Concert Spirituel in Paris on 25 March 1750, a
entrance, and a guinea for sixteen lessons to a month. concerto for 'clarine' was played by a bassoonist,
If he waits on gentlemen, a Moydore entrance, and a France de Kermasin.30This is the earliest known
Moydorefor sixteen lessons'.22 Since the Moydorewas performanceof a clarinet concerto in France. Shortly
the equivalent of ?3 17s 8d., Charlemay have made a afterwards,'A Concerto for Clarinette'was performed
handsome profit with a large number of students.23 at the New Haymarket Theatre in London on 30
Aftertwo more concerts, one of which featured the December 1751. A 'Concerto for two Clarinettes'was
clarinet, Charle gave up his tenure at Geminiani's played at the same venue on 7 January 1752;
house and returnedto London. His next concert took unfortunately the names of the clarinettists are not
place on 1 November 1743 in the Assembly Rooms at known.31
Salisbury,and included the usual horn solos, as well The earliest appearance of the clarinet as an
as works for clarinet, oboe d'amore and chalumeau. orchestral instrument in London was probably at a
There was an importantaddition in the form of a trio subscription concert for the German composer, Carl
for three French horns which he played himself, with Barbandt.Barbandtplayed the oboe and possibly the
his wife and son. Handel's music was featured again, clarinet at the court of Hanover,from 1735 to 1752.32
and, as in Dublin, the clarinet, oboe d'amore and He then lived in London (1753 to 1770),where he was
chalumeau made their first appearances in the city. active as a performeron the flute, oboe, clarinet and
The family gave a similarconcert at Hickford'sRooms, harpsichord,as well as a composer and teacher.33His
London, on 25 April 1744. Weston suggested that if 'Great Concerto with Clarinets, French Horns and
Mrs Charle or her son were able to perform on the KettleDrums'was performedon 25 March 1756.34 The
clarinet, Handel's Ouverture in D major (c.1748-49), first English clarinettists were Thomas Habgood and
scored for two clarinets and horn, could have been Hugh Pearson, who played a 'grand'concerto at the
writtenfor and played by the family trio.24Charleand Kings Theatre on 13 March 1758.35
his son continued to performin provincialcities as the Another foreign-born musician active in London
announcement in Barrow's WorcesterJournal for 1748 was the German,Carlor CharlesWeichsel. He played
shows: 'MrCharles,senior and junior, from Vauxhall, the oboe at the Kings Theatre, and was probably the
performed on the French horn and two foreign in- 'MrWrexell' who played the clarinet in Arne's opera
390 EARLY MUSIC AUGUST 1988
2 Aristocrat playing a three(?)-keyclarinet, attrib. Johann Peter Wolff (mid-18th century), Gemeentemuseum, The Hague

Thomasand Sally on 28 December 1760, and in his small in size, so that only a few details of the
music for an 'Afterpiece: An New Musical Enter- instrument are visible. It is shown with a long lower
tainment'.36 Weichsel may also haie played the joint, possibly indicating a three-key clarinet (with a
clarinet during 1762 in Arne's Artaxerxesand J. C. thumb key for the notes e/b'). The words 'Joh. Pet:
Bach's Orione.37Perhaps it was this same player to Wolff Seel: Erben erc.' on the lower left-hand corner
whom the writer (known only by the initials 'J. P.') may be taken to indicate that the artist's name was
referred in TheHarmoniconof 1830:. Johann Peter Wolff.40
I conjecture,also, that it [the clarinet]is of German Clarinettists in court orchestras
invention,for I have heardthat a native of that country The earliest evidence of a court orchestra making use
playedon a clarinetwiththreekeysonly,manyyearsago,in of the clarinet dates from 1710, when two instruments
this country.38 were ordered from the maker, Jacob Denner, for the
An 18th-century engraving in the Gemeentemuseum Duke of Gronsfeld.41 The next surviving reference is
in The Hague depicts an aristocrat playing what from23 years later,when two clarinets were bought for
appears to be a three-key clarinet (illus.2).39As one of the 'Hof music' in Koblenz, where Johann Peter Spitz
16 different musical scenes on a single sheet, it is played the oboe, clarinet and viola from 1734 to

EARLY MUSIC AUGUST 1988 391


1785.42 Anotherorchestrato own clarinets was that of time before taking up this position in 1760, since an
the court of Sayn-Wittgensteinat Berleburg.A detailed inexperienced performer would hardly have been
list of instruments dated 1741 refers to 'In einem capable of playing the first clarinet parts. Hengel was
Fl6ten-Casten zwey Paar Clarinetten'.43In Hamburg, evidently employed by the court for a long period, his
clarinettists may have been available as early as 1738, name having been entered in the salary book as a
since two players of the chalumeau were included in 'Hofmusicus' as early as 1738. Since both Hengel and
the opera orchestra from this year.44On the other Reusch were already employed at the court when the
hand, there does not seem to be any other evidence orchestrawas enlargedin 1747, it is quite possible that
that clarinets were regularlyused there in the first half the clarinet was played there during the 1740s and
of the 18th century. The earliest appearance of 50s.51
clarinets in this court orchestra dates from 1795.45 The court orchestra at Cologne included two
The use of the clarinet at the court of Durlachcan be clarinettists from 1748: Theodor Klein, originally
determined by several documents. The city and engaged as a horn player on 3 June 1739, and Joseph
address directoryof 1771 contains the first mention of Flilgel, a viola player engaged on 13 December 1743.52
a clarinettist: They may also have performed at the chapel of St
Flautotraversist: JohannReusch Gereonin Cologne,where clarinetswerefirstpurchased
Hautboist derselbe from an unnamed maker in 1752.53In Frankfurtam
Clarinettist derselbe46 Main, a work by the 'Vice Capell-Directore',Heinrich
Reusch or Reisch came to Durlach from Bayreuth in ValentinBeck, was performedon 15 August 1749, with
1730 and was entered in the 1737 registeras an oboist four court virtuosi playing the trumpet,clarinet, horn,
and footman. On 23 April1747 he was promotedout of and flute or recorder.54Clarinetplayers may have been
available at this date in Frankfurt,but were not regular
livery to the position of court musician. He was
entered only as a transverse flautist in the address members of the opera orchestra until 1792.55
The earliest clarinettists to perform in Paris were
directoryof 1763. However,a manuscriptonce owned
Jean Schieffer and FrangoisRaiffer,who played in the
by the composer, J. M. Molter, dated around 1760,
refers to Reusch as either a clarinet or horn player: first performance of Rameau'sopera, Zoroastre,on 5
December 1749. Accordingto the records of the Opera,
Demnachder durch das austretendes gewesenen Hof Musici,
JacobHengel,zerissene Chor de Musique von Clarinettenund they were among six extra musicians paid for three
Horn,nunmehrodurchBesondernFlejiSdes HofMusiciReuschen
rehearsals and twenty-five performances of Zoroastre
anwiederumerganzetund wir nun auch durch erstgenannten during 1749 and 1750.16Schieffer probablyplayed the
Hengelsausweichendefjengantze Besoldungledig werden...47 horn at a ConcertSpirituelin Parison 9 April1751, and
[quotationbreaksoff here] Raifferis listed by this organisation as a clarinettiston
Sincethe bandof clarinetsandhornswasbrokenup by the 25 March 1775.17 The number of clarinettists who
retirementof the previouscourtmusician,Jacob Hengel, participated in the 18 performances of Rameau's
neverthelessthe gap is at presentbeingfilled throughthe Acanteet Cephiseat the Opera between 19 November
particulardiligenceof the courtmusician,Reusch,andnow, 1751 to 7 January 1762 is somewhat problematical.
since the aforementioned Hengel'ssalarybecomesvacated The following payments are listed in the archives:58
throughhis retirement,we oughtto .. .48
GaspardProckschpouravoirjoue de la Clarinettedans
Although the first mention of a clarinettist in the 18. Representationsde l'Operad'Acanteet Cephisedu
Durlach register occurred in 1771, an ensemble of 19. November1761 [sic] au 7. Janvier1762 a raisonde
clarinets and horns must have existed at least ten 6# par chaqueRepresentation 108#
years earlier. Since Reusch, who is later listed as a Rus Leoa fair SeptRepetitiondon il luy en est passe
clarinettist, replaced Hengel, the latter may be troissuivant losays 18# 126.
assumed to have played clarinet in this ensemble.49In Fliegerpour idem que dessus 126.
another petition dated 14 August 1769, Reusch Schenchlerpour idem que dessus 126
Louispour idemque dessus 126
specified that he had for some time been 'concertisten
und premierFlauto-Stelle, nicht weniger dab premier Each of these musicians received 126 livres for 18
BlaBen auf dem clarinett'(performingas first flautist, performances and three rehearsals. On the basis of
no less than as first player on the clarinet).50Reusch this document, it was assumed by La Laurencie that
must therefore have played the instrument for some Schencker and Louis also played the clArinet,59

392 EARLY MUSIC AUGUST 1988


although the score indicates only two clarinets and players, Wack and Engelhard Engel, are listed 19 or
two horns.60 The identification of these players is, even 29 years earlier.70
however, further clarified by an etat of 1763, which The famous orchestra at the Mannheim court hired
names the principal musicians employed by the two clarinettists during the course of 1759, for the
wealthy amateur, La Poupliniere, in the performance names Michael Quallenberg and Johannes Hampel
of Acanteet Cephise:Procksch and Flieger, clarinets; appear in the Almanach Electoral Palatin pour l'annee
Schencker, 'Harpe-Cor'(harp and horn), and Louis, 1759, but not the manuscriptsalary list (Besoldugsliste)
'Contrebass-Cor'(contrabassand horn)."6Furthermore, dated 28 July 1759.71 The contemporarywriterJacob
an anonymous 18th-century writer described La von Stihlin recorded the arrival in St Petersburg in
Poupliniere's orchestra: 1759 of 'a pair of clever clarinettists', Christopher-
II avait la meilleuremusiquede 1'Europe,
ayant a ses gages 12 Benjamin Langhammerand Compagnon.72However,
musiciensdes plus excellents,en ountre2 clarinetteset 2 cors recent research indicates that Langhammer,who is
admirables. .62 mentioned several times as an oboist in the Archives
Ithadthe bestmusicin Europe,evenbeforeengagingtwelve des Theatresimperiaux,did not go to St Petersburg until
superiormusicians,besides2 clarinetsand 2 hornsof the 1763, while Compagnon is not recorded as a member
highest quality... of the orchestra there.73
It therefore seems likely that Procksch and Flieger One more example of the orchestral use of what
played the clarinet while Louis and Schencker played were probably baroque clarinets occurred in Zwei-
the horn in Acante et C6phise. briicken, where three clarinettists were listed as court
At Darmstadt,David Steger, who had been listed in musicians in 1760: Johann Kertz,Troller(or Broller),
the church records as a chambermusician since 1743, and Wilhelm Weisch, senior.74
was appointedchambermusicianto the court orchestra In conclusion, at least eight court orchestras in
in 1750; in 1757 he was listed as a violin and clarinet Germanymade use of the clarinet between 1710 and
player.63Anothermemberof this orchestra,KarlJacob 1760. By the middle of the century the instrumentwas
Gozian, played violin and clarinet from 1754 until his used at the Paris Operaand in one court orchestra in
death two years later.64 He was replaced on 20 Czechoslovakia (see Table). The baroque two- and
February 1756 by the 19-year-old Johann Peter three-key clarinet survived in military bands during
Schiller, who had studied with the court composer, the 18th century and the first decade of the 19th, and
ChristophGraupner,for two years. Schiller played the is documented in Salzburg as late as 1776; Kristian-
clarinet and horn and by 1766, the musette or sand, Norway,in 1782;Paris(1783);Amsterdam(1795);
bagpipe.65It is noteworthy that two C clarinets were and Dublin (c.1810).75It was slowly supplanted by the
included in a 1752 list of instruments in the classical clarinet which virtuoso players introducedto
Paedagogium at Darmstadt.66 the great cultural centres of Paris,London and Berlin,
The earliest reference to the clarinet in Czecho- where it was eventually adopted by the opera and
slovakia occurs in the 1751 inventory of instruments court orchestras.
at the estate of BernardNemec at Olomouc. This large
collection included four clarinets which were un- Dr. Albert R. Rice is the curator of the Kenneth G. Fishe
doubtedly used to play different types of music: Museum of Musical Instruments at The ClaremontColleges
orchestral, church, dance and Turkish.67 These in California.He is active as a teacher and clarinettist with
instruments were probably of German origin, some the Los Angeles based Almont Ensemble.
having three keys, as mentioned by J. K. Rohn in his
compendium published in Prague in 1768.68
Mattheson, Das Neu-Erbffnete Orchestre(Hamburg, 1713), p.211
The composer Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf men- (sic'J.p.121); cf trans. by M. Sands in 'Music as a Profession in
tioned hearing clarinets in 1754, when they were Eighteenth-CenturyEngland',ML,xxiv (1943), p.91
2J. Downes, RosciusAnglicanus(London, 1708/R Los Angeles: The
employed for an outdoor festival at Schlosshof/
Augustan Reprint Society, 1969), p.46. Although this particular
March.69Therehas been some disagreementabout the figure may be an exaggeration,I'Epinewas immensely popular and
date that these instruments arrived at the Thurn and did command high fees. See W. Dean, 'L'Epine, Francesca
Taxis court orchestra at Regensburg. Their presence Margheritade', in New Grove.
3TheDaily Courant, no.7624 (24 March 1726); GB-LblBurney Papers
can definitely be documented from 1784, though on microfilm, vol.265B
some scholars have claimed that the names of the 4TheDaily Courant, no.7929 (14 March 1727); GB-LblBurney Papers

EARLY MUSIC AUGUST 1988 393


on microfilm, vol.265B. These players may also have influenced 36C. F. Pohl, Mozart und Haydn in London (Vienna, 1867/R New
Handel to include two chalumeaux in a sketch for the aria'Quando York, 1970), i, pp.64, 71-2; ii, p.373. At Covent Garden Theatre,
non vede' in the opera, RiccardoPrimo(1727). In later versions, Weichsel received 5s. a night for playing the oboe, and 10s. 6p. for
Handel replaced them with oboes by inserting a musically similar playing the clarinet in Thomas and Sally. See The London Stage, 1660-
aria,'Quell'innocente afflito'. See C. Lawson, TheChalumeauin 18th- 1800, op cit, iv, pp.815, 827-
centurymusic (Ann Arbor, 1981), pp.145-6. 37Weston, More Clarinet Virtuosi, op cit, p.267
5Quoted by Pamela Weston in More Clarinet Virtuosi of the Past 38J. P., 'On the Clarionet',TheHarmonicon,viii (1830): pp.57-8;
(London, 1977), p.16 repr.with commentaryby A. R. Rice in '"Onthe Clarionet"from The
6See C.-H. Mahling, 'The Origin and Social Status of the Court Harmonicon', The Clarinet, xi (Spring 1984), pp.34-5.
OrchestralMusician in the 18th and early 19th century in Germany', 39Reproduced in European musical instruments in prints and
in The Social Status of the Professional Musician from the Middle Ages to drawings on microfiche. Print collection of the Music Department of the
the 19th Century,ed. W. Salmen, trans. H. Kaufmanand B. Reisner Haags Gemeentemuseum, The Hague, Netherlands. Repertoire Inter-
(New York, 1983), pp.231-4. national d'Iconographie Musicale (RidlM),fiche no.41 (1.4), Inv.
7 See P. Weston, Clarinet Virtuosiof the Past (London, 1971), pp. 17- nr.810-zj
28; and A Biographical Dictionary of Actors, Actresses, Musicians, 40Thisengraving was attributedto an annonymous artist. Cf the
Dancers, Managers & Other Stage Personnel in London, 1660-1800, eds. Index to European musical instruments comp. M. Klerk ([Zug,
P. H. Highfill, Jr., K.A. Burnimand E. A. Langhans(Carbondale,Ill., Switzerland]:Inter Documentation, [1976]), p.15.
1973-), iii, pp.178-9. 41See E. Nickel in Der Holzblasinstrumentenbau in der Freien
8The London Stage, 1660-1800 (Carbondale, 1960-68), iii, p.323 ReichsstadtNfirnberg (Munich, 197 1), pp.251-2. At the same time, the
9Ibid, iii, p.328 baroque clarinet found its way into a number of ecclesiastical
'0lbid,iii, p.414. A performernamed 'Charles,the MerryTrumpeter orchestras. In 1710, six clarinets were bought for the Rheingau
of Oxford'gave performances during the month of October from abbey of Eberbachfrom Mainz. Between 1 May 1711 and 30 April
1729 to 1733. See The London Stage, 1660-1800, op cit, iii. 1712, four were made by Jacob Denner for the Frauenkirchein
"Ibid, iii, p.475 Nuremberg,and two years later, Denner received an order for two
12Ibid, iii, p.517 more for Nuremberg's Sebaldkirche. See A. Gottron, Mainzer
'3A Biographical Dictionary, op cit, iii, pp.178-9 Musihgeschichte von 1500 bis 1800 (Mainz, 1959), pp.115-6; Nickel,
14Quoted by M. Brenet (pseud. Marie Bobillier), Les Concertsen p.454, n. 1246.
France (Paris, 1900), pp.135-6; and Weston, Clarinet Virtuosi, op cit, 42StaatsarchivKoblenz 1 C5130 f.108, cited by G. Bereths in Die
p.20. Musihpflege am hurtrierischen Hofe zu Koblenz-Ehrenbreitstein (Mainz,
15I should like to thank Nora Post for bringingthis tapestryto my 1964), pp.44, 48
attention. See M. Fenaille, Etat G6n6ral des Tapisseries de La 43'Inventarium simmtlicher Mobiliare, aufgenommen nach
Manufacture des Gobelins Depuis son originejusqu 'a nos jours 1600-1900 Ableben des GrafenCasimir 1741', cited by J. Domp in Studienzur
(Paris, 1904), iii, pp.127, 129 Geschichte der Musih an Westfdlischen Adelshafen im XVIII Jahrhundert
'6The placement of the key on the bell and the slightly conical (Dfisseldorf, 1934), pp.68-9
bore of this instrumentis similarto another illustrationof a two-key 44W.Kleefeld, 'Das Orchester der HamburgerOper, 1678-1738',
clarinet in J. P. Eisel'sMusicusAutodidahtos (1738, preservedin F-Pn), Sammelbdnde der Internationalen Musihgesellschaft [SIMG], i (1899-
next to his description of the clarinet. 1900), pp.269, 286. Cf Weston, More Clarinet Virtuosi, op cit, p.60,
" Weston, Clarinet Virtuosi, op cit, p.21 'Bultos'.
'8A Biographical Dictionary, op cit, iii, p.179 45See Weston, Ibid, p.60, 'Bultos' and p.147, 'Krause, Karl
19Reproduced in Weston, Clarinet Virtuosi, op cit, p.23 Joseph'.
20Weston, Clarinet Virtuosi, op cit, p.25 46Fromthe 'Staats und Addresse Kalender auf das Jahr 1771'
21A Biographical Dictionary, op cit, iii, p.179 quoted by L. Schiedermairin 'Die Operan den badischen Hofen des
22Weston, Clarinet Virtuosi, op cit, p.25 17. u. 18. Jahrhunderts',SIMG,xiv (1912-13), p.445.
23SeeW. H. GrattanFlood,AHistoryofIrishMusic(Dublin,3/1913), 47H.Becker, 'ZurGeschichte der Klarinetteim 18..Jahrhundert',
p.284. Die Musihforschung, viii (1955), p.289 and Schiedermair, op cit.
24Weston,ClarinetVirtuosi,op cit, pp.25-6. See the edn by K.Haas 48Trans.Don Halloran
of Handel's Ouverture (Suite)(London, 1952). 49Becker,op cit, p.289
25P. A. Scholes, The OxfordCompanion to Music (London, 10/1970, SoSchiedermair,op cit, p.445, n.2
ed. J. O. Ward),p.190 51CfBecker, op cit, pp.289-90, and K. Hafner, 'Molter, Johann
26See E. Croft-Murray,'London ?V: Pleasure gardens' in New Melchior',New Grove.Beckerrecently suggested a date of c. 1745 for
Grove. the composition of Molter's six clarinet concertos, in 'Klarinette',
27Weston, Clarinet Virtuosi, op cit, p.27. In More Clarinet Virtuosi, op Das groBe Lexihon der Musih (Freiburg, 1976-1980)
cit, p.70, Weston states that Charlewas in Dublin during 1756, but 52K.W. Niem6ller, Kirchenmusih und reichsstddtische Musihpflege im
gives no details either of his activities or her source. K6ln des 18. Jahrhunderts (Cologne, 1960), pp.65-6, 68, 237, 257
28See D. Johnson, Music and Society in Lowland Scotland in the 53CfNiemiller, op cit, p.66
Eighteenth Century (London, 1972), pp.48-9. 54Quoted by C. Israil in FrankfurterConcert-Chronihvon 1713-1780,
29See C. Israel in Frankfurter Concert-Chronih von 1713-1780 p.36:
(Frankfurt,1876),p.29; Trans.O. Kroll,TheClarinet(New York,1968), . . . mit 4 Fiirstlichen Virtuosen unter umwechselnden Trombetten,
p.47, n.1 Clarinetten, Waldhorn, Flaut-travers und d bec etc nur einmahl
30Mercurede France, April 1750, p. 183; cited by C. Pierre, Histoire de Musicalisch aufgefiihrt werden.
Concert Spirituel, 1725-1790 (Paris, 1975), pp.116, 257, no.403 See H. Riemann, Musih Lexihon (Berlin, 11/1929, ed. A. Einstein),
31TheLondon Stage, 1660-1800, op cit, iv, pp.282, 284 p.129.
32Weston, More Clarinet Virtuosi, op cit, p.39 55See Mus. Beobachter (Frankfurt am Main, 1792), cited by O.
33ABiographical Dictionary, op cit, i, pp.279-280 Schreiber in Orchester und Orchesterpraxis in Deutschland zwischen
34Weston, More Clarinet Virtuosi, op cit, p.39 1780 und 1850 (Berlin, 1938), p.103.
35SeeA Biographical Dictionary, op cit, vii(1982), p.124; and Weston, 56'Etat de Payements qui seront faits a plusieurs sujets cy-apres
Clarinet Virtuosi, op cit, pp.121, 192. nommez, employez a l'Opera, par extraordinaire, depuis le 29 aoust

394 EARLY MUSIC AUGUST 1988


1749' in the Arch.OperaA. 19. Emargements, 1749-1751; cited by L. Journalof the AmericanMusicalInstrumentSociety,v-vi (1979-80),
de La Laurencie in 'Rameau et les Clarinettes',La revuemusicale pp.44-49; [J. B. L.]Carre,Panoplie:ou,Reunionde toutce quia traita la
[RHCM],ix (1913), p.27-8. These players were identified as the guerredepuisloriginede la nationfrangaisejusqu'anos jours(Chalons-
,Germans,Johann Schieffer and FranzRaiffer,by C. Girdlestone in sur-Marne,1795), p.373 and pl.xiv; J. V. Reynvaan,MuzijkaalKunst-
Jean-PhilippeRameau:His Life and Work,(London, 1957, 2/1969), Woordenboek(Amsterdam, 1795), pp.141, 519; and A. R. Rice,
p.294. 'ClarinetFingering Charts, 1732-1816', GSJ,xxxvii (1984), p.23.
57See Pierre, op cit, p.260, no.433 and p.303, no.926.
58'Etatdes Payements a faire A differents Sujets Employ6s par
Extraordinairedans plusiers Representations de differents Opera',
repr. in N. Stern, 'The Clarinet in the Middle of the Eighteenth
Century'(Diplomarbeit,Bassle: Schola CantorumBasiliensis, 1983),
pl.IV.
59SeeL. de La laurencie,'Rameau,son gendre et ses descendants',
RHCM,vii (1911), p.16.
Table 1 The clarinet in court orchestras, 1710-60
60Contraryto Weston's assertion (MoreClarinetVirtuosi,op cit, Germany France Czechoslovakia
p.199), the entrfacte between acts 2 and 3 of Acanterequires two 1710 Nuremberg
clarinets and two horns, not four clarinets. 1733 Koblenz
61Quotedin G. Cucuel, La Pouplini&re et la musiquede chambreau 1735(?) Hanover
.XVIIIe sikcle (Paris, 1913), p.339. 1738(?) Hamburg
62Quotedin Cucuel, Etudessur un orchestreau XVIIIme siecle (Paris, 1741 Berleburg
1913), pp.17-18, Anecdotes sur ce qui s'est passe chez M de la 1740s Durlach
Pouplini&re (n.p., n.d.). 1748 Cologne
63E. Noack, MusihgeschichteDarmstadtsvom Mittelalterbis zur 1749 Frankfurtam Main(?) Paris
Goethezeit(Mainz, 1967), pp.232-3 1751 Olomouc
64Ibid,p.233 1754 Darmstadt
65Ibid,p.237. Graupner'slast sacred cantata, 'Lasset eure Bitte im Schlosshof/March
Gebet' (1754), included a pair of D clarinets that must have been 1759 Mannheim
played by Steger and Gozian. See Lawson, The Chalumeau,op cit, 1760 Zweibriicken
p.108.
66Noack,op cit, p.256
67See J. Sehnal, 'Nove p-fspevky k deijihAmhudby na
Moravy',
Casopis Moravshehomusea, lx (Brno, 1975), p.171; quoted in Z.
Pilkova, 'Musikzentren in den b6hmischen Lindern in der ersten
Hilften des 18. Jahrhundertsvom Stadpunktdes Instrumentariums',
in StudienzurAuffiihrungspraxis vonInstrumentalmusih
undInterpretation
des 18. Jahrhunderts(Blankenburg/Herz:n.p., 1978), viii, pp.34, 37,
40.
68J. K. Rohn, NomenclatorArtifex,et Mechanicus(Prague, 1768),
p.232
69K.Dittersvon Dittersdorf,Lebensbeschreibung, seinemSOhnein die
Federdihtiert(Leipzig, 1801; Eng. trans., 1896/R1970), p.67-8
70Becker,'Zur Geschichte der Klarinette', op cit, p.275; idem, Ct' ty;
He~Lc~u .. .;

Vorwortto 'Klarinetten-Konzertedes 18. Jahrhunderts',Das Erbe


DeutscherMusih (Wiesbaden, 1957), xli, p.vii, n.2. D. Mettenleiter, ... .... P2UjlC
.....
.-~;
'? f: StIVQ t f?)
r.L.: '.
b~8)'~''
Aus dermusihalischenVergangenheit bayrischerStddte.Musihgeschichte
derStadtRegensburg (Regensburg,1866), p.270);R.A. Titus, 'The Solo
Music for the Clarinetin the Eighteenth Century'(diss., U. of Iowa,
1962), p.57. S. Firber, Das Regensburger FiirstlichThumund Taxissche
Hoftheaterund seine Oper1670-1786, Sonderdruck aus den 'Ver- WILL TAKE PLACE IN LUDLOW, LUDFORD,
handlung des Historischen Vereinsvon Oberpfalzund Regensburg', LEOMINSTER and TENBURY WELLS
lxxxvi (n.p., 1936), pp.102, 119-20 Concerts,Workshops,LiturgicalReconstructions,
71E.K. Wolf, TheSymphoniesofJohannStamitz(The Hague, 1981), PlainsongDay Course,MedievalTheatreand
p.343, n.15; R. Miinster, 'Johann Anton Fils und das Mannheimer Literature,EarlyDance, Music from other cultures,
Tours of historic Ludlow & the area,Specialist
Orchesterin den Jahren 1754 bis 1760' in JohannAntonFils (1773- Book Fair.
1760) Ein EichstatterKomponistder MannheimerKlassik, ed. H.
Holzbauer (Tutzing, 1983), pp.39-40, 41, n.5 and 6 Ashley Stafford & The ProteusEnsemble*
* Flora Danica * EdinburghRenaissanceBand *
72J.von Stihlin, 'Nachrichten von der Musik in RuBland'in J. J. Philip Astle & PaulWilliamson* Scaramella*
Haigold [August Ludwig von Schlzer], Beylagenzum neuverinten * John MooreQuire * ShropshireCamerata*
Russland (Riga, 1769-1770), pt 2, p.106 ParagonSingers* Consortof Songe *
* BorderMarchesEarlyMusic Forum *
73R.-A. Mooser, Annales de la musique et des musiciens en Russie au PrioryCapella* others to be announced
XVIIIne siicle, (Geneva, 1955), i, p.55; p.203 n.2 THREE WEEKENDS:
74H. Unverricht, ed., MIusih und Musiher am Mitterlrhein. Ein
30th SEPTEMBERto 2nd OCTOBER
biographisches, ortsund landesgeschichtliches Nachschlagewerk (Mainz,
7th to 9th OCTOBER
[1974]), i, pp.180-1
14th to 16th OCTOBER
7See K. Birsak, 'Salzburg, Mozart und die Klarinette', Mitteilungen
der Internationalen Stiftung Mozarteum, xxxiii (1985), p.40-41; A. R. For brochureplease contact
Peter Howell, 26 Bell Lane, Ludlow, Shropshire.
Rice, 'The Clarinet as Described by Lorents Nicolai Berg (1782)',

EARLY MUSIC AUGUST 1988 395

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