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67

CONTENTS

45

44

46

10 Key Concepts on Integrals and

its Applications

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Copyright© MTG Learning Media (P) Ltd.

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M aths Musing was started in January 2003 issue of Mathematics Today. The aim of Maths Musing is to augment the chances of bright

students seeking admission into IITs with additional study material.

During the last 10 years there have been several changes in JEE pattern. To suit these changes Maths Musing also adopted the new

SDWWHUQ E\ FKDQJLQJ WKH VW\OH RI SUREOHPV 6RPH RI WKH 0DWKV 0XVLQJ SUREOHPV KDYH EHHQ DGDSWHG LQ -(( EHQH¿WWLQJ WKRXVDQG RI RXU

readers. It is heartening that we receive solutions of Maths Musing problems from all over India.

Maths Musing has been receiving tremendous response from candidates preparing for JEE and teachers coaching them. We do hope

that students will continue to use Maths Musing to boost up their ranks in JEE Main and Advanced.

π (a) positive real roots (b) negative real roots

1. If zn = cis for n = 1, 2, 3, ..... and

n(n + 1)(n + 2) (c) equal roots (d) imaginary roots

principle argument of lim(z1z 2 z 3 ....zn ) is θ. Then 8. If a, b, c are rational and one of the roots of the

n→∞

value of T is

(a) S/2 (b) S/3 (c) S/6 (d) S/4 equation is 1 + 2 , then the value of ' is

(a) 8 (b) 12 (c) 30 (d) 32

2. The coefficient of xn in the expansion of

−n INTEGER TYPE

⎛ r r (r + 1)(r + 2)...(r + (r − 1))x

r ⎞

⎜ 1 − 3x + 6 x − 10 x + ... + (−1) + ...∞ ⎟

2 3

9. Perpendiculars are drawn from the angles A, B, C

⎝ r! ⎠

of an acute-angled triangle on opposite sides and

is

produced to meet the circumscribing circle. If these

3n ! 3n ! 3n !

(a) 2

(b)(c) (d) None of these produced parts are D, E, J respectively, then the

(n !) n ! 2n ! (2n !)2 (a / α) + (b / β) + (c / γ )

3. At the point P(a, an) on the graph of y = xn (n N) in value of is

tan A + tan B + tan C

the first quadrant, a normal is drawn. The normal

1 MATRIX MATCH

intersects the y-axis at the point (0, b). If lim b = ,

a →0 2

then n equals 10. Match the following.

(a) 1 (b) 3

(c) 2 (d) 4

List-I List-II

⎛ ⎞ n−r r

n n

4. In triangle ABC, ∑ ⎜ ⎟ a b cos(rA − (n − r )B) = P. Number of ordered pairs which satisfy 1. 1

⎝r⎠ r =0 the equation x2 + 2xsin(xy) + 1 = 0

(a) (a – b) (b) (a + b)n (c) cn

n

(d) c2n (where y [0, 2S]) is

1

8 log (1 + x ) Q. If maximum {5sinT + 3sin(T – D)} = 7 2. 2

5. The value of ∫

1 + x2

dx is (T R) then number of solutions of D

π in [0, S] are

(a) π log 2 (b) log2 (c) S log2 (d)

0

log 2

2 8 R. The total number of solutions of 3. 0

JEE ADVANCED cos x = 1 − sin 2 x in [0, 2S] is equal to

6. 2 cot θ + 2 3 cot θ + 4 cosec θ + 8 = 0 if T =

2 S. The number of solutions of the equation 4. 3

π π π ⎛1 ⎞

(a) nπ + (b) nπ − (c) 2nπ + π (d) 2nπ − sin ⎜ cos −1 x ⎟ = 1

6 6 6 6 ⎝3 ⎠

COMPREHENSION

P Q R S

Let D, E be the roots of the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0. (a) 1 2 3 4

Also, let Sn = Dn + En for n t 1 and (b) 2 1 4 3

3 1 + S1 1 + S2 (c) 4 3 2 1

' = 1 + S1 1 + S2 1 + S3 (d) 3 4 1 2

1 + S2 1 + S3 1 + S4 See Solution Set of Maths Musing 181 on page no 70

on

Integrals and its Applications

*ALOK KUMAR, B.Tech, IIT Kanpur

INDEFINITE INTEGRALS

If f and g are functions of x such that gc(x) = f(x) then,

z

∫ sec x dx = ln (sec x + tan x) + c

d

∫ f (x )dx = g (x ) + c or dx { g (x ) + c} = f (x ),

z

∫ cosec x dx = ln (cosec x − cot x ) + c

dx x

where c is called the constant of integration. z ∫ = sin −1 +c

a2 − x 2 a

Some Standard Formulae

(ax + b)n+1 dx 1 −1 x

z

∫ (ax + b) dx n

= + c, n ≠ − 1

z ∫ a2 + x 2 = a tan a

+c

a(n + 1)

dx 1 −1 x

z

dx 1

∫ ax + b = a ln (ax + b) + c z ∫ =

a

sec

a

+c

x x 2 − a2

= ln ⎣⎡ x + x 2 + a2 ⎦⎤ + c

ax + b 1 ax + b dx

z

∫e dx = e +c z ∫ 2 2

a x +a

px + q

px + q 1a

= ln ⎡⎣ x + x 2 − a2 ⎦⎤ + c

dx

z

∫a dx =

p ln a

+ c; a > 0 ` z ∫ 2 2

x −a

1

z

∫ sin(ax + b) dx = − a cos(ax + b) + c z

dx 1

∫ a2 − x 2 = 2a ln a − x

a+x

+c

1

z

∫ cos (ax + b) dx = a sin(ax + ab) + c dx 1 x −a

1

z

∫ x 2 − a2 = 2a ln x +a

+c

z

∫ tan (ax + b) dx = a ln sec(ax + b) + c

x 2 a2 x

1 z

∫ a2 − x 2 dx = a − x 2 + sin −1 + c

z

∫ cot (ax + b) dx = a ln sin(ax + b) + c 2 2

2

a

x 2 a

1 z

∫ x 2 + a2 dx = x + a2 +

∫ sec (ax + b) dx = a tan(ax + b) + c

z 2

2 2

1 ( )

ln x + x 2 + a2 + c

∫ cosec (ax + b) dx = − a cot(ax + b) + c

z 2

x 2 a2

1 z

∫ x 2 − a2 dx = x − a2 −

z ∫ sec (ax + b) ⋅ tan (ax + b)dx = a sec(ax + b) + c 2 2

z

∫ cosec (ax + b) ⋅ cot (ax + b)dx

(

ln x + x 2 − a2 + c)

1 e ax

∫ e ⋅ sin bx dx =

ax

= − cosec(ax + b) + c z (a sin bx − b cos bx ) + c

a a 2 + b2

* Alok Kumar is a winner of INDIAN NATIONAL MATHEMATICS OLYMPIAD (INMO-91).

He trains IIT and Olympiad aspirants.

e ax dx 1

z

∫ e ⋅ cos bx dx =

ax

(a cos bx + b sin bx ) + c z ∫ 2

; put x =

t

a 2 + b2 (ax 2 + b) px + q

z

∫ c f (x) ⋅dx = c ∫ f (x) dx x−α

z ∫ β−x

dx or ∫ (x − α) (β − x );

z

∫ ( f (x ) ± g (x ))dx = ∫ f (x )dx ± ∫ g (x )dx put x = D cos2 T + E sin2 T

g (ax + b) dx

z

∫ f (x )dx = g (x ) + c ⇒ ∫ f (ax + b)dx = a

+c z

∫ (x − α) (x − β) ; put x − α = t or x − β = t

2 2

n +1

( f ( x )) Integrals of the form ∫ tann x dx , ∫ cot

n

∫[ f (x )] f ′(x ) dx =

n

z + c, n ≠ − 1 z x dx ,

n +1

∫ sec x dx , ∫ cosec x dx is solved as :

n n

f ′( x ) ⎪⎧log | f (x ) + c, if n = 1

z ∫ [ f (x)]n dx = ⎨ t −ndt , where t = f (x) Let In = ∫ tann x dx = ∫ tan2 x tan

n−2

xdx

⎪⎩ ∫

n−2

Integration by Parts = ∫ (sec2 x − 1) tan x dx for

n−2

z

∫ f (xI ) g (IIx) dx = f (x) ∫ g (x)dx ⇒ In = ∫ sec2 x tan x dx − In − 2

⎛d ⎞ n −1

− ∫ ⎜ ( f ( x )) ∫ ( g ( x ))dx ⎟ dx ⇒ In =

tan x

− In − 2

⎝ dx ⎠

n −1

Some Particular Substitutions Similarly, we can obtain integral for other trigonometric

functions.

dx dx

z ∫ ax 2 + bx + c , ∫ 2 , ∫ ax 2 + bx + c dx , DEFINITE INTEGRALS & ITS APPLICATIONS

ax + bx + c

2

Let f(x) be a continuous function defined on [a, b],

express ax + bx + c in the form of perfect square b

and then apply the standard results. ∫ f (x ) dx = F (x ) + c. Then ∫ f (x) dx = F (b) − F (a)

px + q px + q a

z

∫ ax 2 + bx + c dx, ∫ 2 dx , is called definite integral. This formula is known as

ax + bx + c Newton-Leibnitz formula.

Properties of Definite Integral

∫ ( px + q) ax 2 + bx + c dx , b b a

express px + q = A (differential coefficient of z

∫ f (x) dx = ∫ f (t ) dt = − ∫ f (x) dx

denominator) + B. a a b

b c b

a ⋅ cos x + b ⋅ sin x + c

z ∫ l ⋅ cos x + m ⋅ sin x + n dx z ∫ f (x) dx = ∫ f (x) dx + ∫ f (x) dx, where c (a, b)

a a c

d a a

Express Num. ≡ A(Den.) + B (Den.) + C and

proceed. dx z

∫ f (x ) dx = ∫ ( f (x ) + f (− x )) dx

−a 0

2

x ±1 ⎧ a

z

∫ x 4 + Kx 2 + 1 dx where ‘K’ is any constant.

=⎨ ∫

⎪ 2 f ( x ) dx , if f (− x ) = f ( x ) i.e. f ( x ) is even

0

1 ⎪

Divide Num. and Den. by x2 and put x B = t. ⎩ 0 , if f (− x ) = − f ( x ) i.e. f ( x ) is odd

x

dx b b

z

∫ (ax 2 + bx + c) px + q

; put px + q = t 2 z

∫ f (x ) dx = ∫ f (a + b − x ) dx

a a

dx 1 a a

z ∫ 2

; put ax + b =

t Further ∫ f (x ) dx = ∫ f (a − x ) dx

(ax + b) px + qx + r 0 0

2a a Note : (i) If all the powers of ‘x’ and ‘y’ in the equation

z

∫ f (x ) dx = ∫ ( f (x ) + f (2a − x )) dx are even, the curve is symmetrical about the axis of

0 0 ‘x’ as well as ‘y’ such as x2 + y2 = a2.

⎧ a (ii) If the equation of the curve remains unchanged

= ⎨ ∫

⎪2 f ( x )dx , if f (2a − x ) = f ( x )

on interchanging ‘x’ and ‘y’, then the curve

0

⎪ is symmetrical about the line y = x such as

⎩ 0 , if f (2a − x ) = − f ( x )

x3 + y3 = 3axy

If f(x) is a periodic function with period T, then

nT T (iii) If all the powers of ‘x’ in the equation are even then

z

∫ f ( x ) dx = n ∫ f ( x ) dx , n ∈ Z the curve is symmetrical about the y-axis.

0 0 (iv) If all the powers of ‘y’ in the equation are even then

a+nT T

the curve is symmetrical about the x-axis.

z

∫ f ( x ) dx = n ∫ f ( x ) dx , n ∈ Z , a ∈ R

Area Under the Curve

a 0

nT T z If f(x) t 0 for x [a, b],

z ∫ f ( x ) dx = (n − m) ∫ f ( x ) dx , m, n ∈ Z then area bounded by

mT 0 curve y = f(x) and x-axis

b+nT b

between x = a and x = b

z ∫ f ( x ) dx = ∫ f ( x ) dx , n ∈ z , a, b ∈ R

b

a+nT

∫

a

is f (x ) dx.

z If \(x) d f(x) d I(x) for a d x d b, then

a

b b b

If g(y) t 0 for y [c,d] then area

∫ ψ(x) dx ≤ ∫ f (x) dx ≤ ∫ φ(x) dx z

a a a

b b y-axis between abscissa y = c

d

z

∫ f (x) dx ≤ ∫ f (x ) dx

and y = d is ∫ g ( y) dy

a a

c

Leibnitz Theorem z If f(x) > 0 for x [a, c] and f(x) d 0 for x [c, b]

h( x )

(a < c < b) then area bounded by curve y = f(x) and

If F(x) = ∫ f (t ) dt , c b

g (x ) x-axis between x = a and x = b is ∫ f (x ) dx − ∫ f (x ) dx

dF (x ) a c

then = h ′(x ) f (h(x )) − g ′(x ) f ( g (x ))

dx z If f(x) t g(x) for

Walli’s formula x [a, b] then area

π bounded by curves

2 y = f(x) and y = g(x)

∫ sin

m

z x cosn x dx =

between x = a and x = b

0

b

⎧ ⎣⎡(m − 1)(m − 3)...5 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 1⎤⎦ ⎡⎣(n − 1)(n − 3)(n − 5)...5 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 1⎤⎦ π

⎪

(m + n)(m + n − 2)...6 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 2

× is ∫ ( f (x) − g (x)) dx

⎪ 2 a

⎪ m, n both are even positive integers

⎪ ⎡(m − 1)(m − 3)...5 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 1⎤ ⎡(n − 1)(n − 3)...6 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 2 ⎤ z If f(x) d 0 for x [a, b],

⎪⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦

then area bounded by

⎨ (m + n)(m + n − 2)...5 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 1

⎪ iff m is even & n is odd positive integer curve y = f(x) and x-axis

⎪

⎪⎣ ⎡ (m − 1)(m − 3)...6 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 2⎤⎤⎦ ⎡⎣(n − 1)(n − 3)...5 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 1⎤⎦ between x = a and x = b

⎪ (m + n)(m + n − 2)...5 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 1 b

⎪

⎩ if m is odd an nd n is even positive integer. is – ∫ f (x ) dx.

where m, n is positive integers. a

PROBLEMS

∫ sec

p

8. x tan x dx =

Single Correct Answer Type

−1 −1

sec p +1 x sec p x

+c +c

∫ x (tan x + cot x) dx =

51 (a) (b)

1.

p +1 p

x 52 tan p +1 x tan p x

(a) (tan −1 x + cot −1 x ) + c (c) +c (d) +c

52 p +1 p

x 52 e x (x + 1)

(b) (tan −1 x − cot −1 x ) + c 9. ∫ cos2 (xe x ) dx =

52

πx 52 π x 52 π (a) tan(xex) + c (b) sec(xex) tan (xex) + c

(c) + +c (d) + +c

104 2 52 2 (c) –tan (xex) + c (d) None of these

dx sin x cos x

2. ∫ sin x + cos x = 10. ∫ a cos2 x + b sin2 x dx =

⎛π x⎞ ⎛π x⎞ 1

log(a cos2 x + b sin2 x ) + c

(a) log tan ⎜ + ⎟ + c (b) log tan ⎜ − ⎟ + c (a)

⎝8 2⎠ ⎝8 2⎠ 2(b − a)

⎛π x⎞ 1

(c)

1

log tan ⎜ + ⎟ + c (d) None of these (b) log(a cos2 x + b sin2 x ) + c

⎝8 2⎠ b−a

2

1

sin3 x + cos3 x (c) log(a cos2 x + b sin2 x ) + c

3. ∫sin2 x cos2 x

dx = 2

(d) None of these

(a) tanx + cotx + c (b) tanx – cotx + c

(c) cosecx – cotx + c (d) secx – cosecx + c e2 x − 1

11. ∫ e2x + 1 dx =

cos 2 x − cos 2α

4. ∫ dx =

cos x − cos α e2 x − 1

(a) 2[sinx + x cosD] + c (b) 2[sinx + sinD] + c (a) +c (b) log(e2x + 1) – x + c

2x

e +1

(c) 2[–sinx + x cosD] + c (d) –2[sinx + sinD] + c

(c) log(e2x + 1) + c (d) None of these

x 4 + x2 + 1

5. ∫x2 − x + 1

dx =

12. ∫

1

dx =

1 3 1 2 1 3 1 2 cos−1 x ⋅ 1 − x 2

(a) x + x +x +c (b) x − x +x +c

3 2 3 2 (a) log(cos–1x) + c (b) –log(cos–1x) + c

1 3 1 2 1

(c) x + x −x +c (d) None of these (c) − +c (d) None of these

3 2 2(cos −1 x )2

1 1

6. ∫ 1+ cos x

dx = 13. ∫ dx =

x 1 + x2

2

⎛ x x⎞

(a) 2 log ⎜ sec + tan ⎟ + c 1 + x2 1 + x2

⎝ 2 2⎠ (a) − +c (b) +c

1 ⎛ x x⎞ x x

(b) log ⎜ sec + tan ⎟ + c

2 ⎝ 2 2⎠ 1 − x2 x2 − 1

(c) − +c (d) − +c

⎛ x x⎞ x x

(c) log ⎜ sec + tan ⎟ + c (d) None of these

⎝ 2 2⎠

∫ sin

3

14. x dx is equal to

dx

7. ∫ = 2

(a) sin x + 1 (b) sinx2 + x2 + 1

x + x log x

cos3 x 1 4 3

(a) log(1 + logx) (b) log log(1 + logx) (c) − cos x (d) sin x − sin2 x

(c) logx + log(logx) (d) None of these 3 4 4

x + sin x

15.

dx

∫ (1 + e x ) (1 + e − x ) = 21. ∫ 1 + cos x dx is equal to

x x

−1 ex (a) − x tan + c (b) x tan +c

(a) (b) 2 2

1 + ex 1+ e x 1

(c) x tanx + c (d) x tan x + c

1 2

(c) (d) None of these e x (1 + sin x )dx

1+ e x

∫ 1 + cos x = e f (x) + c, then f(x) =

x

22. If

1 + tan2 x

16. ∫ 1 − tan2 x dx equals to (a) sin

x

(b) cos

x

(c) tan

x

(d) log

x

2 2 2 2

⎛ 1 − tan x ⎞ ⎛ 1 + tan x ⎞

(a) log ⎜

⎝ 1 + tan x ⎟⎠

+c (b) log ⎜

⎝ 1 − tan x ⎟⎠

+c 23. ∫ cos x dx =

1 ⎛ 1 − tan x ⎞ 1 ⎛ 1 + tan x ⎞

(c) + c (d) log ⎜ +c

⎝ 1 − tan x ⎟⎠

log ⎜ ⎟ (b) 2[ x sin x − cos x ] + c

2 ⎝ 1 + tan x ⎠ 2

(c) 2[cos x − x sin x ] + c

∫ cosec

4

17. x dx =

(d) −2[ x sin x + cos x ] + c

cot 3 x tan3 x

(a) cot x + +c (b) tan x + +c 2x

−1

3 3 24. ∫ tan 1 − x2

dx =

cot 3 x tan3 x

(c) − cot x − + c (d) − tan x − +c (a) x tan–1 x + c

3 3

(b) x tan–1x – log(1 + x2) + c

1− x 2x tan–1x + log(1 + x2) + c

18. ∫ 1+ x

dx = (c)

(d) 2 xtan–1x – log(1 + x2) + c

1 1

(a) sin −1 x − 1 − x 2 + c (b) sin −1 x + 1 − x 2 + c x sin −1 x

2 2 25. ∫ dx =

1 − x2

(c) sin −1 x − 1 − x 2 + c (d) sin −1 x + 1 − x 2 + c −1

(a) x − 1 − x sin x + c (b) x + 1 − x 2 sin −1 x + c

2

−1

19. ∫ tan x dx = (c) 1 − x 2 sin −1 x − x + c (d) None of these

−1 1

(a) x tan x + log(1 + x )

2 sin −1 x

2 26. ∫ (1 − x 2 )3/2 dx =

1

(b) x tan −1 x − log(1 + x 2 ) x 1

2 (a) sin −1 x + log(1 − x 2 ) + c

–1 1 − x2 2

(c) (x – 1)tan x

(d) xtan–1 x – log(1 + x2) x 1

(b) sin −1 x − log(1 − x 2 ) + c

1 − x2 2

⎡ 1 ⎤

20. ∫ ⎢ log(log x ) + ⎥ dx = 1 1

⎢⎣ (log x )2 ⎥⎦ (c) sin −1 x − log(1 − x 2 ) + c

1− x 2 2

x 1 1

(a) x log(log x ) + +c (d) sin −1 x + log(1 − x 2 ) + c

log x 2

x 1 − x2

(b) x log(log x ) − +c ⎛ 2⎞

log x tan −1 x 1 + x + x

27. ∫ e ⎜

⎝ 1 + x2 ⎠

⎟ dx is equal to

log x

(c) x log(log x ) + +c −1 −1

x (a) xe tan x + c (b) x 2e tan x + c

log x 1 tan−1 x

(d) x log(log x ) − +c (c) e +c (d) None of these

x x

28. I1 = ∫ sin −1 x dx and I2 = ∫ sin −1 1 − x 2 dx then dx

34. ∫ 5 + 4 cos x =

(a) I1 = I2 (b) I2 = (S/2)I1

2 ⎛1 ⎞ 1 ⎛1 ⎞

(c) I1 + I2 = (S/2)x + K (d) I1 + I2 = S/2 (a) tan −1 ⎜ tan x ⎟ + c (b) tan −1 ⎜ tan x ⎟ + c

3 ⎝3 ⎠ 3 ⎝3 ⎠

x2

29. ∫ (x 2 + 2)(x 2 + 3) dx = (c)

2 ⎛1 x⎞ 1 −1 ⎛ 1 x⎞

tan −1 ⎜ tan ⎟ + c (d) tan ⎜ tan ⎟ + c

3 ⎝ 3 2 ⎠ 3 ⎝ 3 2⎠

(a) − 2 tan −1 x + 3 tan −1 x + c 1 dx

−1 x

+ 3 tan −1

x 35. ∫0 [ax + b(1 − x)]2 =

(b) − 2 tan +c

2 3 a b 1

x x (a) (b) (c) ab (d)

(c) 2 tan −1 + 3 tan −1 +c b a ab

2 3 1/ 2 sin −1 x

(d) None of these

36.

∫0 (1 − x 2 )3/2

dx =

π 1

∫ sin

3

30. x cos2 x dx = π 1 − log 2

(a) + log 2 (b)

4 2 4 2

cos5 x cos3 x cos5 x cos3 x π

(a) − + c (b) + +c (c) π + log 2 (d) − log 2

5 3 5 3 2

2

sin5 x sin3 x sin5 x sin3 x π dx

(c) − + c (d) + +c 37. ∫ =

5 3 5 3 0 1 + sin x

cos x 1 3

31. ∫ (1 + sin x)(2 + sin x) dx = (a) 0 (b)

2

(c) 2 (d)

2

(a) log[(1 + sinx)(2 + sinx)] + c π/2 sin x cos x

2 + sin x 1 + sin x

38. ∫0 1 + sin 4 x

dx =

(b) log +c (c) log +c

1 + sin x 2 + sin x π π π π

(a) (b) (c) (d)

(d) None of these 2 4 6 8

1 ⎛ x⎞ 2

dx If ∫ x log ⎜1 + ⎟ dx = a + b log , then

32. ∫ e x + 1 − 2e − x = 39.

0 ⎝ 2⎠ 3

(a) log(ex – 1) – log (ex – 2) 3 3 3 3

(a) a= , b= (b) a = , b = −

2 2 4 4

1 1

(b) log(e x − 1) − log(e x + 2) + c 3 3

2 3 (c) a= , b= (d) a = b

1 1 4 2

(c) log(e x − 1) − log(e x + 2) + c π/ 4 4 sin 2θ dθ

3 3

1 1

40. ∫0 sin 4 θ + cos 4 θ

=

(d) log(e x − 1) + log(e x + 2) + c

3 3 (a) S/4 (b) S/2

(c) S (d) None of these

∫ sin

5

33. x cos 4 x dx =

2

1 2 1 41. If x(x4 + 1) I(x) = 1, then ∫1 φ(x) dx =

(a) − cos5 x + cos7 x − cos9 x + c

5 7 9 1 32 1 32

(a) log (b) log

1 5 2 1 4 17 2 17

(b) cos x + cos7 x − cos9 x + c

5 7 9 1 16

(c) log (d) None of these

1 5 2 1 4 17

(c) cos x + cos7 x + cos9 x + c

5 7 9 π/ 4 sec x

(d) None of these

42. ∫0 1 + 2 sin2 x

is equal to

1⎡ π ⎤ 1⎡ π ⎤ 1 5 1 5

(a) ⎢ log( 2 + 1) + ⎥ (b) ⎢ log( 2 + 1) − ⎥ (a) log log

(b)

3⎣ 2 2⎦ 3⎣ 2 2⎦ 2 3 3 3

1 3 1 3

⎡ π ⎤ ⎡ π ⎤ (c) log (d) log

(c) 3 ⎢ log( 2 + 1) − ⎥ (d) 3 ⎢⎣ log( 2 + 1) + 2 2 ⎥⎦

2 5 5 5

⎣ 2 2⎦ ⎛ ⎞

1 1+ x

49. ∫ sin ⎜ 2 tan −1 dx =

43. The value of ∫

sin2 x

sin −1 t dt + ∫ cos −1 t dt is

cos2 x 0 ⎝ 1 − x ⎟⎠

0 0

π (a) S/6 (b) S/4 (c) S/2 (d) S

(a) (b) 1

2 2 dx 2 dx

(c)

π

(d) None of these 50. Let I1 = ∫ and I2 = ∫ then

1 1 x

4 1 + x2

⎛1⎞ 1 (a) I1 > I2 (b) I2 > I1

44. If for non-zero x, af (x ) + bf ⎜ ⎟ = − 5, where

2

⎝x⎠ x (c) I1 = I2 (d) I2 > 2I2

a zb, then ∫ f (x ) dx =

1 tan x t dt cot x dt

⎡ 1 7 ⎤

51. The value of ∫1/e 1+ t2

+∫

t (1 + t 2 )

1/e

=

(a) a log 2 − 5a + b ⎥

2 2 ⎢⎣ 2 ⎦

(a + b ) (a) –1 (b) 1

⎡ 1 7 ⎤ (c) 0 (d) None of these

(b) 2 ⎢a log 2 − 5a + 2 b ⎥

2

(a − b ) ⎣ ⎦ e2 dx

1 ⎡ 7 ⎤

52. The value of ∫1

x(1 + ln x )2

is

(c) a log 2 − 5a − b ⎥

2 2 ⎢⎣ 2 ⎦ (a) 2/3 (b) 1/3 (c) 3/2 (d) ln 2

(a − b )

π

⎡ 7 ⎤

(d)

2

1

2 ⎢⎣

a log 2 − 5a − b ⎥

53. ∫0 x log sin x dx =

(a + b ) 2 ⎦

π 1 π2 1

(a) log (b) log

π/ 4 2 2 2 2

45. ∫0 sec x log(sec x + tan x ) dx =

1 1

(c) π log (d) π2 log

1 2 2

(a) [log(1 + 2 )]2 (b) [log(1 + 2 )] 2

2 π /2

1

54. ∫0 log tan x dx =

(c) [log( 2 − 1)]2 (d) [log( 2 − 1)]2 π π

2 (a) log e 2 (b) − log e 2

π/ 4 sec2 x 2 2

46. ∫ dx = (c) π log e 2 (d) 0

0 (1 + tan x )(2 + tan x )

⎛2⎞ π /2 ⎛ 2 − sin θ ⎞

(a) log e ⎜ ⎟

⎝3⎠

(b) loge3 55. ∫− π/2 log ⎜⎝ 2 + sin θ ⎟⎠ dθ =

(a) 0 (b) 1

1 ⎛4⎞ ⎛4⎞

(c) log e ⎜ ⎟ (d) log e ⎜ ⎟ (c) 2 (d) None of these

2 ⎝3⎠ ⎝3⎠

π/ 4 5 π/ 4

56. Area under the curve y = 3x + 4 between x = 0

47. ∫0 (cos x − sin x )dx + ∫

π/ 4

(sin x − cos x )dx and x = 4 is

π/ 4 56 64

+∫ (cos x − sin x ) dx is equal to (a) sq. unit (b) sq. unit

2π 9 9

(c) 8 sq. unit (d) None of these

(a) 2 −2 (b) 2 2 − 2

57. The ratio of the areas bounded by the curves y = cosx

(c) 3 2 − 2 (d) 4 2 − 2

and y = cos2x between x = 0, x = S/3 and x-axis, is

15 dx

48. ∫8 (x − 3) x + 1

= (a) 2 :1

(c) 1 : 2

(b) 1 : 1

(d) 2 : 1

58. The area bounded by the curve y = x3, x-axis and 1 1

two ordinates x = 1 to x = 2 equal to (a) (b) log 2 +

4 4

15 15 1

(a) sq. unit (b) sq. unit (c) log 2 − (d) None of these

2 4 4

(c)

17

sq. unit

17 67. Area enclosed by the parabola ay = 3(a2 – x2) and

(d) sq. unit

2 4 x-axis is

59. For 0 d x d S,the area bounded by y = x and (a) 4a2 sq. unit (b) 12a2 sq. unit

y = x + sinx, is 3

(c) 4a sq. unit (d) None of these

(a) 2 (b) 4 (c) 2S (d) 4S

Assertion & Reason Type

60. If a curve y = a x + bx passes through the point

(1, 2) and the area bounded by the curve, line x = 4 and Directions : In the following questions, Statement-1 is

x-axis is 8 sq. unit, then followed by Statement-2. Mark the correct choice as :

(a) a = 3, b = –1 (b) a = 3, b = 1 (a) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is true, Statement-2

(c) a = –3, b = 1 (d) a = –3, b = –1 is a correct explanation for Statement-1.

61. The area of the region (in the square unit) bounded (b) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is true, Statement-2

by the curve x2 = 4y, line x = 2 and x-axis is is not a correct explanation for Statement-1.

2 4 8 (c) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is false.

(a) 1 (b) (c) (d)

3 3 3 (d) Statement-1 is false, Statement-2 is true.

62. Area bounded by the curve xy – 3x – 2y – 10 = 0, 1

dx 1

x-axis and the lines x = 3, x = 4 is 68. Statement-1 : The inequality ∫ > 1 − is true

n

01+ x

(a) 16 log 2 – 13 (b) 16 log 2 – 3 for n N. n

(c) 16 log 2 + 3 (d) None of these 1 n−1

x − x n + x 2n−1

∫

2

63. Area bounded by the parabola y = 2x and the Statement-2 : dx > 0, ∀ n ∈ N .

ordinates x = 1, x = 4 is 0 1 + xn

x

4 2 28 2 ln t

(a) sq.unit (b) sq.unit 69. Statement-1: If F (x ) = ∫ dt ,

2

1 1+ t + t

3 3

56 then F(x) = – F(1/x)

(c) sq.unit (d) None of these

3 x

ln t

64. The area bounded by the x-axis, the curve y = f(x) Statement-2: If F (x ) = ∫ dt ,

t +1

1

and the lines x = 1, x = b is equal to b2 + 1 − 2 for all

then F(x) + F(1/x) = (1/2) (ln x)2.

b > 1, then f(x) is

(a) x −1 (b) x +1 70. Statement-1 : ∫ e 3x (3 sin x + cos x )dx = e 3x sin x + c

x Statement-2 : Antiderivative of a periodic function is a

(c) x2 + 1 (d)

periodic function.

1 + x2

65. The area of smaller part between the circle 1 1 2 + 3e x

x2 + y2 = 4 and the line x = 1 is

71. Statement-1: ∫ 4e − x − 9e x dx =

6

log

2 − 3e x

+C

4π 8π

(a) − 3 (b) − 3 1 1 a+x

3 3 Statement - 2: ∫ a2 − x 2 dx = 2a log a − x +C

4π 5π

(c) + 3 (d) + 3

3 3 e x (2 − x 2 ) 1− x

66. Area of the region bounded by the curve y = tanx,

72. Statement-1: ∫ dx = e x

1+ x

+c

(1 − x ) 1 − x 2

π

tangent drawn to the curve at x = and the x-axis is Statement-2 : ∫ e x ( f (x ) + f ′(x )) dx = e x f (x ) + c

4

12 6

cot 4r −1 x f (a) I2

73. Statement-1: ∑ ∫ cot x dx = − ∑

2r

+c and I2 = ∫ g (x(1 − x ))dx then the value of is 2.

f (−a) I1

r =0 r =1 4r − 1

Statement-2 : Here f(a) + f(–a) = 1 and also by the

cotn−1 x

Statement-2: ∫ cotn x dx + ∫ cotn−2 xdx = − +c q q

n −1 property ∫ p f (x ) dx = ∫ p f ( p + q − x ) dx

e cot x x + (cos−1 3x )2

74. Statement-1: ∫ sin2 x (2 ln cosec x + sin 2x )dx 81. Let ∫ dx = A 1 − 9 x

2

1 − 9x 2 − B(cos −1 3x ) + c,

3

= 2e cot x ln sin x + c

where c is a constant of integration, then

Statement-2: ∫ e x ( f ( x ) + f ′( x ))dx = e x f ( x ) + c Statement-1 : A + B = 0

∞ 2 2

x2 − 2 Statement-2 : A = and B = −

75. Statement-1 : ∫ dx = 0 9 9

1 x3 x2 − 1 Comprehension Type

x2 − 2 Paragraph for Q. No. 82 – 84

Statement-2 : f (x ) = is an odd function

3 2 If a curve is given by its parametric equation in the form

x x −1

76. Let T > 0 be a fixed real number. Suppose f(x) is a x = f(t), y = g(t) and suppose the derivatives f c(t) and

continuous function for all x R, f (x + T) = f(x) then g c(t) are continuous functions on the interval [t1, t2]. If

6 +6T T t1 and t2 are the values of parameter ‘t’ corresponding

Statement-1 : ∫ f (4 x )dx = 6 ∫ f (x )dx respectively to the initial and final position in which

the curve can be described as a contour in the positive

6 0

24T T direction (i.e., figure remains left), then the area

Statement-2 : ∫ f (x )dx = 24 ∫ f (x )dx described by the curve is given by

t2 t2

0 0

π /2 A = − ∫ g (t ) f ′(t )dt = − ∫ f (t ) g f ′(t ) dt

77. Statement-1 : ∫0 (sin6 x + cos6 x ) dx lies in the t1 t1

⎛π π⎞ t2

interval ⎜ , ⎟ . 1

2∫

⎝8 2⎠ = ( xg ′(t )dt − yf ′(t ))dt

Statement-2 : sin6 x + cos6x is periodic with period S/2. t1

2

78. Statement-1 : If root of ax + bx + c = 0 are non real 82. Area enclosed by the curve

2

sin x cos x2 x = a cos3t, y = a sin3t, 0 d t d 2S

−1

and c = ∫ sin xdx + ∫ cos −1 xdx then (a)

3 2

a π (b)

3 2

a π (c)

3 2

a π (d)

3 2

a π

0 0 2 4 8 16

‘a’ must be positive. 83. Area of the loop of the curve x = a(1 – t2),

Statement-2 : If roots of quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 y = at(1 – t2), –1 dt d1 must be

are non-real then ‘a’ and ‘c’ have same sign.

2 2 4 2

a (c)

8 2 a2

(a) a (b) a (d)

79. Let f(x) and g(x) be continuous functions of x in 15 15 15 5

(a, b) and f(x) < g(x) < 0 x (a, b) then

84. The area of the curve x = 2 cost, y = 2 sint must be

Statement-1 : Area of the region bounded by

(a) 4S (b) 2S (c) 8S (d) 16S

y = f(x), x-axis, x = a and x = b is less than the area of

the region bounded by y = g(x), x-axis, x = a and x = b. Paragraph for Q. No. 85 – 87

Statement-2 : |f(x)| > |g(x)| x (a, b) Let n be a non-negative integer and let

ex In = ∫ x n a2 − x 2 dx , (a > 0) then we can find relation

80. If f (x ) = among In, In – 1, In – 2. It can be observed that I1 is

1 + ex

f (a) 1

Statement-1 : I1 = ∫ xg (x(1 − x ))dx elementary integration whose value is − (a2 − x 2 )3/2 .

f (−a) 3

π /2

x n−1 (a2 − x 2 )3/2

If In = − + a2 BIn−2 where A and B are 92. The value of ∫ log(sin2 θ + k 2 cos2 θ)dθ, where

constants. Then A k t 0, is 0

85. A must be equal to (a) S log(1 + k) + Slog2 (b) S log(1 + k)

(a) n + 1 (b) n – 1 (c) n + 2 (d) n (c) S log(1 + k) – Slog2 (d) S log(1 + k) – log2

86. B must be equal to π

dx π

(a) n + 1 (b)

n+2 n

(d) n − 1

93. If ∫ (a − cos x) = , then the value of

(c) 0 a2 − 1

n+2 n +1 n+2 n+2

π

dx

∫(

a

is

∫x

4 2 2

87. The value of a − x dx must be 10 − cos x )3

0

0

π 7π 7π 7π

πa6 4 πa 4 (a) (b) (c) (d)

(b) πa

6

(a) (c) (d) πa 81 81 162 8

32 16 64 16

Matrix–Match Type

Paragraph for Q. No. 88 – 90

A curve passing through origin is such that slope of 94. Match the following.

tangent at any point is reciprocal of sum of co-ordinate Column-I Column-II

of point of tangency.

−1

(A) If ∫ x d(tan x )dx = x − f (x ) + c

2 1

88. Slope of tangent at ordinate ln3. (p)

1 1 then f(1) is equal to 8

(a) 1 (b) (c) (d) –2

3 2

(B) If ∫ x e dx = e f (x ) + c, then (q) 0

2 2x 2x

89. Area bounded by curve and the abscissa y = 0 and

y = 1 is the minimum value of f(x) is

1 3 5

(a) e − (b) e − (c) e − (d) e +1 (x 4 + 1)

2 2 2 If ∫ x(x 2 + 1)2 dx = a log | x | π

⎡⎣ sin α + cos α ⎤⎦ (C) b (r)

+ +c 4

90

∫ xe − y d(e y ) where [·] represents x2 + 1

−1

then a – b is equal to

integer function, is equal to 95. Match the following.

(a) e − e −1 − 1 (b) e – e–1 – 2 [x] denotes greatest integer less than or equal to ‘x’.

3

1 1 Column I Column II

(c) e − (d) e + e −1 +

e 3 π/4

Paragraph for Q. No. 91 – 93 (A) 25 ∫ (tan6 (x − [x ])

4

(p) 4

Differentiate I w.r.t. the parameter within the sign of 0 + tan (x – [x])) dx =

integrals taking variable of the integrand as constant. 2

x 6 + 3x 5 + 7 x 4

Now, evaluate the integral so obtained as usual as a

function of the parameter and then integrate the result

I1 = ∫ x4 + 2

dx

−2

to get I. Constant of integration can be computed by (B) 1 (q) 2

2(x + 1)2 + 11(x + 1) + 14

giving some arbitrary values to the parameter and the I2 = ∫ (x + 1)4 + 2

dx

corresponding value of I. −3

then the I1 + I2 =

1 a

x −1

91. The value of ∫ log x dx is 2

3⎛

−1 x

+ tan −1

x2 + 1 ⎞ 100

0 (C)

π ∫ ⎜⎜ tan x2 +1 x ⎟⎠

⎟ dx = (r)

3

(a) log(a – 1) (b) log(a + 1) −1 ⎝

(c) a log (a + 1) (d) None of these (s) 5

Integer Answer Type SOLUTIONS

n n Single Correct Answer Type

1

∑ r ∑ π

r =1 r =1 r k 1. (a) : ∫x (tan −1 x + cot −1 x )dx = ∫ x 51 . dx

51

96. If lim = then the value of k is 2

n→ ∞ n 3

∑r ⎧ −1

⎨'tan x + cot x =

−1 π⎫

⎬

r =1 ⎩ 2⎭

⎧ π x 52 x 52

a− 1 a− 1 ⎫ = +c = (tan −1 x + cot −1 x ) + c

1/a⎪⎨n a +k a ⎬⎪ 104 52

n k ⎪ ⎪

⎩ ⎭

97. lim

n→∞ k =1

∑ na+1

is equal to

2. (c) :

dx

∫ sin x + cos x =

1

∫ π

dx

π

2

sin x cos + cos x sin

98. The value of 4 4

π/ 4 1 ⎛ π⎞ 1 ⎛π x⎞

∫ [(x 9 − 3x 5 + 7 x 3 − x + 1) / cos2 x]dx is

=

2

∫ cosec ⎜⎝ x + 4 ⎟⎠ dx = 2 log tan ⎜⎝ 8 + 2 ⎟⎠ + c

− π/ 4

sin3 x + cos3 x ⎛ sin x cos x ⎞

99. f : [0, 5] oR, y = f(x) such that f cc(x) = f cc(5 – x) 3. (d) : ∫ 2

sin x cos x

dx = ∫ ⎜

2

+

⎝ cos x sin2 x ⎟⎠

2

dx

x [0, 5] f c(0) = 1 and f c(5) = 7, then value of

4 = ∫ (sec x tan x + cosecx cot x )dx = sec x − cosecx + c

∫1 f ′(x )dx − 4 is

cos 2 x − cos 2α 2(cos2 x − cos2 α)

100. Let D, E be roots of the quadratic equation

4. (a) :

∫ cos x − cos α

dx = ∫

cos x − cos α

dx

18x2 – 9Sx + S2 = 0, where D < E. Also f(x) = x2 and

= 2 ∫ (cos x + cos α) dx = 2(sin x + x cos α) + c

g(x) = cosx. If the area bounded by the curve y = (fog) (x),

π x 4 + x2 + 1

the vertical lines x = D, x = E and x-axis is , then the

sum of the digit of O is λ 5. (a) : ∫ 2

x − x +1

dx = ∫ (x 2 + x + 1) dx

π /2 x3 x2

101. Let In = ∫ (sin x + cos x ) dx (n ≥ 2) . Then the

n

0

= + +x +c

3 2

value of nIn – 2(n – 1)In–2 is

1 dx

π /2

π 1

6. (a) : ∫ 1 + cos x

dx = ∫

2 cos2 ( x / 2)

102. If ∫ ln sin xdx = ln

2 2 1 x

π /2

0

2

=

2

∫ sec 2 dx

⎛ x ⎞ k⋅π

and ∫ ⎜⎝

sin x

⎟⎠ dx =

2

ln 2, then value of k is

=

1 ⎧ ⎛ x x ⎞⎫ 1

⎨ log ⎜ sec + tan ⎟ ⎬ .

0

1 2⎩ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠⎭ 1 / 2

29 ∫ (1 − x 4 )7 dx

⎛ x x⎞

103. Find the value of 0 . = 2 log ⎜ sec + tan ⎟ + c

1 ⎝ 2 2⎠

4 ∫ (1 − x 4 )6 dx

dx dx

7. (a) : Let I = ∫

x + x log x ∫ x(1 + log x )

0 =

⎡π dx ⎤

104. Evaluate ⎢ ∫ ⎥ where [.] denotes greatest 1

Put 1 + log x = t ⇒ dx = dt

⎢⎣ 0 1 + 2 sin2 x ⎥⎦ x

integer function. dt

∴ I = ∫ = log(t ) = log(1 + log x )

x t

105. The function f (x ) = ∫ {2(t − 1)(t − 2)3 8. (b) : Put secx = t secx tanx dx = dt

1 + 3(t – 1)2(t – 2)2dt p−1 tp sec p x

∫ sec x tan x dx = ∫ t dt =

p

∴ +c = +c

attains its maximum at x is equal to p p

17. (c) : ∫ cosec x dx = ∫ cosec x.cosec x dx

4 2 2

e x ( x + 1)

9. (a) : ∫ cos2 (xe x ) dx = ∫ e x (x + 1)sec2 (xe x )dx

= ∫ cosec2 x(1 + cot 2 x ) dx

Putting xex = t (x + 1)exdx = dt, we get

= ∫ cosec2 x dx + ∫ cot 2 x. cosec2 x dx

∫ sec

2

t dt = tan t + c = tan(xe x ) + c

= − cot x − +c

2(b – a) sinx cosx = dt, 3

sin x cos x dx 1 1 1− x 1− x

then ∫

2 2

=

− ∫ dt 18. (d) : ∫ 1+ x

dx = ∫ dx

a cos x + b sin x 2(b a ) t 1 − x2

1 1 x dx

= log(a cos2 x + b sin2 x ) + c = ∫ dx − ∫ = sin −1 x + 1 − x 2 + c

2(b − a) 2 2

1− x 1− x

2x x −x

e −1 e −e −1 −1 x

11. (b) : Let I = ∫ e2x + 1 dx = ∫ e x + e − x dx 19. (b) : ∫ tan x dx = x tan x − ∫ dx + c

1 + x2

Now put ex + e–x = t (ex – e–x)dx = dt, 1

= x tan −1 x − log(1 + x 2 ) + c.

dt 2

∴ I = ∫ = log t = log(e x + e − x ) = log(e 2 x + 1) − x + c

t ⎡ 1 ⎤

12. (b) 20. (b) : ∫ ⎢ log(log x ) + ⎥=

⎢⎣ (log x )2 ⎥⎦

13. (a) : Put x = tanT dx = sec2T dT, then 1

∫ log(log x)dx + ∫ (log x)2

1 sec2 θ dθ

∫ dx = ∫

tan2 θ sec θ

= ∫ cosec θ cotθ dθ

= x log(log x ) − ∫

x

dx + ∫

1

dx

x2 1 + x2 x log x (log x )2

− x2 +1 x 1 1

= − cosec θ + c = +c = x log(log x ) − −∫ dx + ∫ dx

2

x log x (log x ) (log x )2

x

14. (c) : ∫ sin3 x dx = ∫ sin2 x ⋅ sin x dx = x log(log x ) − + c.

log x

= ∫ sin x(1 − cos2 x ) dx = ∫ sin x dx − ∫ cos x ⋅ sin x dx

2

x + sin x 1 2x x

21. (b) : ∫ 1 + cos x dx = 2 ∫ x sec 2 dx + ∫ tan 2 dx

cos3 x

= − cos x + +c

3 x

x tan

1 2 − tan x dx + tan x dx = x tan x + c

dx e x dx = ∫ 2 ∫ 2

15. (a) : Let I = ∫ =∫ 2 1 2

⎛ 1 ⎞ (1 + e x )2

(1 + e x ) ⎜1 + ⎟⎠ 2

⎝ ex ⎛ 1 + sin x ⎞

22. (c) : Let I = ∫ e x ⎜ dx

Let 1 + ex = t, ? ex dx = dt ⎝ 1 + cos x ⎟⎠

dt t −1 (1 + e x )−1 −1 ⎡1 + 2 sin(x / 2)cos( x / 2) ⎤

∴ I=∫ = ∫ t −2dt = = = = ∫ ex ⎢ ⎥ dx

t 2 −1 −1 1 + ex 2 cos2 (x / 2)

⎣ ⎦

1 + tan2 x sec2 x ⎡1 ⎤

16. (d) : I = ∫ dx = ∫ dx I = ∫ e x ⎢ sec2 (x / 2) + tan(x / 2)⎥ dx = e x tan(x / 2) + c

2 2

1 − tan x 1 − tan x ⎣2 ⎦

dt {' ∫ e x [ f (x ) + f ′(x )]dx = e x ⋅ f (x ) + c}

Put tanx = t sec2x.dx = dt ⇒ I = ∫ 2

1− t

1 ⎡1 + t ⎤ 1 1 + tan x 1

= log ⎢ + c = log +c 23. (a) : Put x =t ⇒ dx = dt ⇒ dx = 2t dt , then

2 ×1 ⎥ 2 x

⎣1 − t ⎦ 2 1 − tan x

Put cosx = t –sin x dx = dt

∫ 2t .cos t dt = 2 ⎣⎡t sin t − ∫ sin t dt ⎤⎦ t5 t3 (cos x )5 (cos x )3

= 2t sin t + 2 cos t + c = 2[ x sin x + cos x ] + c ∴ I = − ∫ (t 2 − t 4 )dt = − +c = − +c

5 3 5 3

24. (d) : Put x = tanT dx = sec2T dT, then 31. (c) : Put sinx = t cox dx = dt, then

−1 2 x −1 2 tan θ

∫ tan 1 − x 2 dx = ∫ tan 1 − tan2 θ sec θ dθ

2

cos x dt

∫ (1 + sin x)(2 + sin x) dx = ∫ (t + 1)(t + 2)

= ∫ tan −1 (tan 2θ)sec2 θ dθ = ∫ 2θ sec2 θ dθ

1 1 ⎛ t +1 ⎞

= 2 ⎡⎣θ tan θ − ∫ tan θ dθ⎤⎦ = 2 x tan −1 x − log( x 2 + 1) + c

= ∫ t + 1 dt − ∫ t + 2 dt = log ⎜⎝ t + 2 ⎟⎠ + c

⎛ sin x + 1 ⎞

25. (a) : Putting sin −1 x = t ⇒

1 = log ⎜ +c

dx = dt , we get ⎝ sin x + 2 ⎟⎠

1 − x2

−1

x sin x e x dx

∫ 2

dx = ∫ t sin t dt = −t cos t + sin t + c 32. (c) :

dt

∫ e2x + e x − 2 = ∫ t 2 + t − 2 , t = e

x

1− x

= –sin–1x cos(sin–1 x) + sin(sin–1x) + c dt 1⎡ 1 1 ⎤

=∫

(t + 2)(t − 1) ∫ 3 ⎢⎣ t − 1 t + 2 ⎥⎦

2 −1

= − dt

= x − 1 − x sin x +c

–1

26. (a) : Put t = sin x 1 1

= log(e x − 1) − log(e x + 2) + c

sint = x cost dt = dx, then 3 3

sin −1 x 33. (a) : Put cosx = t –sinx dx = dt, then

∫ (1 − x 2 )3/2 dx = t sec

2

t dt = t tan t + log cos t + c

∫ (1 − cos x )2 ⋅ cos4 x ⋅ sin x dx = − ∫ (1 − t 2 )2 ⋅ t 4dt

2

=− + t − t +c

x 1

= sin −1 x + log(1 − x 2 ) + c. 5 7 9

1 − x2 2 cos5 x 2 1

=− + cos7 x − cos9 x + c

dx 5 7 9

27. (a) : Putting tan–1x = t and = dt , we get

1 + x2 dx

⎛ 2⎞ 34. (c) : ∫ 5 + 4 cos x

tan −1 x 1 + x + x

∫ e ⎜

⎝ 1+ x ⎠ 2 ⎟

dx = ∫ et (tan t + sec2 t )dt

dx

sec2

x

=∫ =∫ dx 2

−1

= et tan t + c = x e tan x + c ⎡ 2 x⎤ + 2 x

1 − tan 9 tan

5+4⎢

⎢ 2⎥ 2

⎥

⎡ Using

∫ e { f (x ) + f ′(x )} dx = e f (x ) + C ⎦⎤

x x

x

⎣ ⎢1 + tan2 ⎥

⎣ 2⎦

28. (c) x x 1

Put tan = t ⇒ sec2 ⋅ dx = dt ,

x2 ⎡ 3 2 ⎤ 2 2 2

29. (b) : ∫ (x 2 + 2)(x 2 + 3) dx = ∫ ⎢⎣ x 2 + 3 − x 2 + 2 ⎥⎦ dx dt 2 ⎡1 x⎤

2∫ = tan −1 ⎢ tan ⎥ + c

3 x 2 ⎛ x ⎞ 2

3 +t 2 3 ⎣3 2⎦

= tan −1 − tan −1 ⎜ ⎟+c

3 3 2 ⎝ 2⎠ 1 dx

35. (d) : Let I = ∫

0 [(a − b)x + b]2

⎛ x ⎞ ⎛ x ⎞

= 3 tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ − 2 tan −1 ⎜ +c

⎝ 3⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ Put t = (a – b)x + b dt = (a – b)dx

As x = 1 t = a and x = 0 t = b, then

30. (a) : Let I = ∫ sin3 x cos2 x dx a

1 a1 1 ⎡ 1⎤ 1 ⎛a −b⎞ 1

= ∫ (1 − cos2 x )cos2 x ⋅ sin x dx

I= ∫

a −b t

b 2

dt = − ⎥ = =

(a − b) ⎣ t ⎦b (a − b) ⎜⎝ ab ⎟⎠ ab

⎢

42. (a)

1/ 2 sin −1 x

36. (b) : I = ∫ dx sin2 x cos2 x

(1 − x 2 )3/2

0 43. (c) : Let I = ∫ sin −1 t dt + ∫ cos −1 t dt

0 0

1

Put sin −1 x = t ⇒ dx = dt and x = sint Putting t = sin2u in the first integral and t = cos2v in the

1 − x2 second integral, we have

π 1 x x

Also t = 0 to

4

as x = 0 to I = ∫ u sin 2u du − ∫ v sin 2v dv

2 0 π /2

π/ 4 π 1 π /2 x x

⇒ I = ∫ t ⋅ sec2 t dt = − log 2 =∫ u sin 2udu + ∫ u sin 2u du − ∫ v sin 2v dv

0 4 2 0 π /2 π /2

π /2

dxπ π 1 − sin x π /2 ⎛ −u cos 2u ⎞ 1 π /2

I=∫

2 ∫0

∫0 1 + sin x = ∫0 cos2 x dx

37. (c) : u sin 2udu = ⎜ ⎟⎠ + cos 2u du

0 ⎝ 2 0

π π /2

= ∫ (sec2 x − sec x tan x )dx ⎛ −u cos 2u ⎞ 1 π

0 =⎜ ⎟⎠ + (sin 2u)0π/2 =

⎝ 2 4 4

= [tan x − sec x]0π = [tan π − sec π + 1] = [0 + 1 + 1] = 2 0

⎛1⎞ 1

38. (d) : Put sin2x = t dt = 2 sinx cosx dx 44. (b) : af (x ) + bf ⎜ ⎟ = − 5 (for each x z0) ...(i)

⎝x⎠ x

π/2 sin x cos x 1 1 1 1 π

Now ∫ dx = ∫ dt = [tan −1 t ]10 = 1

0 1 + sin 4 x 2 1+ t

0 2 2 8 Replacing x by in (i), we get

x

1 ⎛ x⎞ ⎛1⎞

39. (c) : Let I = ∫0 x log ⎜⎝1 + 2 ⎟⎠ dx af ⎜ ⎟ + bf (x ) = x − 5

⎝x⎠

...(ii)

⎡ ⎛ x ⎞ x2 ⎤

1 ⎛1⎞

1 1 1 x2 Eliminating f ⎜ ⎟ from (i) and (ii), we get

= ⎢ log ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎥ − ∫ ⋅ ⋅ dx ⎝x⎠

⎢⎣ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 2 ⎥⎦ 0 0 1 + x 2 2 a

2 (a2 − b2 ) f (x ) = − bx − 5a + 5b

1 3 1 1 x2 x

= log − ∫ dx 2 ⎡⎛ b ⎞⎤

2

2 2 2 0 x +2 ⇒ (a2 − b2 )∫ f ( x )dx = ⎢ ⎜ a log | x | − x 2 − 5(a − b)x ⎟ ⎥

1 ⎣⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎦1

1 3 1 ⎡1 ⎤ 3 3 2

= log − ⎢ − 2 + 4 log 3 − 4 log 2⎥ = + log b

2 2 2 ⎣2 ⎦ 4 2 3 = a log 2 − 2b − 10(a − b) − a log 1 + + 5(a − b)

2

On comparing with the given value a = 3/4, b = 3/2 . 7

= a log 2 − 5a + b

π/ 4 sin 2θ dθ π/ 4 2 sin θ cos θ dθ 2

40. (c) : 4 ∫ = 4∫ 2 1 ⎡ 7 ⎤

0 4

sin θ + cos θ 4 0 sin 4 θ + cos 4 θ ⇒ ∫ f (x )dx = ⎢ a log 2 − 5a + b ⎥

2 2

2

1 a −b ⎣ 2 ⎦

π/ 4 2 tan θ sec θ dθ

= 4∫ π/ 4

0 tan θ + 14 45. (a) : Let I = ∫ sec x log(sec x + tan x )dx

0

Now put tan T = t 2 tanT sec T dT = dt, then the

2 2

Put log(secx + tanx) = t secx dx = dt

reduced form is log( 2 +1)

log( 2 +1) ⎡t2 ⎤ [log( 2 + 1)]2

1 dt ⎡1 ⎤ ⇒I=∫

4∫ = 4[tan −1 t ]10 = 4 ⎢ π − 0⎥ = π 0

t dt = ⎢ ⎥ =

0 t2 +1 ⎣ 4 ⎦ ⎢⎣ 2 ⎥⎦ 0 2

1 1 x3 46. (d) : Put 1 + tanx = t sec2 x dx = dt

41. (a) : Here φ(x ) = = −

x(x 4 + 1) x x 4 + 1 π/ 4 sec2 x

2 2 ⎛1 x3 ⎞

∴ ∫0 (1 + tan x)(2 + tan x) dx

⇒ ∫1 φ( x )dx = ∫1 ⎜⎝ x x 4 + 1 ⎟⎠ dx

−

2 dt 2 dt 2 dt

=∫

1 t (1 + t ) ∫1 t

= −∫ = [log t − log(1 + t )]12

1 1+ t

2

1 1 32

=| log x |12 − log( x 4 + 1) = log = log e 2 − log e 3 + log e 2 = log e

4

4 1 4 17 3

π/4 π 2 π π /2

47. (d) : Let I = ∫0 (cos x − sin x ) dx 2 I = ∫ π log sin x dx ⇒ I =

0 2 ∫0

log sin x dx

5 π /4 π /4

+∫ (sin x − cos x )dx + ∫ (cos x − sin x )dx ⎛π 1 ⎞ π2 1

π /4 2π = π ⎜ log ⎟ = log

⎝2 2⎠ 2 2

π 5π π

= [sin x + cos x]04 − [sin x + cos x]π4 + [sin x + cos x]24π π /2 π /2 ⎛ sin x ⎞

54. (d) : ∫0 log tan x dx = ∫ log ⎜ dx

0 ⎝ cos x ⎟⎠

4

π /2 π /2

⎡ 1 1 ⎤ ⎡ 1 1 ⎛ 1 1 ⎞⎤ =∫ log sin x dx − ∫ log cos x dx = 0

=⎢ + − 1⎥ − ⎢ − − −⎜ + ⎟⎥ 0 0

{∫ }

⎣ 2 2 ⎦ ⎣ 2 2 ⎝ 2 2 ⎠⎦ a a

' f (x )dx = ∫ f (a − x )dx

⎡ 1 1 ⎤ 0 0

+⎢ + − 1⎥ −1

⎣ 2 2 ⎦ ⎛ 2 − sin θ ⎞

55. (a) : Since f (−θ) = log ⎜

= [ 2 − 1] − [− 2 − 2 ] + [ 2 − 1] = 4 2 − 2 ⎝ 2 + sin θ ⎟⎠

⎛ 2 − sin θ ⎞

= − log ⎜ = − f (θ)

⎝ 2 + sin θ ⎟⎠

15 dx

48. (a) : I = ∫

8 (x − 3) x + 1 ? f(x) is an odd function of x.

Put x = tan2 θ and θ = tan −1 x

π /2 ⎛ 2 − sin θ ⎞

Therefore, 2 ∫ log ⎜ dθ = 0.

0 ⎝ 2 + sin θ ⎟⎠

dx = 2 tanT sec2T dT

4

tan −1 15 2 tan θ sec2 θ 56. (d) : Area = ∫ 3x + 4dx

0

∴ I=∫ dθ 4

tan −1 8 (3x + 4)3/2

(tan2 θ − 3) tan2 θ + 1 =

2 tan θ sec2 θ 3 ⋅ (3 / 2)

tan −1 15 0

=∫ dθ

tan −1 8 2

(sec θ − 4)sec θ

112

= sq. unit

9

tan −1 15

⎡1 (sec θ − 2) ⎤

= ⎢ log 57. (d)

⎣ 2 (sec θ + 2) ⎥⎦ tan−1 8

1⎡ 2 1⎤ 1 5 5H1=3?B>5B" !(

= ⎢ log − log ⎥ = log

2⎣ 6 5⎦ 2 3

Exam Date

49. (b) 50. (b)

VITEEE 4th to 15th April

51. (b) : On integrating both functions, we get

cot x JEE Main 8th April (Ofﬂine), 15th & 16th April (Online)

1 ⎧

tan x 1 ⎫

= log(1 + t 2 ) + ⎨log t − log(1 + t 2 )⎬ SRMJEEE 16th to 30th April

2 1/e ⎩ 2 ⎭ 1/e

Karnataka CET 18th & 19th April

1⎡ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ ⎛1⎞

= ⎢ log sec2 x − log ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎥ + log cot x − log ⎜ ⎟ 22nd April

2⎣ ⎝ e ⎠⎦

2 ⎝e ⎠ WBJEE

1⎧ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎫ ⎛1⎞

= − ⎨ log(cosec2 x ) − log ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎬ = − log ⎜ ⎟ = log e = 1

2⎩ ⎝ e2 ⎠ ⎭ ⎝e⎠ MHT CET 10th May

52. (a) COMEDK (Engg.) 13th May

π 13th May (Revised)

53. (b) : Let I = ∫ x log sin x dx ...(i) AMU (Engg.)

0

π BITSAT 16th to 31st May

= ∫ (π − x )log sin(π − x ) dx ...(ii)

0 JEE Advanced 20th May

By adding (i) and (ii), we get

58. (b) : Required area d 2x x

∴ f (x ) = x2 + 1 = =

2 2 1 dx 2 x2 + 1 2

x +1

= ∫ y dx = ∫ x 3dx = [x 4 ]12

1 1 4 2

65. (a) : Area of smaller part = 2 ∫ 4 − x 2 dx

1 15 1

= [16 − 1] = sq. unit 2

4 4 ⎡x x⎤

= 2⎢ 4 − x 2 + 2 sin −1 ⎥

59. (a) : The curves y = x and y = x + sinx intersect at (0, 0) ⎣ 2 2 ⎦1

and (S, S). Hence area bounded by the two curves ⎡ π ⎡ 3 π ⎤⎤

π π π = 2 ⎢2 ⋅ − ⎢ + 2 ⋅ ⎥⎥

⎢⎣ 2 ⎢⎣ 2 6 ⎥⎦ ⎥⎦

= ∫ (x + sin x )dx − ∫ x dx = ∫ sin x dx

0 0 0 ⎡ ⎡ 3 π ⎤ ⎤ 4π

= 2 ⎢π − ⎢ + ⎥⎥ = − 3

= [− cos x]0π = − cos π + cos 0 = −(−1) + (1) = 2 ⎢⎣ ⎢⎣ 2 3 ⎥⎦ ⎥⎦ 3

60. (a) : Given curve y = a x + bx . π/ 4

66. (d) : Required area = ∫ tan x dx = [log sec x]0π/4

This curve passes through (1, 2), ? 2 = a + b ...(i) 0

and area bounded by this curve and line x = 4 and = log sec(π / 4) − log sec 0 = log 2 − log 1 = log 2

x-axis is 8 sq. unit, then 67. (a) : The parabola meets x-axis at the points, where

4

3 2

∫ (a x + bx ) dx = 8 (a − x 2 ) = 0 ⇒ x = ±a.

a

0

2a 3/2 4 b 2 4 2a So the required area

⇒ [x ]0 + [x ]0 = 8 ⇒ (8) + 8b = 8 a 3 2 6 a

3 2 3 =∫ (a − x 2 )dx = ∫ (a2 − x 2 )dx = (4a2 ) sq. unit

−a a a 0

2a + 3b = 3 ...(ii)

From equation (i) and (ii), we get a = 3, b = – 1. 1 n −1

x − x n + x 2n −1

61. (b) : Given x = 4y 2 68. (a) : ' ∫ 1 + xn

dx > 0 ∀ n ∈ N

0

2 x2 1

⎧ 1 ⎫

? Required area = ∫0 dx ⇒ ∫⎨ − (1 − x n−1 )⎬ dx > 0

4 n

0 ⎩1 + x ⎭

1 32 8 2

= [x ]0 = = 1 1

dx

12 12 3 ⇒ ∫ 1 + xn > ∫ (1 − x n−1 ) dx

3x + 10 0 0

62. (c) : Given curve is y(x − 2) = 3x + 10 ⇒ y =

x −2 1

dx 1

? Required area is

4

∫3 y dx = ∫

4 3x + 10

dx

⇒ ∫ 1 + xn > 1 − n ; ∀ n ∈N

3 x −2 0

63. (b) : Required area = CDDcCc dt

70. (c) : Put 3x = t ⇒ dx =

3

= 2 × ABCD 1 t⎛ t t⎞ t

4 3 ∫ e ⎜ 3 sin + cos ⎟ dt = et sin + c = e3x sin x + c

⎝ 3 3⎠ 3

= 2∫ 2 x1/2 dx

1 Statement-2 is false.

=

28 2 ex 1 2 + 3e x

3

sq. unit 71. (d) : ∫ 22 − (3e x )2 dx =

4

log

2 − 3e x

+C

b

64. (d) : ∫1 f ( x ) dx = b2 + 1 − 2 = b2 + 1 − 1 + 1 e x (2 − x 2 ) e x (1 + (1 − x 2 ))

b 72. (a) : ∫ dx = ∫ dx

= ⎣⎡ x 2 + 1 ⎤⎦1 (1 − x ) 1 − x 2 (1 − x ) 1 − x 2

⎛ ⎞ a +nT nT T

1 1+ x f ( x ) dx = f ( x ) dx = n ∫ f ( x ) dx

= ∫ ex ⎜

⎜⎝ (1 − x ) 1 − x 2

+ ⎟ dx 76. (a) : ∫ ∫

1 − x 2 ⎟⎠ a 0 0

⎡ 1 1 + x ⎤⎥

77. (b)

= ∫ ex ⎢ + dx sin2 x cos2 x

⎢ (1 − x )3/2 (1 + x )1/2 1− x ⎥ −1

⎣ ⎦ 78. (a) : Let f (x ) = ∫ sin xdx + ∫ cos −1 xdx

0 0

x 1+ x

=e + c dx ? f c(x) = 0 f(x) = constant.

1− x

1/2

73. (d) : ∫ cot xdx = ∫ cot

n n−2

x ⋅ cot2 x dx ⎛π⎞ π π π

and f ⎜ ⎟ =

⎝4⎠ ∫ 2

dx =

4

⇒ c=

4

...(i)

0

= ∫ cotn − 2 x ⋅ cosec2 x dx − ∫ cotn − 2 x dx

As roots of g(x) = ax2 + bx + c = 0 are non real

D < 0 and g(0) = c > 0 [Using (i)]

− cotn−1 x

∴ ∫ cot x =

n

− ∫ cotn−2 x dx a>0

n −1

79. (d)

I = ∫ (cot24 x + cot22 x + ........... + 1)dx

ex 1

= (I24 + I22) + (I20 + I18) + ..... + (I4 + I2) + ∫ 1dx 80. (a) : f ( x ) = =

1+e x

1 + e− x

23 19 3

− cot x cot x cot x 1 1

= − − ....... − + x +c f (a) = , f (− a ) =

23 19 3 1 + e−a 1 + ea

e cot x ⎛ 2 tan x ⎞ f(a) + f(–a) = 1

∫ sin2 x ⎜⎝ ln cosec

2

74. (a) : We have, x+ ⎟ dx

1 + tan2 x ⎠ 81. (c) : Put 3x = cosT 3dx = – sinT dT

cos θ 2

Let t = cotx dt = – cosec2x dx +θ

1 1 ⎛1 ⎞

⎛ ⎞ ∴ − ∫ 3 ⋅ sin θ dθ = − ∫ ⎜ cos θ + θ2 ⎟ dθ

2 3 sin θ 3 ⎝3 ⎠

⎜ ⎟

= − ∫ et ⎜ ln(1 + t 2 ) + t ⎟ dt 1 1 1 1

⎜ 1 ⎟ − ∫ cos θdθ − ∫ θ2dθ = − sin θ − θ3 + c

1+ 9 3 9 9

⎝ t2 ⎠

1 1

= − 1 − 9 x 2 − (cos −1 3x )3 + c

–et ln|1 + t2| + c = –2ecotx ln |cosecx| + c 9 9

= 2ecotx lnsinx + c 1 1

Clearly, A = − and B =

∞ 9 9

x2 − 2

75. (b) : Let I = ∫ dx Hence, A + B = 0.

3

1 x x2 − 1 82. (c) : x = a cos3t, y = asin3t, 0 d t d2S

∞ ∞

x2 dx (xg c(t) – yf c(t)) = a2(cos3t·3sin2t cost + sin3t.3cos2t sint)

=∫ dx − 2 ∫

3 2 3 = 3a2 cos2t sin2t

1 x x −1 1 x x2 − 1 2π

1

Put x = secT dx = secT tanT dT Area of the curve =

2 ∫ (xg ′(t ) − yf ′(t ))dt

π π 0

2 2 2π

sec θ ⋅ tan θdθ sec θ ⋅ tan θdθ 1 3

∴I=∫ − 2∫ = ∫ 3a

2

cos2 t sin2 t dt = a2 π

sec θ ⋅ tan θ sec3 θ ⋅ tan θ 2 8

0 0 0

π π /2 π /2 83. (c) : The curve is described when t varies from –1

π ⎛ 1 + cos 2θ ⎞

= [θ] − 22

0 ∫ cos2 θdθ = −2 ∫ ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ dθ to 1. Indeed when t = –1, both x and y are zero. When

2 2

0 0 t = 0, x = a, y = 0. Thus is the adjoining figure upper

π π portion is described when 0 d t d1 and the lower portion

= − = 0.

2 2 is described when –1 < t < 0

Required area 1

⎡ 1 ⎤ 5

1 1 89. (c) : Area = ∫ (e y − y − 1)dy = ⎢e − − 1⎥ − 1 = e −

8a2 ⎣ 2 ⎦ 2

= − ∫ g (t ) f ′(t )dt = − ∫ at (1 − t 2 )(−2at ) dt = 0

15

−1 −1 90. (b) : ⎡⎣ sin α + cos α ⎤⎦

84. (a) : This is a circle of radius 2. ∫ ( )

xe − y d e y

85. (c) 86. (d) 87. (a) −1

dy

n−1 ⎛ Let e y = z ⇒ e y = 1 ⇒ dy = e − y dz

In = ∫ x n

a − x dx = ∫ x

2 2

x a − x ⎞ dx

2 2

dz

⎝ ⎠

Since 1 ≤ sin α + cos α ≤ 2 ∴ ⎡⎣ sin α + cos α ⎦⎤ = 1

Apply integration by parts 1

1

In = − (a2 − x 2 )3/2 x n−1 +

n − 1 n−2 2 ⇒ ∫ (e

y

− y − 1)dy = e − e −1 − 2

3 ∫

x (a − x 2 )3/2 dx

3 −1

1 a

1 n −1 x −1

= − (a2 − x 2 )3/2 x n−1 + 91. (b) : Let I (a) = ∫ dx

3 3 log x

0

⎛ a2 x n−2 a2 − x 2 − x n a2 − x 2 ⎞ dx

∫⎝ ⎠ Diff w.r.t. a keeping x as constant

1

1 n −1 2 n −1 d d 1

In = − (a2 − x 2 )3/2 x n−1 + a In − 2 − I I (a) = ∫ x adx ⇒ I (a) =

3 3 3 n da d(a) a +1

0

Integrating both sides w.r.t a, we get

−(a2 − x 2 )3/2 x n−1 ⎛ n − 1 ⎞ 2

⇒ In = +⎜ a I I(a)=log(a + 1) + C

n+2 ⎝ n + 2 ⎟⎠ n−2 I(0) = 0 C = 0 I(a) = log(a + 1)

a

n −1 92. (c)

⇒ A = n + 2, B = If In = ∫ x n a2 − x 2 dx

n+2 π

0 dx π

⇒ In = ⎜

⎛ n −1 ⎞ 2

a I 3 2

93. (c) :

∫ a − cos x =

⎝ n + 2 ⎟⎠ n−2 ⇒ I 4 = 6 a I2 0 a2 − 1

Diff w.r.t. a on both sides treating x as constant, we get

2

and I 2 = a2 I 0 . Also, I 0 = λa

1 π

dx − πa

4 4 −∫ =

6 0 (a − cos x ) 2

2

3

3 1 π πa (a − 1) 2

∴ I 4 = × × a6 =

6 4 4 32 Again diff. w.r.t. a treating x as a constant, we get

π

dy 1 dx π(1 + 2a2 )

88. (c) : = ...(i) [Given] 2∫ =

dx x + y (a − cos x )3 5

0 2

Put y + x = v ...(ii) (a − 1) 2

π

dy dv dv 1 dx π (1 + 2a2 ) 7π

⇒

dx

+1 =

dx

⇒

dx

−1 =

v

[Using (i) and (ii)] ∴ ∫( 10 − cos x ) 3

=

2(9) 5/ 2

=

162

0

dv v + 1 ⎛ v +1 −1⎞

⇒ = ⇒ dv ⎜ = dx 94. (A) o(r), (B) o(p), (C) o(q)

dx v ⎝ v + 1 ⎟⎠

1

Integrating both sides, we get (A) ∫x

2

dx = x − tan −1 x + c

⋅

1 + x2

v – ln(v + 1) = x + c

y + x – ln(x + y + 1) = x + c ⇒ f (x ) = tan −1 x ⇒ f (1) = tan −1 1 = π / 4

Also x = 0, y = 0 c = 0 1 1

∫x

e dx = x 2 ⋅ e 2 x − ∫ 2 x ⋅ e 2 x dx

2 2x

(B)

? y = ln (x + y + 1) x = ey – y – 1 2 2

⇒

dy

=

1

⇒

dy

=

1

=

1 1 ⎡ 1 1 ⎤ ⎛ x2 x 1 ⎞

y ln 3 = x 2e 2 x − ⎢ x ⋅ e 2 x − e 2 x ⎥ = ⎜ − + ⎟ e 2 x + c

dx e − 1 dx ln 3 e − 1 2 2 ⎣ 2 4 ⎦ ⎝ 2 2 4⎠

(x 4 + 1) ((x 2

)

+ 1)2 − 2 x 2 dx

98. (2) : f (x ) =

x 9 − 3x 5 + 7 x 3 − x

+ sec2 x

(C) ∫ x(x 2 + 1)2 dx = ∫

x(x 2 + 1)2 cos x2

2 9 5

= ∫ dx − 2 ∫ = log x + +c

2 2 2 π/ 4 π/ 4

x (x + 1) x +1

⇒ ∫ f (x )dx = ∫ sec2 x dx

95. (A) o(s), (B) o(r), (C) o(q), (D) o(q) − π/ 4 − π/ 4

π/ 4 π/ 4

=2 ∫ sec2 x dx = 2 tan x |0π/4 = 2

∫

6 4

(A) Let I = 25 (tan x + tan x ) dx

0 0

π/ 4 4 4 4

∫

4 2

= 25 (tan x sec x )dx = 5

0 4 4

2

100

Let I = ∫1 x f ′′(x )dx = ∫1 (5 − x ) f ′′(5 − x )dx

∫ (x

(B) Let x + 1 = t in I2 then I1 + I2 = 2

+ 7)dx = 5

[ f ′(4) − f ′(1)]

3 4

−2 ⇒ I = 5 ∫ f ′′( x ) dx − I ∴ I =

1 2

0 3

−π π 4 3

(C) Let I = ∫ 2

dx + ∫ dx = π

2

So, ∫1 ⎡ f ′ ( 4 ) + f ′(1)⎦⎤

f ′( x ) dx =

2⎣

−1 0

r n 1 n Now, f cc(x) = f cc(5 – x) f c(x) = – f c(5 – x) + c

n

1 ∑ n∑ r

n

f c(0) + f c(5) = c c = 8

∑ r∑ r r =1 r =1

r =1 r =1 n So, f c(x) + f c(5 – x) = 8 f c(4) + f c(1) = 8

96. (8) : lim = lim

n→ ∞ n(n + 1) n → ∞ n2 ⎛ 1⎞ 100. (3): Let D, E be roots of the quadratic equation

⎜1 + ⎟

2 2 ⎝ n⎠ 18x2 – 9Sx + S2 = 0

1 1

1 π π

= 2 × ∫ x dx ∫ dx ? α = ,β =

x 6 3

0 0

And, (fog)(x) = f(cosx) = cos2x

1 1 π /3

⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ π

⎢ x 3/2 ⎥ ⎢ x1/2 ⎥

=2×⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

2

=2× ×2=

8 Area = ∫ cos2 x dx =

12

π /6

⎢ 3 ⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎥ 3 3

⎣ 2 ⎦0 ⎣ 2 ⎦0 π /2

101. (2) : Let In = ∫ (sin x + cos x )n −1 ⋅ (sin x + cos x ) dx

? k=8 0

π /2

1 ⎧ 1

⎪ a− a a− ⎫

1 In = ∫ (sin x + cos x )n−1 (sin x − cos x ) ′dx

ka + a⎪ 0

⎨n k ⎬

π /2

⎪⎩ ⎪⎭ = [sin x + cos x]n −1 ⋅ (sin x − cos x )]0

n

97. (1): lim ∑

n→∞ k =1 na +1 π /2

− ∫ (n − 1)(sin x + cos x )n − 2 ⋅(cos x − sin x )(sin x − cos x )dx

1 ⎧⎪ ⎛ k ⎞ ⎛ k ⎞ ⎪⎫

n 1/a a 1

= lim ∑ . ⎨ ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ ⎬ = ∫ (x1/a + x a )dx 0

π /2

n→∞ k =1 n ⎪ ⎝ n ⎠ ⎝n⎠ ⎪

⎩ ⎭ 0 = 2 + (n − 1) ∫

0

(sin x + cos x )n−2 (cos x − sin x )2 dx

1

⎧ ⎫ π /2

⎪ x (1/ a )+1 x a +1 ⎪ a 1 = 2 + (n − 1) ∫

0

(sin x + cos x )n−2 ⎡⎣⎢2 − (sin x + cos x )2 ⎤⎦⎥ dx

=⎨ + ⎬ = + =1

⎪ 1 a + 1⎪ a +1 a +1 = 2 + 2(n – 1)In – 2 – (n – 1)In

+1

⎩ a ⎭0 nIn – 2(n – 1) In – 2 = 2

π /2 1 1

102. (2) : I = ∫

2

x cosec xdx 2

29 ∫ (1 − x 4 )7 dx 28 ∫ (1 − x 4 )6 dx

0 ⇒ 0 = 0 =7

π /2 π /2 1 1

= ⎡ − x cot x ⎤

2

+ ∫ 2 x cot xdx 4 ∫ (1 − x ) dx

4 6

4 ∫ (1 − x ) dx 4 6

⎣ ⎦0

0 0 0

π /2 π π /2

π /2

= 2 [ x ln sin x ]0 −2 ∫ ln sin xdx dx dx

0

104. (1) : ∫ 1 + 2 sin2 x =2 ∫ 1 + 2 sin2 x

0 0

1

103. (7) : I = ∫ (1 − x 4 )7 ⋅1dx π /2 ∞

sec2 x dx dt

=2 ∫ = 2∫

1 + ( 3t )

0 2 2

1 0 1 + 3 tan x 0

1

= ⎡ x(1 − x 4 )7 ⎤ + 7 × 4 ∫ x(1 − x 4 )6 x 3dx

⎣ ⎦0 Put t = tan x dt = sec2 x dx

0 ∞

1 2 ⎡ −1

= tan 3t ⎤

= 0 − 28 ∫ (1 − x 4 )6[(1 − x 4 ) − 1] dx 3 ⎣ ⎦ 0

0

1 1 105. (1): f c(x) = 2 (x – 1)(x – 2)3 + 3(x – 1)2(x – 2)2

= −28 ∫ (1 − x ) (1 − x )dx + 28 ∫ (1 − x ) dx

4 6 4 4 6

= (x – 1)(x – 2)2 {2(x – 2) + 3(x – 1)}

0 0 = (x – 1) (x – 2)2(5x – 7)

1

= −28 I + 28 ∫ (1 − x 4 )6 dx + + +

0 1 – 7/5 2

1

⇒ 29 I = 28 ∫ (1 − x 4 )6 dx sign change of f c(x) from +ve to –ve at x = 1

0 ? maximum at x = 1.

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which satisfy following three conditions: ⎢ ⎥

5. Let A = ⎢ p q r ⎥ and B = A2.

(i) 4000 d N < 6000 (ii) N is a multiple of 5

⎢⎣ 1 1 1 ⎥⎦

(iii) 3 d b < c d 6, is equal to

(a) 12 (b) 18 (c) 24 (d) 48 If (l – m)2 + (p – q)2 = 9, (m – n)2 + (q – r)2 = 16,

(n – l)2 + (r – p)2 = 25, then the value of det. B equals

2. The angle between pair of tangents drawn to the

(a) 100 (b) 125 (c) 144 (d) 169

curve 7x2 – 12y2 = 84 from M(1, 2) is

1 6. Let D, E R. If D, E2 be the roots of quadratic

(a) 2 tan−1 (b) 2 tan–12 equation x2 – px + 1 = 0 and D2, E be the roots of

2

quadratic equation x2 – qx + 8 = 0, then the value of 'r'

⎛ 1 1⎞ r

(c) 2 ⎜ tan −1 + tan −1 ⎟ if be arithmetic mean of p and q, is

⎝ 3 2⎠ 8

83 83 83

(d) 2 tan–13 (a) (b) (c) (d) 83

8 4 2

⎛n ⎞

3. Let ⎜ ⎟ represents the combination of 'n' 7. The range of k for which the inequality

⎝k ⎠ k cos2x – k cosx + 1 t 0 x, is

things taken 'k' at a time, then the value of the sum 1

⎛ 99 ⎞ ⎛ 98 ⎞ ⎛ 97 ⎞ ⎛3⎞ ⎛2 ⎞ (a) k < − (b) k > 4

2

⎜⎝ 97 ⎟⎠ + ⎜⎝ 96 ⎟⎠ + ⎜⎝ 95 ⎟⎠ + .... + ⎜⎝ 1 ⎟⎠ + ⎜⎝ 0 ⎟⎠ equals 1 1

(c) − ≤ k ≤ 4 (d) − ≤ k ≤ 2

⎛ 99 ⎞ ⎛100 ⎞ ⎛ 99 ⎞ ⎛100 ⎞ 2 2

(a) ⎜ ⎟ (b) ⎜ ⎟ (c) ⎜ ⎟ (d) ⎜

⎝ 97 ⎟⎠

8. Let g(x) = ax + b, where a < 0 and g is defined from

⎝ 97 ⎠ ⎝ 98 ⎠ ⎝ 98 ⎠

[1, 3] onto [0, 2] then the value of

4. For any natural number m, cot(cos−1 (|sin x | + | cos x |) + sin−1 (− | cos x | − |sin x |))

∫ (x

7m 2m m 6m m 1/m

+x + x )(2 x + 7 x + 14) dx is equal to

(where x > 0), equals (a) g(1) (b) g(2)

m+1 (c) g(3) (d) g(1) + g(3)

(7 x 7m + 2 x 2m + 14 x m ) m θ

(a) +C

14(m + 1) 9. ∫ ln(1 + tan θ ⋅ tan x ) dx is equal to

m+1 0

7m 2m m m (a) T ln(secT) (b) T ln(cosecT)

(b) (2 x + 14 x + 7 x ) +C θ⋅ln 2

14(m + 1) (c) (d) 2T ln secT

m+1 2

7m 2m m sin x sin 3x sin 9 x

(c) (2 x + 7 x + 14 x ) m 10. + + equals

+C cos 3x cos 9 x cos 27 x

14(m + 1)

m+1 1

(7 x 7m 2m

+ 2x + x m

) m (a) tan3x – tanx (b) (tan9x – tan3x)

(d) +C 2

14(m + 1) 1 1

(c) (tan27x – tanx) (d) (tan27x + tan9x)

where C is constant of integration. 2 2

Sanjay Singh Mathematics Classes, Chandigarh, Ph : 9888228231, 9216338231

11. Let a, b, c, d are non-zero real numbers such that 20. An ellipse has semi major axis of length 2 and semi

6a + 4b + 3c + 3d = 0, then the equation minor axis of length 1. The distance between its foci

ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = 0 has (units) is

(a) atleast one root in [–2, 0]

(a) 2 3 (b) 3 (c) 2 2 (d) 3

(b) atleast one root in [0, 2]

(c) atleast two roots in [–2, 2] 21. A coin that comes up head with probability p > 0

(d) no root in [ –2, 2] and tails with probability 1 – p > 0 independently on

x each flip, is flipped eight times. Suppose the probability

12. Let f : (0, f) o R and F(x) = ∫ t f (t )dt of three heads and five tails is equal to 1/25 of the

0 m

12

2 probability of five heads and three tails. Let p = ,

If F(x2) = x4 + x5, then ∑ f (r ) is equal to n

r =1 where m and n are relative prime positive integers. The

(a) 216 (b) 219 (c) 222 (d) 225 value of m + n equals

(a) 9 (b) 11 (c) 13 (d) 15

13. If a , b and c are non-zero vectors then the value

( )( )

of the scalar (a × b ) × a ⋅ (b × a ) × b equals 22. Equation of the circle which cuts the circle

2 2 x2 + y2 – 2x – 4y + 4 = 0 and the lines xy – 2x – y + 2 = 0

(a) −(a ⋅ b ) |a × b |2 (b) a | a × b |

orthogonally, is

(c) | b |2 | a × b |2 (d) (a ⋅ b ) | a × b |2 (a) x2 + y2 – 2x – 4y + 12 = 0

14. If Z is a non real complex number then the (b) x2 + y2 – 2x – 4y + 6 = 0

Im Z 5 (c) x2 + y2 – 2x – 4y – 6 = 0

minimum value of , is (d) none of these

Im5 Z

(a) –1 (b) –2 (c) –4 (d) –5 23. The figure shows two regions in the first quadrant.

15. Suppose that three points on the parabola y = x2 A(t) is the area under the curve y = sinx2 from 0 to t

have the property that their normal lines intersect at a and B(t) is the area of the triangle with vertices O, P and

common point (a, b). The sum of their x-coordinates is A(t )

M(t, 0). Then, lim equals

2b − 1 a t →0 B(t )

(a) 0 (b) (c) 2 (d) a + b

2

16. If the circle x2 + y2 + (3 + sinE)x + (2cosD)y = 0 and

x2 + y2 + (2cosD)x + 2cy = 0 touches each other, then the

maximum value of 'c' is

(a) 1/2 (b) 1 (c) 3/2 (d) 2

(a) 3/5 (b) 2/3 (c) 1/3 (d) 1/2

17. If range of the function f(x) = sin–1x + 2tan–1x

24. Let S(t) be the area of the 'OAB with O(0, 0, 0),

+ x2 + 4x + 1 is [p, q] then p + q equals

A(2, 2, 1) and B(t, 1, t + 1). The value of the definite

3π

(a) –S + 4 (b) + 2 (c) 4 (d) 8 e

4 integral ∫ (S(t ))2 ln t dt , is equal to

18. The complete set of values of the parameter D 1

so that the point P(D, (1 + D2)–1) does not lie outside 3

the triangle formed by the lines L1 : 15y = x + 1, 2e + 5 e3 + 5

(a) (b)

L2 : 78y = 118 – 23x and L3 : y + 2 = 0, is 2 2

(a) (0. 5) (b) [2, 5] (c) [1, 5] (d) [0, 2] 2e3 + 15 e3 + 15

(c) (d)

19. If the variable line y = kx + 2h is tangent to an 2 2

ellipse 2x2 + 3y2 = 6, then locus of P(h, k) is a conic C 25. The number of straight lines equidistant from

whose eccentricity equals three non-collinear points in the plane of the points is

5 7 7 7 equal to

(a) (b) (c) (d)

2 3 2 3 (a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 3

26. Two fair dice are rolled simultaneously. It is 34. If f(x) = a loge|x| + bx2 + x has extremums at x = 1

found that one of them shows odd prime numbers. and x = 3 then

The probability that remaining dice also shows an odd 3 1 3 1

(a) a = − , b = − (b) a = , b = −

prime number, is equal to 4 8 4 8

(a) 1/5 (b) 2/5 (c) 3/5 (d) 4/5 3 1

(c) a = − , b = (d) none of these

x −2 y −3 z −4 4 8

27. The straight lines = = and

1 1 −k

x −1 y − 4 z − 5 SOLUTIONS

= = , will intersect provided

k 2 1 1. (c) : We have, N = a b c d

(a) k = {3, –3} (b) k = {0, –1} First place a can be filled in 2 ways i.e. 4, 5

(c) k = {–1, 1} (d) k = {0, –3} (∵ 4000 d N < 6000)

28. The length of projection, of the line segment For b and c, total possibilities are '6'

joining the points (1, –1, 0) and (–1, 0, 1), to the plane i.e. 34, 35, 36, 45, 46, 56 (∵ 3 d b < c d 6)

2x + y + 6z = 1, is equal to Last place d can be filled in 2 ways i.e. 0, 5

(∵ N is a multiple of 5)

255 237 137 155 Hence total numbers = 2 × 6 × 2 = 24

(a) (b) (c) (d)

61 41 41 61 2. (c) : The director circle of given hyperbola

x2 y2

1

29. The sum 10C0 – 10C1 + 2 · 10C2 – 22 · 10C3 + ... + 29 · 10C10 − = 1 , is x2 + y2 = 5 and given point M(1, 2) lies

2 12 7

on it.

is equal to

The angle between pair of tangents = S/2

1 1 10 1 1 π

(a)

2

(b) 0 (c) ⋅3 (d) 33 As, tan−1 + tan−1 = tan−1 1 =

2 3 2 4

30. Let the rth term, tr, of a series is given by ⎛ ⎛1⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎞ π

n ⇒ 2 ⎜ tan−1 ⎜ ⎟ + tan−1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ =

r

. Then lim ∑ tr is ⎝ ⎝3⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎠ 2

tr =

1 + r2 + r 4 n→∞ r =1

3. (d) : S = 2C0 + 3C1 + 4C2 + 5C3 + ...... + 99C97

(a) 1/4 (b) 1 = 4C1 + 4C2 + 5C3 + ... + 99C97 (∵2C0 + 3C1 = 4C1)

(c) 1/2 (d) none of these = 5C2 + 5C3 + ... + 99C97

31. Let f : [0, 1] o [0, 1] be a continuous function. ? S = 100C97

Then 4. (c) : Let I = ∫ (x7m−1 + x2m−1 + xm−1 )(2 x7m + 7 x2m

(a) f(x) = x for at least one 0 d x d 1

+14 xm )1/m dx

(b) f(x) will be differentiable in [0, 1]

Now, put 2x7m

+ 7x2m

+ 14xm

= tm

(c) f(x) + x = 0 for at least one x such that 0 d x d 1

14m(x7m – 1 + x2m – 1 + xm – 1)dx = m tm – 1 dt

(d) none of these

1

∴ I = ∫ t m−1 (t m ) dt

1m

32. Let f(x) be a polynomial function of degree 2 and 14

f(x) > 0 for all x R. If g(x) = f(x) + f c(x) + f cc(x) then m+1

m+1 7m 2m m

for any x t (2 x + 7 x + 14 x )m

= +C = +C

(a) g(x) < 0 (b) g(x) > 0 14(m + 1) 14(m + 1)

(c) g(x) = 0 (d) g(x) t 0

5. (c) : Det.A is twice the area of the triangle with

33. Let f(x) = tan–1(I(x)), where I(x) is increasing for vertices (l, p), (m, q), (n, r) with sides 3, 4, 5.

0 < x < S/2. Then f(x) is '2 = s(s – a)(s – b)(s – c)

(a) increasing in (0, S/2) '2 = 6(6 – 3)(6 – 4)(6 – 5)

(b) decreasing in (0, S/2) '2 = 36 ' = 6

(c) increasing in (0, S/4) and decreasing in (S/4,S/2) Now, detA = 2' = 12

(d) none of these det.B = (det A)2 = 4'2 = 144

6. (d) : For the equation x2 – px + 1 = 0, 11. (b) : We have ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = 0

the product of roots, DE2 = 1 ax 4 bx3 cx2

and for the equation x2 – qx + 8 = 0, Let f (x ) = + + + dx + e

4 3 2

the product of roots, D2E = 8

Hence, (DE2)(D2E) = 8 D3E3 = 8 DE= 2 ? f(0) = e

? From DE2 = 1, we have E= 1/2 and from D2E = 8, 8b (12a + 8b + 6c + 6d )

f (2) = 4a + + 2c + 2d + e = +e

we have D= 4 3 3

b

Hence, from sum of roots = − relation, we have 2

a = (6a + 4b + 3c + 3d ) + e = 0

3

2 1 17 2 1 33

p = α +β = 4+ = and q = α + β = 16 + = f(2) = e

4 4 2 2

? By Rolle’s theorem, there exist atleast one value of

r

∵ is arithmetic mean of p and q x (0, 2) such that f c(x) = 0

8 The equation ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = 0 has atleast one

r p+q ⎛ 17 33 ⎞

∴ = ⇒ r = 4( p + q) = 4 ⎜ + ⎟ = 83 real root in [0, 2]

8 2 ⎝4 2⎠

x2

7. (c) : We have, k cos2x – k cosx + 1 t 0x 12. (b) : We have F (x ) = ∫ t f (t ) dt = x 4 + x 5

2

k(cos2x – cosx) + 1 t 0 0

2 ? On differentiating w.r.t. x, we get

Now, cos2 x − cos x = ⎜⎛ cos x − ⎞⎟ −

1 1

12

⎝ 2⎠ 4 5 2

1 ⇒ f (x )2 = 2 + x ∴ ∑ f (r ) = 219

2 r =1

∵ − ≤ cos2 x − cos x ≤ 2

13. (a) : (a × b ) × a ⋅ (b × a) × b

( )( )

4

k 1

? 2k + 1 t 0 and − + 1 ≥ 0 ⇒ − ≤ k ≤ 4

( )( )

4 2

= (a ⋅ a )b − (b ⋅ a )a ⋅ (b ⋅ b )a − (a ⋅ b )b

8. (c) : Consider F (x ) = cot(cos−1 (|sin x | + | cos x |)

= (a2 b 2 ) a ⋅ b − a2 b 2 (a ⋅ b ) − (a ⋅ b ) a2 b 2 + (a ⋅ b )3

+ sin−1 (− | cos x | − |sin x |))

= −(a ⋅ b ) | a × b |2

But |sinx| + |cosx| [1, 2 ]

? F(x) = cot(cos–1(1) + sin–1(–1)) 14. (c) : Let Z = a + ib, b z 0 where Im Z = b

⎛ π⎞ ?Z5 = (a + ib)5 = a5 + 5C1 a4bi + 5C2 a3b2i2 + 5C3 a2b3i3

= cot ⎜ 0 − ⎟ = 0 = g (3) (As F(x) = 0, x DF) + 5C4 ab4i4 + i5b5

⎝ 2⎠

θ

Im Z5 = 5a4b – 10a2b3 + b5

9. (a) : Let I = ∫ ln(1 + tan θ ⋅ tan(θ − x )) dx Im Z 5 ⎛a⎞

4

⎛a⎞

2

Now, y = = 5 ⎜ ⎟ − 10 ⎜ ⎟ + 1

0 5

Im Z ⎝b⎠ ⎝b⎠

θ ⎛ tan θ ⋅ (tan θ − tan x ) ⎞ 2

= ∫ ln ⎜1 + Let ⎜⎛ ⎞⎟ = x (say ), x ∈ R+

dx a

0 ⎝ 1 + tan θ ⋅ tan x ⎟⎠ ⎝b⎠

θ ⎛ 1 + tan2 θ ⎞ y = 5x2 – 10x + 1 = 5[x2 – 2x] + 1 = 5[(x – 1)2] – 4

= ∫ ln ⎜ ⎟ dx Hence ymin = – 4

0 ⎝ 1 + tan θ ⋅ tan x ⎠

15. (a) : y = x2

θ θ

= ∫ ln(1 + tan2 θ) dx − ∫ ln(1 + tan θ ⋅ tan x ) dx dy ⎤

= 2 x1

dx ⎥⎦ x

0 0

1

I = 2T ln secT – I

2I = 2T ln secT I = T ln (secT) 1

m (slope of normal) = −

2 x1

sin x sin 2 x sin(3x − x )

10. (c) : = = Equation of normal at (x, x12) is

cos 3x 2 cos x cos 3x 2 cos x cos 3x

1

1

= (tan 3x − tan x ) etc. y − x12 = − (x − x1 ) ....(i)

2 2 x1

(i) passes through (a, b) 20. (a) : We have d = F1F2 = 2ae

b − x12 = −

1

(a − x1 ) ⇒ 2 x1 (b − x12 ) = x1 − a d2 = 4a2e2 = 4(a2 – b2) = 4(4 – 1) = 12 ⇒ d = 2 3 units

2 x1 1 8

21. (b) : We have 8C3 p3(1 – p)5 = C3 p5(1 – p)3

⇒ 2 x13 + x1 (1 − 2b) − a = 0 (1)( p) 25

or 1 − p =

? There is no coefficient of x12 5

Hence, sum of all the x coordinates = 0 5

So, we get p = m + n = 11

16. (b) : Equation of tangent at (0, 0) will be same 6

(3 + sinE)x + (2 cosD)y = 0 ....(i) 22. (b) : We have, Line (x – 1)(y – 2) = 0

2 cosDx + 2cy = 0 ....(ii) x = 1 and y = 2

? (i) and (ii) must be identical Centre (1, 2) i.e. –g = 1 and –f = 2

2 cos2 α Let the equation of the required circle is

⇒ c= cmax = 1 when sinE = –1 and D = 0

3 + sin β x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 ....(i)

As (i) is orthogonal to x2 + y2 – 2x – 4y + 4 = 0

17. (c) : f(x) = sin–1x

+ 2tan–1x

+ + 4x + 1x2

? 2 + 8 = 4 + c c = 6

Domain of f(x) is [–1, 1]

Hence, x2 + y2 – 2x – 4y + 6 = 0

f(x) is increasing in the domain

π ⎛ −π ⎞ t t sin t 2

∴ f (x ) / min = − + 2 ⎜ ⎟ + 1 − 4 + 1 23. (b) : We have A(t ) = ∫ sin x 2 dx ; B(t ) =

2 ⎝ 4 ⎠ 0 2

= –S – 2 at x = – 1 t

π π 2 ∫ sin x 2 dx

f (x ) / max = + 2 ⋅ + 1 + 4 + 1 = S+ 6 at x = 1 A(t ) 0

2 4 ∴ lim = lim

? Range of f(x) is [–S – 2, S + 6] t →0 B(t ) t → 0 t sin t 2

p+q=4 t t

2 ∫ sin x 2 dx 2 ∫ sin x 2 dx

1

18. (b) : As P(D, (1 + D2)–1) lie on y = = lim 0

= lim 0

1 + x2 t→0 sin t 2 t →0 t3

t3

t2

A(t ) 2 sin t 2 2

Hence lim = lim =

t →0 B(t ) t →0 3t 2 3

1 ^ ^ ^

24. (b) : We have S(t) = | a × b | where a = 2 i + 2 j + k

2

^ ^ ^ 2 2

and b = t i + j + (t + 1) k ⇒ 4(S(t )) =| a × b |

O(0, 0, 0)

1

? On solving y = with L1, ^ ^

a = 2i + 2 j + k

^ ^ ^

b = t i + j + (t + 1)k

^

2

1+ x

⎛ 1⎞

we get P1 ⎜ 2, ⎟ ....(i)

⎝ 5⎠

⎛ 1⎞ B(t, 1, t + 1)

and with L2, we get P2 ⎜ 5, ⎟ ....(ii) A(2, 2, 1)

⎝ 26 ⎠

? From (i) and (ii), we get 2 d D d 5 But 4(S(t ))2 = | a 2 ||b |2 −(a ⋅ b )2

19. (d) : By using condition of tangency, we get = 9(t2 + 1 + (t + 1)2) – (2t + 2 + t + 1)2 = 9(t2 + 1)

4h2 = 3k2 + 2 9

∴ (S(t ))2 = (t 2 + 1)

? Locus of P(h, k) is 4x2 – 3y2 = 2 (which is hyperbola.) 4

e9 1

4 7

Hence, e2 = 1 + ⇒ e= Now I = ∫ (t 2 + 1) ln t dt , we get I = (e 3 + 5)

3 3 14 2

25. (d) : Three non collinear points A n n 1 1

form a triangle and the line joining ∴ ∑ tr = ∑ { f (r ) − f (r + 1)}, where f (r ) =

r =1 r =1 2 r (r − 1) + 1

the mid points of any two sides M N

is equidistant from all the three 1

B C = { f (1) − f (n + 1)}

vertices. 2

26. (a) : 3 and 5 are the only odd prime numbers, among 1⎧ 1 ⎫ 1

the possible outcomes. The following are the outcomes = ⎨1 − ⎬ → as n → ∞

2 ⎩ (n + 1)n + 1⎭ 2

when one of them show odd prime numbers.

(3, 1), (1, 3), (3, 2), (2, 3), (3, 3), (3, 4), (4, 3), (3, 5), (5, 31. (a) : Clearly, 0 d f(0) d 1 and 0 d f(1) d 1. As f(x)

3), (3, 6), (6, 3), (5, 1), (1, 5), (5, 2), (2, 5), (5, 4), (4, 5), is continuous, f(x) attains all values between f(0) to

(5, 5), (5, 6), (6, 5). f(1), and the graph will have no breaks. So, the graph

Out of these 20 equally likely outcomes exactly 4 favour will cut the line y = x at one point x at least where

the presence of odd prime numbers on both dice. 0 d x d 1. So, f(x) = x at that point.

4 1

Thus, required probability = = 32. (b) : Let f(x) = ax2 + bx + c.

20 5 Then g(x) = ax2 + bx + c + 2ax + b + 2a

27. (d) : Any point on the first line can be taken as = ax2 + (2a + b)x + 2a + b + c

P1 { (r1 + 2, r1 + 3, – kr1 + 4)

As f(x) > 0 for all x, a > 0 and D = b2 – 4ac < 0.

Similarly any point on second line can be taken as

g(x) > 0 for all x if a > 0

P2 { (kr2 + 1, 2r2 + 4, r2 + 5).

and D = (2a + b)2 – 4a(2a + b + c) < 0

These lines will intersect if for some r1 and r2 we have

Now, (2a + b)2 – 4a(2a + b + c)

r1 + 2 = kr2 + 1, r1 + 3 = 2r2 + 4, –kr1 + 4 = r2 + 5.

? r1 – kr2 + 1 = 0, r1 = 2r2 + 1 = –4a2 + b2 – 4ac < 0

2 k +2 Hence, g(x) > 0.

⇒ r2 = , r1 = φ ′(x )

k −2 k −2 33. (a) : f ′(x ) = >0

Putting these values in the last condition, we get 1 + {φ(x )}2

k2 + 3k = 0 k = {–3, 0} π

'0<x< , Ic(x) > 0

28. (b) : Let A { (1, –1, 0), B { (–1, 0, 1) 2

Direction ratios of segment AB are 2, –1, –1 34. (a) : Around x = 1, 3 we have | x | = x.

If ‘T’ be the acute angle between segment AB and normal ? f(x) = alogex + bx2 + x

to plane, a

∴ f ′(x ) = + 2bx + 1

| 2 ⋅ 2 − 1⋅1 − 1 ⋅ 6 | 3 x

cos θ = = According to question, f c(1) = 0, f c(3) = 0

4 + 1 + 36 ⋅ 4 + 1 + 1 246

a

Length of projection = |AB| sinT ∴ a + 2b + 1 = 0, + 6b + 1 = 0

3

9 237 −3 −1

= 6 ⋅ 1− = units On solving, we get a = , b=

246 41 4 8

VV

29. (a) : We have,

1 10 Solution Sender of Maths Musing

( C0 – 210C1 + 22 10C2 – .....+ 210 10C10)

2 SET-181

1 1

= (2 − 1)10 = . • Khokon Kumar Nandi (West Bengal)

2 2 • Gouri Sankar Adhikary (West Bengal)

1

30. (c) : tr = ⋅

2r 1⎧ 1 1 ⎫ • N. Jayanthi (Hyderabad)

= ⎨ − ⎬

2 (r 2 + 1)2 − r 2 2 ⎩ r 2 − r + 1 r 2 + r + 1⎭ • Sannibha Pande (West Bengal)

SET-180

1⎧ 1 1 ⎫

= ⎨ − ⎬ • Gouri Sankar Adhikary (West Bengal)

2 ⎩ r (r − 1) + 1 (r + 1)r + 1⎭

• Sannibha Pande (West Bengal)

MATHEMATICS TODAY | FEBRUARY ‘18 37

Exam Dates

OFFLINE : 8th April

ONLINE : 15th & 16th April

Series-8

Time: 1 hr 15 min.

The entire syllabus of Mathematics of JEE MAIN is being divided in to eight units, on each unit there

will be a Mock Test Paper (MTP) which will be published in the subsequent issues. The syllabus for

module break-up is given below:

Unit Topic Syllabus In Detail

No. 8

Integral Integral as limit of a sum. Fundamental theorem of calculus. Properties of deﬁnite

calculus integrals. Evaluation of deﬁnite integrals, determining areas of the regions

bounded by simple curves in standard form.

Differential Ordinary differential equations, their order and degree. Formation of differential

equation equations. Solution of differential equations by the method of separation of

variables, solution of homogeneous and linear differential equation

Probability Baye’s theorem, Probability distribution of a random variate, Bernoulli trials and

Binomial distribution

1 1 1

x3 + | x | +1 3 3

1. ∫ x2 + 2 | x | +1dx = (a) 3 (b)

3

2

(d)(c)

2 3

−1

(a) ln3 (b) 2ln3 5. If [x] stands for the greatest integer function, the

10

1 [x2 ]dx

(c) ln 3

2

(d) none of these value of ∫ [x2 − 28x + 196] + [x2 ] is

1 4

(a) 0 (b) 1

2. Let f (x ) = max{2 − x , 2,1 + x}. Then ∫ f (x )dx =

(c) 3 (d) none of these

−1

(a) 0 (b) 2 (c) 9/2 (d) 3 6. The area bounded by the curve x2 + 2x + y – 3 =

0, the x-axis and the tangent at the point where it

1 2n r

3. lim ∑

n→∞ r =1 n + r 2

n 2

= meets the y-axis is

7 12

(a) sq. units (b) sq. units

(a) 1 + 5 (b) −1 + 5 12 7

(c) −1 + 2 (d) 1 + 2 7 6

(c) sq. units (d) sq. units.

log π 6 7

⎛1 ⎞

4. ∫ e2 x sec2 ⎜ e2 x ⎟ dx =

⎝3 ⎠ 7. If f (x ) = ∫

x

dt

2

dt

∫ ( f (t ))2 =

3

π and 6 , f (9) =

log 2

2 0 ( f (t )) 0

(a) 2 (b) 0 17. If (2x – 2y + 5)dy = (x – y + 3)dx, then ln(x – y + 2) =

(c) 3 (d) none of these (a) x – 2y + c (b) 2x – y + c

2 (c) 2y – x + c (d) y – x + c

4

d esin x 2esin x

8. Let

dx

( f (x )) =

x

, x > 0. If∫ x dx 18. A curve passes through (2, 0) and slope of the

1 (x + 1)2 + y − 3

= f (k) – f (1), then one of the possible value of k is tangent at the point (x , y ) = . The

x +1

(a) –4 (b) 0 (c) 2 (d) 16

area bounded by the curve and the x-axis is

9. The area between the curves y = xex and y = xe–x (a) 1 (b) 2/3 (c) 4/3 (d) 2

and the line x = 1 is 19. A right circular cone with radius R and height

(a) 2e (b) e (c) 2/e (d) 1/e H contains a liquid which evaporates at a rate

10. The area bounded by the curve, y = f (x) = x4 – 2x3 proportional to the surface area in contact with the

+ x2 + 3, the x-axis and the ordinates corresponding area (O > 0 is proportional constant). Then the time

to the minimum of function f (x) is at which liquid evaporates completely is

91 30 H 2H H R

(a) 1 (b) (c) (d) 4 (a) (b) (c) (d)

30 9 λ λ 2λ 2λ

11. The order and degree, respectively of the differential 20. The differential equation which represent the

equation whose solution is ax2 + by2 = 1, a and b family of curves y = aebx where a and b are arbitrary

being arbitrary constants are constants, is

(a) 1, 1 (b) 2, 1 (c) 2, 2 (d) 1, 2 (a) yc = y2 (b) ycc = yyc

(c) yycc = yc (d) yycc = (yc)2

12. If x3dy + xydx = x2dy + 2 ydx , y(2) = e, then y(–1) =

21. A letter is known to have come either from

2 4 2 4 TATANAGAR or CALCUTTA. On the envelope

(a) (b) (c) (d)

e e e2 e2 just two consecutive letters are visible. The

13. If xdy – ydx + xcoslnx dx = 0, y(1) = 1, then y(e) = probability that the letter came from CALCUTTA is

(a) e(1 – cos1) (b) e(1 – sin1) 4 7

(a) (b)

(c) e(1 + cos1) (d) e(1 + sin1) 11 11

(c) (d) none of these

then x0 = 11

(a) 2(e2 − 1) (b) 2(e2 + 1) 22. A coffee connoisseur claims that he can distinguish

between a cup of instant coffee and a cup of

e2 + 1 percolator coffee 75% of time. It is agreed that his

(c) 3 ⋅e (d)

claim will be accepted if he correctly identifies at

2

−1

least 5 of the 6 cups. His chances of having the claim

15. The solution of 1 + y2 + ⎛⎜ x − etan y ⎟⎞

dy

=0 accepted is

⎝ ⎠ dx

(a) 0.534 (b) 0.466

− tan−1 y −1 −1 (c) 0.763 (d) none of these

(a) x − 2 = ce (b) 2 xetan y = e2 tan y + c

−1

23. If on an average one vessel in every 10 is wrecked,

(c) xetan y = c + tan−1 y the probability that out of 5 vessels atleast 4 will

−1 arrive safely is

(d) xe2 tan y = c + tan−1 y (a) 0.92 (b) 0.72

dy (c) 0.82 (d) none of these

16. If y − cos x = y2 (1 − sin x )cos x , y(0) = 1, then

dx 24. The probability distribution of a random

⎛π⎞ ⎧X

y⎜ ⎟= ⎪ ; X = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

⎝3⎠ variable is P ( X ) = ⎨15 . Then

⎪⎩0, otherwise

(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 1/2 (d) 3

⎧1 5 ⎫ 2. (c) : In (–1, 0), 2 – x is maximum and in (0, 1), 2

P ⎨ < X < | X > 1⎬ = is maximum.

⎩2 2 ⎭ 1 0 1

(a) 1/5 (b) 1/7 (c) 2/15 (d) 1/15 ∴ ∫ f (x )dx = ∫ (2 − x)dx + ∫ 2dx

25. A perfect die is thrown twice. The expected value −1 −1 0

of the product of the number of points obtained in 0

two throws is ⎡ x2 ⎤ 5 9

= ⎢2 x − ⎥ + 2 = + 2 =

(a) 7/2 (b) 7 ⎢⎣ 2 ⎥⎦ 2 2

(c) 49/4 (d) none of these −1

r

26. For a fixed value of n, the maximum value of 1 2n r 1 2n

variance of binomial distribution 3. (b) : lim ∑ = lim ∑ n

n→∞ n r =1 n2 + r 2 n→∞ n r =1 2

(a) n/4 (b) n/2 ⎛r ⎞

1+ ⎜ ⎟

(c) n/8 (d) none of these ⎝n⎠

27. The variance of a symmetric binomial distribution 2 2

dx = ⋅ ⎛ 2 1 + x2 ⎞ = 5 − 1

x 1

with mean 5 is =∫

1 + x2 2 ⎝ ⎠0

(a) 2/5 (b) 5/2 0

(c) 3/2 (d) none of these

log π

⎛1 ⎞

28. If a random variable X follows binomial distribution

2

4. (a) : Let I = ∫ e2 x sec2 ⎜ e2 x ⎟ dx

⎝3 ⎠

with mean 2 and E(X )= 28/5, then n, p = π

log

1 1 2

(a) 10, (b) 5,

5 10 ln π

3 ⎛1 ⎞ 3⎡ π π⎤

4 = tan ⎜ e2 x ⎟ = ⎢ tan − tan ⎥ = 3

(c) 10, (d) none of these 2 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ln

π 2⎣ 3 6⎦

5 2

29. There are 4 white and 3 black balls in a box. In

10

another box there are 3 white and 4 black balls. [x2 ]dx

An unbiased dice is rolled. If it shows a number 5. (c): I = ∫ [x2 − 28x + 196] + [x2 ]

less than or equal to 3 then a ball is drawn from 4

the first box but if it shows a number more than 10 ⎡

⎣(14 − x ) ⎤⎦ dx

10

[x2 ]dx 2

3 then a ball is drawn from the second box. If the = ∫ [(14 − x)2 ] + [x2 ] ∫ [x2 ] + ⎡

dx =

⎣(14 − x ) ⎦⎤

2

ball drawn is black then the probability that the 4 4

ball was drawn from the first box is

b b

(a) 1/2 (b) 6/7 (c) 4/7 (d) 3/7

30. A coin is tossed n times. The probability of getting

[' ∫ f (x )dx = ∫ f (a + b − x )dx]

a a

at least one head is greater than that of getting at 10

least two tails by 5/32. Then n is ? 2I = ∫ dx = 6 I=3

(a) 5 (b) 10 4

y

(c) 15 (d) none of these 6. (a) : The equation of the A

SOLUTIONS curve is y – 4= –(x + 1)2. The

1 3 curve meets y-axis at(0, 3) and

x + | x | +1 x

∫ x2 + 2 | x | +1dx

1. (d) : x-axis at (–3, 0)and (1, 0). The O B

1

1 1

x3dx | x | +1 The required area = Area of ΔOAB − ∫ {4 − (x + 1)2 }dx

= ∫ x2 + 2 | x | +1 + ∫ x2 + 2 | x | +1 dx 0

−1 −1

1

1

| x | +1 dx

1 9 ⎪⎧ (x + 1)3 ⎫⎪ 9 ⎧ ⎛ 8 ⎞ 1⎫ 7

= 0 + 2∫ = 2∫ = 2 ln 2 = − ⎨4 x − ⎬ = − ⎨⎜ 4 − ⎟ + ⎬ =

2 1+ x 4 ⎪⎩ 3 ⎭⎪ 4 ⎩ ⎝ 3 ⎠ 3 ⎭ 12

0 x + 2 | x | +1 0 0

x 11. (b) : Differentiating, ax2 + by2 = 1 ...(i)

dt 1

7. (c) : Here, f (x ) = ∫ ⇒ f ′( x ) = we get, ax + byy1 = 0 ...(ii)

2

0 ( f (t )) ( f (x ))2 a + b( y12 + yy2 ) = 0 ...(iii)

( f (x ))3 Eliminating a and b we get,

⇒ f ′(x )( f (x ))2 = 1 ⇒ = x +c

3 x2 y2 −1

6

Since f (2)= 3 6 ⇒ =2+c ⇒ c =0 x yy1 0 = 0 ⇒ xyy2 + xy12 − yy1 = 0

3

1 y12 + yy2 0

∴ f (x ) = 3 3x ⇒ f (9) = 3

? Required order is 2 and degree is 1

d esin x 12. (d) : We have, (x3 – x2)dy = (2y – xy)dx

8. (d) : Given, ( f (x )) = ,x >0

dx x dy 2−x ⎛ 1 1 2 ⎞

⇒ = dx = ⎜ − − dx

⎝ x − 1 x x2 ⎟⎠

4 2

2esin x y x2 (x − 1)

Now, I = ∫ dx

x dy ⎛ 1 1 2 ⎞ x −1 2

∫ =∫⎜

1

⇒ − − ⎟ dx ⇒ ln y = ln + +c

4 2 y ⎝ x −1 x x ⎠

2 x x

2 xesin x

=∫ dx [Put t = x2 ⇒ dt = 2 xdx] Now, y(2) = e ⇒ 1 = − ln 2 + 1 + c ⇒ c = ln 2

2

1 x

x −1 2

16 sin t ∴ ln y = ln + + ln 2

e dt x x

= ∫ t

= [ f (t )]16

1 = f (16) − f (1) ? k = 16

4 4

1 Now, x = −1 ⇒ ln y = ln 4 − 2 = ln ⇒ y=

2

e e2

9. (c) : The line x = 1 meets the curves in A(1, e) and

⎛ 1⎞ xdy − ydx cos ln x

B ⎜1, ⎟ . Both the curves pass 13. (b) : + dx = 0

2 x

⎝ e⎠ x

through origin. d ⎛y⎞ d y

⇒ ⎜ ⎟ + (sin ln x ) = 0 ⇒ + sin ln x = c

The required area dx ⎝ x ⎠ dx x

1

2 Now, x = 1, y = 1 c = 1

= ∫ (xe x − xe− x )dx = sq.units and x = e y = e(1 – sin1)

0

e

dy xy

14. (c): We have, = [put y = vx]

10. (b) : We have , f (x ) = x 4 − 2 x3 + x2 + 3 dx x2 + y2

∴ f ′(x ) = 4 x3 − 6 x2 + 2 x dv v dv v v3

v+x = ⇒ x = −v = −

1 dx 1 + v2 dx 1 + v2 1 + v2

f ′(x ) = 0 ⇒ 4 x3 − 6 x2 + 2 x = 0 ⇒ x = 0, 1,

2

f ′′(x ) = 12 x2 − 12 x + 2 = 2(6 x2 − 6 x + 1) 1 + v2 dx 1 + v2 dx

⇒

v 3

dv = −

x

⇒ ∫ v 3

dv = − ∫

x

f ′′(x )x =0 > 0 ⇒ Minimum exists at x = 0 and x = 1

1 x2

1 ⇒ ln x + ln v − = c ⇒ ln y = +c

f ′′(x )x =0 < 0 ⇒ Maximum exists at x = 2v2 2 y2

2

The curve is bounded by the ordinates x = 0 and 1

Now x = 1, y = 1 ⇒ c = −

x=1 2

? Required area x2 1

1 Again y = e ⇒ 1 = 0 − ⇒ x02 = 3e2 , x0 = 3 ⋅ e.

1 ⎛ x5 x 4 x3 ⎞ 2e2 2

= ∫ (x 4 − 2 x3 + x2 + 3)dx = ⎜ − + + 3x ⎟

0 ⎝ 5 2 3 ⎠0 15. (b) : The given equation is

−1

91 2 tan−1 y dx dx 1 etan y

= sq.units 1 + y + (x − e ) =0 ⇒ + ⋅ x =

30 dy dy 1 + y2 1 + y2

−1 19. (a) : Let y be the height at time t. R

tan−1 y e2 tan y

General solution is xe =∫ dy x R

= , v = 1 πx2 y = π ⋅ Hx

3

1 + y2 y H 3 3 R

−1 H x

e2 tan y dv πHx2 dx

= + c1 ⇒ =

2 dt R dt y

tan−1 y 2 tan−1 y

⇒ 2 xe =e +c dv dx − λR

But = −λπx2 ⇒ =

dy dt dt H

16. (b) : Given, y − cos x = y2 (1 − sin x )cos x

dx − λRt

⇒ x= + c , t = 0, x = R ⇒ c = R

Dividing the above differential equation by y2 cos x, we get H

1 dy 1 ⎛ λt ⎞ H

− + sec x ⋅ = 1 − sin x ⇒ x = R ⎜1 − ⎟ , x = 0 ⇒ t = .

y 2 dx y ⎝ H⎠ λ

d ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ 20. (d) : We have, ln y = ln a + bx

⇒ ⎜ ⎟ + sec x ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ = 1 − sin x 1

dx ⎝ y ⎠ ⎝y⎠ Differentiating twice, we get y ′ = b,

y

Here, I.F. = e ∫

sec xdx

= sec x + tan x

y ′′ 1

General solution is − ( y ′)2 = 0 ⇒ yy ′′ = ( y ′)2

y y2

sec x + tan x (1 − sin x )(1 + sin x )dx

=∫ 21. (a) : Let E1 and E2 denote the event that letters came

y cos x

from TATANAGAR and CALCUTTA respectively. Let

= ∫ cos xdx = sin x + c A denotes the event that two consecutive visible letters

⎛π⎞ on the envelop are ‘TA’. We have

? x = 0, y = 1 ⇒ c = 1 ⇒ y ⎜ ⎟ = 2 1 2 1

⎝3⎠ P (E1 ) = P (E2 ) = , P ( A | E1 ) = and P ( A | E2 ) = .

17. (c): The given equation is 2 8 7

(2x – 2y + 5)dy = (x – y + 3)dx Using the Bayes' theorem, we get

P (E2 )P ( A | E2 )

dy (x − y + 3) ⎡ dy dz ⎤ P (E2 | A) =

⇒ = ⎢ put x − y = z ⇒ 1 − = P (E1 )P ( A | E1 ) + P (E2 )P ( A | E2 )

dx (2 x − 2 y + 5) ⎣ dx dx ⎥⎦

dz z + 3 ⎛ 2z + 5 ⎞ 1 1

⇒ 1− = ⇒ ∫ dx = ∫ ⎜ dz ⋅

⎝ z + 2 ⎟⎠ 2 7 4

dx 2z + 5 = =

1 2 1 1 11

x + c = 2z + ln (z + 2) = 2x – 2y + ln(x – y + 2) ⋅ + ⋅

ln(x – y + 2) = 2y – x + c 2 8 2 7

18. (c) : The given differential equation is 22. (a) : Let p denotes the probability of a correct

distinction between a cup of instant coffee and a cup

dy (x + 1)2 + y − 3 y −3 of percolator coffee.

= = (x + 1) +

dx x +1 x +1 75 3 1

dY Y 1 Then, p = = ⇒ q =1− p = and n = 6

[Let x + 1 = X and y − 3 = Y ] , − = X , I.F. = 100 4 4

dX X X Let random variable X denotes the number of correct

Y

General solution is = X + c distinctions.

X x 6− x

y −3 Then, P ( X = x ) = p(x ) = 6Cx ⎛⎜ ⎞⎟ ⎛⎜ ⎟⎞ , x = 0, 1,..., 6

3 1

⇒ = x +1+ c ...(i)

x +1 ⎝4⎠ ⎝4⎠

When x = 2, y = 0, then c = −4 The probability of the claim being accepted is

5 6 −5 6

Now(i) becomes y − 3 = (x + 1)2 − 4(x + 1) = x2 − 2 x − 3 ⎛3⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛3⎞

P ( X ≥ 5) = p(5) + p(6) = 6C5 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ + 6C6 ⎜ ⎟

⇒ y = x2 − 2 x meets x -axis at x = 0, 2 ⎝4⎠ ⎝4⎠ ⎝4⎠

2 = 0.534 (approx.)

8 4

? Area=∫ (2 x − x2 )dx = 4 − = 23. (a) : Probability of a vessel arriving safe = 9/10

3 3

0

4 5 28. (a) : Let a random variable X follows a binomial

Required probability = 5C4 ⎜⎛ 9 ⎟⎞ × 1 + ⎜⎛ 9 ⎟⎞ distribution with parameter n and p.

⎝ 10 ⎠ 10 ⎝ 10 ⎠ 28

Given that mean = E( X ) = np = 2 and E( X 2 ) = .

94 × 14 5

= = 0.92 (approx.) 28 8

105 ∴ npq = E( X 2 ) − [E( X )]2 = − 22 = .

5 5

⎧X

⎪ , X = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 npq 8 4 4

24. (b) : P ( X ) = ⎨15 Now, = ÷2= ⇒ q=

⎪⎩0, otherwise np 5 5 5

1

1 2 1 ∴ p = and hence n = 10

∴ P ( X = 1 or 2) = P ( X = 1) + P ( X = 2) = + = 5

15 15 5

29. (d) : Let E1: The ball drawn from the first box

⎧⎛ 1 5⎞ ⎫

P ⎨ ⎜ < X < ⎟ ∩ X > 1⎬ E2: The ball drawn from the second box

⎛1 5 ⎞

Now, P ⎜ < X < | X > 1⎟ = ⎩⎝ 2 2⎠ ⎭ A: The drawn ball is black.

⎝2 2 ⎠ P ( X > 1) ? P (E1 ) = 3 = 1 and P (E2 ) = 3 = 1

6 2 6 2

2

P {( X = 1 or 2) ∩ ( X > 1)} P ( X = 2) 1 3 4

= = = 15 = . Now, P ( A | E1 ) = and P ( A | E2 ) = .

P ( X > 1) 1 − P ( X = 1) 1 7 7 7

1−

15 P (E1 ) ⋅ P ( A | E1 )

∴ P (E1 | A) =

25. (c) : Let X and Y denote respectively the number of P (E1 ) ⋅ P ( A | E1 ) + P (E2 ) ⋅ P ( A | E2 )

points obtained in the first and the second throws. Then 1 3

⋅

both of them take the values 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 with each 2 7 3

= =

probability 1/6. 1 3 1 4 7

⋅ + ⋅

1 7 2 7 2 7

∴ E( X ) = (1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6) × = .

6 2 30. (a) : Let X be the random variable denoting number

7 of heads obtain. Clearly X follows Binomial distribution.

Similarly, E(Y ) = .

2 n

⎛1⎞ ⎡ 1⎤

7 7 49 P ( X = x ) = nCx px qn− x = nCx ⎜ ⎟ ⎢' p = q = 2 ⎥

Thus E( XY ) = E( X )E(Y ) = ⋅ = ⎝2⎠ ⎣ ⎦

2 2 4 n

⎛1⎞ 1

26. (a) : We know, variance of Binomial distribution is Now P ( X ≥ 1) = 1 − P ( X = 0) = 1 − nC0 ⎜ ⎟ = 1 −

⎝2⎠ 2n

⎡ ⎛ p + q ⎞2 ⎛ p − q ⎞2 ⎤ Again, let Y be the random variable denoting the number

Var( X ) = npq = n ⎢ ⎜ ⎟ −⎜ ⎟ ⎥

⎢⎣ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎥⎦ of tails obtain.

∴ P (Y = y ) = nC y p y qn− y

⎡ 1 ⎛ p − q ⎞2 ⎤ n ⎡ ⎛ p − q ⎞2 ⎤

= n⎢ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ≤ ⎢ ' ⎜ ⎟ ≥ 0 ⎥ n

⎢⎣ 4 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎥⎦ 4 ⎢⎣ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎥⎦ ⎛1⎞ ⎡ 1⎤

= nC y ⎜ ⎟ ⎢' p = q = 2 ⎥

⎝2⎠ ⎣ ⎦

Hence, for a fixed value of n, the variance of the binomial

distribution can never exceed n/4 . So, the maximum Now, P (Y ≥ 2) = 1 − P (Y = 0) − P (Y = 1)

value of var(X) is n/4. n n

⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ 1 1

27. (b) : Let the parameters of the distribution be n and = 1 − nC0 ⎜ ⎟ − nC1 ⎜ ⎟ = 1 − − n

⎝2⎠ ⎝2⎠ 2n

2n

p. Since the distribution is symmetric

? p = 1/2. According to the question, we get

Again, np = 5 (Given) ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1+ n ⎞ 5 n 5

5 ⎜⎝1 − n ⎟⎠ − ⎜⎝1 − n ⎟⎠ = 32 ⇒ n = 32 ⇒ n = 5

So, variance = np(1 − p) = . 2 2 2

2

Y U ASK n( ) ⎛ nb ⎞

1 a + b a + 2b

0 1 1

.... a + nb

.... 1

WE ANSWER

= (−b) n + 1 ⎜ a + ⎟ 0 (1 − n ) 2 .... 1

⎝ 2⎠

.... .... .... .... ....

0 −1 −1 .... n

Do you have a question that you just can’t get answered?

[taking (–b) common from R2,R3,......, Rn+1]

Use the vast expertise of our MTG team to get to the bottom

of the question. From the serious to the silly, the controversial 1 1 1 .... 1

to the trivial, the team will tackle the questions, easy and tough. (1 − n) 2 2 .... 2

⎛ nb ⎞

The best questions and their solutions will be printed in this = (−b) n + 1) ⎜ a + ⎟ (2 − n) (2 − n) 3 .... 3

n(

column each month. ⎝ 2⎠

.... .... .... .... ....

1. Prove that : −1 −1 −1 .... n

a a + b a + 2b .... a + nb [expanding along C1]

a + nb a a+b .... a + (n − 1)b 1 0 0 .... 1

a + (n − 1)b a + nb a .... a + (n − 2)b (1 − n) (n + 1) (n + 1) .... (n + 1)

⎛ nb ⎞

.... .... .... .... .... = (−b)n (n + 1) ⎜ a + ⎟ (2 − n) 0 (n + 1) .... (n + 1)

⎝ 2⎠

a+b a + 2b a + 3b .... a .... .... .... .... ....

−1 0 0 .... (n + 1)

⎛ nb ⎞

= (−b)n (n + 1)n ⎜ a + ⎟ . (Mandeep, Delhi) [C2 o C2 – C1, C3 o C3 – C1,..........., Cn o Cn – C1]

⎝ 2⎠

1 0 0 .... 0

Ans. We have, (1 − n) 1 1 .... 1

n⎛ nb ⎞

a a + b a + 2b .... a + nb = (−b) n + 1) ⎜ a + ⎟ (2 − n)

n(

0 1 .... 1

⎝ 2⎠

a + nb a a+b .... a + (n − 1)b .... .... .... .... ....

L.H.S. = a + (n − 1)b a + nb a ..... a + (n − 2)b −1 0 0 .... 1

.... .... .... .... .... [taking common (n + 1) from C2, C3, .........., Cn]

a+b a + 2b a + 3b .... a 1 1 .... 1

1 a + b a + 2b .... a + nb n⎛ nb ⎞ 0 1 .... 1

= (−b)n (n + 1) ⎜ a + ⎟

1 a a+b .... a + (n − 1)b ⎝ 2 ⎠ .... .... .... ....

⎛ nb ⎞

= (n + 1) ⎜ a + ⎟ 1 a + nb a ..... a + (n − 2)b 0 0 0 1

⎝ 2⎠

.... .... .... .... .... [expanding along R1]

n⎛ nb ⎞

1 a + 2b a + 3b .... a = (−b)n (n + 1) ⎜ a + ⎟ = R.H.S.

⎝ 2⎠

⎡ ⎛ nb ⎞ ⎤ 2. bz + bz = c is the equation of a straight line. If z1

⎢C1 → C1 + C2 + .... + Cn+1 and taking out (n + 1) ⎜⎝ a + 2 ⎠⎟ ⎥

⎣ ⎦ and z2 be mirror image of each other in this line,

then prove that bz 2 + bz1 = c .

1 a + b a + 2b .... a + nb

(Rituraj, Chandigarh)

0 −b −b .... a + nb

⎛ nb ⎞ Ans. If z1 and z2 are mirror image of each other in the line

= (n + 1) ⎜ a + ⎟ 0 (n − 1)b −2b ..... −2b

⎝ 2⎠ bz + bz = c ...(i)

.... .... .... .... ....

then the mid-point of z1, z2 must lie on (i) ...(ii)

1 b b .... −nb and the line joining z1, z2 must be perpendicular

to (i) ...(iii)

[R2 o R2 – R1, R3 o R3 – R1,..........,Rn+1 o Rn+1 – R1]

Contd. on page no. 52

."5)&."5*$450%": '$"3:

."5)&."5*$450%": '$"3:

PROBLE

10 BEST MS

Math Archives, as the title itself suggests, is a collection of various challenging problems related to the topics of

JEE Main & Advanced Syllabus. This section is basically aimed at providing an extra insight and knowledge to the

candidates preparing for JEE Main & Advanced. In every issue of MT, challenging problems are offered with detailed

solution. The readers’ & comments and suggestions regarding the problems and solutions offered are always welcome.

y2 = 8x and xy = –1 is (b) unique solution

(a) 3y = 9x +2 (b) y = 2x + 1 (c) infinitely many solutions

(c) 2y = x + 8 (d) y = x + 2 (d) finitely many solutions

2. Integrating factor of the differential equation 7. Let f(x) = 2xn + O, O R, f(4) = 133 and f(5) = 255

dy 2 then sum of the factors of (f(3) – f(2)) is

2 y cos y2 − sin y2 = (x + 1)3 is (a) 20 (b) 60 (c) 21 (d) 59

dx x + 1

(a) (x + 1)2 (b) loge(x + 1) 8. If |z2 – 1| = |z|2 + 1, then z lies on

log ( x +1) 1 (a) the real axis (b) an ellipse

(c) e e (d) (c) a circle (d) the imaginary axis

(x + 1)2

9. If x2 – 4x + 5 – siny = 0, y [0, 2S], then

3. The radius of a right circular cylinder of maximum (a) x = 1, y = 0 (b) x = 1, y = S/2

volume which can be inscribed in a sphere of (c) x = 2, y = 0 (d) x = 2, y = S/2

radius R is

10. A solution of the equation

R 2 3

(a) R (b) (c) R (d) R π

2 3 2 tan−1 (1 + x ) − tan−1 (x − 1) =

is

2

x −2 y +2 z −3

4. The distance between the line = = (a) x = 1 (b) x = –1 (c) x = 0 (d) x = S

1 −1 4

and the plane x + 5y + z = 5 is

SOLUTIONS

10 10

(a) units (b) units 2

3 3 3 1. (d) : Any tangent to y2 = 8x is y = mx + ...(i)

For (i) be tangent to xy = –1 m

10 10

(c) units (d) units

9 7 ⎛ 2⎞

⇒ x ⎜ mx + ⎟ = −1 m2x2 + 2x + m = 0

5. The number of ways in which 13 identical gold ⎝ m⎠

coins can be distributed among three persons such Now, D = 0 4 – 4m3 = 0

that each person can get at least two gold coins is 4m3 = 1 ? m = 1

(a) 36 (b) 24 (c) 12 (d) 6 Hence, tangent is y = x + 2.

6. If A, B, C are the angles of a triangle, the system of −∫

2

dx 1

equations (sinA)x + y + z = cosA, x + (sinB)y + z = cosB, 2. (d) : I.F. = e x +1 =

x + y + (sinC)z = 1 – cosC has ( x + 1)2

By : Prof. Shyam Bhushan, Director, Narayana IIT Academy, Jamshedpur. Mob. : 09334870021

3. (c) : Let r be radius of cylinder and Then expand along C1, we get

R be radius of sphere. ' = sinA(1 – sinB)(1 – sinC) + (1 – sinA)(1 – sinC)

Let CM = x + (1 – sinA)(1 – sinB)

v = S(R2 – x2)2x Since A, B, C are angles of a triangle,

dv 0 < sinA, sinB, sinC d 1 ' > 0

For Maximum volume =0 C

(or) Put A = B = C = 60° ' z 0

dx

R R x 7. (b) : f (x ) = 2 xn + λ, f (4) = 133, f (5) = 255

⇒ x= ; r = R2 − x2 ;

3 ∴ f (4) = 2 ⋅ 4n + λ = 133 ...(i)

n ...(ii)

M f (5) = 2 ⋅ 5 + λ = 255

d2v ∴ f (5) − f (4) = 2(5n − 4n ) = 122

Also, <0

2

dx ⇒ 5n − 4n = 61 = 53 − 43 ∴ n = 3

? For maximum volume, Now, f (4) = 133 = 2 × 43 + λ ⇒ λ = 5

R2 2 2 2 ∴ f (x ) = 2 x3 + 5

r = R2 − ;r = R = R

3 3 3 ∴ f (3) = 59 and f (2) = 21

? For maximum volume

∴ f (3) − f (2) = 38 = 2 × 19 = 2a19b , (a = 1, b = 1)

4. (a) : Distance of line from the plane

^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^

Sum of factors of f (3) –f (2)

|(2 i − 2 j + 3 k ) ⋅ ( i + 5 j + k ) − 5 | 10 2a+1 − 1 19b+1 − 1 3 × 360

= = = . = = 60

2 2 2 3 3

(1) + (5) + (1) 2 −1 19 − 1 18

5. (a) : x + y + z = 13 – 6 = 7 8. (d) : Let z = x + iy

? No.of non negative solutions = n + r – 1Cr – 1 Given, |z2 – 1| = |z|2 + 1

7 + 3 –1C (x2 – y2 – 1)2 + 4x2y2 = (x2 + y2 + 1)2 x = 0

= = 9C2 = 36.

3–1

9. (d) : x2 – 4x + 5 = siny (x – 2)2 + 1 = siny d 1

sin A 1 1 siny = 1, x = 2 x = 2, y = S/2

6. (b) : Let Δ = 1 sin B 1 π

10. (c): tan−1 (1 + x ) − tan−1 (x − 1) =

1 1 sin C 2

2 π

Apply C2 o C2 – C1 and C3 o C3 – C1 ⇒ tan−1 = ⇒ x =0

x2 2

WE ANSWER

where a = z1 – z2 and d = z1z2 − z1 , z 2

Satisfying condition (ii), we have

Putting z = x + iy, the above equation reduces to

⎛z +z ⎞ ⎛z +z ⎞ a (x + iy ) − a(x − iy ) + d = 0

b ⎜ 1 2 ⎟ + b⎜ 1 2 ⎟ = c

⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠

i.e., (a − a)x + i(a + a) y + d = 0

i.e., b (z1 + z 2 ) + b ( z1 + z2 ) = 2c

(a − a )

i.e., (bz1 + bz2 ) + (bz2 + bz1 ) = 2c ...(iv) whose slope =

i(a + a )

Putting z = x + iy in equation (i), it reduces to Satisfying equation (iii), we have

b (x + iy ) + b(x − iy ) − c = 0 (b + b ) (a − a )

× = −1

i.e., (b + b)x + i(b − b) y − c = 0 i(b − b ) i(a + a )

(b + b ) (b + b )(a − a ) = (b − b )(a + a ) ba = ba

whose slope = b (z1 − z 2 ) = b(z1 − z2 )

i(b − b )

Equation of the line joining z1, z2 is bz1 + bz2 = bz2 + bz1 ...(v)

z z 1 From equations (iv) and (v), we have

z1 z1 1 =0 bz 2 + bz1 = c

z2 z2 1 which is the desired result.

52 MATHEMATICS TODAY | FEBRUARY ‘18

Probability

DEFINITIONS OF VARIOUS TERMS reason for an event to occur in preference to any

z Random experiment : An experiment is called other event. It means events are said to be equally

random if all possible outcomes of the experiment likely when each event is equally likely to occur as

are known in advance but the exact result of any other.

any specific performance cannot be predicted in z Mutually exclusive events (Disjoint events) :

advance. Two or more than two events are said to be mutually

z Sample space : The set of all possible outcomes exclusive if the occurrence any one of them exclude/

of an experiment is known as sample space of the ruled out the occurrence of the others. The events

experiment and is usually denoted by S. The sample A1, A2, ..., An are mutually exhaustive if Ai Aj = I

or P(Ai Aj) = 0 i z j and 1 d i, j d n.

space of rolling a die is S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} and n(S)

(Note : Mutually exclusive events are also known as

denote the number of numbers in S. When a die

incompatible events).

is rolled twice, then n(S) = 62 = 36. Each element

z Exhaustive events : The events A1, A2, ..., An are

of the sample space is called sample point. There

said to be exhaustive events, if their union form

are two types of sample spaces namely discrete and the sample space of the experiment. Thus, events

continuous. The sample space whose elements are Ai (i = 1, 2, ..., n) are said to be exhaustive if

countable is discrete and for non-countable it is said n

to be continuous sample space. * Ai = S (sample space).

z Trial and event : To perform an experiment i =1

is known as trial and possible outcomes of the z Mutually exclusive and exhaustive events: Let

experiment is called event. For example, tossing S be the sample space associated with a random

a coin or rolling a dice (any number of times) is experiment.

trial and turning up head or tail or occurrence of Then the events A1, A2, ...., Am form a mutually

numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 are events. In fact, every exclusive and exhaustive system of events if

subset of a sample space is an event. (i) P(Ai Aj) = 0 ( i z j)

(ii) P(Ai Aj) = P(A1 A2 .... Am) = P(S) = 1

TYPES OF EVENT (i z j)

z Simple event : An event is said to be simple if it z Independent events : Events A and B are said to

contains only one sample point of the sample space. be independent if happening or non-happening of

z Compound event : An event is said to be a compound A does not effect the happening or non-happening

event if it contains more than one sample point of the of B. In such type of events, we have the following

sample space. results.

z Equally likely event or equally probable event: z P(A B) = P(A)·P(B) and

Events are said to be equally likely if there is no z P(A B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A) P(B)

By : R. K. Tyagi, Retd. Principal, HOD Maths, Samarth Shiksha Samiti, New Delhi

Note : If the events A, B, C are mutually independent, (ii) P(A) + P(A) = 1

P(A B) = P(A) P(B), P(B C) = P(B) P(C) z Odd in favour of the event E

and P(C A) = P(A) P(C) and No. of favourable cases (outcomes)

P(A B C) = P(A) P(B) P(C) =

No. of non-favourable caases (outcomes)

z Dependent events : Two or more than two events

P( E ) a

are said to be dependent if happening of one effects ∴ = (n(S) = a + b)

the happening of other. For example, drawing two P( E ) b

P (E )

card from a deck of card without replacement. If A z Similarly, odd against of the event, E =

P (E )

and B are dependent events, then n(E )

or

P(A B) = P(A) P(B/A) = P(B) P(A/B) n(E )

z Complement of an event A : z Let A and B are two events then probability that

The set of all outcomes S

at least one occur is denoted by P(A or B) i.e.

which are in S but not in AC P(A B) and is given by

A is called complement of A P(A B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A B)

A which is denoted by A = P ( A ∩ B ) + P ( A ∩ B) + P ( A ∩ B)

or AC.

z Probability that exactly one of the events A, B occurs

? AC = S – A

= P(only A) + P(only B) = P(A – B) + P(B – A)

z Impossible event : Event which do not consist any = P(A BC) + P(B AC)

point of the sample space is called impossible event.

= P(A) – P(A B) + P(B) – P(A B)

Throwing a die and hope to obtain tail or head is

impossible or null event. A B

z Some important points

On a coin, a die, a chess board and deck of playing Only B

cards

(1) Number of rectangles formed on a normal Only A

chess board = 9C2 × 9C2. = P(A) + P(B) – P(A B) – P(A B)

(2) Number of non-congruent squares of sides = P(A B) – P(A B)

1 × 1, 2 × 2, ..., 8 × 8 is 1 in each. = P(AC BC) – P(A B)C

? Total number of non-congruent squares = 8 = P(AC BC) – P(AC BC)

(3) The number of non-congruent rectangles that

z For any three events, A, B, C

can be found on a normal chess board are

P (at least one of three events occurs)

equal to the sum of the non-congruent squares

= P(A) + P(B) + P(C) – [P(A B) + P(B C)

and non-congruent rectangles which are not

square = 8 + 8C2 = 36 + P(C A) – P(A B C)]

(4) Number of non-congruent rectangle which The above result is called addition theorem on

are not square = 8C2 = 28 probability for three events which can be generalized

for n events.

MATHEMATICAL OR CLASSICAL DEFINITION OF

z P (at least two of A, B, C occurs) = P(A B)

PROBABILITY

+ P(B C) + P(C A) – 2P(A B C)

z If a random experiment having n mutually exclusive,

z P(exactly two of A, B, C occurs) = P(A B)

equally likely and exhaustive events (outcomes)

out of which m events (outcomes) are favourable + P(B C) + P(C A) – 3P(A B C)

to the occurrence of an event, then probability of z P(exactly one of A, B, C occurs) = P(A) + P(B)

occurrence of A is given by + P(C) – 2P(A B) – 2P(B C) – 2P(C A)

No. of favourable outcomes to A m + 3P(A B C)

P ( A) = = z P(A and B but not C occurs) = P(A B C)

No. of total outcomes n

n−m m = P(A B) – P(A B C)

P ( A) = = 1 − = 1 − P ( A)

n n z P(only A) = P(A Bc Cc) = P(A (B C)c)

Note : (i) 0 d P(A) d 1 = P(A) – P(A B) – P(A C) + P(A B C)

The results of P(only B) and P(only C) are similar. z Multiplication theorem for independent events

z P(none of the event A, B, C) = P(A B C)c If the events A and B are independent associated

= 1 – P(A B C) with a random experiment then probability of their

= 1 – P (At least one of A, B, C occurs) simultaneously occurrence is equal to the product

z If three events A, B, C are pair wise disjoint i.e. of their individual occurrence.

mutually exclusive then i.e. P(A B) = P(A) P(B)

P(A B) = P(B C) = P(C A) = P(A B C) = 0 z Ex tension of multiplication theorem for

and P(A or B or C) = P(A) + P(B) + P(C) independent events

z Addition theorem for n events : Let A 1 , A 2 , (i) If A, B, C are three events associated with a

sample space then

A3, ..., An are n events associated with a random

experiment, then P(A B C) = P(A) P(B) P(C), events are

pair wise independents.

⎛n ⎞ n n

P ⎜ * Ai ⎟ = ∑ P ( Ai ) − ∑ P ( Ai ∩ A j ) + (ii) If Ai (i = 1, 2, ..., n) are n independent events

⎝ i =1 ⎠ i =1 i , i ≠ j , j =1

associated with a sample space of a random

n experiment, then

∑ P( Ai ∩ A j ∩ Ak + ... + (−1)n−1 P( A1 ∩ A2 ∩ ... ∩ An ) P(A1 A2 A3 ... An) = P(A1) P(A2) ... P(An)

i , j , k =1 z Probability of atleast one event among the two,

i≠ j≠k

.... (*) three or more independent events

If the events A1, A2, ..., An form a pairwise disjoint (1) For two events: probability of happening at

family of events then (*) reduces the following least one is given by P(A B)

result. = 1 − P ( A) P ( B )

⎛n ⎞ n (2) For three events A, B, C

P ⎜ * Ai ⎟ = ∑ P ( Ai ) = P ( A1 + A2 + ... + An ) P(A B C) = P(A) + P(B) + P(C) – P(A B)

⎝ i =1 ⎠ i =1

– P(B C) – P(C A) + P(A B C)

= P(A1) + P(A2) + P(A3) + ... + P(An)

= 1 − P ( A) P (B ) P (C )

CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY (MULTIPLICATION THEOREM (3) For n events A1, A2, A3, ..., An

ON PROBABILITY) P(A1 A2 ... An)

Let A and B are two events associated with a random = 1 − P ( A1 ) P ( A2 ) P ( A3 )..... P ( An )

experiment. Then, the probability of occurrence • Probability of happening of none of them

(happening) of A when it is known that the event B has

= P ( A1 ∩ A2 ∩ A3 ∩ .... ∩ An )

already happened i.e. P(B) z 0, is called the conditional

probability, denoted by P(A|B) and defined as = P ( A1 ) P ( A2 ) P ( A3 ) .... P ( An )

= (1 – p1) (1 – p2) ... (1 – pn) where P(Ai) = pi

n( A ∩ B)

n( A ∩ B) n(S) P ( A ∩ B) LAW OF TOTAL PROBABILITY AND BAYES’ THEOREM

P ( A | B) = = = z Partition of a sample space

n(B) n(B) P ( B)

n(S) A set of events Ai (i = 1, 2, ..., n) is said to represent

P(A B) = P(B) P(A|B), P(B) z 0 a partition of the sample space S is

(i) Ai Aj = I, i z j, A1 An

Similarly, we have P(A B) = P(A) P(B|A), P(A) z 0

j = 1, 2, ..., n A

z Extension of multiplication theorem

(ii) A1 A2 .... An = S and A2

(1) If A, B, C are three events of a sample space, A3

(iii) P(Ai) > 0 i = 1, 2, 3, ....., n

then

In otherwords, partitions {A1, A2, ..., An} of a sample

P(A B C) or P(ABC)

space S represent a set of mutually exclusive and

= P(A) P(B|A) P(C|AB)

exhaustive events having non-zero probabilities.

(2) If Ai (i = 1, 2, ..., n) are n events associated with

Law of total probability

a sample space then

z If A1, A2, ...., An are mutually exclusive and exhaustive

P(A1 A2 .... An) = P(A1) P(A2|A1)

and A be any event which occurs with A1 or A2 or

P(A3|A1A2) .... P(An|A1A2 ... An – 1) ........... or An, then

P(A) = P(A1) P(A|A1) + P(A2) P(A|A2) + ... BERNOULLI TRIALS

+ P(An) P(A|An) The set of n trials is said to be Bernoulli trial if

Bayes’ theorem z The value of n is finite i.e. number of trials is finite.

z If A 1 , A 2 , ...., An are n mutually exclusive and z Each and every trial is independent.

exhaustive events, then z Trial (experiment) consists of only two outcomes

P ( A )P ( A | Ai ) namely success and failure.

P ( Ai | A) = n i

z Probability of success and failure for each trial is

∑ P(Ai )P(A | Ai ) fixed (same).

i =1

BINOMIAL DISTRIBUTION(B.D.)

RANDOM VARIABLES z Let X be a random variable which assume the values

z A random variable is often described as a variable 0, 1, 2, ..., n is said to be in binomial distribution if

whose values are determined by outcome of a its distribution function is given by

random experiment. P(X = r) = nCr pr qn – r, r = 0, 1, 2, ...., n and

z If to each point of sample space we assign a real p, q > 0 andp + q = 1

number, we have a function defined on the sample z For the random variable X, the notation X ~ B(n, p)

space. This function is called random function. is used for binomial distribution with parameters n

Thus, a random variable is a real function whose and p, where n is the number of trials and p is the

domain is the sample space of a random experiment probability of success for each trial.

and whose range is a real line. For example, the Mean and variance of binomial distribution

sample space (S) of a simultaneous throw of two The binomial distribution is

coins is S = {HH, TH, HT, TT}. X 0 1 2 .... n

Let X denote the number of heads. Then X is a

P( X ) n

Cr qn n

C1qn−1 p n C2qn−2 p2 ... n

Cnq0 pn

random variable. It can have values X(TT) = 0,

X(TH) = 1, X(HH) = 2 and X(HT) = 1. Thus, the z Mean

domain of X is S and range is {0, 1, 2}. On the other n n

hand if we denote Y as the number of tails then Y is X = E( X ) = ∑ xi pi = ∑ r nCr qn−r pr = np

also a random variable, having domain S and range i =1 r =1

is denoted by var(X) or V2 and given by

PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION n n

z Let {X = xi} is an event and P(X = xi) = pi (1 d i d n) var( X ) = ∑ r 2 P (r ) − ∑ rP (r ) = npq

then the system of numbers r =0 r =0

Note : (Mean – variance) = np – npq

Xi x1 x2 ... ... xn = np(1 – q) = np2 > 0, 0 d q d 1

P( x = xi ) p1 p2 ... ... pn ? mean – variance > 0 mean > variance

z Recurrence relation for binomial distribution

is said to be probability distribution of the random

recurrence relation is given by

variable X whose graphical representation is

P (r + 1) n Cr +1 ⎛ p ⎞ n−r p

P(X) = ⎜ ⎟ ⇒ P (r + 1) = P (r )

p2 pn P (r ) n

Cr ⎝ q ⎠ r +1 q

p1 r {0, 1, 2, ..., n – 1}

z Use of multi-nominal expansion : If a die has m

x1 x2 xn X

faces marked with numbers 1, 2, .... m and if such n

n n dice are rolled up, then the probability that sum of

Note : (i) ∑ P( X = xi ) = ∑ pi = 1 the numbers appears (exhibited) on the upper faces

i =1 i =1 equal to Ois the coefficient of xO in the expansion of

(ii) P(X = xi) lies between 0 and 1 (x1 + x2 + x3 + .... + xm )n

i.e. 0 d P(X = xi) d 1

mn

GEOMETRICAL METHOD FOR PROBABILITY x2 − 48 x + 540

When the number of points in the sample space is < 0 is

x − 25

infinite it is difficult to use the mathematical definition of

probability. For instance, if we need to find the probability 17 7 4 13

(a) (b) (c) (d)

that a circle of radius 2 unit lies in a square of side 4 units. 50 50 50 50

We cannot apply the mathematical definition. In such 3. A coin is tossed n times. If the probability of getting

cases we define the probability as follows: at least two heads is less than that of getting at least one

Measure of region A 3

P { y ∈ A} = tail by , then the value of n equals

Measure of sample space 32

(a) 3 (b) 4 (c) 5 (d) 6

SOME IMPORTANT RESULTS

z Letters and envelopes : Let n letters corresponding 4. In a 3 × 3 matrix, entries aij are selected randomly

to n envelopes are placed in the envelopes randomly, from the digits 0, 1, 2, ... 9 with replacement. The

then probability that 3 digit number in each row will be

(1) Probability that all letters are placed in the divisible by 15 is

1 67 77 66 48

right envelopes = (a) (b) (c) (d)

3

n! 10 103

10 3

103

(2) Probability that all letters are not placed in the

2 6

1 5. An ellipse whose eccentricity is is inscribed

right envelopes = 1 − 5

n! in a circle and a point that lies within the circle is chosen

(3) P(no letter goes to right envelopes) randomly, the probability that chosen point lies outside

1 1 1 1

= − + − .... + (−1)n the ellipse is

2 ! 3! 4 ! n! (a) 2/3 (b) 3/5 (c) 4/5 (d) 1/5

(4) P(exactly m letters are goes to right envelopes)

6. Two players A and B throw a die one after the other

1 ⎡1 1 1 1 ⎤

= ⎢ − + − .... + (−1)n−m for a lottery whose prize worth is ` 22. The player who

m! ⎣ 2 ! 3! 4 ! (n − m)! ⎥⎦ first throws five will win the game. If A starts the game,

z If P(A B) = P(A B) P(A) = P(B) the respective expectations of A and B are (in `) is

z If A B n(A) d n(B) then B (a) ` 12, ` 10 (b) ` 10, ` 12

(i) P(A) d P(B) (c) ` 9, ` 13 (d) ` 11 each

A

(ii) P(B – A) = P(B) – P(A) 7. Two numbers are selected at random from a set of

z If A, B are such that P(A) > 0, P(B) z 1 first 120 natural numbers. Two numbers are selected

randomly, the probability that product of selected

then P ( A | B ) = 1 − P ( A ∪ B) number is divisible by 3.

P (B )

13 199 158 160

z If A and B are events such that P(A|B) = P(B|A) (a) (b) (c) (d)

then P(A) = P(B) 357 357 357 357

8. A man throws a fair coin a number of times and

PROBLEMS obtained 2 points for each head he throws and for each

Single Correct Answer Type tail he gets only a point. The probability that he gets a

1. A square is inscribed in a circle. If p1 is the total of 6 points is

probability that a randomly selected point of the circle 39 43 41 29

(a) (b) (c) (d)

lies within the square and p2 is the probability that point 64 64 64 64

lies outside the square then which of the following is true? 9. Let E and F are independent events such that

(a) p1 < p2 (b) p1 = p2 P(E F c) = 0.12 and P(E c F) = 0.32 and P(E) > 0.5

(c) p1 > p2 and p12 – p22 < 1/3 then the value of P(E) + P(F) equals

(d) none of these (a) 1.5 (b) 1.6 (c) 1.8 (d) 0.6

2. A natural number x is chosen randomly from 10. Bag A consists of 3 red and 4 blue balls and the bag

the first 150 natural numbers, the probability that B consists of 5 red and 8 blue balls. One ball is drawn

randomly from one of the bags and is found to be blue, 15. A cubical die is thrown 11 times and the numbers

the probability that ball was drawn from bag B is obtained are formed as a number whose digits are equal

14 13 39 35 in numbers as many times the die is thrown then

(a) (b) (c) (d) probability that number

27 27 74 74

1

More than One Correct Answer Type (a) begins with 531 is

63

11. Bag A contains 2 white and 3 red balls and bag

B contains 4 white and 7 red balls, one bag is selected 1

(b) end with 642 is

randomly and a ball is drawn from the bag then 63

(a) If drawn ball is found to be red, the probability 1

(c) begins with 642 and ends with 531 is

35 66

that it was drawn from bag B is

68 431

(d) begins with 531 and ends with 642 is

(b) If drawn ball is found to be white, the probability 216 × 216

11 16. An electric component manufactured by

that it was drawn from bag A is

21 ‘RAJU’ Electronics is tested for its defectiveness by a

(c) If drawn ball is found to be red, the probability sophisticated testing device. Let ‘A’ denote the event

33 “ the device is defective” and ‘B’ denote the event “the

that it was drawn from bag A is

68 testing device reveals the component to be defective’ If

(d) If drawn ball is found to be white, the probability ⎛B⎞ ⎛ B′ ⎞

P ( A) = α and P ⎜ ⎟ = P ⎜ ⎟ = 1 − α where 0 < D < 1

that it was drawn from bag B is

10 ⎝A⎠ ⎝ A′ ⎠

21 then which of the following is true?

12. The independent probabilities that A, B, C can ⎛ A′ ⎞ 1

(a) P(B)=2D(1 – D) (b) P ⎜ ⎟ =

1 1 1 ⎝B⎠ 2

solve the problem are , , respectively then

2 3 4 (c) P(Bc) = D2 + (1 – D)2

3 2

(a) Probability that the problem will be solved is (d) P ⎛ A ′ ⎞ = ⎛ α ⎞

4 ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 1 − α ⎟⎠

B′

1

(b) Probability that problem can not be solved is 17. Three numbers are selected at random without

4

replacement from {1, 2, 3, ...., 11}. Let A1 be the event

(c) Probability that only two of them solve the problem

that minimum of selected numbers is 4 and A2 be the

1

is event their maximum is 7 then

4

7 1

(d) Probability exactly one of then solve the problem (a) P ( A1 ) = (b) P ( A2 ) =

55 11

11

is ⎛A ⎞ 2 ⎛A ⎞ 2

24 (c) P ⎜ 2 ⎟ = (d) P ⎜ 1 ⎟ =

13. Let 0 < P(A) < 1, 0 < P(B) < 1 and P(A B) = ⎝ A ⎠ 21

1 ⎝ A ⎠ 15

2

P(A) + P(B) – P(A) P(B) then which of the following is Comprehension Type

incorrect?

Paragraph for Q.No. 18-20

(a) P ( A ∪ B) = P ( A) P (B )

A bag contains 9 black, 7 white and 4 green balls. If 3

(b) P(A|B) = P(A) balls are drawn randomly then,

(c) P ( A ∪ B ) = P ( A) + P (B )

18. Probability of getting 3 balls of different colours

(d) P(B|A) = P(B) – P(A) 7 14 21

(a) (b) (c) (d) 7

14. For two events A and B, the probability that exactly 95 95 95 228

one of them occurs is given by

19. Probability of getting balls in order of colour green,

(a) P(A) + P(B) – 2P(A B)

white, black respectively.

(b) P(A B) – P(A B)

(c) P(Ac) + P(Bc) – 2P(Ac Bc) 7 11 17 29

(a) (b) (c) (d)

(d) P(Ac B) + P(A Bc) 190 190 190 190

20. Probability of getting 2 black and one green ball B. If x and y are selected from the 1

7 12 13 20 set of numbers {1, 2, 3, ..., 10} q.

(a) (b) (c) (d) 4

95 95 95 95 the probability that x3 + y3 is

Paragraph for Q. No. 21-23 divisible by 3 is

The contents of urns I, II, III are as follows: C. A card is lost from a pack of 52 1

Urn I : 1 White, 2 Black, 3 Red balls and cards. If a card is drawn from the r.

3

Urn II : 2 White, 1 Black, 1 Red ball and remaining cards, then the prob-

ability that it is a heart is

Urn III : 4 White, 5 Black and 3 Red balls

One urn is chosen randomly and two balls are drawn. D. Two balls are drawn from an 1

urn containing 2 white, 3 red s.

If E1, E2, E3 denote the event that urn I, II and III are 15

chosen respectively and E be the event of selection of and 4 black balls one by one

without replacement. The prob-

two balls from the selecting urn as white and red. Then

ability that they are of same

21. P(E) equals colour is

118 131 137 132

(a) (b) (c) (d) 28. Match the following.

495 495 495 495

Column - I Column - II

⎛E ⎞

22. P ⎜ 1 ⎟ = A. A and B are two 3

⎝E⎠ p. P ( A ∪ B) ≥

independent 5

118 33 55 15 events such that

(a) (b) (c) (d)

495 118 118 59 1 1

P ( A) = and P (B) =

2 5

⎛E ⎞ ⎛E ⎞

23. P ⎜ 2 ⎟ + P ⎜ 3 ⎟ = B. A and B are two

⎝E ⎠ ⎝E⎠ ⎛A⎞ 1

events such that q. P⎜ ⎟=

55 30 85 33 ⎝B⎠ 2

1 2

(a)

118

(b)

118

(c) (d) P ( A) = , P (B) =

118 118 2 3

Paragraph for Q.No. 24-26

C. A and B are two inde- 1

An urn contains 4 white and 3 red balls. Three balls are r. P ( A ∩ B) ≤

pendent events such

drawn one by one with replacement. Then, 1 2

that P (B) = and

24. Probability of getting 2 white and1 red ball is 5

144 199 216 197 3

(a) (b) (c) (d) P ( A ∪ B) =

343 343 343 343 5

25. Probability that at most two balls are red is D. A and B are two s. P(Exactly one

independent 1

199 316 319 of A, B) =

(a) (b) (c) 180 (d) events such that 2

343 343 343 343 3 1

P ( A) = and P (B) =

26. Probability of getting at least 2 white balls is 7 2

172 171 208 216 Integer Type

(a) (b) (c) (d)

343 343 343 343 29. A bag contains 4 balls, two are drawn at random

Matrix Match Type and found to be white and the probability that all balls

are white is O then the value of 5O is

27. Match the following.

30. If X and Y are independent binomial variates

Column - I Column - II ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞

A. Three number are selected from X ⎜ 5, ⎟ and Y ⎜ 7, ⎟ and the value of P(X + Y = 4) is

5 ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠

the set {1, 2, 3, ..., 10}, the the p.

18 4096

probability that they form a G. P. m then, value of m equals

99

MATHEMATICS TODAY | FEBRUARY ‘18 59

31. If the papers of 5 students can be checked by any Probability of getting at least 1 tail

one of the 5 teachers. If the probability that all the 5 1

= 1 – P(0) = 1 −

papers are checked by exactly 2 teachers is m then the 2n

125m Now, as per question we have

value of equals

2 ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1 n⎞ 3

32. Two numbers x and y are randomly selected from ⎜⎝1 − n ⎟⎠ − ⎜⎝1 − n − n ⎟⎠ = 32

2 2 2

the set A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ...., 25} and the probability that

75λ n 3 6 6

x2 – y2 is divisible by 3 is O then the value of is ⇒ = = = ⇒ n=6

41 2n 32 64 26

33. A pair of dice is rolled once and a total of 8 has 4. (a) : Here n(S) = total three digit number with

appeared. The chance that even number appear on each repetition of digit = 103

A Now numbers from 000 to 999 which are divisible by 15

dice is and B2 – A2 = k2, k > 0 then k equals

B is 67 given by rows

2 000, 015, 030, ... 090 = 7

34. If A and B be any two events such that P ( A) = and

5

3 l 105, 120, ... ... 195 = 7

P ( A ∩ B) = and conditional probability P ( A | A ′ ∪ B ′) =

20 m 210, 225, ... ... 300 = 7

then l equals

... ... ... ... ... ...

35. If the mean and variance of a binomial variate x are ... ... ... ... ... ...

2 and 1 respectively and the probability that x takes the

16λ 915, 930, 945, ... 990 = 6

value greater than or equal to 1 is O, then value of is

5 Total favourable numbers = 7 × 7 + 6 × 3 = 67

SOLUTIONS 67

? Required probability = 3

1. (c) : Let the radius of the circle be r and side of 10

square be x.

x2 y2

So, side of square = 2r 5. (c) : Let the ellipse is + = 1, b < a

a2 b2

Area of square = 2r2 We know that, if length of major

Area of square 2r 2 2 and minor axes are a and b units

∴ p1 = = =

Area of circle πr 2 π respectively, then the area of ellipse

π−2 is given by Sab where b2 = a2(1 – e2)

⇒ p2 = 1 − p1 = ?p1 > p2 2

π ? Area of ellipse = πa(a 1 − e )

⎛4−π⎞ ⎛

2 2

Now, p1 − p2 = ( p1 + p2 )( p1 − p2 ) = (1) ⎜ 24 ⎞ πa2

⎝ π ⎟⎠ = πa2 ⎜ 1 − ⎟ =

⎝ 25 ⎠ 5

1

p12 − p22 < as 3 < π < 4 Also, area of circle = Sa2

3 ? Favourable region = area of circle – area of ellipse

x2 − 48 x + 540 πa2 4 πa2

2. (b) : As <0 = πa2 −

=

x − 25 5 5

(x − 18)(x − 30) 4 πa2 1 4

⇒ <0 ? Required probability = × =

x − 25 5 πa2 5

x {1, 2, 3, ..., 17} {26, 27, 28, 29}

6. (a) : Probability of throwing the number 5 = 1/6

21 7

? Required probability = = Now, it is given that A starts the game, which means A

150 50 gets the chance in first, third, fifth, ... so on throws.

3. (d) : We have, P(X = r) = nCr pr qn – r, p = q = 1/2 1 1 5

? P ( A) = ⇒ P ( A) = 1 − =

? Probability of getting at least 2 heads 6 6 6

1

= 1 – P(0) – P(1) = 1 − − n ⋅

1 Similarly P (B) = ⇒ P (B ) = 5

1

2n 2n 6 6

Probability of winning of A 0.12

⇒ 0.12 = m(1 − n) ∴ m = ....(i)

= P ( A) + (P ( A))2 P ( A) + (P ( A))4 P ( A) + .... 1− n

2 4

1 ⎛5⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛5⎞ 1 Also P(F E c) = P(F) – P(E F) = P(F) (1 – P(E))

= + ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ + ....

6 ⎝6⎠ ⎝6⎠ ⎝6⎠ 6 = n(1 – m)

1 ⎡ ⎛5⎞ ⎛5⎞ ⎛5⎞ ⎤

2 4 6 0.32

⇒ 0.32 = n(1 − m) ⇒ m = 1 −

= ⎢1 + ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ + .... + ∞ ⎥ n ....(ii)

6 ⎢ ⎝6⎠ ⎝6⎠ ⎝6⎠

⎣ ⎦⎥ From (i) and (ii), we get

1⎛ 1 ⎞ 6 n2 – 1.2n + 0.32 = 0 (n – 0.8)(n – 0.4) = 0

= =

6 ⎜ 25 ⎟ 11 n = 0.8 or n = 0.4

⎜⎝ 1 − ⎟⎠

36

When n = 0.8 m = 0.6 and

6 5

Probability of winning of B = 1 − = when n = 0.4 m = 0.2

11 11

? Expectation of A and B are ? m + n = 1.4 and m + n = 0.6

6 P(E) + P(F) = 1.4 or P(E) + P(F) = 0.6

E( A) = × 22 = 12 (in `)

11 10. (a) : Let E1 and E2 be the event of selecting the bags

5 A and B respectively.

E(B) = × 22 = 10 (in `)

11 1

7. (b) : Given set of numbers is {1, 2, 3, 4, ...., 120} ∴ P (E1 ) = P (E2 ) =

2

Now, {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ...., 120}

⎛ Blue ⎞ 4 ⎛ Blue ⎞ 8

= {1, 2, 4, 5, ...., 119} ∪ {3, 6, 9, ...., 120} and P ⎜ ⎟ = and P ⎜ =

⎝ E ⎠ 7

1 ⎝ E ⎟⎠ 13

2

80 numbers 40 numbers

The product of two numbers will be divisible by 3 if Using Baye’s theorem

both the numbers are from the set {3, 6, 9, ..., 120} (i.e. ⎛ Blue ⎞

P (E2 )P ⎜

from 40 numbers) or one from the set {1, 2, 4, 5, .., 119} ⎛ E ⎞ ⎝ E2 ⎟⎠

and other from the set {3, 6, 9, ..., 120}. P⎜ 2 ⎟=

⎝ Blue ⎠ ⎛ Blue ⎞ ⎛ Blue ⎞

Let A = event that product of number is divisible by 3 P (E1 )P ⎜ ⎟ + P (E2 )P ⎜

? n(A) = 40C2 + 80C1 × 40C1 and n(S) = 120C2 ⎝ E1 ⎠ ⎝ E2 ⎟⎠

40

C2 + 80C1 × 40C1 199 1 8 8

∴ P ( A) = = ⋅

120 2 13 13 14

C2 357 = = =

1 4 1 8 4 8 27

⋅ + ⋅ +

8. (b) : Given, the number of points on throwing 2 7 2 13 7 13

head = 2 and for tail = 1 point. 11. (a, b, c, d) : Let E1 and E2 be the events of selecting

? Cases to get a total of 6 points

bags then,

HHH, HHTT, HTTTT and TTTTTT and

1

P(T) = 1/2 = P(H) P (E1 ) = P (E2 ) =

? Required probability 2

2 1 4 6 ⎛ red ⎞ 3 ⎛ red ⎞ 7 ⎛ white ⎞ 2

1 1 1 ⎛1 1⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ ∴ P⎜ = ,P = ,P =

= × × + 4C2 ⎜ × ⎟ + 5C1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ + 6C6 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ E1 ⎟⎠ 5 ⎜⎝ E2 ⎟⎠ 11 ⎜⎝ E1 ⎟⎠ 5

2 2 2 ⎝2 2⎠ ⎝2⎠ ⎝2⎠ ⎝2⎠

8 + 24 + 10 + 1 43 ⎛ white ⎞ 4

= = and P ⎜ =

64 64 ⎝ E2 ⎟⎠ 11

9. (d) : Given, P(E F c) = 0.12 and P(E c F) = 0.32, ⎛ red ⎞

P (E2 )P ⎜

P(E) > 0.5 ⎛E ⎞ ⎝ E2 ⎟⎠

Let P(E) = m and P(F) = n ∴ P⎜ 2 ⎟=

⎝ red ⎠ ⎛ red ⎞ ⎛ red ⎞

Since, P(E F c) = P(E) – P(E F) P (E1 )P ⎜ ⎟ + P (E2 )P ⎜

12 = P(E) (1 – P(F)) (' E and F are independent) ⎝ E1 ⎠ ⎝ E2 ⎟⎠

1 7 14. (a, b, c, d) : Probability

. that exactly one of them

2 11 35

= = occurs

1 3 1 7 68

. + . = P(only A or only B)

2 5 2 11

= P(only A) + P(only B)

⎛E ⎞ ⎛E ⎞ 35 33 = P(A Bc) + P(Ac B) (option (d))

∴ P ⎜ 1 ⎟ = 1− P ⎜ 2 ⎟ = 1− =

⎝ red ⎠ ⎝ red ⎠ 68 68 = P(A) – P(A B) + P(B) – P(A B)

⎛ white ⎞ = P(A) + P(B) – 2P(A B) (option (a))

P (E1 )P ⎜ = P(A) + P(B) – P(A B) – P(A B)

⎛ E ⎞ ⎝ E1 ⎟⎠

Now, P ⎜ 1 ⎟ = = P(A B) – P(A B) (option (b))

⎝ white ⎠ ⎛ white ⎞ ⎛ white ⎞ = 1 – P(A B)c – P(A B)

P (E1 )P ⎜ ⎟ + P (E2 )P ⎜

⎝ E1 ⎠ ⎝ E2 ⎠⎟ = 1 – P(Ac Bc) – P(A B)

2 = 1 – P(A B) – P(Ac Bc)

5 11 = P(Ac Bc) – P(Ac Bc)

= = = P(Ac) + P(Bc) – P(Ac Bc) – P(Ac Bc)

2 4 21

+ = P(Ac) + P(Bc) – 2P(Ac Bc) (option (c))

5 11

15. (a, b, c, d) : Here n (s) = 611

⎛ E ⎞ ⎛ E ⎞ 11 10

∴ P ⎜ 2 ⎟ = 1 − P ⎜ 1 ⎟ =1 − =

⎝ white ⎠ ⎝ white ⎠ 21 21 Now fixing 5, 3, 1 in the first three places

1 1 and remaining 8 places can be fill by 68 way as digit can

12. (a, b, c, d) : Given, P ( A) = ∴ P ( A) =

2 2 be used as many times

1 2 1 3

P (B) = ∴ P (B ) = ; P (C ) = ∴ P (C ) = ? Required probability the number begins with 531

3 3 4 4

68 1

Now, P(none of A, B, C solve the problem) = P ( A B C ) is

11

=

1 2 3 1 6 63

= ⋅ ⋅ = Similarly Probability when number ends with 642 is

2 3 4 4

? P(Problem will be solved) = 1 – P (none of them can 1 1

=

1 3 216 63

solve the problem) = 1 − =

4 4 Again the probability that number begins with 642

P(only two of them solve the problem) 5

and ending with 531 is 6 = 1

= P ( ABC ) + P ( ABC ) + P ( ABC )

611 66

1 1 3 1 2 1 1 1 1 6 1

= ⋅ ⋅ + . . + . . = = ? P (number begins with 531 or ends with 642)

2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 24 4

= P (begin with 531) + P(end with 642)– P(begin with 531

P(exactly one of them solve the problem)

1 1 1 431

= P ( ABC ) + P ( ACB) + P ( ABC ) and end with 642) = + − =

216 216 216 × 216 216 × 216

1 2 3 1 3 1 1 2 1 11

= . . + . . + . . = ⎛B⎞ ⎛B⎞

2 3 4 2 4 3 2 3 4 24 16. (a, b, c) : P (B) = P ( A)P ⎜ ⎟ + P ( A ′)P ⎜ ⎟

⎝ A⎠ ⎝ A⎠

13. (c, d) : We know, P(A B)

= P(A) + P(B) – P(A B) ⎛B⎞ ⎡ ⎛ B′ ⎞⎤

= P ( A)P ⎜ ⎟ + P ( A ′) ⎢1 − P ⎜ ⎟ ⎥

But it is given that P(A B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A) P(B) ⎝A⎠ ⎣ ⎝ A′ ⎠ ⎦

? P(A B) = P(A) P(B) i.e. A, B are independent = D(1 – D) + (1 – D) [1 – (1 – D)]

events. = D(1 – D) + (1 – D) (D) = 2D(1 – D)

? A, B ; A, B and A, B are also pairwise independent ⎛ A ′ ⎞ P ( B) − P ( A ∩ B)

events. Again, P ⎜ ⎟ =

⎝B⎠ P ( B)

∴ P ( A ∪ B) = P ( A ∩ B ) = P ( A) P (B )

P ( A ∩ B) P ( A)P (B) ⎛ A ′ ⎞ 2α(1 − α) − α(1 − α) 1

P ( A | B) = = = P ( A) ∴ P⎜ ⎟= =

P ( B) P ( B) ⎝B⎠ 2α(1 − α) 2

Again P(Bc) = 1 – P(B) = 1 – (2D – 2D2) 3 ⎛ E ⎞ 1 ⎡ 1 1 2 ⎤ 118

= D2 + (D2 – 2D + 1) = D2 + (D – 1)2 21. (a) : P (E ) = ∑ P (Ei )P ⎜ ⎟ = ⎢ + + ⎥ =

i =1 ⎝ Ei ⎠ 3 ⎣ 5 3 11 ⎦ 495

⎛ A ′ ⎞ P ( A ′ ∩ B ′) 1 − P ( A ∪ B)

Also, P ⎜ ⎟ = =

⎝ B′ ⎠ P ( B ′) 1 − P ( B) ⎛E⎞

P (E1 )P ⎜ ⎟

⎛E ⎞ ⎝ E1 ⎠ 1 1 495 33

1 − (2α − α2 ) 22. (b) : P ⎜ 1 ⎟ = = ⋅ × =

= ⎝E⎠ P (E ) 3 5 118 118

1 − (2α − 2α2 )

⎛ E ⎞ P (E2 ∩ E ) 55

2 23. (c) : We have, P ⎜ 2 ⎟ = =

⎛ A′ ⎞ (α − 1)2 ⎛ α ⎞ ⎝E ⎠ P (E ) 118

⇒ P⎜ ⎟= ≠⎜

⎝ B ′ ⎠ 2α2 − 2α + 1 ⎝ 1 − α ⎟⎠

⎛E⎞

17. (a, b, c, d) : ? P(A1) = P (Selecting 4 and two from P (E3 ) ⋅ P ⎜ ⎟

⎛ E ⎞ P (E3 ∩ E ) ⎝ E3 ⎠

1

C1 × 7C2 7 and P ⎜ 3 ⎟ = =

the numbers 5 to 11) = = ⎝E⎠ P (E ) P (E)

11 55

C3 1 2 495 30

P(A2) = P(Selecting number 7 and two from the = × × =

3 11 118 118

1 × 6C2 1 ⎛E ⎞ ⎛ E ⎞ 55 30 85

numbers 1 to 6) = = ∴ P⎜ 2 ⎟+P⎜ 3 ⎟= + =

11 11

C3 ⎝E ⎠ ⎝ E ⎠ 118 118 118

and P(A1 A2) = P(Selecting 4 and 7 and one between

the number 4 and 7) 24. (a) : Total balls = 4 + 3 = 7

1 3 4

C1 × 1C1 × 2C1 2×6 2 ∴ P(red ball) = and P(white ball) =

= = = 7 7

11

C3 11 × 10 × 9 165

⎛ 4 4 3 ⎞ 144

⎛ A ⎞ P ( A1 ∩ A2 ) 2 11 2 ∴ P(2 white and one red ball) = 3 ⎜ × × ⎟ =

∴ P⎜ 1 ⎟= = × = ⎝ 7 7 7 ⎠ 343

⎝ A2 ⎠ P ( A2 ) 165 1 15

25. (b) : P(getting at most 2 red balls ) = P (getting 0 red

⎛ A ⎞ P ( A1 ∩ A2 ) 2 55 2 or 1 red or 2 red balls) = 1 – P(getting 3 red balls)

and P ⎜ 2 ⎟ = = × =

⎝ A1 ⎠ P ( A1 ) 165 7 21 3

⎛ 3 ⎞ 316

1− ⎜ ⎟ =

18. (c) : Total balls in the bag = 9 + 7 + 4 = 20 ⎝7⎠ 343

P(balls are of different colour)

9 26. (c) : P(getting at least 2 white balls)

C × 7C1 × 4C1 9 ⋅ 7 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 6 21

= 1 = = ⎛4⎞ 4 3 ⎛4⎞

3

20

C3 20 ⋅19 ⋅18 95 =3C2 ⎜ ⎟ × × +3C3 ⎜ ⎟

⎝7⎠ 7 7 ⎝7⎠

19. (a) : P(orderly green, white, black ball)

2 3 2

4 7 9 7 ⎛ 4 ⎞ ⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎛ 4 ⎞ ⎛ 4 ⎞ ⎡3 × 3 4⎤

= P(green,white,black ) = ⋅ ⋅ = = 3× ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ ⎢ + ⎥

20 19 18 190 ⎝7 ⎠ ⎝7⎠ ⎝7 ⎠ ⎝7⎠ ⎣ 7 7⎦

20. (b) : P(two black and one green ball)

16 13 208

9

C × 4C1 12 = × =

= 2 = 49 7 343

20 95

C3

(21-23) : 27. A o s, B o r, C o q, D o p

1 A. Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4, ...., 10}.

From given we have P(E1) = P(E2) = P(E3) = and

3 So, possible G.P.’s are (1, 2, 4), (4, 6, 9), (1, 3, 9), (2, 4, 8)

⎛ E ⎞ 1× 3 1 ⎛ E ⎞ 2 ×1 1 n(S) = 10C3 and n(A) = 4C1 × 2

P⎜ ⎟= = ,P = = ,

⎝ E1 ⎠ 6 C2 5 ⎜⎝ E2 ⎟⎠ 4 C2 3 4

C1 × 2 4×6×2 1

∴ Required probability = = =

⎛ E ⎞ 4×3 2 10

C3 10 ⋅ 9 ⋅ 8 15

P⎜ ⎟= =

⎝ E3 ⎠ 12 C2 11 B. Let set A = {1, 2, 3, ...., 10}

⎧1 4 7 10⎫ → R1 2 4 1

⎪ ⎪ ⇒ = P ( A) ⇒ P ( A) =

⎨2 5 8 ⎬ → R2 5 5 2

⎪3 6 9 ⎪→ R ⎛A⎞

⎩ ⎭ 3 ∴ P ⎜ ⎟ = P ( A)

Now x3 + y3 = 3 M x + y = 3 M ⎝B⎠

Required case are 1 1 1 1

Also, P(A B) = P(A) P(B) = ⋅ = <

1 Selecting x from R1 and y from R2 2 5 10 2

2. Selecting x from R2 and y from R1 So, P(exactly one of A, B) = P(only A) + P(only B)

3. Selecting x and y both from R3. = P(A Bc) + P(Ac B)

4

C1 × 3C1 + 3C2 1 = P(A) P(Bc) + P(Ac) P(B)

∴ Required probability = =

10 3 1 4 1 1 1

C2 = ⋅ + ⋅ =

2 5 2 5 2

C. Let HH stand for Heart lost and heart drawn, NH

1 3 1

denote non heart lost and Heart draw. D. P ( A ∪ B) ≥ , P ( A ∩ B) ≤ ≤

? Required probability = P(HH) + P(NH) 2 7 2

13 12 39 13 1 ⎛ 12 39 ⎞ 1 ? P(A|B) = P(A) = 3/7 (given)

= ⋅ + ⋅ = ⎜ + ⎟= and P(B) = 1/2. ? P(Bc) = 1/2

52 51 52 51 4 ⎝ 51 51 ⎠ 4

? P(exactly one of A, B) = P(only A) + P(only B)

D. Number of white balls = 2, Red balls = 3, Black = P(A Bc) + P(Ac B)

balls = 4

3 1 4 1 1

P(both are of same colour) = P(2 white or 2 red or 2 = P(A) P(Bc) + P(Ac) P(B) = ⋅ + ⋅ =

black balls) 7 2 7 2 2

2 3 4 29. (3) : Let E1 = the event that bag contains 2 white

C2 C2 C2 5

= + + = balls and 2 balls of other colour.

9 9 9 18

C2 C2 C2 E2 = the event that bag contains 3 white balls and 1 ball

of other colour

28. A o p, q, r, s, B o p, r, C o p, q, r, s,

E3 = the event that bag contains all white balls and

D o r, s

⎛1 4⎞ 3 A = event of drawing 2 white balls from the bag.

A. P ( A ∪ B) = 1 − P ( A ′ ∩ B ′) = 1 − ⎜ × ⎟ = 1

⎝2 5⎠ 5 ? P(E1) = P(E2) = P(E3) = and

⎛A⎞ 1 3

and P ⎜ ⎟ = P ( A) =

⎝B⎠ 2 2

C21 3

C 1

P ( A | E1 ) = = , P ( A | E2 ) = 2 = and

4 6 4

(' A, B are independent events) C2 C2 2

Now, P (A B) d minimum {P(A), P(B)} 1 ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ 10

⎧1 1⎫ 1 1 P ( A | E3 ) = 1 so P ( A) = ⎜ + + 1⎟ =

= minimum ⎨ , ⎬ = ≤ 3 ⎝ 6 2 ⎠ 18

⎩2 5⎭ 5 2 P (E3 ∩ A)

P(exactly A, B) = P(only A) + P(only B) ? Required probability P (E3 | A) = λ =

P ( A)

= P(A Bc) + P(Ac B) = P(A)P(Bc) + P(Ac)P(B)

P (E3 ) ⋅ P ( A | E3 ) 1 18

1 4 1 1 1

= × + ⋅ = ⇒ =λ ⇒ × =λ

2 5 2 5 2 P ( A) 3 10

B. P(A B) t maximum {P(A), P(B)} 3

⇒ λ = ⇒ 5λ = 3

⎧2 1⎫ 2 3 5

= maximum ⎨ , ⎬ = ≥

⎩3 2⎭ 3 5 30. (5) : P(X + Y = 4) = P(X = 0, Y = 4)

1 + P(X = 1, Y = 3) + P(X = 2, Y = 2)

and P ( A ∩ B) ≤ minimum{P ( A), P (B)} =

2 + P(X = 3, Y = 1) + P(X = 4, Y = 0)

C. P(A B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A B) = P(X = 0) P(Y = 4) + P(X = 1) P(Y = 3) + P(X = 2)

3 1 ⎛1⎞ P(Y = 2) + P(X = 3) P(Y = 1) + P(X = 4) P(Y = 0)

⇒ = P ( A) + − P ( A) ⎜ ⎟ n

5 5 ⎝5⎠ ⎛1⎞

where P ( X = r ) = nCr ⎜ ⎟ ; n = 5, r = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and

(' A, B are independent events) ⎝2⎠

MATHEMATICS TODAY | FEBRUARY ‘18 65

n E2 = even number on each dice

n ⎛1⎞ 3

P (Y = r ) = Cr ⎜ ⎟ , n = 7, r = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 i.e., E2 = {(2, 6), (4, 4), (6, 2)}. ∴ P (E2 ) =

⎝2⎠ 36

5 7 ? E1 E2 = E2

⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ P (E2 ∩ E1 ) 3 A

∴ P ( X + Y = 4) = C0 ⎜ ⎟ ⋅ 7C4 ⎜ ⎟

5

Now, P (E2 | E1 ) = = =

⎝2⎠ ⎝2⎠

P (E1 ) 5 B

5 7 5 7

⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ ? B – A = k = 25 – 9 = 16 k = ±4

2 2 2

+ 5C1 ⎜ ⎟ ⋅ 7C3 ⎜ ⎟ + 5C2 ⎜ ⎟ 7C2 ⎜ ⎟

⎝2⎠ ⎝2⎠ ⎝2⎠ ⎝2⎠ ? k = 4 (as k > 0)

5 7 5 7 2 3

⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ 34. (5) : Given, P ( A) = , P ( A ∩ B) =

+ 5C3 ⎜ ⎟ ⋅ 7C1 ⎜ ⎟ + 5C4 ⎜ ⎟ 7C0 ⎜ ⎟ 5 20

⎝2⎠ ⎝2⎠ ⎝2⎠ ⎝2⎠

12 Now, P(Ac Bc) = P((A B)c) = 1 – P(A B)

⎛1⎞

= ⎜ ⎟ ⎡ 5 C0 ⋅ 7C4 + 5C1 ⋅ 7C3 + 5C2 ⋅ 7C2 + 3 17

⎝2⎠ ⎣ = 1− =

20 20

5

C3 ⋅ 7C1 + 5C4 ⋅ 7C0 ⎤

⎦ Again, A (Ac Bc) = A (A B)c

12

⎛1⎞ = A – ((A B)c)c = A – (A B)

= ⎜ ⎟ [1(35) + 5(35) + 10(21) + 10(7) + 5(1)]

⎝2⎠ 2 3 1

? P ( A − ( A ∩ B)) = − = = P (only A)

1 495 5 20 4

∴ m= [35 + 175 + 210 + 70 + 5] = 1

4096 4096

l P ( A − ( A ∩ B) = 4 = 5

4096 ∴ = P ( A |( A ′ ∪ B ′) =

⇒ m=5 m P ( A ′ ∪ B ′) 17 17

99 20

31. (6) : n(S) = The number of ways in which papers of ? l=5

5 students can be checked by the 5 teachers = 55 35. (3) : Given, mean of B.D. = np = 2 and

n(A) = choosing two teachers out of 5 × the number variance = npq = 1

of ways in which 5 papers can be checked by exactly 2 1

teachers ⇒ p = q = and n = 4

2

= 5C2 × (25 – 2) = 300

Now, O= P(x t 1) = P(1) + P(2) + P(3) + P(4)

n( A) 300 12

? Required probability = = = =m 4

n(S) 55 125 ⎛1⎞ 1

= 1 – P(0) = 1 − 4C0 ⎜ ⎟ = 1 −

(given) ⎝2⎠ 16

125m

Hence, =6 15 16 λ

2 λ= ∴ =3

32.(1) : A = {1, 2, 3, 4, ..., 25} 16 5

Let x = subset of A in which each number is multiple of 3

y = subset of A in which numbers are not multiple of 3

? x = {3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 21, 24}. ? n(x) = 8 and UTTARAKHAND at

y = A – x = {1, 2, 4, 5, 7, ..., 25}. ? n(y) = 17

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? Number of favourable cases = 8C2 + 17C2 = 164

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favourable cases 164

? Required probability = = • Diamond Stationers - Haridwar Ph: 0133-4252043; Mob: 9358398035, 9359763348

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i.e., E1 = {(2, 6), (3, 5), (4, 4), (5, 3), (6, 2)}

5

∴ P (E1 ) =

36

1. Given that x1 + x2 + x3 = 0, y1 + y2 + y3 = 0 and (a) (1, 23/4] (b) (21/2 , 23/4]

x1y1 + x2y2 + x3y3 = 0. Then (c) (S1/2 , S3/4) (d) (e1/2 , S1/2]

x12 y12 6. If the parabola y = ax2 + bx + c has vertex at (4, 2)

+ =

x12 + x22 + x32 y12 + y22 + y32 and a [1, 3] then maximum value of product (a b

c) is

1 2 4

(a) (b) (c) 1 (d) (a) 144 (b) 12 (c) –12 (d) –144

3 3 3

n 7. For p t 2, the equation

2. ∑ r(r + 1)(r + 2)...(r + p) = (where n and p are

2 p + 1 − x2 + 3x + p + 4 = x2 + 9 x + 3 p + 9 has

r =1

positive integers) (a) exactly 1 real root

n(n + 1)(n + 2)....(n + p + 1) (b) exactly 2 distinct real roots

(a) − ( p + 1)!

( p + 2) (c) exactly 3 distinct real roots

n(n + 1)(n + 2)....(n + p + 1) (d) no real roots

(b)

(n + p + 2) 8. If f : R o R, g : R o R and f(x) + f cc(x) = –xg(x)f c(x)

n(n + 1)(n + 2)....(n + p) and g(x) > 0 ∀ x R then f 2(x) + (f c(x))2 has

(c)

( p + 2) (a) a minima at x = 0

n(n + 1)(n + 2)....(n + p) (b) a maxima at x = 0

(d) (c) a point of inflexion at x = 0

(n + p + 2)

(d) data insufficient

3. Let z = (18 + 26i) and z0 = a + ib is the cube root of

z having least positive argument then a + b = 9. All bases of logarithms in which a real positive

(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4 number can be equal to its logarithm is/ are

(a) (0, 1) (1, e1/e] (b) (1, e)

4. Consider the two lines L1, L2 and a circle C (c) (1, e1/2) (d) [e1/e, ee)

L1 : 2x + 3y + p – 3 = 0, L2 : 2x + 3y + p + 3 = 0

(e x +t − e x )(log(1 + t ))2

m

C : x2 + y2 + 6x + 10y + 30 = 0, (p I) 1

10. Let f (x ) = lim ⋅∫ dt

It is given that at least one of the lines L1, L2 is a m→0 m4 3 + 2t 3

0

chord of C then the probability that both are chords then f(log3) =

of C is 1 1 1 1

2 3 4 5 (a) (b) (c) (d)

(a) (b) (c) (d) 2 3 4 12

7 7 7 7

11. The non-negative real numbers xr(r = 1 to 5) satisfy

⎛ x2 + e ⎞ the following relations :

5. Let f (x ) = log ⎜ ⎟

⎝ x2 + 1 ⎠ 5 5

(1) ∑ r ⋅ xr = a (2) ∑ r3 xr = a2 and

r =1 r =1

5 G G G G G G

n1 ⋅ n2 = 0, n2 ⋅ n3 = 0 and n1 ⋅ n3 = 0

(3) ∑r 5 3

xr = a , then number of possible values G G G

i.e., n1 , n2 and n3 are mutually Ar vectors.

r =1

of a is/are x2 y2 1

(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 6 (d) 12 Now , 2 12 2 , 2 12 2

and are the squares

x1 + x2 + x3 y1 + y2 + y3 3

∞ ⎛ 2⎞

k −π

12. Let ∑ cot−1 ⎜ ⎟ = , n I then n = of the projections of the vector (1, 0, 0) onto the direction

G G G

k =1 ⎝ 8 ⎠ n of n1 , n2 , n3 respectively and hence their sum = 1

(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 4 (d) 8 x2 y2 1

i.e., 2 12 2 + 2 12 + =1

13. The natural number n for which 28 + 211 + 2n is a 2 3

x1 + x2 + x3 y1 + y2 + y3

perfect square is

(a) 11 (b) 12 (c) 14 (d) 15 2. (a) : Since r(r + 1) ..... (r + p) = (p + 1)! r + pCp + 1

= (p + 1)! [r + p + 1Cp + 2 – r + pCp + 2]

14. If f(x) is a differentiable function defined ∀ x ∈ R

and required sum = (p + 1)! [n + p + 1Cp + 2 – 1]

2

f −1 (x )dx = n(n + 1).....(n + p + 1)

such that (f(x))3 = x – f(x) then

∫ =

p+2

– (p + 1)!

0

(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 2 (d) 2 2

3. (d) : z = 18 + 26i = 10 10 [cos θ + i sin θ]

⎧ 13 ⎛θ⎞ 1

⎪ { x2 } where tan θ = ⇒ tan ⎜ ⎟ =

⎪⎪e − 1, x > 0 9 ⎝3⎠ 3

15. Let f (x ) = ⎨0, x =0

⎪ sin x − tan x + cos x − 1 and z0 = z1/3 = 10 [cos(θ / 3) + i sin(θ / 3)]

⎪ ,x < 0 ⎡ 3 i ⎤

⎪⎩ 2 x2 + tan x + log(x + 2) z0 = 10 ⎢ + ⎥ = 3+i

⎣ 10 10 ⎦

Lines L1 and L2 represent tangent and normal to curve

y = f(x) at x = 0. Consider the family of circles 4. (b) : For L1 to be a chord of the circle, possible integral

touching both lines L1 and L2. Then the ratio of the value of p are {17, 18, ..., 31}. Similarly, for L2 to be a

radii of two orthogonally circles of this family is chord, possible integral value of p are {11, 12, ..., 25}.

So, in total possible p = 21 and common values are 9.

(a) 2 + 2 (b) 2 + 3 (c) 2 − 2 (d) 2 − 3

9 3

16. Suppose a and b are single digit positive integers Hence, probability = =

chosen independently and at random. The 21 7

probability that the point (a, b) lies above the x2 + e

5. (a) : Notice that ∈[1, e]

parabola y = ax2 – bx is x2 + 1

(a)

17

(b)

19

(c)

21

(d)

23 Hence, f(x) (0, 1]

81 81 81 81 So, g(α) = sin α + cos α , α ∈(0, 1]

17. Let f (x) = ax2 + bx + c, a, b, c I. Let f(1) = 0, gc(D) = 0 gives D= S/4

f(7) (50, 60), f(8) (70, 80) then f(2) So, g(x) (1, 23/4]

(a) (–2, 0) (b) (0, 10) (c) (1, 12) (d) (20, 30)

−b −D

18. In 'ABC, H is the orthocentre and AH · BH · CH = 3 6. (d) : From given data, = 4 and =2

2a 4a

and AH2 + BH2 + CH2 = 7 then sum of the possible So, c = 2 + 16a

circumradius (R) of the 'ABC is and E = abc = –16(a2 + 8a3)

2 5 3 2 dE

(a) (b) (c) (d) So, = −16(2a + 24a2 ) < 0, for a ∈[1, 3]

5 2 2 3 da

SOLUTIONS Hence, Emax. = –16(12 + 8·13) = –144

1. (b) : Consider three vectors 7. (b) : Let h = x2 + x – p, then given equation becomes

G G G

n1 = (x1 , x2 , x3 ), n2 = ( y1 , y2 , y3 ) and n3 = (1, 1, 1). (x + 1)2 − 2h + (x + 2)2 − h = (2 x + 3)2 − 3h

From the given data, Simplifying further, h[2h – 2(x + 2)2 – (x + 1)2] = 0

If 2h – 2(x + 2)2 – (x + 1)2 = 0 then above square root 13. (b) : 28 + 211 + 2n = 28(9 + 2n – 8)

equation is invalid. Hence, only h = 0 possible. So, now Hence, 9 + 2n – 8 should be a perfect square.

above equation becomes So, 9 + 2n – 8 = k2 (say) i.e. 2n – 8 = (k + 3)(k – 3)

|x + 1| + |x + 2| = |2x + 3| x (–2, –1) So, (k + 3) and (k – 3) are both powers of 2.

Hence, the number of real solutions of h = x2 + x – p = 0 k = 5 being the only possibility. Hence, n = 12

1 14. (b) : (f(x))3 + f(x) = x. Hence, f –1(x) = x3 + x

which are not in (–2, –1) is zero if p < − , one if

4

1 ⎡ − sin h + tan h + cos h − 1 ⎤ 1

p = − or p (0, 2) and two otherwise. Hence, exactly 15. (b) : L.H.D. = lim ⎢ 2 ⎥× =0

4

⎛ −1 ⎤ ⎣ 2h − tanh + log(2 − h) ⎥⎦ h

h →0 ⎢

2 real roots for p ∈ ⎜ , 0⎥ ∪ [2, ∞).

⎝ 4 ⎦

2

eh − 1 − 0

and R.H.D. = lim =0

8. (b) : Let h(x) = (f(x))2 + (f c(x))2 h →0 h

So, hc(x) = –2x g(x) · (f c(x))2 Hence, L1 = y = 0 and L2 = x = 0.

9. (a) : We require a R – {1} such that x = logax 16. (b) : If (a, b) lies above the curve then b > y(a)

i.e. f (x ) =

log x

= log a a3

x i.e., b > a3 − ba ⇒ b >

a +1

f c(x) = 0 x = e

The only possibilities are a = 1, 2, 3

So, max. f(x) = f(e) = 1/e. So, amax. = e1/e For a = 1, b = 1, 2, 3, ....9

Hence, a (0, 1) (1, e1/e] For a = 2, b = 3, 4, .... 9

m

(et − 1) ⋅ (log(1 + t ))2 For a = 3, b = 7, 8, 9. So, in total there are 19 points

∫ 2t 3 + 3

dt

⎛0⎞ out of 9 × 9 = 81 points.

x

10. (c) : f (x ) = e ⋅ lim 0

4 ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ 19

m→0 m 0 Hence, required probability =

81

m

(e − 1) ⋅ (log(1 + m))2

f (x ) = e x ⋅ lim 17. (a) : f (1) = 0 a + b + c = 0

m→0 (3 + 2m3 ) ⋅ 4m3 f (7) (50, 60) 50 < 49a + 7b + c < 60

2

em − 1 ⎛ log(1 + m) ⎞ 1 1 ⎛ 25 ⎞

f (x ) = e x ⋅ lim ⋅⎜ ⎟ ⋅ ⋅ or 50 < 48a + 6b < 60 i.e., 8a + b ∈ ⎜ ,10 ⎟

m→0 m ⎝ m ⎠ 4 3 + 2m3 ⎝3 ⎠

i.e., 8a + b = 9

ex 3 1 Similarly, 9a + b = 11

f (x ) = , so, f (log 3) = =

12 12 4 Hence, a = 2, b = –7, c = 5

11. (c) : Notice that i.e., f(x) = 2x2 – 7x + 5 f(2) = 8 – 14 + 5 = –1

5 5 5 5 18. (b) : If 'ABC is acute, then Cosine rule gives,

∑ r (a − r2 )2 xr = a2 ∑ r ⋅ xr − 2a ∑ r3 xr + ∑ r5 xr AB2 = AH2 + BH2 – 2AH · BHcos(S – C) ...(i)

r =1 r =1 r =1 r =1

= a2(a) – 2a(a2) + (a3) = 0 and AB = 2RsinC, CH = 2RcosC

AB2 + CH2 = 4R2 ...(ii)

Since, L.H.S. terms are non-negative.

From (i) and (ii),

Hence, each term in L.H.S. is zero.

AH ⋅ BH ⋅ CH

So, possible values of a are {0, 1, 4, 9, 16, 25} 4 R2 = AH 2 + BH 2 + CH 2 +

R

⎛ k2 ⎞

12. (c) : Tk = cot−1 ⎜ ⎟ 3

Now , A.T.Q., 4 R2 = 7 + i.e., 4 R3 − 7 R − 3 = 0

⎝8⎠ R

⎛8⎞ ⎡ 2 ⎤ i.e., (R + 1)(2R + 1)(2R – 3) = 0

= tan−1 ⎜ 2 ⎟ = tan−1 ⎢ ⎥ Since, 3 = AH · BH · CH < (2R)3 R = 1

⎝k ⎠ 2

⎢1 + k − 1 ⎥ 3

⎣ 4 ⎦ Similarly when 'ABC is obtuse, we have R =

2

⎡k ⎤ ⎛k ⎞ 3 5

= tan−1 ⎢ + 1⎥ − tan−1 ⎜ − 1⎟ So, sum of possibilities of R = + 1 =

⎣ 2 ⎦ ⎝2 ⎠ 2 2

Applying R2 o R2 – 2R1 and R3 o R3 – R1, we get

⎛ 1 −2 −5 ⎞

A = ⎜0 0 a + 6⎟

SOLUTION SET-181 ⎜ ⎟

⎜⎝ 0 0 a + 6 ⎟⎠

1. (c) : Let x = (1)1/n xn – 1 = 0 For a = – 6

or xn – 1 = (x – 1) (x – Z) (x – Z2) .... (x – Zn –1)

⎛ 1 −2 −5 ⎞

xn − 1

⇒ = (x – Z) (x – Z2) .... (x – Zn –1) A = ⎜ 0 0 0 ⎟ ? Rank (A) = 1.

x −1 ⎜ ⎟

⎜⎝ 0 0 0 ⎟⎠

Putting x = 9 in both sides, we have

9n − 1 6. (d) : If f is injective and g is injective

(9 – Z) (9 – Z2) (9 – Z3).... (9 – Zn –1) = .

8 fog is injective ? fof is injective.

2. (d) : Since, 32 sin 2x – 1, 14, 34 – 2 sin 2x are in A.P. ⎧⎪ 1 n2 n2 1 ⎫⎪

2 sin 2 x 1 1 7. (d) : lim ⎨ + + + ... + ⎬

So, 28 = 3 ⋅ + 34 ⋅ 2 sin 2 x n→∞ ⎪ n (n + 1) 3

(n + 2)3 8n ⎭⎪

3 3 ⎩

Put 32sin 2x = t, we get ⎪⎧ n2 n2 n2 n2 ⎪⎫

t 81 = lim ⎨ + + + ... + ⎬

28 = + 84t = t2 + 243 n→∞ ⎪ (n + 0 )3 (n + 1)3 (n + 2 )3 (n + n)3 ⎪⎭

3 t ⎩

t2 – 84t + 243 = 0 n

n2 n

1

(t – 81) (t – 3) = 0 t = 3, 81 = lim

n→∞

∑ (n + r)3 = lim

n→∞

∑ 3

32 sin 2x = 31, 34 r =0 r =0 ⎛ r⎞

⎜⎝1 + ⎟⎠ n

2 sin 2x = 1 or 2 sin 2x = 4 n

1

1 1 dx ⎡ 1 ⎤ ⎧1 1⎫ 1 1 3

sin 2x = (∵ sin 2x ƾ 2) =∫ = −⎢ 2⎥

= −⎨ − ⎬ = − =

0 (1 + x)3 ⎩8 2⎭ 2 8 8

2 ⎣ 2(1 + x) ⎦ 0

? First term = 31 – 1 = 1, second term = 14 1/n

and third term = 27 ⎪⎧ n ⎛ r π ⎞ ⎪⎫

8. (a) : Let P = lim ⎨∏ tan ⎜ ⎟ ⎬

Here, common difference = 13 n→∞ ⎪

⎩ r =1 ⎝ 2n ⎠ ⎪⎭

? Fifth term = 1 + 4 × 13 = 53. n

1 ⎛ rπ ⎞ 1 ⎛ πx ⎞

n n ∴ ln P = lim ∑ ln tan ⎜ ⎟ = ∫ ln tan ⎜ ⎟ dx

3. (a) : ∑∑ n

Cj jCi = nC1 (1C0 + 1C1) + n→∞ r =1 n ⎝ 2n ⎠ 0 ⎝ 2 ⎠

i =0 j =1

n

C2(2C0 +2C1 + 2C2) + nC3(3C0 + 3C1 + 3C2 + 3C3) 2 π /2

π ∫0

⇒ ln P = ln tan x dx ...(i)

+ nC4(4C0 + 4C1 + 4C2 + 4C3 + 4C4)

+...+ nCn(nC0 + nC1 + nC2 +....+ nCn) 2 π /2 ⎛π ⎞

= C1 (2) + C2 (2) + C3 (2)3 + nC4 (2)4 +.....+ nCn (2)n

n n 2 n and ln P = ∫ ln tan ⎜ − x ⎟ dx (by property)

π 0 ⎝2 ⎠

= (1 + 2)n – 1 = 3n – 1 2 π /2

= ∫ ln cot x dx ...(ii)

4. (b) : Putting t = 0 on both sides, we get E = –39 π 0

Adding (i) and (ii), we get

⎛ −1 2 5 ⎞

2 π /2 2 π /2

⎜

5. (a) : Let A = 2 −4 a − 4 ⎟ 2 ln P = ∫ (ln tan x + ln cot x)dx = ∫ ln 1dx = 0

⎜ ⎟ π 0 π 0

⎜⎝ 1 −2 a + 1 ⎟⎠

2 ln P = 0 ln P = 0 ? P = e = 1 0

MPP-10 CLASS XI ANSWER KEY

⎛ 1 −2 −5 ⎞ 1. (d) 2. (c) 3. (a) 4. (a) 5. (c)

A = ⎜ 2 −4 a − 4 ⎟ 6. (c) 7. (c) 8. (a, b) 9. (a, b) 10. (c)

⎜ ⎟

⎜⎝ 1 −2 a + 1 ⎟⎠ 11. (a, c) 12. (a, c) 13. (a, d) 14. (d) 15. (b)

16. (b) 17. (9) 18. (5) 19. (2) 20. (5)

sin(sin x ) − sin x 1 ⎧ −6 1

9. (2) : We have, lim 3 5

=− ⎪ , −1 < x < −

x →0 ax + bx + c 12

⎪ 1 − x2 2

⎛ sin x + x ⎞ ⎛ sin x − x ⎞ 2dy ⎪⎪ 6 1 1

2 cos ⎜ ⎟⎠ sin ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ ∴ =⎨ , − <x <

⎝ 2 2 1 dx ⎪ 1 − x 2 2 2

⇒ lim 3 5

=−

x →0 (ax + bx + c) 12 ⎪ −6 1

⎪ , < x <1

⎛ x − sin x ⎞ ⎪⎩ 1 − x 2 2

sin ⎜

⎛ x + sin x ⎞ ⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎛ x − sin x ⎞

2 cos ⎜

2 ⎟⎠ ⎛ x − sin x ⎞ ⎝

⎝ ⎜ ⎟ ⎛ 3x − x 3 ⎞

2 ⎠ R. ∵ y = tan–1 ⎜

⎜⎝ ⎟ ⎟

2 ⎠ 1 ⎝ 1 − 3x 2 ⎠

⇒ lim =

x →0 ⎛ 2 c ⎞ 3 12

⎜⎝ a + bx + 3 ⎟⎠ x ⎧ −1

, −

1

<x<

1

x ⎪ 3 tan x 3 3

1 1 ⎪

2 ⋅1 ⋅ ⋅ ⎪ 1

⇒ lim 2 6 = 1 ⎛' lim x − sin x = 1 ⎞ = ⎨ π + 3 tan −1 x , x<−

x →0 ⎛ c ⎞ 12 ⎜⎝ x →0 x 3 6⎠

⎟

⎪ 3

⎜⎝ a + bx + 3 ⎟⎠ ⎪ −1 1

⎪⎩−π + 3 tan x , x>

x

1 1 3

⇒ lim =

x →0 ⎛ c ⎞ 2 ⎧ 3 1 1

⎜⎝ a + bx + 3 ⎟⎠ ⎪1 + x 2 , − <x<

x 3 3

⎪

∵ R.H.S. is finite quantity. dy ⎪ 3 1

1 1 ∴ =⎨ , x<−

? c = 0, b R and = a=2 dx ⎪1 + x 2 3

a 2 ⎪ 3 1

⎪⎩1 + x 2 , x>

10. (a) : (P) o 4, (Q) o 3, (R) o 1, (S) o 2 3

P. ∵ y = sin–1 (3x – 4x3)

2

⎧ −1 1 ⎛ log sin x ⎞ −1

⎪ − π − 3 sin x , −1 ≤ x < − 2

S. f(x) = ⎜ ⎟ + 2 tan x

⎝ log cos x ⎠

⎪

⎪ 1 1

= ⎨ 3 sin −1 x , − ≤x≤ f c(x) = 2

⎪ 2 2

⎪ π − 3 sin −1 x , 1

< x ≤1 ⎛ log sin x ⎞ (log cos x )cot x + (log sin x )tan x 2

⎪⎩ 2 ⎜ log cos x ⎟ 2

+

⎝ ⎠ (log cos x ) 1 + x2

⎧ 3 1

⎪− , −1 < x < −

⎪ 1 − x2 2 ⎛ π⎞ 1 2 4 32

? f c ⎜ ⎟ = 2⋅2 + = +

dy ⎪ ⎪ 3 1 1 ⎝ 4⎠ π π2 1 16 + π2

∴ =⎨ , − <x < log cos 1+ log

dx ⎪ 1 − x 2 2 2 4 16 2

⎪ 8 32

3 1 = − + 2

⎪− , < x <1 log 2 π + 16

⎪⎩ (1 − x ) 2 2

Q. ∵ y = cos–1 (4x3 – 3x)

⎧ 1 MPP-10 CLASS XII ANSWER KEY

−1

⎪3 cos x − 2π , −1 < x < − 2 1. (c) 2. (a) 3. (a) 4. (a) 5. (c)

⎪

⎪ 1 1 6. (c) 7. (a,b,c,d) 8. (a, c) 9. (a, c)

= ⎨2π − 3 cos −1 x , − ≤ x ≤ 10. (a,b) 11. (c) 12. (b, d) 13. (b, c) 14. (a)

⎪ 2 2

⎪ 3 cos −1 x ,

1

< x ≤1

15. (b) 16. (a) 17. (8) 18. (4) 19. (4)

⎪⎩ 2 20. (2)

-10 Practice Problems

Class XI

extent of understanding of speciﬁed chapters. Give yourself four

marks for correct answer and deduct one mark for wrong answer.

Self check table given at the end will help you to check your

readiness.

Total Marks : 80 Time Taken : 60 Min.

Only One Option Correct Type One or More Than One Option(s) Correct Type

1. If , and are the probabilities of 1 + 100d from their mean is 255, then the d is equal to

3 4 2

the three mutually exclusive events, then p (a) 10.0 (b) 20.0 (c) 10.1 (d) 20.2

⎡ 1⎤ ⎡1 ⎤ ⎡1 1⎤ 8. The variable x takes two values x1 and x2 with

(a) [0, 1] (b) ⎢0, ⎥ (c) ⎢ , 1⎥ (d) ⎢ , ⎥ frequencies f1 and f2, respectively. If V denotes the

⎣ 2⎦ ⎣3 ⎦ ⎣3 2⎦

standard deviation of x, then

2. Mean of 100 items is 49. It was discovered that 2

f x 2 + f2 x22 ⎛ f1x1 + f2 x2 ⎞

3 items 60, 70, 80 were wrongly read as 38, 22, 50 (a) σ 2 = 1 1 −⎜

respectively. The correct mean is f1 + f2 ⎝ f1 + f2 ⎟⎠

(a) 48 (b) 78 (c) 50 (d) 80 2 f1 f2

(b) σ = − (x1 − x2 )2

2

3. The standard deviation of 25 number is 40. If each ( f1 + f2 )

of the number is increased by 5, then the new (x1 − x2 )2

standard deviation will be (c) σ 2 = (d) none of these

(a) 40 (b) 25 (c) 40 (d) 1600 ( f1 + f2 )2

4. If P(B) = , P ( A ∩ B ∩ C ) = and (a) The sum of the deviations from arithmetic

4 3

1 mean is zero.

P ( A ∩ B ∩ C ) = ,then P(B C) = (b) Computation of arithmetic mean is based on all

3

1 1 1

(a) (b) 1 (c) (d) observations.

12 6 15 9 (c) It gives no importance to extreme values.

5. Two dice are thrown simultaneously to get the (d) none of these.

coordinates of a point on xy-plane. Then the

10. The probability that the 13th day of a randomly

probability that this point lies inside or on the

chosen month is a second Saturday, is

region bounded by |x| + |y| = 3, is

1 1 1 19

(a) (b) (c) (d)

(a) 3 (b) 2 (c) 1 (d) 4 7 12 84 84

14 3 12 14

6. Out of (2n + 1) tokens consecutively numbered 11. The chance of an event happening is the square of

from 1 to (2n + 1), 3 tokens are drawn at random. the chance of a second event but the odds against

The probability that the numbers on them are in the first are the cube of the odds against the second.

A.P. is The chances of the events are

2n 4n 3n 5n (a) p1 = 1/9 (b) p1 = 1/16

(a) (b) (c) (d)

2

2

4n − 1 4n − 1 2

4n − 1 4n2 − 1 (c) p2 = 1/3 (d) p2 = 1/4

49 Q. There are 2 teams with n persons 24

12. The variance of the numbers 2, 3, 11 and x is .

4 in each. The probability of 2.

Find the value of x. 91

selecting 2 persons from one

14 14 6 team and 1 person from the

(a) 6 (b) (c) (d)

5 3 15

13. If runs of two players A and B in 10 cricket matches other team is 6 . Then n=

7

are such that players A has mean 50 and variance 36

and player B has mean 60 and variance 81 of runs, R. If t h e l e tt e r s of t h e w ord 1

then the player NALGONDA are arranged in 3. 35

(a) A has less coeff. of variation arbitrary order, the probability

(b) B has less coeff. of variation that the letters G, O, D appear

(c) Both are equally consistent in that order is

(d) A is more consistent S. There are 8 children, 4 boys and 4 4. 4

Comprehension Type girls. They are randomly divided

into 2 groups of 4 children each.

In an objective paper, there are two sections of 10

The probability that all the girls

questions each. For 'section 1', each question has five

are in one group is

options and only one option is correct and 'section 2'

has four options with multiple answers and marks for P Q R S

a question in this section is awarded only if he ticks all (a) 2 1 3 4

correct answers. Marks for each question in 'section 1' is (b) 2 4 1 3

1 and in 'section 2' is 3. (There is no negative marking). (c) 3 1 4 2

(d) 3 4 1 2

14. If a candidate in total attempts four questions all

by guessing, then the probability of scoring 10 Integer Answer Type

marks is 17. A card is drawn from a pack of 52 cards and a gambler

(a) 1/15(1/15)3 (b) 3/5(1/15)3 bets that it is a spade or an ace. If the odds against his

3

(c) 1/15(14/15) (d) None of these

winning this bet is k , then the value of k is

15. The probability of getting a score less than 40 by k −5

answering all the questions by guessing in this

18. The A.M. and S.D. of 100 items was recorded as 40

paper is

and 5.1 respectively. Later on it was discovered that

(a) (1/75)10 (b) 1 – (1/75)10

10 one observation 40 was wrongly copied down as 50.

(c) (74/75) (d) None of these Then the correct S.D is

Matrix Match Type 19. The mean and variance of 7 observations are 8 and

16. Match the following. 16 respectively. If the observations are 2, x, 4, 10, 12,

Column I Column II y, 14. Then the positive value of x – y is

P. There are 5 duplicate and 10 20. Let A = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9} and B = {2, 4, 6, 8}. An element

1

original items in an automobile 1. (a,b) of their cartesian product A × B is chosen at

6 p

shop and 3 items are brought random. If the probability that {a + b = 9} is then

at random by a customer. The q

q

probability that none of the items is

p

is duplicate, is

Keys are published in this issue. Search now! -

Check your score! If your score is

> 90% EXCELLENT WORK ! You are well prepared to take the challenge of ﬁnal exam.

No. of questions attempted …… 90-75% GOOD WORK ! You can score good in the ﬁnal exam.

No. of questions correct …… 74-60% SATISFACTORY ! You need to score more next time.

Marks scored in percentage …… < 60% NOT SATISFACTORY! Revise thoroughly and strengthen your concepts.

Exam on

21st March

2018

Time Allowed : 3 hours Maximum Marks : 100

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

(i) All questions are compulsory.

(ii) This question paper contains 29 questions.

(iii) Questions 1-4 in Section-A are very short-answer type questions carrying 1 mark each.

(iv) Questions 5-12 in Section-B are short-answer type questions carrying 2 marks each.

(v) Questions 13-23 in Section-C are long-answer-I type questions carrying 4 marks each.

(vi) Questions 24-29 in Section-D are long-answer-II type questions carrying 6 marks each.

= = .

1. Find the domain of sec–1(2x + 1). 3 5 −6

2. Find the distance of the point P(2, 1, –1) from the 8. Form the differential equation of the family of

curves y = a cos (x + b), where a and b are arbitrary

plane x – 2y + 4z = 9.

constants.

3. If A, B, C are three non-zero square matrices of

⎧ 1 , if x ≤ 3

same order, then find the condition on A such that ⎪

9. If f (x ) = ⎨ax + b , if 3 < x < 5 . Determine the

AB = AC B = C. ⎪ 7 , if 5 ≤ x

⎩

4. Let f : R o R be defined by f(x) = 3x2 – 5 and

x values of a and b so that f(x) is continuous.

g : R → R be defined by g (x ) = 2 . Find gof. 10. Let li, mi, ni; i = 1, 2, 3 be the direction cosines of

x +1

three mutually perpendicular vectors in space.

SECTION - B ⎡ l1 m1 n1 ⎤

5. The volume of a cube is increasing at a constant Show that AAc = I3 , where A = ⎢⎢l2 m2 n2 ⎥⎥ .

rate. Prove that the increase in surface area varies ⎢⎣l3 m3 m3 ⎥⎦

inversely as the length of the edge of the cube. 11. Two balls are drawn at random from a bag

6. How many equivalence relations on the set containing 5 white and 7 black balls. Then, find the

odds in favour of drawing two black balls.

{1, 2, 3} containing (1, 2) and (2, 1) are there in all?

12. Solve the following linear programming

7. Find the cartesian and vector equations of the line problem graphically.

which passes through the point (–2, 4, –5) and Maximize Z = 3x + 4y

parallel to the line given by subject to x + y d4, x t0 and y t0.

MATHEMATICS TODAY | FEBRUARY ‘18 75

SECTION - C

X 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

13. Find the inverse of the matrix, if it exists, using P(X) 0 k 2k 2k 3k k 2 2 2

2k 7k + k

⎡0 1 2 ⎤ Find each of the following :

⎢ ⎥

elementary row operations. ⎢ 1 2 3⎥ . (i) k (ii) P(X < 6)

⎢⎣ 3 1 1⎥⎦ (iii) P(X ≥ 6) (iv) P(0 < X < 5)

OR

22. Find the equation of the plane passing through the

Using properties of determinants, show that

points (2, 2, 1) and (9, 3, 6) and perpendicular to

a b ax + by the line 2x + 6y + 6z = 1.

b c bx + cy

23. Solve the following L.P.P. graphically :

ax + by bx + cy 0 Minimize Z = 5x + 10y

= (b2 − ac)(ax 2 + 2bxy + cy 2 ) Subject to constraints x + 2y d 120, x + y t 60,

14. Using Lagrange’s Mean value theorem, show that x – 2y t 0 and x, y t 0

|cosa – cosb| d |a – b|. SECTION - D

15. Find the absolute maximum and minimum values 1

⎡ 1⎤

24. Evaluate : ∫ sin x + sec x dx.

of f ( x) = x 2 1 + x in ⎢ −1, ⎥ .

⎣ 2 ⎦ OR

OR π/2

Find the point on the curve y = x3 – 11x + 5 at which

the tangent is y = x – 11.

Evaluate : ∫ (2 log sin x − log sin 2x)dx

0

3 25. Find the maximum and minimum values of

16. Evaluate ∫ (2 x + 1)dx as limit of sums. (sin–1 x)3 + (cos–1 x)3, where –1 d x d 1.

1 OR

17. Find the area bounded by the curve x2 = 4y and the

On the set R – {–1} a binary operation is defined

straight line x = 4y – 2.

by a b = a + b + ab for all a, b R – {–1.}. Prove

18. Solve the following differential equation : that is commutative as well as associative on

dy R – {–1}. Find the identity element and prove that

− y = cos x , given that if x = 0, y = 1.

dx every element of R – {–1} is invertible.

OR

26. An amount of ` 5000 is put into three investments

Check whether the following differential equation

at the rate of interest of 6%, 7% and 8% per annum

is homogeneous or not .

respectively. The total annual income is ` 358. If the

dy ⎛y⎞

x2 − xy = 1 + cos ⎜ ⎟ , x ≠ 0 combined income from the first two investments is

dx ⎝x⎠

` 70 more than the income from the third, find the

Find the general solution of the differential equation amount of each investment by matrix method.

using substitution y = vx.

OR

19. Let a = i + 4 j + 2k , b = 3i − 2 j + 7k and c = 2i − j + 4k . Verify : A(adj A) = (adj A)A = |A| I for matrix

Find a vector d which is perpendicular to both ⎡1 −1 2 ⎤

a and b and c ⋅ d = 15. A = ⎢⎢3 0 −2⎥⎥

20. An urn contains 10 white and 3 black balls. Another ⎢⎣1 0 3 ⎦⎥

urn contains 3 white and 5 black balls. Two balls are ⎛ x ⎞

27. If (ax + b)ey/x = x or y = x log ⎜

⎝ a + bx ⎟⎠

, prove that

drawn from first urn without noticing their colour 2 2

d y ⎛ dy ⎞

and put into the second urn and then a ball is drawn x3 2 = ⎜ x − y⎟ .

from the second urn. Find the probability that it is a dx ⎝ dx ⎠

white ball. 28. Find the shortest distance between the lines

21. A random variable X has the following probability x −1 y − 2 z − 3 x −2 y −4 z −5

= = and = =

distribution : 2 3 4 3 4 5

29. Find the cartesian as well as vector equations of x +2 y−4 z +5

= =

the planes through the intersection of the planes 3 5 6

r ⋅ (2i + 6 j) + 12 = 0 and r ⋅ (3i − j + 4k ) = 0 which and vector equation of the line is r = a + λb

are at a unit distance from the origin. r = (−2i + 4 j − 5k ) + λ(3i + 5 j + 6k )

SOLUTIONS 8. Here, y = a cos (x + b) ...(i)

1. The domain of sec–1 x is (–f, –1] [1, f). Differentiating (i) w.r.t. x, we get

? 2x + 1 t 1 or 2x + 1 d –1 dy

= −a sin ( x + b )

2x t 0 or 2x d –2 x t 0 or x d –1 dx

x (– f, –1] [0, f). Again differentiating w.r.t. x, we get

Hence, the domain of sec–1 (2x + 1) is (–f, –1] [0, f).

d2 y d2 y d2 y

2. We have point P(2, 1, –1) and plane x – 2y + 4z = 9 = −a cos ( x + b ) ⇒ = −y ⇒ + y = 0.

| 2 − 2 × 1 + 4 × (−1) − 9 | 13 dx 2 dx 2 dx 2

? Required distance = = .

12 + (−2)2 + (4)2 21 9. For f(x) to be continuous at x = 3, we must have

3. We have AB = AC lim f (x ) = lim f (x ) = f (3)

To show : B = C x → 3− x → 3+

Since, B = C is possible if A–1 1 = 3a + b ...(i)

i.e., A–1 AB = A–1 AC B = C [∵ A–1 A = I] For f(x) to be continuous at x = 5, we must have

Hence, A should be invertible matrix. lim f (x ) = lim f (x ) = f (5)

x → 5− x → 5+

4. Since, gof(x) = g{f(x)} = g(3x2 – 5) 5a + b = 7 ...(ii)

3x 2 − 5 3x 2 − 5 Solving (i) and (ii), we get a = 3, b = –8.

= = .

(3x 2 − 5)2 + 1 9 x 4 − 30 x 2 + 26 10. Given, li, mi, ni, are three mutually Ar vector in space.

5. Let x be the length of each edge of the cube, S be ? li2 + mi2 + ni2 = 1, for each i = 1, 2, 3 and

its surface area and V be its volume at any time t. Then, lilj + mimj + ninj = 0 (i zj) for each i, j = 1, 2, 3

dV

S = 6x2 and V = x3, Given = k (constant) ⎡ l1 m1 n1 ⎤ ⎡ l1 l2 l3 ⎤

dt ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥

Hence AA ′ = ⎢l2 m2 n2 ⎥ ⎢m1 m2 m3 ⎥

dV dx

Now, V = x3 = 3x 2 ⎢⎣ l3 m3 n3 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ n1 n2 n3 ⎥⎦

dt dt

dx dx k ⎡1 0 0⎤

k = 3x 2 = ...(i)

dt dt 3x 2 = ⎢⎢0 1 0⎥⎥ = I3

dS dx ⎢⎣0 0 1 ⎦⎥

and S = 6x2 = 12 x

dt dt

11. The probability of drawing two black balls

dS ⎛ k ⎞

= 12 x ⎜ 2 ⎟ [Using (i)] 7

7 ⋅ 6 1⋅ 2

C2 7

dt ⎝ 3x ⎠ = × = =

dS 4k dS 1 C2 1 ⋅ 2 12 ⋅11 22

12

= ∝ . So, the odds in favour of drawing two black balls are

dt x dt x

7 ⎛ 7 ⎞ 7 15

6. Equivalence relations could be the following: p : (1 − p) = : 1− ⎟ = : = 7 : 15.

22 ⎜⎝ 22 ⎠ 22 22

{(1,1), (2,2), (3,3), (1,2), (2,1)} and {(1,1), (2, 2), (3, 3),

(1, 2), (1, 3), (2, 1), (2, 3), (3, 1), (3, 2)} 12. We have, maximize Z = 3x + 4y,

So, only two equivalence relations. Subject to the constraints

x +3 y−4 8−z x + y d 4, x t 0, y t 0

7. Given equation of line is = = On plotting the given

3 5 −6

x +3 y −4 z −8 constraint we get, OAB

or = =

3 5 6 bounded region as feasible.

Since a line through (–2, 4, –5) is parallel to the given Hence, on evaluating Z at

line having D.R.’s (3, 5, 6) corner points O(0, 0), A(4, 0),

? Required equation of line in cartesian form is B(0, 4), we get

Corner points Z = 3x + 4y OR

O(0, 0) 3×0+4×0=0 a b ax + by

A(4, 0) 3 × 4 + 4 × 0 = 12 L.H.S. = b c bx + cy

B(0, 4) 3 × 0 + 4 × 4 = 16 (Maximum) ax + by bx + cy 0

Hence, the maximum value of Z is 16 at (0, 4). Applying C1 o C1 u x and C2 oC2 u y, we get

⎡0 1 2 ⎤ ax by ax + by

⎢ ⎥ 1

13. Let A = ⎢ 1 2 3⎥ , then A = I3A bx cy bx + cy

⎢⎣ 3 1 1⎦⎥ xy

2 2

ax + bxy bxy + cy 0

⎡0 1 2⎤ ⎡1 0 0⎤

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ Applying C1 oC1 + C2 , we get

⇒ ⎢1 2 3⎥ = ⎢0 1 0 ⎥ A

⎢⎣ 3 1 1⎦⎥ ⎣⎢0 0 1⎥⎦ ax + by by ax + by

1

Applying R1 lR2, we get bx + cy cy bx + cy

xy

⎡ 1 2 3⎤ ⎡0 1 0 ⎤ ax 2 + 2bxy + cy 2 bxy + cy 2 0

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

⎢0 1 2 ⎥ = ⎢ 1 0 0 ⎥ A Applying C1 oC1 – C3 , we get

⎣⎢ 3 1 1⎦⎥ ⎢⎣0 0 1⎥⎦

0 by ax + by

Applying R3 oR3 – 3R1 , we get 1

0 cy bx + cy

⎡1 2 3 ⎤ ⎡0 1 0 ⎤ xy

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ax 2 + 2bxy + cy 2 bxy + cy 2 0

⎢ 0 1 2 ⎥ = ⎢1 0 0⎥ A

Expanding the determinant along C1, we get

⎣⎢0 −5 −8 ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢0 −3 1⎥⎦

1

Applying R3 oR3 + 5R2 , and R1 o R1 – 2R2 we get [(ax2 + 2bxy + cy2) {by (bx + cy) – cy(ax + by)}]

xy

⎡ 1 0 −1⎤ ⎡ −2 1 0 ⎤

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1

⎢0 1 2 ⎥ = ⎢ 1 0 0 ⎥ A = [(ax2 + 2bxy + cy2) {b2xy + bcy2 – caxy – bcy2}]

xy

⎣⎢0 0 2 ⎥⎦ ⎣⎢ 5 −3 1⎦⎥

Applying R2 oR2 – R3 , we get 1

= [(ax2 + 2bxy + cy2) (xy) (b2 – ac)]

⎡ 1 0 −1⎤ ⎡ −2 1 0 ⎤ xy

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ = [ax2 + 2bxy + cy2] [b2 – ac] = R.H.S.

⎢0 1 0 ⎥ = ⎢ −4 3 −1⎥ A

⎣⎢0 0 2 ⎥⎦ ⎣⎢ 5 −3 1 ⎥⎦ 14. Two cases arise:

1 Case I: When a = b

Applying R3 o R3 , we get

2 |cosa – cosb| = 0 = |a – b|.

⎡ ⎤

⎡ 1 0 −1⎤ ⎢ −2 1 0⎥ Case II: When a zb, let a < b.

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ Consider the function f(x) = cosx ...(i)

⎢0 1 0 ⎥ = ⎢ −4 3 −1⎥ A

⎢⎣0 0 1 ⎦⎥ ⎢ 5 −3 1 ⎥ As f(x) is continuous and differentiable for all x R,

⎢ ⎥ (i) f(x) is continuous in [a, b] and

⎣2 2 2⎦

Applying R1 oR1 + R3 , we get (ii) f(x) is differentiable in (a, b).

⎡1 1 1⎤ Thus, both the conditions of Lagrange’s Mean value

⎡1 0 0⎤ ⎢ 2 − 2 2⎥ theorem are satisfied, therefore, there exists atleast one

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

⎢0 1 0 ⎥ = ⎢ −4 3 −1⎥ A real number c in (a, b) such that

⎢ 1⎥

⎣⎢0 0 1⎦⎥ ⎢ 5 − 3 f (b) − f (a)

⎣2 2 2⎦

⎥ f ′(c) = ...(ii)

b−a

⇒ I 3 = BA Differentiating (i) w.r.t. x, we get

⎡1 1 1⎤ f c(x) = –sinx f c(c) = –sinc

⎢ 2 −2 2 ⎥⎥

⎢ From (ii), we get

Hence, A −1 = B = ⎢ −4 3 −1⎥ .

⎢5 cos b − cos a cos a − cos b

3 1⎥ − sin c = ⇒ = − sin c

⎢ − ⎥ b−a a −b

⎣2 2 2⎦

MATHEMATICS TODAY | FEBRUARY ‘18 79

cos a − cos b 3 −1 2

⇒ =| − sin c | = |sin c | ≤ 1 Here, a = 1, b = 3, f(x) = 2x + 1 and h = =

a −b 3 n n

[∵|sin x | ≤ 1 ∀ x ∈R] ? I = ∫ (2 x + 1)dx

| cos a − cos b | 1

⇒ ≤ 1 ⇒ | cos a − cos b | ≤ | a − b |.

|a − b | I = lim h[f(1) + f(1 + h) + f(1 + 2h) + ...

h→0

From cases I and II, we get |cosa – cosb| d|a – b|. + f(1 + (n – 1)h)]

= lim h[(2 × 1 + 1) + {2(1 + h) + 1}

15. Given f (x ) = x 2 1 + x ...(i) h→0

⎡ 1⎤ + {2(1 + 2h) + 1} + ... + {2(1 + (n – 1)h)+ 1}]

The given function is differentiable for all x in ⎢ −1, ⎥ . = lim h[3 + (3 + 2h) + (3 + 2 × 2h)

Differentiating (i) w.r.t. x, we get ⎣ 2⎦ h→0

+ ... + (3 + 2(n – 1)h)]

1

f ′(x ) = x 2 ⋅ (1 + x )−1/2 + 1 + x ⋅ 2 x = lim h{3n + 2h(1 + 2 + 3 + ... + (n – 1))}

2 h→0

=

x2

2 1+ x

+ 2x 1 + x =

5x 2 + 4 x

2 1+ x

. = lim h 3n + 2h

h→0

{ n(n − 1)

2 }

Now f ′(x ) = 0 ⇒

5x 2 + 4 x

2 1+ x

= 0 ⇒ 5x 2 + 4 x = 0

4

= lim

2

n→∞ n

2

{

3n + × n(n − 1)

n }

⇒ x(5x + 4) = 0 ⇒ x = 0, − . ⎡ 2 ⎤

5 ⎢⎣∵ h = n and h → 0 ⇒ n → ∞ ⎥⎦

4 ⎡ 1⎤ 4 ⎧ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎫

Also 0, − both lie in ⎢ −1, ⎥ , therefore, 0 and − I = lim ⎨6 + 4 ⎜ 1 − ⎟ ⎬ = 6 + 4 (1 – 0) = 10

5 ⎣ 2⎦ 5 n→∞ ⎩ ⎝ n⎠ ⎭

both are stationary points. 17. The equations of the given curves are

⎛ 4 ⎞ 16 1 16 x2 = 4y

Further, f (0) = 0, f ⎜ − ⎟ = ⋅ = ...(i) and, x = 4y – 2 ...(ii)

⎝ 5 ⎠ 25 5 25 5 Equation (i) represents a parabola having vertex at

⎛ 1⎞ 1 3 6 the origin and axis along positive direction of y-axis.

f (−1) = 0, f ⎜ ⎟ = ⋅ = . Equation (ii) represent a line which meets coordinate

⎝ 2⎠ 4 2 8

6 axes at (–2, 0) and (0, 1/2) respectively. Now, solving the

Therefore, the absolute maximum value is and the two equations simultaneously we get (2, 1) adn (–1, 1/4)

absolute minimum value is 0. 8

as their interection points.

1 Y

The point of maxima is and points of minima are

{–1, 0}. 2 x2 = 4y

2

OR ⎛ 1⎞ 4 y–

We have, equation of curve, y = x3 – 11x + 5 ⎜⎝ 0, ⎟⎠

2 x=

(–1, 1/4) (2, 1)

dy

Differentiating w.r.t. x, we get = 3x 2 − 11

dx (–2, 0)

Slope of the given tangent line is 1. Xc

(–1, 0) O (2, 0) X

Thus, 3x2 – 11 = 1 that gives x = ± 2 Yc

when x = 2, y = 2 – 11 = –9 2 2

when x = –2, y = 2 – 11 = –13

Out of the two points (2, –9) and (–2, –13)

So, required area (A) = ∫ |y2 − y1|dx = ∫ ( y2 − y1)dx

−1 −1

only the point (2, –9) lies on the curve y = x3 – 11x + 5. [∵ y2 > y1 ? |y2 – y1| = y2 – y1]

Thus, the required point is (2, –9).

2

16. We have ⎛ x + 2 x2 ⎞

2

⎡ x2 1 x3 ⎤

b

A= ∫ ⎜⎝ 4 − 4 ⎟⎠ dx = ⎢⎣ 8 + 2 x − 12 ⎥⎦ −1

−1

∫ f (x)dx = lim h[f(a) + f(a + h) + f(a + 2h) + ... +

h→0 ⎛4 2 8 ⎞ ⎛1 1 1 ⎞ 9

a b−a = ⎜ + − ⎟ − ⎜ − + ⎟ = sq. units

f(a + (n – 1)h), where h = ⎝ 8 2 12 ⎠ ⎝ 8 2 12 ⎠ 8

n

18. We have,

dy

− y = cos x ... (i) 19. We have , a = i + 4 j + 2k , b = 3i − 2 j + 7k and

dx c = 2i − j + 4k

This is a linear differential equation of the form

dy

+ Py = Q , where P = –1, Q = cosx a ⋅ b = (i + 4 j + 2k ) ⋅ (3i − 2 j + 7k ) = 3 – 8 + 14 = 9

Let d = (d1i + d2 j + d3 k )

dx

∴ I.F. = e ∫ = e−x

Pdx

Hence the solution of (i) is Now, a ⊥ d if a ⋅ d = 0

y.e − x = ∫ e − x .cos x dx + C d1 + 4d2 + 2d3 = 0 ...(i)

−x

cos x dx = − e − x cos x + e − x sin x − ∫ e − x cos x dx Also, b ⊥ d if b ⋅ d = 0

Now, ∫ e

3d1 – 2d2 + 7d3 = 0 ...(ii)

⇒ ∫ e − x cos xdx =

1 −x

e (sin x − cos x )

2 and c ⋅ d = 15

Thus the required solution of (i) is 2d1 – d2 + 4d3 = 15 ...(iii)

1 Solving (i), (ii) and (iii) for d1, d2, d3, we get

y.e − x = e − x (sin x − cos x ) + C ...(ii)

2 160 −5 70

d1 = , d2 = , d3 = −

Putting, x = 0, y = 1 in (ii), we get 3 3 3

1

⇒ 1 = (−1) + C ⇒ C =

3 160 5

? d= i − j − 70 k = 1 [160i − 5 j − 70k ]

2 2

1 3 x 3 3 3 3

From (ii), y = (sin x − cos x ) + e 20. Urn - I (10 W and 3 B), Urn - II (3 W and 5 B)

2 2

Which is the required solution. Let E1, E2 and E3 and A be the events as defined below:

OR E1 = Two black balls are drawn from the first bag.

Given differential equation can be written as E2 = Two white balls are drawn from the first bag.

⎛y⎞ ⎡ ⎛ y ⎞⎤ E3 = One white and one black ball is drawn from first bag.

1 + xy + cos ⎜ ⎟ ⎢ 1+ cos ⎜ ⎟ ⎥

dy ⎝x⎠ y ⎝x⎠ A = One ball drawn from the second bag is white.

= = +⎢ ⎥ ..(i)

dx x 2 x ⎢

⎣ x 2 ⎥⎦ 3

C2 1 10

C2 15

⎡ ⎛ y ⎞⎤ P (E1 ) = 13

= , P (E2 ) = 13

= ,

1 + cos ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ C2 26 C2 26

y ⎢ ⎝x⎠

Let F (x , y ) = + ⎢ ⎥ 10

C1 × C1 3

x ⎢⎣ 2 ⎥⎦ 10

x P (E3 ) = =

Replacing x to Ox and y to Oy, we get 13

C2 26

⎡ ⎛ λy ⎞ ⎤ 3 5

1 + cos ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ C1 3 C 5

λy ⎢ ⎝ λx ⎠ Also, P(A/E1) = = ; P(A/E2) = 10 1 =

F ( λx , λy ) = +⎢ ⎥ 10

C1 10 C1 10

λx ⎣⎢ ( λx )2 ⎥⎦

4

⎡ ⎛ y ⎞⎤ C1 4 2

1 + cos ⎜ ⎟ ⎥

P(A/E3) = = =

y ⎢ ⎝x⎠ 10

C1 10 5

= +⎢ ⎥ ≠ F (x , y )

x ⎣⎢ λ x 2 ⎦⎥

2

P(A) = P(E1) P(A/E1) + P(E2)P(A/E2) + P(E3)P(A/E3)

Hence, the given differential equation is not a 1 3 15 5 10 2 59

= × + × + × =

homogeneous equation. 26 10 26 10 26 5 130

dy dv

Putting y = vx and = v + x in(i), we get 21. (i) Since the sum of all the probabilities in a

dx dx

probability distribution is always unity.

dv 1 + cos v

v+x =v+ ? P(X = 0) + P(X = 1) + ... + P(X = 7) = 1

dx x2 0 + k + 2k + 2k + 3k + k2 + 2k2 + 7k2 + k = 1

dv dx ⎛v ⎞ 2

⇒ = ⇒ sec2 ⎜ ⎟ dv = dx 10k2 + 9k – 1 = 0 (10k – 1)(k + 1) = 0

1 + cos v x 3 ⎝2⎠ x3

10k – 1 = 0 [∵ k t 0 ? k + 1 z 0]

Integrating both sides, we get

1

v 1 y 1 k=

2 tan = − + C or 2 tan = − 2 + C 10

2 x 2 2 x x

(ii) P(X < 6) = P(X = 0) + P(X = 1) + P(X = 2)

Corner points Value of Z = 5x + 10y

+ P(X = 3) + P(X = 4) + P(X = 5)

P(X < 6) = 0 + k + 2k + 2k + 3k + k2 A(60, 0) 300 m (Minimum)

2

⎛ 1⎞ 8 B(120, 0) 600

= k2 + 8k = ⎜ ⎟ + [∵ k = 1/10]

⎝ 10 ⎠ 10

C(60, 30) 600

81

P(X < 6) = D(40, 20) 400

100

81 19

(iii) P(X t 6) = 1 – P(X < 6) = 1 − = Hence, Z is minimum at A(60, 0) i.e., 300.

100 100

1 cos x dx

(iv) P(0 < X< 5) = P(X = 1) + P(X = 2) + P(X = 3) + P(X = 4) 24. Let I = ∫ sin x + sec x dx. Then, I = ∫ 1 + sin x cos x

P(0 < X < 5) = k + 2k + 2k + 3k = 8k

2 cos x

P(0 < X < 5) =

8 4

= [∵ k = 1/10]

= ∫ 2 + 2 sin x cos x dx

10 5

cos x + sin x cos x − sin x

22. Equation of a plane passing through the point

(2, 2, 1) is a(x – 2) + b(y – 2) + c(z – 1) = 0 ...(i)

= ∫ 2 + 2 sin x cos x dx + ∫ 2 + 2 sin x cos x dx

It passes through (9, 3, 6) then cos x + sin x cos x − sin x

7a + b + 5c = 0 ...(ii) = ∫ 3 − (1 − 2 sin x cos x) dx + ∫ 1+ (1+ 2 sin x cos x) dx

Since (i) is perpendicular to plane 2x + 6y + 6z = 1, then (cos x + sin x ) cos x − sin x

2a + 6b + 6c = 0 ...(iii) = ∫ 3 − (sin x − cos x)2 dx + ∫ 1 + (sin x + cos x)2 dx

Solving (ii) and (iii) by the method of cross-

1 1

multiplication, we obtain

a b c a b c

= ∫( 3) − u 2 2

1 + v2

du + ∫

dv ,

= = = = where u = sin x – cos x du = (cos x + sin x)dx

6 − 30 10 − 42 42 − 2 −24 −32 40

and v = sin x + cos x dv = (cos x – sin x)dx

a b c

= = = λ (say) a = – 3O, b = –4O, c = 5O

−3 −4 5 1 3 +u

I= log + tan −1 v + C

Putting a = – 3O, b = – 4O and c = 5O in (i), we get 2 3 3 −u

– 3O(x – 2) – 4O(y – 2) + 5O(z – 1) = 0

– 3x + 6 – 4y + 8 + 5z – 5 = 0 1 3 + (sin x − cos x )

I= log

– 3x – 4y + 5z + 9 = 0 2 3 3 − (sin x − cos x )

23. We have, Minimize Z = 5x + 10y + tan −1(sin x + cos x ) + C

subject : x + 2y d 120, x + y t 60, x – 2y t 0 and x, y t 0 OR

To solve L.P.P graphically, we convert inequations into

π/2

equations.

l1 : x + 2y = 120, l2 : x + y = 60, l3 : x – 2y = 0

Let I = ∫ (2 log sin x − log sin 2x)dx

0

and x = 0, y = 0 π/2

l1 and l2 intersect at E(0, 60), l1 and l3 intersect at

C(60, 30), l2 and l3 intersect at D(40, 20).

= ∫ {2 log sin x − log(2 sin x cos x)}dx

0

The shaded region ABCD is the feasible region and is π/2

bounded. = ∫ {2 log sin x − log 2 − log sin x − log cos x}dx

0

π /2 π /2 π /2

= ∫ log sin x dx − ∫ log 2 dx − ∫ log cos x dx

0 0 0

π /2 π /2

= ∫ log sin x dx − (log 2) ∫ 1 ⋅ dx

0 0

π /2

⎛π ⎞

− ∫ log cos ⎜ − x ⎟ dx

⎝2 ⎠

0

π/2 π/2 (a b) c = (a + b + ab) c

π/2

= ∫ log sin x dx − (log 2)[ x ]0 − ∫ log sin x dx = (a + b + ab) + c + (a + b + ab)c

0 0 = a + b + c + ab + bc + ac + abc ...(i)

⎛π ⎞ π and, a (b c) = a (b + c + bc)

= −(log 2) ⎜ − 0⎟ = − log 2

⎝2 ⎠ 2 = a + (b + c + bc) + a(b + c + bc)

25. Let y = (sin–1 x)3 + (cos–1 x)3. Then, = a + b + c + ab + bc + ac + abc ...(ii)

y = (sin–1 x + cos–1 x)3 From (i) and (ii), we have

(a b) c = a (b c) for all a, b, c R –{–1}.

– 3sin–1 x cos–1 x(sin–1 x + cos–1 x)

3

So, is associative on R – {–1}

⎛ π⎞ 3π ⎛π ⎞

y = ⎜ ⎟ − sin −1 x ⎜ − sin −1 x ⎟ Existence of Identity : Let e be the identity element.

⎝ 2⎠ 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ Then, a e = a = e a for all a R –{–1}

⎡ −1 −1 π⎤ a + e + ae = a and e + a + ea = a for all a R –{–1}

⎢⎣∵sin x + cos x = 2 ⎥⎦ e(1 + a) = 0 for all a R –{–1}

π3 3π2 −1 3π e = 0.

y= − sin x + (sin −1 x )2

8 4 2 Thus, 0 is the identity element for defined on R – {–1}.

3 π 3 π 2 ⎛ π3 ⎞ Existence of Inverse : Let a R – {–1} and let b be the

(sin −1 x )2 − (sin −1 x ) + ⎜ − y⎟ = 0

2 4 ⎝ 8 ⎠ inverse of a. Then,

⎛ 3 ⎞ a b=e=b a

π 2 π

(sin −1 x )2 − (sin −1 x ) + ⎜ − y⎟ = 0 a b = e a + b + ab = 0 [∵ e = 0]

2 3π ⎝ 8 ⎠

−a

⎛ π⎞

2

π2 2 y b=

⎜ sin −1 x − ⎟ + − =0 a +1

⎝ 4⎠ 48 3π Now, a R – {–1} a z –1 a + 1 z 0

2

⎛ π⎞ 2 y π2 −a

⎜ sin −1 x − ⎟ = − ...(i) b= R

⎝ 4⎠ 3π 48 a +1

We know that −a

Also, = –1 –a = –a – 1

π π a +1

− ≤ sin −1 x ≤ for all x [–1, 1] –1 = 0, which is absurd.

2 2

2 −a

3π π π ⎛ π⎞ 9π2 Thus, R – {–1}.

− < sin −1 x − ≤ 0 ≤ ⎜ sin −1 x − ⎟ ≤ a +1

4 4 4 ⎝ 4⎠ 16 Hence, every element of R – {–1} is invertible and the

...(ii)

−a

From (i) and (ii), we find that inverse of an element a is .

a +1

2 y π2 9π2 26. Let ` x, ` y and ` z be the investments at the rate of

0≤ − ≤

3π 48 16 interest of 6%, 7% and 8% per annum respectively.

π2 2 y 9π2 π2 π3 7 π3 Total investment = ` 5000

≤ ≤ + ≤y≤

48 3π 16 48 32 8 x + y + z = 5000 ...(i)

Hence, the maximum and minimum values of 6x

Now, income from first investment of ` x = `

7 π3 π3 100

(sin–1 x)3 + (cos–1 x)3 are and . 7y

8 32 Income from second investment of ` y = `

OR 100

8z

We observe the following properties of on R – {–1}. Income from third investment of ` z = ` .

Commutativety : For any a, b R – {–1}, we have 100

a b = a + b + ab and b a = b + a + ba ⎛ 6 x 7 y 8z ⎞

? Total annual income = ` ⎜ + +

∵ a + b + ab = b + a + ba ⎝ 100 100 100 ⎟⎠

6 x 7 y 8z

a b=b a + + = 358 ...(ii)

100 100 100

So, is commutative on R – {–1}. [∵ Total annual income = ` 358]

Associativity : For any a, b, c R – {–1}, we have 6x + 7y + 8z = 35800.

It is given that the combined income from the first two ⎡ 0 3 2⎤

investments is ` 70 more than the income from the ⎢

adjA = ⎢ −11 1 8⎥⎥

third.

6x 7 y 8z ⎢⎣ 0 −1 3⎦⎥

? + = 70 + 6x + 7y – 8z = 7000

100 100 100 ⎡1 −1 2 ⎤ ⎡ 0 3 2⎤ ⎡11 0 0 ⎤

A(adj A) = ⎢3 0 −2⎥ ⎢ −11 1 8⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ 0 11 0 ⎥⎥

⎢ ⎥ ⎢

...(iii)

From (i), (ii) and (iii), we have

⎢⎣1 0 3 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 −1 3⎦⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 0 11⎥⎦

⎡1 1 1 ⎤ ⎡ x ⎤ ⎡ 5000 ⎤

⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎡ 0 3 2⎤ ⎡1 −1 2 ⎤ ⎡11 0 0 ⎤

⎢6 7 8 ⎥ ⎢ y ⎥ = ⎢35800⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥

⎢⎣6 7 −8⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ z ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 7000 ⎥⎦ (adj A)A = ⎢ −11 1 8⎥ ⎢3 0 −2⎥ = ⎢⎢ 0 11 0 ⎥⎥

or, AX = B, where ⎢⎣ 0 −1 3⎦⎥ ⎣⎢1 0 3 ⎦⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 0 11⎦⎥

⎡1 1 1 ⎤ ⎡x ⎤ ⎡ 5000 ⎤ Thus, it is verified that A(adjA) = (adjA)A = |A|I

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢

A = ⎢6 7 8 ⎥ , X = ⎢ y ⎥ and B = ⎢35800⎥⎥ 27. We have, (ax + b)ey/x = x

⎢⎣6 7 −8⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ z ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 7000 ⎥⎦ x y ⎛ x ⎞

ey/x = = log ⎜ ⎟

1 1 1 ax + b x ⎝ ax + b ⎠

Now, |A| = 6 7 8 [On taking log both sides]

y

6 7 −8 = log x – log(a + bx)

x

= 1(–56 – 56) – (–48 – 48) + 42 – 42 = –16 z 0. On differentiating with respect to x, we get

So, A–1 exists and the solution of the given system of dy

equations is given by X = A–1B. x −y

dx 1 b

T = −

⎡ −112 96 0⎤ ⎡ −112 15 1⎤ x 2 x a + bx

adj A = ⎢ 15 −14 −1⎥ = ⎢ 96 −14 −2⎥⎥

{ }

⎢ ⎥ ⎢

dy 1 b

x − y = x2 −

⎢⎣ 1 −2 1⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 −1 1⎥⎦ dx x a + bx

⎡ −112 15 1⎤ x

dy

−y=

ax

...(i)

(adj A) = − ⎢ 96 −14 −2⎥⎥

–1 1 1 ⎢ dx +

a bx

So, A =

A 16 Differentiating both sides of (i) with respect to x, we get

⎢⎣ 0 −1 1 ⎥⎦

d 2 y dy dy (a + bx )a − ax(0 + b)

Hence, the solution is given by x 2+ − =

⎡ −112 15 1⎤ ⎡ 5000⎤ dx dx dx (a + bx )2

X = A B = − ⎢ 96 −14 −2⎥⎥ ⎢⎢35800⎥⎥

–1 1 ⎢ d2 y a2 d2 y a2 x 2

16 x = x3 =

⎢⎣ 0 −1 1⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 7000⎥⎦ dx 2 (a + bx )2 dx 2 (a + bx )2

⎡ x ⎤ ⎡1000⎤ d2 y ⎛ ax ⎞

2

⎛ dy ⎞

2

x3 =⎜ ⎟⎠ = ⎜⎝ x − y⎟

⎢ y ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢2200⎥⎥

⎢ [Using (i)]

dx 2 ⎝ a + bx dx ⎠

⎢⎣ z ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣1800⎥⎦

28. The equations of two given lines are

x = 1000, y = 2200 and z = 1800 x −1 y − 2 z − 3

Hence, three investments are of ` 1000, ` 2200 and = = ...(i)

2 3 4

` 1800 respectively. x −2 y −4 z −5

OR and = = ...(ii)

3 4 5

1 −1 2

Vector equation of (i) is

Here, |A| = 3 0 −2 = 1(0 + 0) + 1(9 + 2) + 2(0 − 0) = 11

r = a1 + λb1 ...(iii)

1 0 3

where, a1 = i + 2 j + 3k and b1 = 2i + 3j + 4k .

⎡11 0 0 ⎤ Vector equation of (ii) is

⇒ | A | I = ⎢⎢ 0 11 0 ⎥⎥ r = a2 + μb2 ...(iv)

⎢⎣ 0 0 11⎥⎦ where, a = 2i + 4 j + 5k and b = 3i + 4 j + 5k .

2 2

(a2 − a1 ) ⋅ (b1 × b2 )

Since, S.D. = ...(v)

b1 × b2

Now, a2 − a1 = (2i + 4 j + 5k ) − (i + 2 j + 3k ) = i + 2 j + 2k

i j k

and, b1 × b2 = 2 3 4 = − i + 2 j − k

3 4 5

? b1 × b2 = 1 + 4 + 1 = 6

and, (a2 − a1 ) ⋅ (b1 × b2 ) = (i + 2 j + 2k ) ⋅ (−i + 2 j − k )

= –1 + 4 – 2 = 1

On substituting the values, we get

1

S.D. =

6

the planes r ⋅ (2i + 6 j) + 12 = 0 and r ⋅ (3i − j + 4k ) = 0 is

[r ⋅ (2i + 6 j) + 12] + λ[r ⋅ (3i − j + 4k )] = 0

r ⋅ {(2 + 3λ)i + (6 − λ)j + 4 λ k } + 12 = 0 ...(i)

r ⋅ {(−2 − 3λ)i + (λ − 6)j + (−4 λ)k }

(2 + 3λ)2 + (λ − 6)2 + (4 λ)2

12

=

(2 + 3λ)) + (λ − 6)2 + (4 λ)2

2

the origin.

12

? =1

(2 + 3λ)2 + (λ − 6)2 + (4 λ)2

26O2 = 104 O2 = 4 O = ±2

Putting the values of O in (i), we obtain

r ⋅ (8i + 4 j + 8k ) + 12 = 0 and

r ⋅ (−4i + 8 j − 8k ) + 12 = 0 , as the equations of the

required planes.

These equations can also be written as

r ⋅ (2i + j + 2k ) + 3 = 0 and r ⋅ (−i + 2 j − 2k ) + 3 = 0

or 2x + y + 2z + 3 = 0 and –x + 2y – 2z + 3 = 0

Class XII

extent of understanding of speciﬁed chapters. Give yourself four

marks for correct answer and deduct one mark for wrong answer.

Self check table given at the end will help you to check your

readiness.

Probability

Total Marks : 80 Time Taken : 60 Min.

Only One Option Correct Type 77 25 74 75

C2 C2 C C2

1. A determinant is chosen at random from the set of (a) 100 (b) 100 (c) 100 72 (d) 100

C3 C3 C97 C3

all determinants of order 2 with elements 1 or 0 only.

The probability that the value of the determinant is One or More Than One Option(s) Correct Type

positive is

7. A random variable X takes values 0, 1, 2, 3, ...with

1 2 3 1 x

(a) (b) (c) (d) ⎛1⎞

4 9 16 10 probability proportions to ( x + 1) ⎜ ⎟ , then

⎝5⎠

2. A bag A contains 2 white and 3 red balls and bag B

16 112

contains 4 white and 5 red balls. One ball is drawn (a) P( X = 0) = (b) P( X ≤ 1) =

at random from one of the bags and is found to be 25 125

red. The probability that it was drawn from bag B is 9 25

(c) P( X ≥ 1) = (d) E( X ) =

(a) 25/52 (b) 13/27 (c) 8/17 (d) 25/51 25 32

3. If X and Y are independent binomial variates 8. A fair coin is tossed 99 times. If r is the number of

⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ times tail occurs, then P(X = r) is maximum when r

X ⎜ 5, ⎟ and Y ⎜ 7, ⎟ , then P(X + Y = 3) is

⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ is equal to

55 55 (a) 49 (b) 51

(a) (b)

1024 4098 (c) 50 (d) None of these

55 9. Let X be a set containing n elements. If two subsets

(c) (d) None of these

2048 A and B of X are picked at random, the probability

4. If the integers O and P are chosen at random between that A and B have the same number of elements is

1 to 100, then the probability that a number of the 2n

form 7O + 7P is divisible by 5, is (a)

Cn

(b) 2n

1

1 1 1 1 22n Cn

(a) (b) (c) (d)

4 7 8 49 1 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 5 ⋅ ... ⋅ (2n − 1) 3n

5. A natural number x is chosen at random from the (c) (d)

2n ⋅ n ! 4n

first hundred natural numbers. The probability that

( x − 20)( x − 40) 10. Let X and Y be two events such that

< 0 is

( x − 30) 1 1 1

P( X / Y ) = , P(Y / X ) = and P( X ∩ Y ) = .

1 3 7 9 2 3 6

(a) (b) (c) (d)

50 50 25 50 Which of the following is(are) correct?

6. Three natural numbers are taken at random from 2

(a) P( X ∪ Y ) =

the set A = {x | 1 d x d 100, x N}. The probability 3

that the A.M. of the numbers taken is 75, is (b) X and Y are independent

MATHEMATICS TODAY | FEBRUARY ‘18 87

(c) X and Y are not independent Matrix Match Type

c 1

(d) P( X ∩ Y ) = 16. Sixteen players S1, S2, ...., S16 play in a tournament.

3 They are divided into eight pairs at random. From

11. A coin is tossed (2n + 1) times, the probability that each players a winner is decided on the basis of a

head appear odd number of times is game played between the two players of the pair.

n n +1 1 n! Assume that all the players are of equal strength.

(a) (b) (c) (d)

2n + 1 2n + 1 2 2n + 1

Column I Column II

12. A card is selected at random from cards numbered

as 00, 01, 02, ...., 99. An event is said to have occured. P. The probability that player S1 is

among eight winners is 1. 1/3

If product of digits of the card number is 16. If cards

is selected 5 times with replacement each time, then Q. If the probability that exactly

the probability that the event occurs exactly three one of S1 and S2 among eight

times is 2. 7/30

3 2 3λ

2

⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎛ 97 ⎞

3

5 ⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎛ 97 ⎞ winners is , then O is

(a) 5 C3 ⎜ C ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟

⎝ 100 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 100 ⎟⎠

(b) 3⎝ 2

100 ⎠ ⎝ 100 ⎠

R. The probability that both S1 and

3 3

⎛ 0.3 ⎞ ⎛ 9.7 ⎞ S2 are among the eight winners is 3. 1/2

(c) 5 C3 ⎜ (d) 10(0.03)3(0.97)2

⎝ 100 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 100 ⎟⎠

13. A coin is tossed repeatedly. A and B call alternately P Q R

for winning a prize of ` 30. One who calls correctly (a) 3 1 2

first wins the prize. A starts the call. Then, the (b) 3 2 1

expectation of (c) 1 2 3

(a) A is ` 10 (b) B is ` 10 (d) 2 1 3

(c) A is ` 20 (d) B is ` 20 Integer Answer Type

Comprehension Type

17. Let A and B be two events such that P(Ac) = 0.3,

The probability of happening of an event in one trial P(B) = 0.4 and P(A Bc) = 0.5, then

being known, then the probability of its happening 2

exactly x times in n trials is given by nCx qn – x · px where P(B/A Bc) = , where n is

n

p = probability of happening the event

18. If four squares are chosen at random on a chess

q = probability of not happening the event = 1 – p

board. If the probability that they lie on a diagonal

Now, nCx qn – x px is (x + 1)th term in the expansion of

(q + p)n whose expansion gives the happening of the xyz

line is 64 , then the unit place of O is

event 0, 1, 2, ...., n times, respectively. C4

14. In four throws with a pair of dice, the chance of 19. The probability that the roots of the equation

throwing doublets atleast twice is n m

x2 + nx + = 0 are real, n N and n d 5, is ,

19 125 17 18 2 n

(a) (b) (c) (d) then m =

144 144 144 144

20. A, B, C and D cut a pack of 52 cards successively in

15. Unbiased coin is tossed 6 times. The probability of

the order given. If the person who cuts a spade first

getting atmost 4 heads is

E( x )

7 57 21 11 receives ` 350, then the value of is

(a) (b) (c) (d) 64 VV

64 64 32 32

Keys are published in this issue. Search now! -

Check your score! If your score is

> 90% EXCELLENT WORK ! You are well prepared to take the challenge of ﬁnal exam.

No. of questions attempted …… 90-75% GOOD WORK ! You can score good in the ﬁnal exam.

No. of questions correct …… 74-60% SATISFACTORY ! You need to score more next time.

Marks scored in percentage …… < 60% NOT SATISFACTORY! Revise thoroughly and strengthen your concepts.

DR. G. VISWANATHAN

UNANIMOUSLY ELECTED INDIAN

ECONOMIC ASSOCIATION

CONFERENCE PRESIDENT

F ounder Chancellor of Vellore Institute of Technology

(VIT), Dr. G.Viswanathan has been unanimously elected as

President of the Centenary Second Year Conference of the Indian

During the Conference, Dr. G. Viswanathan presided over

a special lecture by Prof Jomo Kwane Sundaram, a leading

World Bank and United Nations economist from Malaysia.

Economic Association. Mr. Sundaram spoke on the importance of trade for economic

The First Year of the Centenary Celebrations was held at Acharya development. Dr G.Viswanathan stated that good politics should

Nagarjuna University in Guntur, Andhra Pradesh between ensure cooperation among numerous political parties of India

December 27 and 30, 2017. The selection was made during to have a common development agenda and clean politics free

the General Body to be President of Centenary Second Year from corruption. He invited the IEA to guide the nation with

Conference of IEA. good ideas for optimum use of public expenditure and allied

Mr. Ram Nath Kovind, President of India, inaugurated the first fiscal policies.

year centenary celebrations at Acharya Nagarjuna University.

The IEA was founded by Dr. Gilbert Slater, First Professor

E.S.L.Narasimhan, Governor of Andhra Pradesh, Chandrababu

of Indian Economics, University of Madras along with

Naidu, Chief Minister, Muhammad Yunus, Nobel Laureate for

Prof. Percy Anstey and C.J. Hamilton of Bombay and Calcutta

Peace and Founder of Grameen Bank, former RBI Governor

Presidency Universities in 1917, along with Madras Economic

C.Rangarajan were among others present on the occasion in the

inaugural function. Association. Former Presidents of IEA include former Prime

Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh, Nobel Laureate Dr. Amartya

In his address, Mr. Kovind called upon emerging economies,

Sen, Nobel Laureate, Dr. G.Patel, Director, London School

including India, to speak up for an interconnected world with

of Economics and Political Science, Vice Chancellors Dr.

a fair and growing trade, in the wake of some countries turning

protectionist. He also said imaginative policy-making was V.K.R.V. Rao, Dr. Malcolm S Adiseshiah and Dr Yasodha

required to overcome the social and economic inequalities Shanmugasundaram among others.

between different sections and regions. --

90 MATHEMATICS TODAY | FEBRUARY ‘18

."5)&."5*$450%": '$"3:

."5)&."5*$450%": '$"3:

."5)&."5*$450%": '$"3:

."5)&."5*$450%": '$"3:

Registered R.N.I. No. 40700/1983 Published on 1st of every month Postal Regd. No. DL-SW-01/4045/18-20

Lic. No. U(SW)-29/2018-20 to post without prepayment of postage N.D.P.S.O.N.D-1 on 2-3rd same month