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TR 331 – HIGHWAY MATERIALS

Students from:

DR. P. BUJULU Mr. F. Mutabazi TGE Dept.

TGE – Transportation & Geotech. Eng. (CTE) SCE – Stuctural & Constr. Engineering (CSE) WRE – Water Resources Engineering (CWR) EGY – Engineering Geology (BSc.GY?) PGD – Postgraduate Diploma in Civil Eng.

SUBGRADES

• The native material underneath a constucted pavement

• Can also be selected borrow materials for fill section

• Foundation of pavement structure (major influence on the stability and durability of pavement)
• Foundation of pavement structure
(major influence on the stability and
durability of pavement)

SUBGRADES cont ...

Preparation involves clearing & scarifying, levelling and light grading, compaction to specifications

• Strength commonly measured by CBR

method (force required for a standard plunger to penetrate 0.25 mm, as a percentage of the force for the same penetration in standard crushed aggregates)

SOIL CLASSIFICATION • Two systems:

  • - Unified Soil Classification System (USCS)

  • - AASHTO System (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials)

• USCS System

Based on:

  • - textural characteristics for soils with small omount of fines that do not substantially affect its behaviour (granular)

- plasticity-compressibility characteristics for

plasic soils

USCS System cont ....

Classification based on:

  • - Percentage of gravel (G), sand (S) and fines (silt, M and clay, C)

  • - Shape of grain-size-distribution curve (Cu =d 60 /d 10 ; Cc = d 30 2 /d 60 d 10 )

- Plasticity and compressibility characteristics (position on plasticty

chart)

Different Soil Classification Systems

Different Soil Classification Systems

Soil Plasticity Chart

Soil Plasticity Chart Note generally that: I ≥ 0.73(W -20%) → Clay I < 0.73(W -20%)

Note generally that:

I p 0.73(W L -20%) Clay

I p < 0.73(W L -20%) Silt

W L < 50% High pl

W L 50% Low pl

The AASHTO SYSTEM

• Based on the observed field performance of

subgrade soils under highway pavements

... on the desirability of the soil as a subgrade

, i.e.

material for highway construction • Criteria for classification - PSD and Plasticity

• Divided into two major groups:

- Granular materials with 35% or less passing 0.075 mm (75 μm or No. 200) sieve

- Silt-clay materials (fines) with more than 35%

passing No. 200 sieve

NB: According to the AASHTO system, soils having approx. the same general load-carrying capacity and service characteristics are grouped together to form 7 basic groups, designated as A-1, A-2, A-3, A-4, A-5, A-6 and A-7, where:

  • - The best soils for HW subgrades are classified under A-1

  • - Poorer soils are rated in numerical order, with A-7 group being the poorest

  • - The exception is the A-3 group . Soils classified as A-3 are better subgrade soils than the A-2 soils (why?).

    • - The 7 basic groups have been subdivided into 12 subgroups

AASHTO GROUPS & SUBGROUPS

  • A. Granular Materials (fines 35%):

1. Group A-1

Well-graded mixture of stone fragments or gravel, ranging from coarse to fine, with a non-plastic or slightly plastic soil binder. Also, this group includes coarse materials without soil binder.

  • 1.1 Subgroup A-1-a:

Materials consisting of predominantly of stone fragments or gravel, either with or without a well-graded soil binder

  • 1.2 Subgroup A-1-b:

Materials consisting predominantly of course sand, with or without a well- graded soil binder.

2. Group A-3

Materials consisting of sands deficient in coarse material and soil binder. Typical is fine beach sand or desert wind-blown sand without silt or clay fines, or with a very small amaount of non-plastic silt.

AASHTO Groups & Subgroups cont ....

3. Group A-2

Includes a wide variety of ’granular’ materials that are borderline between the granular materials of groups A-1 and A-3 and the silt-clay materials of

groups A-4, A-5, A-6 and A-7. It includes materials with 35% passing the 0.075 mm (No. 200) sieve, but cannot be classified as A-1 or A-3 due to fines content or plasticity or both in excess of the limitations of those groups.

  • 3.1 Subgroups A-2-4 and A-2-5

These fulfill the requirements for group A-2, but with materials passing the 0.425 mm (No. 40) sieve having the characteristics of the A-4 and A-5 groups, respectively.

  • 3.2 Subgroups A-2-6 and A-2-7

Same as for Subgroups A-2-4 and A-2-5, except that the fines portion contains plastic clay with the characteristics of the A-6 and A-7 groups, resp.

NB: A-2 soils are given a poorer rating than A-1 soils because of inferior binder, poor grading or a combination of the two. A-2 soils are usually used as a cover material for very plastic subgrades

B. Silt-Clay Materials (fines > 35%)

1. Group A-4

The typical material of this group is a non-plastic or moderately plastic silty soil, usually having 75% passing 0.075 mm (No. 200) sieve. It includes also mixtures of fine silty soil and up to 64% of sand and gravel retained on the 0.075 mm (No. 200) sieve. They are predominantly silty soils (which are difficult to compact).

  • 2. Group A-5

The typical material of this group is similar to the A-4 material, except that it is usually of diatomaceous or micaceous character and may be highly elastic as indicated by the high liquid limits. They are normally elastic or resilient in both the dump and semi-dry conditions. They are subject to frost heave, erosion and loss of stability if not properly drained.

  • 3. Group A-6

The typical material of this group is a plastic clay soil, usually having 75% passing 0.075 mm (No. 200) sieve. It includes also mixtures of fine clayey soil and up to 64% of sand and gravel retained on the 0.075 mm sieve. They have high volume changes when moisture content changes and they lose strength when soaked. They do not drain readily.

Silt-Clay Materials cont .....

4. Group A-7

The typical materials and problems of this group are similar to those of Group A-6, except that they have the high liquid limits of characteristic of the A-5 group and may be elastic and subject to high volume changes.

4.1 Subgroup A-7-5:

Includes materials with moderate plasticity indexes in relation to liquid limit and are subject to considerable volume changes. NB: PI (LL-30) 4.2 Subgroup A-7-6:

Includes materials with high plasticity indexes in relation to liquid limit and are subject to extremely high volume changes. NB: PI > (LL-30)

Refer to THE AASHTO SOIL CLASSIFICATION TABLE

Classification Procedure (with the required data available):

- Proceed from left to right on the AASHTO Classification Table -The correct group found by the elimination method -The first group from the left which the test data will fit is the correct class NB: All limiting values must be in whole numbers. Fractional numbers should be converted to the nearest whole number s for the purpose of classification

Example

With the following soil test results, classify the soil according to the AASHTO system:

  • - Percentage passing 38 mm (1½ in.) sieve = 100%

  • - Percentage passing 2.00 mm (No. 10) sieve = 65%

  • - Percentage passing 0.425 mm (No. 40) sieve = 45%

  • - Percentage passing 0.075 mm (No. 200) sieve = 30%

  • - Liquid limit, LL = 35

  • - Plasticity index, PI = 21

SOLUTION:

Proceeding from left to right on the AASHTO classification table:

  • - It is NOT Group A-1-a, as over 50% (i.e. 65%) passes 2.00 mm sieve

  • - It is NOT Group A-1-b, as over 25% (i.e. 30%) passes 0.075 mm sieve

  • - It is NOT Group A-3, as less than 51% (i.e. 30%) passes 0.425 mm sieve (##)

  • - It is NOT Group A-2-4, as PI is greater than 10 (i.e. PI = 21)

  • - It is NOT Group A-2-5, as LL is less than 41 (i.e. LL = 35)

  • - The soil meets all requirements of Group A-2-6 The soil sample is therefore classified as Group A-2-6

GROUP INDEX of Soils

Is a function of liquid limit, plasticity index and amount of fines

Used as a general guide to the load bearing capacity of soil

Supporting value of subgrade ~ inverse ratio of its GI

E.g., GI of 0 excellent SG; GI of 20poor SG material

According to AASHTO, GI can be calculated from:

GI = (F-35)[0.2 + 0.005(LL-40)] + 0.01(F-15)(PI-10)

Where: F = Percent passing 0.075 mm sieve (fines) expressed as a whole # (NB: This %ge is based on materials passing the 75 mm sieve)

LL = Liquid limit, PI = Plasticity index

NB: GI should be reported to the nearest whole number

  • - If the calculated GI 0, it is should be reported as 0

  • - For GI of A-2-6 and A-2-7, only the PI portion is used (why??)

  • - GI values should always be shown in parantheses after the classification group symbol, e.g. A-2-6(3), A-4(12), A-7-5(17)

- GI can be estimated using a Nomograph with sufficient accuracy

3. SOIL COMPACTION

Definition

• Mechanical densification of soils

By pressing soil particles (to park more closely together)

• Through reduction of air voids (expulsion of air)

• Achieved by mechanical means

  • - Rollers (e.g. for road or dam construction)

  • - Dynamic compaction (densification) by falling mass

3. SOIL COMPACTION Definition • Mechanical densification of soils • By pressing soil particles (to park

Advantages of Soil Compaction

• Generally, compaction high strength and resistance to deformation

Shear strength increases bearing capacity Reduces settlements Decreases volume changes (swell & shrinkage) Reduces water permeability & capillarity (number and size of voids)

NB: Extent of improvement depends on type of soil, moisture content, type of equipment, compaction energy (effort) applied (e.g. weight and

power of roller, number of repetitions/passes, etc)

PROCTOR (COMPACTION) TEST

Objective is to determine the relationship between compacted dry density and soil moisture content.

The test is used to provide a guide for specifications on field compaction

PROCTOR (COMPACTION) TEST Objective is to determine the relationship between compacted dry density and soil moisture
PROCTOR (COMPACTION) TEST Objective is to determine the relationship between compacted dry density and soil moisture

Density-Moisture Relationship

• Degree of compaction ~ Dry density (kg/m 3 ) at a given moisture content (%)

NB: ρ d = ρ/(1+w)

• Dry density ~ compactive effort + moisture content

• OMC = moisture content which gives the highest dry density (depends on type of compaction)

• Hint: OMC is smaller than the Plastic limit (w p , PL)

Density-Moisture Relationship cont

...

Density-Moisture Relationship cont ...

Compaction Mechanism

• At low moisture content – particles not lubricated (friction prevents densification) • Increase of moisture content film of water develops, reduces friction, increases compactability • At OMC closest packing at that compaction effort • Further increase of moisture creates excess pore water pressure on compacting; gives lower ρ d

• Zero-air voids curve ~ 100% saturation (sat. line)

• It is practically not attainable (removing all the air?!)

• Points on the zero-air void curve:

ρ dz = ρ w G s /(1+wG s );

G s = spec. Gravity; ’w’ in fraction!

• Points on lines of different saturation levels:

ρ d = (1-V a )/(1/ ρ s – w/ρ w )

= ρ w G s (1-V a )/(1+wG s )

• Points on lines of different saturation levels : ρ = (1-V )/(1/ ρ – w/

Standard v. Modified Proctor tests:

• Standard PT used mostly for road pavements • Modified PT used mostly for airfields & heavily loaded highways. But preferred by PMDM (1999) Standard PT: 3 layers, 2.5 kg hammer, 30.5 cm drop Modified PT: 5 layers, 4.5 kg hammer, 45.8 cm drop

NB: Standard PT (AASHTO, ASTM) BS Standard PT Modified PT BS Heavy compaction test In CML (2000): 1 litre mould is specified, 27 blows/layer

: Drop height = 300 mm (Standard PT) and 450 mm (Modified PT)

Typical Compaction Curves

MOD. PROCTOR COMPACTION CURVES

1400 5 10 15 30 35 20 25 Dry density (Kg/m3) 2300 1500 1600 1700 1800
1400
5
10
15
30
35
20
25
Dry density (Kg/m3)
2300
1500
1600
1700
1800
1900
2000
2100
2200

Moisture content (%)

  • Saturation (ZAV) line for Gs=3.0

  • Mzumbe

  • Msamvu

  • Katoke

  • Ngunja

  • Jaribu Muhutwe

Saturation (ZAV) line for Gs=3.0 Mzumbe Msamvu Katoke Ngunja Jaribu Muhutwe

Field Compaction Methods

Following compaction techniques:

  • 1. Kneading variable comp effort applied thru protrusions on a padded drum wheel Sheep’s (tamping) foot roller

- May also be equiped to vibrate

  • - Used mainly for cohesive soils (clays & silts)

  • - Exerted pressures 1000-1500 kPa (dep. roller size)

  • - Suitable for soil layers 150-300 mm thickness

  • - 3 to 5 passes (repetitions)

Field Compaction Methods Following compaction techniques: 1. Kneading – variable comp effort applied thru protrusions on
Field Compaction Methods Following compaction techniques: 1. Kneading – variable comp effort applied thru protrusions on

Compaction methods cont ...

  • 2. Static compaction non-vibratory smooth steel wheeled and pneumatic rubber-tired rollers - Used mainly for granular materials - Also to finish the upper surface of compacted layers (subgrade, base course and asphalt surface)

- Compaction layer thickness: 100-200 mm - Smooth steel wheeled: recom. max speed 15 km/h - Pneumatic rubber-tired: efficiency dep. on pressure

(NB: too high pressure may cause bearing capacity failure or rutting of soil layer)

Compaction methods cont ... non-vibratory smooth steel wheeled and pneumatic rubber-tired rollers - Used mainly for
Compaction methods cont ... non-vibratory smooth steel wheeled and pneumatic rubber-tired rollers - Used mainly for

Compaction methods cont ... 3. Vibratory compaction – vibratory smooth-drum

rollers (1 drum + rubber-tired drive or 2 smooth drums, one of which saves as the drive wheel)

  • - Used for gravel, sand & silt soils; granular base courses and asphalt mixtures

  • - Mechanism: either a rotating or reciprocating mass (actuated by a hydraulic motor)

  • - Operating mass varies, 2-15 tons

  • - Layer thicknesses up to 1 m:

  • - Requires 3-5 passes

Compaction methods cont ... 3. Vibratory compaction – vibratory smooth-drum rollers ( 1 drum + rubber-tired

Compaction methods cont ...

4. Impact compaction – tamping compactors

  • - Used for small & inclined areas (patch or trenches) - Can be hand-operated or tractor-mounted

    • - 30-1000 kg tampers manufactured

    • - 5-6 coverages (e.g. by half-ton compactor)

    • - Layer thickness 200-250 mm possible

Compaction methods cont ... 4. Impact compaction – tamping compactors Used for small & inclined areas

Field Compaction Procedure

• Selection of suitable procedure and equipment [soil

type, specifications (target ρ d , normally ±5%), available time, available equipment, economy (cost implication)]

Embankment formation (spreading thin layers of uniform thickness and compacting each layer to slopes and cambers. This results in uniform strength and moisture contents. Lack of this may result in differential settlements and potholing)

Moisture control (should be close to OMC, normally ±2%) - If too dry, add water by spraying and mixing thoroughly

- If too wet, spread the soil out in thin layers and turn it over to facilitate water evaporation before compaction.

NB: Specification of Soil Compaction (% compaction,

related to laboratory Proctor test results on same material) i.e. Percent compaction = [ρ d(field) / ρ d(Proctor,lab) ] (x 100%)

Example:

Minimum percent compaction recommended in RN31

Upper 500 mm of soil (subgrade): 93-95%*

Roadbases and Subbases:

98%*

Lower layers of an embankment:

90-93%*

:

95-100% +

NB: * Based on BS Heavy (Modified Proctor) Compaction (4.5 kg rammer) + Based on BS Light (Standard Proctor) Compaction (2.5 kg rammer)

In Tanzania [PMDM (1999)], we adopt:

Acceptable variation of field MDD = ±5% of lab (specified) MDD Acceptable variation of field OMC = ±2% of lab (specified) OMC

Field Compaction Controls

• Involves determination of field dry density and in-situ

moisture content (then compare with specifications, from PT)

• Two major control methods:

- Destructive & Non-destructive methods

Non-destructive method Nuclear method

• Nuclear densometer – determination of ρ d and w

For ρ d , gamma rays emitted into soil from source in the base of equipment, transmitted through soil (some absorbed) and (the rest) measured by detector infront of equipm. Density of soil determined from calibration.

For w, neutron radiation emitted into soil, lose energy due to collision with hydrogen atoms and are measured by a detector to give soil moisture content.

Nuclear method – Density & Misture

Nuclear method – Density & Misture

Nuclear method cont ....

Advantages:

Test is very fast immediate results (corr. measures possible)

Many tests possible statistical methods in the control process

Soil or pavement layer not disturbed

Can be used over a wide range of materials

Disadvantages:

High capital required to procure the equipment

Field personnel exposed to dangerous radioactive emissions (protection required and safety standards to be enforced)

Destructive methods ( sampling)

Sample of compacted material dug out test hole (~100mm Ø)

Total mass (weight) of excavated material determined

Moisture content determined

Vol. of excavated material determined from vol. of test hole

Dry density from bulk density and moisture content

Volume of test hole (sample), two common methods:

  • 1. Baloon method

  • 2. Sand replacement method (sand-cone apparatus)

The baloon method: by forcing a liquid-filled baloon in the test hole. The rubber membrane allows the fluid to fill all the cavities in the test hole. The volume of the liquid required to fill the hole is read on the apparatus. It gives the volume of the excavated material.

Volume of excavated material cont ....

The Sand Replacement method

Vol. of test hole determined from mass of loose standard sand (known ρ o ) required to fill the test hole.

Uniform med. sand of essentially constant loose density used.

Sand (density) and pouring funnel (vol.) calibrated in laboratory

Mass of sand that fills the test hole determined (hence, volume)

Mass (weight) of excavated material determined

Bulk density of excavated material computed

Moisture content determined by oven-drying

Dry density of excavated material (field dry density) determined

Compared with specified dry density Relative compaction - Undercompaction corrective measures (e.g.compactive effort, type of roller, number of passes, layer thickness, etc.) - Overcompaction OK if CBR requirements met, otherwise scarify and recompact

CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO (CBR)

Performed on subgrade to determine bearing capacity for pavement design purposes

Subgrade strength for determining required thickness of pavement for roads & airfields

CBR value = Resistance to penetration of 2.5 mm (or 5.0 mm) of a standard cylindrical plunger of 50 mm ø, expressed as a %ge of the known resistance for the same penetration in standard crushed aggregate (calibrated as 13.2 kN or 20 kN, respectively).

Soil sample compacted to anticipated ρ d and w (normally OMC)

Surcharge weight (annular discs) placed to simulate pavement layers; 2 kg disc simulates approx. 70 mm pavement layer.

Normally soaked for 96 hrs (4 days) to simulate the field soaking (inundation), common in the tropics.

CBR - Lab Test Set Up

CBR - Lab Test Set Up

CBR continues ....

The piston plunger penetrates the compacted sample at a rate of 1.0 mm/min.

The plunger load recorded for each 0.25 mm penetration to a max of 7.5 mm

Load-penetration curve is plotted and loads corresponding to 2.5 and 5 mm penetration are recorded

Plunger resistance at 2.5 mm expressed as a %ge of 13.2 kN

Plunger resistance at 5 mm expressed as a %ge of 20 kN

The higher of these two is reported as the CBR of the sample

Load-penetration curves sometimes need corrections (corrected zero).

Two test methods devised:

- CBR test – One Point Method (explained above & Illustration) - CBR test – Three Point Method (recommended by MoI/TZ)

CBR Test Curves (need no correction)

CBR continues ....

The piston plunger penetrates the compacted sample at a rate of 1.0 mm/min.

The plunger load recorded for each 0.25 mm penetration to a max of 7.5 mm

Load-penetration curve is plotted and loads corresponding to 2.5 and 5 mm penetration are recorded

Plunger resistance at 2.5 mm expressed as a %ge of 13.2 kN

Plunger resistance at 5 mm expressed as a %ge of 20 kN

The higher of these two is reported as the CBR of the sample

Load-penetration curves sometimes need corrections (corrected zero).

Two test methods devised:

- CBR test – One Point Method (explained above & Illustration) - CBR test – Three Point Method (recommended by MoI/TZ)

CBR test – Three Point Method

• Recommended by Min. of Infrastructure (T)

• Test principle similar to the Single Point Method, but three specimens for each sample.

• Specimens compacted at diff. compactive effort (varying wt of rammer, # of layers or # of blows)

• Dry density and corresp. CBR determined for each specimen

• Graph of (soaked) CBR v. Dry density plotted (see next slide)

• CBR value of soil for any degree of compaction can be determined in field.

AGGREGATES FOR H/W CONSTRUCTION

Refers to granular mineral particles used either alone as road bases, subbases, backfill, etc, or in combination with cementing materials, such as cement or bitumen to form concretes for bases, wearing surfaces or drainage structures

Should be capable of transmitting the stresses induced by traffic loads and resisting wear due to abrasive forces from moving traffic and natural elements (weathering).

Aggregate specifications tend to seek characteristics that will ensure the required gradation, strength, toughness, durability, cleanliness, and workability

Can broadly be classified as either natural or artificial aggreg. Natural Aggreg.: Rock fragments, used in natural state except for crushing, sizing and washing (e.g. crushed rock, gravel, sand)

Artificial Aggreg.: Result from physical and chemical modifications of materials or byproducts (e.g. Blast furnace slag, light wt aggr., fly-ash pellets, recycled concrete and asphalt pavement, etc.

Production of Crushed Rock Aggregates

Production of Crushed Rock Aggregates 10mm graded crushed rock aggregate 20mm graded aggregate
Production of Crushed Rock Aggregates 10mm graded crushed rock aggregate 20mm graded aggregate

10mm graded crushed rock aggregate

Production of Crushed Rock Aggregates 10mm graded crushed rock aggregate 20mm graded aggregate

20mm graded aggregate

Aggregate Properties & Tests

The most important properties:

  • - Gradation (PSD)

  • - Shape and surface texture

  • - Relative density (SG) and absorption

  • - Hardness (resistance to wear)

  • - Crushing strength and toughness (resistance to impact/shock)

  • - Durability (resistance to weathering)

  • - Being free from deleterious substances (cleanliness)

PSD and Gradation

  • - Affects density, strength, and economy of pvmt structure

  • - Usually plotted on aggregate gradin g chart and judged according to the given specification limits (envelope) for a particular project

    • - Strength (resistance to shear failure) increases if mixture is densely graded

    • - Densely graded mixes are also more economic (less binder needed)

Particle Shape and Surface Texture

• They affect aggreg. strength, bond with binder materials and resistance to skidding and sliding between particles.

• Flat particles, thin particles, or long, needle-shaped particles break more easily than cubical particles

• Particles with rough, fractured faces allow better bond with binder than do rounded, smooth gravel particles.

• The particle shape is expressed in terms of its Flakiness Index and Elongation Index

• Surface texture is expressed in terms of aggregate

type, e.g. crushed rock/stone aggregate, crushed gravel (at least with one face broken), natural gravel, etc.

Particle Shape

Particle Shape Cubical Aggregate Rounded Aggregate

Cubical Aggregate

Particle Shape Cubical Aggregate Rounded Aggregate

Rounded Aggregate

Flakiness Index Test

• Aggregates are classified as flaky when they have a thickness of less than 60% of their mean size

• Flakiness Index is found by separating the flaky particles using a standard Metal Thickness Gauge and expressing their mass as a percentage of the sample mass

• The test is applicable to the material passing a 63 mm sieve and retained on a 6.3 mm sieve

NB: For base course and wearing course aggregates, the presence of flaky particles is undesirable as they cause inherent weakness due to the likelyhood of breaking down under heavy traffic loads.

Elongation Index

• Aggregates are classified as elongated when they

have a length (greatest dimension) of more than 1.8 of their mean sieve size

• The Elongation Index is found by separating the elongated particles using a standard Metal Length Gauge and expressing their mass as a percentage of the sample mass.

• Applicable to material passing a 50 mm sieve, retained on the 6.3 mm sieve

NB: As for the flakiness, the presence of elongated particles is undesirable for base course and wearing course aggregates, as they cause inherent weakness due to the likelyhood of breaking down under heavy traffic loads.

Determination of Flat and Elongated Aggregate Particles

1:5 pivot point

fixed post (B)

Determination of Flat and Elongated Aggregate Particles 1:5 pivot point fixed post (B) fixed post (A)
Determination of Flat and Elongated Aggregate Particles 1:5 pivot point fixed post (B) fixed post (A)
Determination of Flat and Elongated Aggregate Particles 1:5 pivot point fixed post (B) fixed post (A)

fixed post (A)

swinging arm

Determination of Flat and Elongated Aggregate Particles 1:5 pivot point fixed post (B) fixed post (A)

S.G. OF AGGREGATES

Mineral aggregate is porous; can absorb water and asphalt to a var. degree.

Ratio of water to asphalt absorption varies with each aggregate. Hence,

Three methods of measuring aggregate specific gravity:

Bulk SG, Apparent SG, and Effective SG

Bulk Specific Gravity, G sb

This includes the volume of the water permeable voids in the aggregate (often termed the “”saturated surfac e dry” or SSD volume of the aggregate.

Aggregate
Aggregate

Dry Mass

Bulk Vol

G sb =

  • 1.000 g/cm 3

Bulk Volume = solid volume + water permeable voids

“SSD” Level

S.G. OF AGGREGATES • Mineral aggregate is porous; can absor b water and asphalt to a

water permeable voids

S.G. OF AGGREGATES cont…

Apparent Specific Gravity, G sa

This does not include the volume of the water permeable voids in the aggregate

Aggregate
Aggregate

Dry Mass

App Vol

G sa

1.000 g/cm 3

=

Apparent Volume = volume of solid aggr particle

Apparent volume does not include volume of surface pores

S.G. OF AGGREGATES cont…

Effective Specific Gravity, G se

This includes the volume of the water permeable voids in the aggregate that cannot be reached by the asphalt.

Solid Aggr Particle
Solid Aggr
Particle

G se

Dry Mass

Eff Vol

1.000 g/cm 3

=

Effective Volume = volume of solid aggr particle + volume of water permeable pores not filled with asphalt

volume of water permeable pores not

filled with asphalt

effective asphalt binder

Specific Gravity and Absorption

• Important in the mix design of concrete and asphalt mixtures

Specific Gravity and Absorption • Important in the mix design of concrete and asphalt mixtures

• Apparent Specific Gravity G sA , related to net volume (excluding volume of absorbed water)

G sA = M D /(V N *ρ W );

M D = dry mass of aggreg., V N = net vol. (=V s +V pp -V pa )

• Bulk Specific Gravity G sB , related to the total volume of aggregate (including the volume of absorbed water)

G sB = M D /(V B * ρ W );

M D = dry mass of aggreg., V B = bulk vol. (= V s +V pp )

• Sat. surface-dry SG (Eff. Spec. Gravity):

G sSSD = M SSD /(V B * ρ W )

M SSD = Mass of saturated surface dry aggregate

Absorption (%): Abs.= M WA *100(%)/M D ;

M WA = mass of absorbed water

=

M SSD – M D

HARDNESS (Los Angeles Abrasion Value, LAAV)

• Expresses the aggregate resistance to wear • Wear due to polishing effect of traffic and internal abrasion and grinding of the aggregates • Should not be rounded or polished ( skid resistance) • Determined by the Los Angeles Abrasion test – LAAT

Degradation of aggregates due to abrasion, impact and grinding in a rotating drum containing steel spheres

Place a clean sample (mass, m 1 ) in the LAA cylinder + abrasive charge (standard weight of steel spheres)

Rotate the drum at speed of 30 to 33 rpm for 500 revolutions

Discharge the material and sieve it on the 1.75mm (No.12) sieve

Wash the retained material, oven-dry and weigh (m 2 )

LAAV (%) = [(m 1 - m 2 ) /m 1 ] *100; LAAV < 50% is normally required

Resistance to crushing (Aggreg. Crushing Value, ACV)

• ACV gives resistance to crushing under gradually applied compressive load. • Measures resistance to crushing of traffic wheel loads • ACV determined by measuring material passing 2.36 mm sieve after crushing under a compr. load of 400kN • Applicable to aggr. passing 14 mm, retained on 10 mm

Sieve dry aggr. sample on 14mm and 10mm to remove oversize & undersize

Oven-dry at 105 ± 5°C for about four hours and cool

Place in test cylinder in 3 layers, to each layer apply 25 blows of

tamping rod dropped from h = 50 mm above aggregate surface; level Apply crushing force @ uniform rate so as to reach 400kN in 10 min ± 30sec Release the force, remove all crushed material using brush and weigh (m 1 )

Sieve on the 2.36mm sieve and determine %ge passing (m 2 )

Calculate the ACV: ACV(%) = (m 2 /m 1 )*100

Repeat the test and report the mean ACV to the nearest whole number

Toughness (Aggregate Impact Value, AIV)

Resistance to sudden shock or impact

Tested on fraction passing 14 mm, retained on 10 mm sieve

Preparation similar to ACV test. Test on dry or soaked condition

Sample in AIV cylinder subjected to 15 blows of hammer (13.5- 14 kg) falling thru h = 380 ± 5 mm, time-interval 1 sec.

Crushed sample is weighed (m 1 ), fraction passing 2.36 mm

sieve determined (m 2 ) For dry-condition test: AIV(%) = (m 2 / m 1 )* 100

For soaked condition, number of blows adopted is that which yields between 5% and 20% fines, and we define m, thus

m = (m 2 / m 1 )* 100; and AIV = (15m)/n where m = %ge of materials finer than 2.36 mm sieve n = number of hammer blows that produced m% fines

Ten Percent Fines Value (TFV)

Measure of strength of road aggregates (alternative to ACV)

Measures resistance to crushing under gradually applied load

Determined by measuring the load required to produce 10%

material that passes 2.36 mm sieve (for sample 14mm – 10mm) Applicable to both weak and strong aggr., dry and soaked cond.

Particularly prescr. for relatively weak aggregates (ACV > 30%)

Follows same principles as ACV test, but applied force not fixed

Load varied i.o.t. determine load that will crush the sample to

produce 10% fines (passing 2.36 mm sieve) Two test methods used:

- The Calculation Method - The Graph Method

NB: The Calculation Method is normally used in our HW Lab.

The Calculation Method

A static force is applied thru plunger at uniform rate so that in 10 min ± 5 sec a penetration of 20 mm (crushed aggr.), 15 mm (rounded/partially rounded aggr., e.g. uncrushed gravel) or 24 mm (honeycombed aggr., e.g. slags) is attained.

The force (f) required for this penetration is recorded

The specimen is weighed (m 1 ) and sieved on 2.36 mm sieve.

Fraction passing 2.36 mm sieve is weighed (m 2 )

Its percentage is calculated:

m (%) = (m 2 /m 1 )* 100

m should fall between 7.5% and 12.5%

Do second test using specimen of same size, applying same

force f, to obtain second value of m Determine force F (whole #) to produce 10% fines for each test

F = 14f /(m+4) Report the mean of the two F values as the TFV of aggregate.

The Graphical Method

• Four test specimens are prepared and subjected to 50 kN, 100 kN, 150 kN and 400 kN.

• Four values of m are determined and plotted (ordinates) against corresponding loads (abscissas); curve is drawn

• The force F corresp. to 10% fines is reported as TFV

• This method combines TFV test with ACV test (why?)

Durability of Aggregates (Soundness Test)

Shows the resistance of aggregate to disintegration due to cycles of wetting and drying, heating and cooling, freezing and thawing (should be sound)

Used to measure the aggregates susceptibility to weathering.

The weakening effect is more remarkable for sedimentary rocks due to existence of planes of weakness between layers

Commonly measured by the Soundness Test (AASHTO designation T104, or ASTM C88-90)

In lab, the test measures the resistance of aggregates to disintegration in a saturated solution of Na 2 So 4 (or MgSo 4 )

Immerse the aggregate in Na 2 SO 4 soln for 16-18 hrs, remove and allow to drain for 15 ± 5 min. oven-dry the sample at 110 ± 5 °C and allow it to cool. Repeat the process 4 more times. Wash the aggregates, dry and sieve them.

Express the %ge passing (lost or broken) related to the initial

In lab, the test measures the resistance of aggregates to disintegration in a saturated solution of Na 2 SO 4 (or MgSO 4 ) Immerse the aggregate in Na 2 SO 4 soln for 16- 18 hrs, remove and allow to drain for 15 ± 5 min. oven-dry the sample at 110 ± 5 °C and allow it to cool. Repeat the process 4 more times. Wash the aggregates, dry and sieve them. Express the %ge passing (lost or broken) related to the initial sample mass Guide: Loss not to exceed 12% if Na 2 SO 4 is used or 18% if MgSO 4 is used

Aggregate Blending

• Aim is to obtain aggregate of required (specified) gradation (within grading envelope)

• Gradation affects density and strength of pavement • During production, aggregates are sorted in closely- graded ’single-sizes’

• These can be remixed in desired proportions (i.e. combined or blended) in order to meet the gradation specified for use

• Descriptive terms include dense-(or well-) graded, open- (or uniformly-) graded, and gap-graded (ref. Next slide)

Design of Aggregate Gradation

• Refers to blending of crushed aggregates, starting with ’single sized’ aggregates (by nominal sizes)

• A trial-and-error procedure is generally used, but two methods used to decide on ’where to start’:

  • - The Mathematical Method

  • - The Graphical Method

The Mathematical Method of aggr. blending

The general formular expressing the combination (blending) is:

P = aA + bB + cC + ......

where P = %ge passing a given sieve for the blended aggr.

A, B, C, a, b, c,

...

= %ge of ’single-sized’ materials passing the given sieve

...

= Proportions of aggregates A, B, C,

...

, used in combination

NB: a + b + c +

...

= 1.00

Case 1: Combining two aggregates.

P = aA + bB;

a + b = 1

a = 1 – b;

Substituting in first eqn:

b = (P –A)/(B –A) and

a = (P – B)/(A –B)

Example:

Required to blend aggregates A and B in the Table (next slide) to meet the specification (envelope) given in the same table.

Example cont.

By examining the gradations we note that most of the materials passing 2.36mm will be provided by aggregate B

Proportions are determined to meet the mid-point of the specification envelope

Thus:

b = (42.5 – 3.2)/(82 – 3.2)

= 0.5;

Hence, a = 1.0 – 0.5 = 0.5

Then, the blended gradation is shown in the Table (next page)

Example cont.

Example cont.

Graphical Method (Two aggrates, same example)

Graphical solution for proportioning of two aggregates

Graphical Method (Two aggrates, same example) Graphical solution for proportioning of two aggregates

COMBINING MORE THAN TWO AGGREGATE FRACTIONS

General equation for blending: P = aA + bB + cC +

...

(%Passing)

Can also be expressed in terms of ”% Retained”, thus:

(100-P) = a(100-A) + b(100-B) + c(100-C) + ..... E.g: Passing sieve 4.76 mm: 100a + 100b + 54c = 67.5 (Remember: a+b+c = 1) Is equivalent to: 0a + 0b + 46c = 32.5 (% Retained) Then: Apply the simultaneous equations variable elimination method, or graph

HW-Solution

E.g. changing spec. for 1.18 mm to 44% and 0.30 to 28.5%

Specification (passing): 4.76 mm70%, 1.18 mm44%, 0.30 mm28.5%

Sieve 4.76 mm retained: 0a + 0b + 46c = 30 c = 0.65

0a + 40.4b + 8.5c = 15.5 40.4b + 8.5(0.65) = 15.5 b = 0.25

Subtraction of 0.300 mm sieve from 1.18 mm sieve (passing):

a = 1 – b – c = 1.00 – 0.65 – 0.25 a = 0.1

a = 10%;

b = 25%;

c = 65%

BS sieve

Aggreg. A x 10%

Aggreg. B x 25%

Aggreg. C x 65%

Combined

size (mm)

25.4

  • 100 x 0.1 = 10.0

  • 100 x 0.25 = 25

100 x 0.65 = 65

100.0

(100)

12.7

  • 100 x 0.1 = 10.0

  • 100 x 0.25 = 25

  • 94 x 0.65 = 61

  • 96.0 (90-100)

4.76

  • 100 x 0.1 = 10.0

  • 100 x 0.25 = 25

  • 54 x 0.65 = 35.1

  • 70.1 (60-75)

1.18

  • 100 x 0.1 = 10.0

  • 66.4 x 0.25 = 16.6

  • 31.3 x 0.65 = 20.4

  • 47.0 (40-55)

0.300

  • 100 x 0.1 = 10.0

  • 26.0 x 0.25 = 6.5

  • 22.8 x 0.65 = 14.8

  • 31.3 (20-35)

0.150

  • 73.6 x 0.1 = 7.36

17.6 x 0.25 = 4.4

9 x 0.65 = 5.9

  • 17.7 (12-22)

0.075

  • 40.1 x 0.1 = 4.01

5.0 x 0.25 = 1.25

3.1 x 0.65 = 2.0

7.3

(5-10)

Natural Gravel Bases

• Suitable are lateritic or quartzitic gravels, river gravel or decomposed rock gravel, etc. Others are calcrete &

silcrete gravels, especially in the southern Africa region. • Must be well graded (fall within relevant grading envelope)

and must contain sufficient fines to provide a high density on compaction. • The fines should preferably be non-plastic or meet the specified (prescribed) range of Atterberg Limits, thus:

LL < 25% PI < 12% (dry areas) or PI < 6% (wet areas) Shrinkage limit < 4% • Must have a minimum 4-day soaked CBR of 80%

SOIL STABILIZATION

• A technique used to improve engineering properties of weak or problem in-situ (local) soils (in-situ soils that do not meet the specified engineering requirements)

• Properties that may be improved include

  • - Strength increase strength, stability & bearing capacity

  • - Plasticity & workability reduces plasticity, incr. workability

  • - Volume stabilityreduces swell + shrinkage potential, pressure

- Durability increases resistance to erosion, weathering and breakdown caused by traffic. Reduce dust. - Permeability reduces permeability, prevents water from entering pavement structure

Stabilization cont ....

• Functional advantages:

- Stabilized soil provide firm support for wearing course (low vol.) or may function as a base course for pavement (heavy traffic).

Stabilization technique is suitable for ”stage construction” (i.e. may function briefly as wearing course, then apply surface treatment for increased traffic, finally apply AC surface on top (functions as base course) for heavy traffic

Main Categories:

- Mechanical stabilization - Chemical stabilization (use of agents)

Mechanical Stabilization

Technique applied to soil that can not satisfactorily be improved by compaction (poor gradation, e.g. uniform interm. sand A3)

Soil, gravel or aggregate of the missing sizes is added and admixed so as to improve engineering properties of original soil

NB: Admixtured material should be relatively inert so that it affects only the physical properties of original soil

- Includes thermal stabilization (freezing/heating), geosynthetics

- To cohesive soils, sufficient granular materials should be added to make sure grains come into contact with each other (?)

- Normally more than 10%, sometimes up to 50%

Technique used for sub-bases of high-quality roads or base and surface courses of lower-quality roads (ADT < 50 veh./day)

- Above 100 veh/day, maint. cost increases rapidly due to loss of materials and formation of dust. 200-300 veh/day require higher-quality surfacing

Mechanical Stabilization cont .... • Mechanical requirements for stabilized soil surface (light traffic):

(1) Stability to support weight of traffic (strength, toughness) (2) Resistance to abrasive action of traffic (hardness) (3) Ability to shed rain water as surface run-off

(4) Capillary properties to replace the moisture lost thru surface evaporation, thus maintain dumpness to bind materials together

NB: i. Aggregate larger than 25 mm should not be used (dislocation fr. surface) ii. Angular particles provide best interlock (e.g. crushed gravel and sands) iii. High stability can be obtained by a dense mixture of course and fine materials (which provide good interlock and high shear strength) iv. Dense grading may be approximated by the Fuller’s power grading law:

p = 100(d/D) n where p = %ge by mass passing a given sieve, d = aperture size of the sieve D = size of the largest particle in the mixture (largest sieve) n = an exponent between 0.3 and 0.5, normally 0.5

CHEMICAL STABILIZATION Use of Stabilizing Agents

Improvement of soil properties by incorporation of reactive substances, known as stabilizing agents (binders, stabilizers)

Common stabilizers are cement, lime and bitumen

Others include blast furnace slag (normally as GGBFS), fly ash, pozzolans (mainly ashes) and industrial chemicals (e.g. polymers)

Usually added in relatively small amounts ~5-15% by weight.

Stabilization may be due to either - binding soil particles together, i.e. cementation (binders, e.g. cement) - water-proofing soil partcles (e.g. bituminous stabilization), or - both, binding and water-proofing (e.g. in chemical stabilization)

Cement Stabilization

An intimate mixture of soil (or gravel) and cement • Cement contents vary: 5-14% by vol., 3-16% by wt. • Sands & gravels require lower amounts, silts and clays require higher percentages (why?) • Mixture compacted, normally at OMC, targeting MDD • Then cured (high moisture/humidity and temp.) for cement hydration strength, stiffness, durability

Hydration of cement Cementation

• Starting with cement clinker compounds:

  • - Tricalcium silicate 3CaO.SiO 2 C 3 S

  • - Dicalcium silicate 2CaO.SiO 2 C 2 S

  • - Tricalcium aluminate 3CaO.Al 2 O 3 C 3 A

  • - Tetracalcium aluminate ferrite (Ferrit) 4CaO.Al 2 O 3 .Fe 2 O 3 C 4 AF

C 3 S / C 2 S / C 3 A

+ H 2 O C-S-H / C-A-H

(hydration products)

• Effect increases with time (age), continues for years.

• Min. cement cont. determined in UK and TZ by

specified strength (7 days UCS, 4hrs soaking; ref.

CML Test 1.19-1.22). In US by compaction

(OMC/MDD) and durability test (wetting/drying,

freezing/thawing); then, strength is usually guaranteed

NB: OMC/MDD values for soil-cement differ from those of orig. soil

Tab. 2.1: American Recommendations fot Amount of Cement required for Stabilization

Tab. 2.1: American Recommendations fot Amount of Cement required for Stabilization

Construction Process

• Pulverisation

The soil to be stabilized must be thoroughly pulverised before cement is added (e.g. scarify existing soil to required depth using scarifier attached to grader or spread imported material to required depth, then pulverise using

rotary speed mixers or gang ploughs).

• Mixing of soil and cement

Normally, cement is spread (e.g. by a spike-toothed harrow) to provide a uniform amount over the pulverised soil. Enough water is added to achieve

moisture content 1-2% over OMC (why?). The mixture is then well blended

• Compacting & Finishing

The soil-cement is initially compacted using sheepsfoot rollers. The uppermost 25-50 mm using pneumatic-tired rollers, and the final surface using a smooth-wheel roller

• Curing

A bituminous curing membrane (e.g. emulsions & tars, rate: 0.5 l/m 2 ; cutback bitumen RC-250/MC-250, rate: 0.07-0.14 l/m 2 ) or use impermeable sheeting

PLACEMENT, SPREADING AND MIXING

PLACEMENT, SPREADING AND MIXING Soil-cement is friable, must be protected → surface treatment,cover

Soil-cement is friable, must be protectedsurface treatment,cover

LIME STABILIZATION

• Lime occurs either as QUICKLIME (CaO) or SLAKED

(Hydrated) Lime [Ca(OH) 2 ] CaCO 3 + heat CaO + CO 2

[Production of quick lime]

CaO + H 2 O Ca(OH) 2 + heat [Hydration of q/l, slaking]

But also: Ca(OH) 2 + CO 2 CaCO 3 + H 2 O [Carbonation] !!

Addition of lime [CaO or Ca(OH) 2 ] to soil/gravel changes the physical-chemical properties of soil Modification/Stabilization

Takes place in two stages:

- Modification (immediate process/effect), and - Cementation (with sufficient lime, long-term process/effect)

Soil Modification / Initial consumption of lime

SM Refers to the effects of the initial chemical reactions between lime and clay minerals (cation exchange)

Reduces plasticity (increases workability: e.g. 3% lime may reduce PI by to ; 5% may change soil to non-plastic)

• Increases volume stability (reduces swelling & shrinkage)

• Also increases CBR (i.e. Subgrade strength)

NB: Addition of lime to soil produces a highly alkaline

environment (pH 12.4) which promotes formation of silicates & aluminates that react with Ca 2+ to produce cementitious materials. Minimum lime content to produce pH 12.4 is known as the Initial Consumption of Lime (ICL)

Cementation • Reaction of lime with silicates and aluminates of clay (or from added pozzolanic materials, in the presence of water) produces cementitious compounds similar to hydration of Portland cement binding of soil particles (cementation) - SiO 2 + Ca(OH) 2 + xH 2 O C-S-H - Al 2 O 3 + Ca(OH) 2 + yH 2 O C-A-H

- C-S-H & C-A-H Cementitious, binding properties

• Known as pozzolanic reactions

Lime stabilization cont ......

Pozzolanic reaction is relatively very slow (time and temperature dependent), hence CBR,UCS, stiffness & durability

In highly plastic clays, addition of lime may be done first to modify the clay (to reduce plasticity and increase workability) and followed (after a mellowing time) by cement to increase strength by the cementation (hydration) reactions.

This technique is known as “Two Stage Stabilization”

Pozzolanic Stabilization

A pozzolanic material (pozzolana) is a siliceous or siliceous and aluminous material which in itself possesses little or no cementitious value (binding property), but will, when in a finely divided form and in presence of moisture, chemically react with lime at ordinary temperatures to form compounds possessing cementitious properties.

• Generally have a glassy or non-crystalline structure

• Typical are volcanic ash, fly ash/pulverized fuel ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), rice husk ash, some clay minerals (e.g. in ground bricks), etc.

• NB: Most artificial pozzolans are industrial waste products (e.g. fly ash & GGBFS). Their utilization has

environmental advantages (apart from possible economical & technical advantages)

Bituminous Stabilization

• A bituminous material is dispersed throughout the soil and compacted. Functions through:

- Waterproofing the soil, thereby maintaining the already existing strength (main mechanism) - Cementing through binding soil particles together, thus enhancing strength ( adhesion, surface tension) - A combination of both mechanisms (in many instances)

• Different types of bitumen can be used; e.g. penetration grade (Pengrade 85-100 and 120-150), tars, cutbacks and emulsion bitumen (depending on circumstances type of soil/gravel, temperature and moisture content, required end product, economy, etc.

• In layers of 50-150 mm, compaction by sheepsfoot roller or pneumatic-tired roller, controlled by density.

Selection of a stabilizing agent

• Selection of a stabilizing agent depends on many factors, mainly the type of soil to be stabilized, type of improvement, economy and the environment

• Following figure gives a procedure suggested by FHWA (US) – next slide

• Table 7.8 (PMDM, 1999) gives stabilizer selection criteria adopted in Tanzania

Laboratory Tests on Stabilized Materials

• Tests carried out during design and construction are:

  • - Atterberg limits (plasticity)

  • - Grading analysis (PSD)

  • - Initial consumption of lime (ICL)

  • - Moisture-density relations (Proctor test)

  • - California bearing ratio (CBR)

  • - Unconfined (uniaxial) compressive strength (UCS)

  • - Indirect tensile strength (ITS)

  • - Stabilizer application rate

  • - Durability tests

  • - Tests for deleterious materials (?)

• Notes given for self-reading

Deep Stabilization

Deep Stabilization Retrieval Penetratn + Binders
Retrieval Penetratn + Binders
Retrieval
Penetratn
+ Binders
Deep Stabilization Retrieval Penetratn + Binders

PAVEMENT STRUCTURE

• Components usually include the subgrade, subbase, base and surface • Subbase, base and surface courses Pavement • Two types: Rigid pavement and Flexible pavement • Strength of the subgrade is the main factor controlling design of flexible pavements • Basic design criterion is the depth of pavement required to distribute the applied surface load to the subgrade in such a way that the S/g will not be overstressed to cause an unacceptable deformations. The base (road base) is designed to bear the burden of distributing the applied surface loads and to ensure the bearing capacity of the subgrade is not exceeded. • The materials used in the base must be of high quality

The Subbase

Can be considered as an extension of the road base Its essence depends on the intended function; as:

A structural member (layer) of pavement (lower quality than road base but stronger than subgrade) • A drainage layer and to control the capillary rise

D15 subbase D15 subgrade

>

4 ;

• A service layer, as

D15 subbase D85 subgrade

<

4

  • - a platform for construction traffic

  • - a cut-off blanket to prevent moisture migrating

upward from the subgrade

  • - to prevent infiltration of s/g material into the pavnt str.

Specifications for Base and Subbase Materials

Sieve

 

Grading; Percent passing by wt

 

(mm)

Gr. A

Gr. B

Gr. C

Gr. D

Gr. E

Gr. F

50

100

100

-

-

  • - -

 
 
  • 25.0 75-95

-

 

100

100

100

100

9.5

30-65

40-75

50-85

60-100

 
  • - -

 
  • 4.75 30-60

25-55

 

35-65

50-85

55-100

70-100

 
  • 2.00 20-45

15-40

 

25-50

40-70

40-100

55-100

0.425

8-20

15-30

15-30

25-45

20-50

30-70

0.075

2-8

5-20

5-15

5-20

6-20

8-25

Coarse aggreg. – Not over 50% Los Angeles Abrasion Value Amount passing 0.075 shall be no more than 2/3 of passing 0.425 Fraction passing 0.425mm: Max. LL =26, Max. PI = 6

MACADAM SYSTEM OF PAVENT CONSTR.

• Developed 1783-1826 by John Laudon Mac Adam • The foundation (subgrade) is shaped and compacted to the intended surface camber, thereby giving:

  • - good side drainage to the foundation

  • - uniform construction thickness

• Can easily be brought to a highly stable state, resulting in minimal deformation in pvmnt under traffic load

• Uses crushed rock/stone, crushed gravel or crushed slag for aggregate materials

• Stability mechanism rely on interlocking and friction • Types: dry- & water-bound, crusher-run, bituminous coated macadams

3.0 BITUMINOUS MATERIALS

3.1 INTRODUCTION • Also known as Asphaltic Materials.

Are materials that contain bitumen (US: asphalt), resemble bitumen, or constitute a source of bitumen.

They include bitumen (asphalt) and tar binders.

Bitumen (Asphalt)

A solid or semi-solid (viscous) material, black or dark-brown in colour, having adhesive properties (cementitious), and consisting essentially of hydrocarbons, derived from petroleum or occurring in natural asphalt deposits, and soluble in carbon disulphide, CS 2 .

Tar

A viscous liquid, black in colour, with adhesive properties, obtained by destructive distillation of coal or wood. In H/E we mostly refer to tar derived from bituminous coal.

NB: Tar can also be obtained from petroleum by chemical treatment (cracking), not physical processes such as fractional distillation used for production of bitumen (asphalt)

Bitumen (Asphalt)

- Two main categories: Natural asphalt & Petroleum asphalt

Natural Asphalt

Occurs naturally in natural deposits (as native asphalt e.g. in Trinidad lake, etc; or rock asphalt in sandstone or limestone)

Petroleum Asphalt

Also known as refinery asphalts. It is produced by industrial (fractional) distillation of crude petroleum (crude oil)

It is the heaviest fraction and the one with the highest boiling point, boiling at 525 °C (977 °F).

3.3 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

• Those which directly affect the performance of asphalt in a mixture while being mixed, laid and in service .

• Challenge: To develop physical tests that satisfactorily characterize key asphalt binder parameters and how they change throughout the lifetime of a mix.

• Asphalt is a rheological material

Its stress-strain characteristics are time-dependent

• Asphalt is a thermoplastic material

Its stiffness (or consistency) varies with temperature

Physical properties of asphalt are time and temperature dependent

3.3.1 RHEOLOGY

• Study of deformation and flow of matter • Important in determining physical properties of asphalt • HMA deformation closely related to rheology of asphalt Rheology determines performance of HMA pavement • Example:

- High HMA deformations and flow rutting and bleeding - High asphalt stiffness fatigue cracking

Thus:

Comparison of diff binders must be done at some common reference temperature

Characterizing asphalt binder properties should involve examining rheological properties over the range of temp that may be encountered in its lifetime.

Rheological Properties (Consistency parameters)

Measure of hardness or degree of fluidity.

1. Penetration Test (AASHTO T49, ASTM D5) Penetration depth of a standard needle under specified cond. of weight (100g), time (5 sec) and temperature (25°C) - Pen units expressed in 0.1 mm (e.g., 8 mm 8/0.1 = 80)

- Assumption: same penetration deform similarly

NB: Based on field performance, no relation with test parameter

Asphalt Penetration cont…

  • - It is an empirical parameter used in grading asphalt

  • - The harder an asphalt cement, the lower will be its penetration & vice versa

  • - Five stand. penetration grades exist: 40-50, 60-70, 85-100, 120-150, 200-300

  • - The values represent the min & the max pen for each pen grade

  • - Two common grades are 60-70 (for hot regions) and 85-100 (for cold regions)

  • - Asphalt of lower pen grades are used at bus-stops or parking places where traffic stresses are very high.

2. Softening Point

• Also known as the “ring and ball” softening point. • Temp. at which asphalt change from solid to liquid

• At this temp. asphalt can no longer support the weight of a 3.5g steel ball.

• The ball, enveloped in binder, falls through h = 25 mm (touches the base plate)

2. Softening Point • Also known as the “ ring and ball ” softening point. •

The harder an asphalt, the higher is its softening point

At the softening temp., many asphalt types have a penetration of 800 (= 80 mm).

VISCOSITY (KINEMATIC AND ABSOLUTE) • Viscosity measures resistance to flow at a given temp.

• It is a fundamental property of fluid (asphalt), whereas penetration and softening point are empirical tests.

• Asphalt viscosity measured at two temp.:60°C &135°C • Viscosity at 60°C is called absolute viscosity [poise]

• Corresp. approx. to viscosity of asphalt in HMA pvmnt during hot summer (most critical state in service)

• Visc. at 135°C is called kinematic viscosity [centistokes]

• At this temp. asphalt is sufficiently fluid to flow under gravitational forces alone.

• Corresp. approx. to viscosity of asphalt at mixing and laydown conditions.

3. Absolute Viscosity

• Also known as dynamic viscosity • Measured at 60°C, using a vacuum viscometer. μ = τ/γ

Where: μ = viscosity [poise = g/cm-sec]; NB poise = Pa-sec/m 2 τ = shear stress γ = rate of shear (= dγ/dt)

3. Absolute Viscosity • Also known as dynamic viscosity • Measured at 60°C, using a vacuum

4. Kinematic Viscosity

• Kinematic viscosity = absolute viscosity/density • Measured at 135°C to simulate the mixing process • The cross-arm (capillary tube) viscometer is used • A constant head is maintained, flow under gravity • Measures time to flow between two timing marks

4. Kinematic Viscosity • Kinematic viscosity = absolute viscosity/density • Measured at 135°C to simulate the

5. Ductility Test

• Test involves stretching a standard-sized asphalt briquette (dumbbell) to its breaking point. • The sample under water at 25°C is stretched at 50mm/min until it breaks. • The distance at rapture, in cm, is reported as ductility.

5. Ductility Test • Test involves stretching a standard-sized asphalt briquette (dumbbell) to its breaking point.

6. Rotational (brookfield) Viscometer (RV) test

Will be discussed in the Superpave Mix Design chapter.

3.3.2 DURABILITY (AGING) TESTS

• Short-term aging During the mixing process

• Long-term aging After pvmt construction due to environmental exposure and loading

• No direct measure for binder aging (age-hardening)

• Aging effects accounted for by subjecting asphalt binder to simulated aging, then conducting other standard physical tests to evaluate the changes • Durability tests include:

1. Thin-film oven test (TFO) – NEXT SLIDE 2. Rolling thin-film oven test (RTFO)Not covered 3. Pressure aging vessel test (PAV)Not covered

1) Thin-film Oven (TFO) Test

• Determines the effect of heat and air on a thin film of a bituminous material. • Indicates changes in asphalt properties during conventional mixing; the residue approximates binder condition in newly constructed pavement • A thin film of asphalt heated in oven at 163°C for 5 hrs • Changes in other properties – penetration, viscosity & ductility expressed as a %ge of the original values .

- Retained penetration = Penetration of aged sample * 100% Penetration of original sample

- Aging index

=

Viscosity of aged sample * 100% Viscosity of original sample

3.3.3 Safety Tests

• Measure temperature at which asphalt materials will

burst or flash into flames

• Working temperatures must be controlled ( kept below Flash Point by ~ 50°F) for safety purposes.

• Recommended safe temp for Pen-grade ~ 245-335°C

• Flash Point is the lowest temp at which the vapour from (heated) asphalt is ignited by an open flame

• Fire Point is the lowest temp at which asphalt continues to burn without further heat supply.

• Safety tests include:

  • - Cleveland Open Cup (Flash and Fire Point test)

  • - Tag Open Cup test and

  • - Pensky Martin Flash Point test

Safety Tests cont…

Safety Tests cont…
Safety Tests cont…

3.3.4 TEMPERATURE SUSCEPTIBILITY

• Refers to the rate at which consistency of asphalt changes with changes in temperature.

• Consistency is measured by penetration and viscosity

• Two common parameters for temp susceptibility are the Penetration Index (PI) and Penetration- Viscosity number (PVN) • The Penetration Index (PI) only will be discussed

1. Penetration Index (PI)

• If logarithm of penetration, log(Pen), is plotted against temperature (T), a straight line is obtained; thus:

log(Pen) = A*T + k

where A (= slope) shows the temp susceptibility of the asphalt, k is a constant.

Thus:

A = log(Pen T1 )-log(Pen T2 )

1. Penetration Index (PI) • If logarithm of penetration, log(Pen), is plotted against temperature (T), a

T1 - T2

Then, Penetration Index (PI)

PI = (20-500A)/(1+50A)

NB: The lower the PI value, the higher the temp susceptibility. For paving asphalts, PI = +1 to -1

Penetration Index (PI) cont…

• Considering the “Ring-and-Ball” softening point (T R&B , where penetration 800) and penetration at 25°C:

• A can be determined (and hence PI) from:

A = log(800)-log(Pen 25°C )

Penetration Index (PI) cont… • Considering the “Ring-and-Ball” softening point (T , where penetration ≈ 800

T R&B - 25°C

Or, at any temperature T:

A = log(800)-log(Pen T )

Penetration Index (PI) cont… • Considering the “Ring-and-Ball” softening point (T , where penetration ≈ 800

From equation for PI:

T R&B T A = (20 - PI)/[50(10+PI)]

Substituting in equation above:

(20-PI)/(10+PI) = 50* log(800)-log(Pen T )

Penetration Index (PI) cont… • Considering the “Ring-and-Ball” softening point (T , where penetration ≈ 800

T R&B T

Temperature susceptibility for different asphalts

Temperature susceptibility for different asphalts
Temperature susceptibility for different asphalts

3.4 LIQUEFIED ASPHALTS

• Normal (Pen-grade) asphalts exist as semi- solids (highly viscous) at room temp.

• May be liquefied so they can be used without necessity of (or with min.) heating

• Two products are common

- Asphalt emulsions (bituminous emulsions or emulsified asphalt/bitumen) - Cutback asphalts (cutback bitumen or cutbacks)

3.4.1 Asphalt Emulsions

• Liquefied asphalt obtained by dispersion of asphalt

globules in water (containing emulsifying agent/stabilizer).

• Manufacturing involves passing hot asphalt and water containing emulsifying agent under pressure through a colloid mill to produce extremely small (< 5-10 μm) globules or droplets of asphalt suspended in water

3.4.1 Asphalt Emulsions • Liquefied asphalt obtained by dispersion of asphalt globules in water (containing emulsifying

Asphalt Emulsion cont…

• Emulsifiers are additives used to promote dispersion and stability of asphalt-water mixture (w/out segregation)

NB: Asphalt is an organic material does not mix with H 2 O Emulsifying agent imparts an electric charge to surface of asphalt globules globules repel one another (dispersed)

• On the basis of the type of electric charge, asphalt emulsions may be categorized as:

- Cationic emulsion (electro-positively charged), or - Anionic emulsion (electro-negatively charged)

Most siliceous aggreg. (sandstone, quartz, and siliceous gravel) are negatively charged compatible with cationic emulsions

Aggregates of limestones, dolomite, etc. are positively charged and are therefore compatible with anionic emulsions

Classification of Asphalt Emulsions

Setting/breaking of emulsions:

• Evaporation of emulsion water leads to formation of a continuous film of asphalt on the surface of aggregates (coalescing).

• Depending on the rate of setting or breaking, emulsion may be classified as:

  • - Rapid