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M3 HCTOPHM KYJbTYPbI_M_MMCLMEHHOCTH 87 Tlempoe kpecm — cumeoa pot6ayKozo cxacmon* HA, KPHHW4HAH, Ooxmop guaoaoeureckux Kaye “Onnaue, ecb TpaBbl, KOM cua oT Bora jana” (Bennkopycckue 3a- Kannanna: C6. JI.H. Maiixosa / Mocneca., mpumeu. 4 noyror. rekera A.K. Bait6ypuna. CM6.; Mapu, 1992), ~ yrsepxjan seaynpl-serelinnKxu. Bepa B ClipaBeIMBOCTb TaKOFO CyX*KJCHHA Obi1a CTOMb HEMOKOMEGHMON, 4TO jla- »«e B camolt Mocke, y Mocksopeikux BopoT H Ha Tyaroste, MOKHO GbuTO, M0 CBUETEABCTBY OYEBHIIUEB, elie B KOHUe XIX Beka KYNMHTb “3a XOPOLIyroO. WeHy” BCeEROIMOXHbIE UyOMeHCTBEHHBIe TpaBbl. Cpeyu HUX Hapsly c Naa- KYHOM HU adaMosoti 20206011 OCOGEIM CIIPOCOM NOAB30BaNCA [empos Kpecm Kosayubi 4 3Haxapu MbItanHch ONO3HaTb 9TY MH@UECKYFO ‘TpaBy B pe- abHOM GecxnopodusbHoM, 6e10-posoBoro BETA pacTeHuH 43 ceMelicrBa HOPM4HHKOBDIX (scrophulariaceac), H3BeCTHOM B GoTaHHKe NOf Ha3BaHHeM lathraca squamaria. Toratinas, cKppiraa OT Ye10Be4ecKOrO r1a3a X%KUSHb PacTecHHA B HEManOl CreneHH cnocobcrBoBaa MOfep>KaHHO B TpaMHH CBA3AaHHbIX C HAM HOBepHi M MMGponOrHyeckHX paccKa3oB. Tlerpos Kpecr NOABIACTCA 13 3€MIM NHUIh B CPpHOA KPaTKOBpeMeHHOTO WBeTeHHA. Oc- ‘TabHOe Xe BPEMA XKUBET B 3EMAC B BAC JIMHHDIX MACHCTbIX KOPHEBALL, OT KOTOPbIX OTXO/AT KOPHH, HafeMeHHbIe cheuMaNbHbIMH NpHcocKaMH. C NOMONLbIO NOCIeAHUX OH NHTAeTCH COKAMH Aya, TMMbI, KTH, BbICACbIBas MX 43 KOpHeit pepeBnes. Mucbuuecknit Terpon Kpect, Kak H crefyeT OkKHNATH, Mano HOXOX Ha cBoit “opurunaa”. To ofHuM NoBepbaM, OH “pocTeT 10 AYPOM MO POBHLIM mecrom” (Cxopapb pyccKoro a3b1ka XI-XVII Bp. M., 1989. Bein. 15), no ApyTHM — “pH Mopsx HM MipH pekax” (CamonexeHve mpocroro Hapoja 10 TpaBHukam // Ononeykue ryGepHckue BefomoctH. 1884. Ne 42). Pocrom Tle- rpow Kpecr O6btuHO “B TOKOTE”, T.c, oKONO 0,5 MeTpa. Ouepranusa creG18 H cbopMa Ha3cMHOli 4aCTH paCTeHMs BapbUpy!OTCA: ITO Tpawa, MOXOKaA Ha OGbIMHbI rOpox, HO Ges CrpyukoB (Makcumos C.B. Heuncras, HeBeqomant uM KpecrHas custa. CITG., 1903); ova mpoctupactca no 3eMae, “HKO >Ke Ory- * PaSora Bhinoanena ups cpuHancoBolt no;epskke PoccHiicKoro rymaHi- tapnoro Hay4Horo doura (Ne 96-04-06151). 88 Py 2CKAA PEUb 5/1998 peunpie naera” (Cropapb pyeckoro s3pika XI-XVII ap. Bout. 15), wt pac- rev “KYCrOuKaMH, YTO MONO|am AaATANNKa” (XapHronos A. Bpaenanue, 3a0abbl HW NOBEPbsA KpecTbaAH ApxanrenpcKoit rySepHun, ye3os: LcuKkyp- ckoro H ApxatreapcKoro // Oreuecraenubic 3annckn. 1848, T. 58. Ne 5-6. Org. 8. Caccn), 1-¢. MOOGHO KaLLIKe, TPHJMMCTHHKY WIM KuleBepy, H3BECTHO- MY B pasaMUHbIx BHylaX. JucrLst Terposa kpecra, GyytH HeBeIMKH 110 pas- Mepy, “pacryT Haxpect” HH MOXxOxKH Ha KpecT. Ero uBeTOK KpacHoBaT WIK Sarpor Ho B uem cxojired Bce HOBepbs (110 cyTH, GeIOTHOCHTENbHO k peastHAM), 1K 9TO B TOM, TO KOPeHb paccMarpuBaeMoro pacreHHsa uMceT popMy Kpecra. OH 10 CBOMM ONepTAHHAM HOXOK Ha CBRICHHDIT 3HaK-CHMBOU HII Ke 3aKMONAeT Cro B ccGe. Mnorja aToT KOpeHb OCMbICAAeTCHA KaK CaMblli HACTOALMHA KPECT — NOKOHHbIA, KOTOPOMY KaHAHOTCA KPeCTAC, HK Ha- HcpcHbilt, T.c, HarpyHbit. Takoli Kopeth, yxojaIMit Ha Gonpityro ry6u- HY, {10 jJIBYX APH (OKOAO NOAyTOpa MeTPOB), MOXKET COCTOXTh H3 MHOXKE- crBa Kpecros: “sce KpecraMu” umn “Kpect-Ha-KpecT”. Baarojapa sToMy OTAMUHTENBHOMY MIPH3HaKy “1yj{ecHOe pacTeHHe M HoTyUHIO BTOpyIO VacTh cpoero Ha3Banna [empos Kpecm. Kopenb pacrcHus, KoTOpOe OCMbICHACTCA Kak 6O2KCCTBEHHOE H10 CBOCMY NPOUCXOKACHHtO, OTMEUCH CaKPasbHbIM 3Hakom. Vf oOGpiBacTcH OH — CooT- BETCTBCHHO — B TaKOe Ke BPeMA, ZHAXapH, H OCOGEHHO /[EpEBEHCKHE JeKa- pH, MULyT cro B cH Meana Kynaspi (24 mons no cr. crwtio; 7 Mons lO HOB. Cr.), B HEPHON MEXkLy JayTPeHelt H OGesHeH, HIM Ke B HOWL HaKanyHe Yroro TIpa3j[HHKa, TOra Ke, KOPa MbITAFOTCA JJOGbITh UBETOK HallopoTHH- Ka, paspbiB-TpaBy, paBHo KaK M MHOrHe pacTcHHA, OGNaaOulHe, NO NO- BepbAM, HYMOACHCTBCHHBIMH CBOlicrsamu. Beab He cayvaitno Mean Kynana NOBCEMECTHO AMCHYyCTCA mpasHukom. BMecte c TEM, COraCHO HHbIM CBH- jereaperBam, ITerpos pect coOupaior — coorBeTeTReHHO »Ke — Mog TeT- pos eH (29 mOHs UO er. cr.; 12 WOAH 10 HOB. cr.). Takoe cMcMeHUe NpHH- UMIMaNbHOrO 3HaveHHA He MMeeT. Kak ormcuan A.H. Adpanacnes, 34¢McH- Thi KYHAALCKOM OOpaHOCTH MOraM NIpHCyTCTRORATH HR NpasqHOBAHHn Tle ‘vpoRa /Ha: HalIpHMep, KyNaAECKMe urpHIa HHOMa NpHypounBasuc, KO BPeMCHH, GANSKOMY K OSTOMY J{HIO: BCUCPOM >Ke, HaKaHyHe 29 MIOHS, Kpe- CThAHE 3AKHTaIH KOCTDbI, a HAYTPO HaGMOAANM HTPY BOCKOMAILELO CONHYA (Acpanaceen A.H. Nogrnueckne Bo33peHHa caaBaH Ha upuposy. M., 1994, ‘T. 3). Tem cambim Or3BykHt Npa3sqHHKa NeTHErO CoAHUCBOPOTA pacnpocrpa- raanch wa Metpos jenn. Hato orniogp He cayuaitto. To Hapojuomy Ka- aeHapto, oT Uanosa jo Terposa ana mmauch 3eaenbre “neTHHe” CBATKH, HPHpaBHHBACMbIC HO CBOEMY CMBICIY K POKECTBEHCKHM “3HMHHM™. Kakamn o6ps)OBbIMH jleiicrBaMH M MarHuecKHMH CAOBaMH (3arOBOpaMH MAM MOJIETRAMH) COMpOBO>K/a1OCb OGLIBAHHe TpaBbl [lerpow Kpecr ~ cBe- JCHMIT OG 3YOM B Hatem pacnlopskesHMH He HMeeTCs. A3BecTHo TOAbKO, “tO B HONCKAX YTOFO PacreHius HYAKHO YiTH OT AePEBHH Ha Takoe paccrosHte, "WroGbE TY{a HE OHOCHIOCE HcHHe WeTyxa, a UpH OGpeTeHun uyjecHoro M3 HCTOPHH KYJbTYPbI VM MMCbMEHHOCTH 89 KOPHA COBEPLIANNCh COOTBCTCTBYIOUINC OG6payibl. TpHuem, no loBEpbAM, Tpaba aBaaCh B PYKH TONBKO CUACTAMBHIM THOLAM Tlo cBoeit cakpanbHocru uM fake mpeqHasHayeHMto YOObITHI KOpeHD (IpPHpaBHubanca K HATCIIbHOMY KPCCTY WIM CBEUE, OCBALICHHOM B UEPKBH. Bot nowemy cro, Kak H KOpeHb IWakyHa H OOTEHL-TpaBbl, HOCHIH TOAMac BMeCTe C KpecroM: H3MenbuHB Terpos Kpect B MOpOUIOK, 3akKPeIIATH ETO BOCKOM, B3ATLIM OT CBCHCH, KOTOPbIC CTOAIM BO BPCMA MoneGHa Mepey, wKOHaMK Cracutcaa n Boromatepu. an >ke 4yecHyto Tpaby 3alsMBasn B opexay. Bnpowem, ec NPHHHMan H BHYTPb, HaCTaMBaa Ha MONOKe WAM Ha KaKOM-IH60 WHOM HHTbe, 1460 Cheam c xneGom. Cormacho nopepbam, BMecTe C KOpHeM Terposa Kpecra 4enoKneK OGperacT HeKOe cpe,oTOUMeE SoAbUIOFO CUaCTLA — HW HOCAIAHE cro B TeUCHMe BCel KU3HH GLiBacr Garo- noayuen. C jpyroit cropoubl, Kak y2ke FOBOPHOCH, “yNecHad Tpawa H jfOC- TacTCA TAKOBLIM. OjHAKO H OGE3/O.ACHHbIM COBCTYIOT HOCHTb 9TOT KOPCHb “na cuactpe” (Anjcena K.A. Sanuckn 0 crapom 1 HOBOM pycckom GpiTe. CTG., 1842). Bmecte c rem jjoGbtroe pacrenve — MoryiiecrsenHpiit OGeper: y Koro ecTh pu ceGe Terpos kpect, K TOMY HC MIpHKOCHeTCH HHKaKas HeEMMCTat CHa. STO HajCKHOE CPe/CTBO OT [bABOLCKOTO HaBAXKKeHHA, JIA “OOMe- HHS JICMOHCKOM Bpaxkbei CHIBI”, OT NPOHCKOB KOA yHOB (Pyccku HapoR: ero o6bluan, OGpajb1, UpeRaHHA, cyeBepua H HOV3HsH. Co6p. M. 3a6ninH- Hbim. M., 1880. 4. HH). Coraacho otomMy 13 MHoROrMUCCKHX paccka3zoB, B TOM CAY4AE, KOF)la B (OM YKe HACHaHbI HepTH ~ H OHH GDIOT Mocy)ly, ALOT. BO) H BCAYCCKH NPOKa3AT — H3PHATh HX MOXKHO SHIT HOCPC/ICTBOM “XpH- CTOBCKHX” CBCH, NOCTABIEHHDIX 1O BCeEM yraM OKMIMIa BMeCTe ¢ TpaRol Merpos kpecr. ConmeicHue 9THx aMyeTOB OCHOBAHO Ha TOKMECcTRe HX Ro3yelicraua Ha HeuHcTyIO cuy. Tlerpos kKpecr HMceT, NO Hapoj\HbIM BepoBaHHAM, H HeTeGHbIe, BOCC OBHTCADHBIC, 2*KHBOTBOPALIE cBOlicrBa. He cayuaiio sry TpaBy jaror HCY2KHBIM”, T.C. GOAHEIM, leTAM. Acroku 1oyqoGubix npeyicrapcHHit 06- Napy2xuBaloTcs, B YacTHOCTH, B Mu¢be o FleTpoBoM KpecTe, H HbIHE GprTyto- ACM 6 BETICCKOH Tpajnn. Cornacno aromy My, Masb'KK-Gorarbip oc- TaCTCA HEMbIM JO TEX HOP, HOKa EMY HE BCTABAAHOT B POT KOPCHL peskocr- Horo B ceRepHBIX Accax Herpopa Kpecra (3aMCTHM, TO B 1OxKHOM TIpHoHe- OKC, TC H 3aNHtcaH MuEb, MPOXoHT cencpHas rpaitiita apeana pacnpocr NCHU# PaccMaTpHRacmoro pacteHUs). KOPCHE CTs A3bIKOM, a repoi MUCpa ~ COS{ATCHEM COB, *KMBYINAX B PCMH NPHOHEXCKHX BeTICOB HW NOHDIHE (Kpuumunas H.A. Konienus nponcxok)leHia UesloBeKa (110 jJaHHbIM MH- (hororun, thoabknopa Hm paminx curocodcKo-MeqMuHCKHX yuenHit) // onpknopucruka Kapeaun. Merposasoyck, 1989). O Hekoeit coorneccr- HOCTH 9TOFO PACTCHHA C *KCHCKUM J[CTOPO)HbIM HatanoM, CMbICT KOTOPOI, 1 CYMIHOCTH, YKE YTPAYCH, CBH)LCTCABCTBYCT NOBEPHE: HasBanHas TPaBa 1O- MoracT “MY4alOUWMMCH MCCAUHBIMK OUNICHHAMH” (Xaputouon A. Y Kas. cou.). Oa Ke CHAMacT YoKC HacaHHyto Nopyy. 90 PYCCKAA PEUMB 5/1998 TloqoGHo wBeTKy NanopoTHHka HAM pa3pbIB-TpaBe, Kopenb Tlerposa Kpecra HCHOM3yCTCA KnaOUCKATENAMM JIA OGpeTcHHA “3ayapoBaHHbix” COKPOBALL KaK CPC OTOUMA MarH4CCKOM CHIIbI MX BAajebUa (OCMbICIEHHE 3010Ta H Cepc6pa B KavecTBe MaTepHaTbHbIXx WeHHOCTCH CCPOpMUpOBaNOch no3jHee, BMECTe C yCTaHOBECHHEM TOBAPHO-/eHeXKHbIX OTHOWIEHHIt). Sram paccMorpenne MarkueckHX CBONICTR UyfOeHCTBEHHOrO pacreHHa He HcuepttbiBaeTCa, TeM Goree, ITO OHO He jaeT OTBETA Ha BONPOC, KAKOBO Ke UPOHCXOK ene NepBoil VaCTH ero Ha3BaHHA (yNOMHHAHHe o TleTpoBom We Kak BPeMeHH Copa HasKaHHOit TpaBbl, HO CyTH, He CHUMaeT BoMIpoca). 3ylech YMECTHO KCHOMHHTh CeBepHOpycckyto sereHily, COrACHO KOTOpOit GysyimMit caxToH anocron Merp, 3aHHMasch PLIGOMOBCTBOM (B TOHOM CO- orsercrsun C Epanresiem or Mapka. |, 16), mpuns3an kK ceTam TpaBy, O- syTHBIyO HaMMeHoBanHe [Tempoe Kpecm, — 4 jO6vIBAT OOWNBHDIIE yIOB. Ilo ero npuMepy, sry Tpany cramH NpuBsA3HIBATE K CeTHM H [pyre pLiGakn (Bepemarun P.O napoguptx cpegcrsax spauepanus: B cBa3H c noBepbaMu /{ IJrnorpaduueckoe oG6ospenne. 1898. Ne 3. Ku, XXXVI. Paxroi uc- NOb3OBAHHA MarH4eCKON CHIbI pacreHMii IH OGecne4ueHHA ya Ha TIpo- MbICAe MOKHO OGHApyXHTD HB CCBEPHOPYCCKHX 3aroROpAX, F[e OGNaLaTe- eM STHX ATPHGYTOR (B AHHOM cny4ae ~ AjjaMoBa KpeCcTa, 3KBUBASICHTHO- ro Terposy kpecry), Bbicrynaror cathe anocroapi Herp 4 Tapen, KoTO- pbie B XpHcTHaHcKOi UKOHOrpadHnH OGbIHHO BeTpeaFOTCA BMecTe (HX OH- HOUNBIC HIOGPAXKcHHA KpaiiHe PeAKH), a B MucbostorM4ecKO;t ‘Tpas MUNA 110 CYTH CBOMITCA K OHOMY H TOMY >Ke TepcoHaxky: OHH “epxXaT BO NpaBblx pykax Adasos Kpecm — yeem u mpasy U soaompre KaouU |Kypcus Molt. — H.K.|, 4 jlator HaM, ppiGonoBam, )UIA-pajld COXpaHcHHa HaLch priGHOH J0- nan” (Acpanacnen. Yka3. cou.). XapakTepHo, UTO HB XPHCTHAHCKOI CAMBO- JIMKe UCTOAb3yeTCH B_KANeCTBC aTpHOyTa anocrona Ierpa nacrbipcKHii No- COX ¢ KpecTOM, KOTOpbIii c Hatiasta V Beka BbITeCHACTCA KNKO4aMH OT BOOT pas nasa (Hecrepoa O.E. Terp // Mucpui napoyon Mupa. M., 1982. T. 2). ‘TPaMUKOKHO H130GpaxKacMbIMH B XPHCTHAHCKOM HKOHOrpadHn 3OOTDIMH. B srof xe poAM MoxeT GpITbh 4H “Mata Xpucra Bora xauiero, npecsarax Boropowmua”: ona “eprxKUT Bo HpaBoll pyke yBem WU mpady [KypcHB Molt. — H.K.|, 4 act HaM, ppiGonoKam, Jud OGKypHBaHHs HW COXpaHcHHA HaUich PHIGHOH TOBMM: ALHAHBIX H MOCKOHHBIX H KOHOMIMHIX JOBYUICK, KPaCHOH ppiGur cemrit Geaoit ppiGui” (Acbatacben. YKa3. cou.) Mrak, Nerpos wan okenBascutHbiit emy AjaMos Kpect, KOTOpbIit NpH- BASIBAIOT K CCTAM H KOTOPbIM OKYPHBAIOT CHACTH, CAYKUT WIA “COXpaHe- Hua Halici pLISHOH soBAN”. Io vyLOAeliCTREUHOE pacTcHe OcMBICTAETCH Kak “KON” kK BOsOEMY, Te Be eTCA MpoMbicen. OGrayaroulee MarHuccKoit cHAOM yKE CAMO NO CCOC, OHO C YKPCIVICHHEM XpHCTHaHcTBa mpeBpallacT- ca B ATpHGYT cRATOFO. CooTHCCeHHOCTS TpaBhl, OGccreMMBatOMeH Gorathtit ys1oB, € MMCHeM cr. anocrona Merpa (4 Tapia) oTHOsh HE Corynaiina. Cam 8 NIPOULIOM PHIGak, CTAaBINM CO BPEMCHEM NOKPOBHTCAEM PbIGaKOB, OH OT- MacTH yHacieqoOBan, a OTUACTH pasemHA cyHkMHH cBoOcrO apxaHuccKoro M3 HCTOPHH KYJIbBTYPbI_H_MACbMEHHOCTH oO IpeQuWeCTBeHRHKa — j\yXxa-"XO3AHHA” PEK H O3ep, BOAMHOTO, HanpHMep, B ukoHorpadpun: Merp uynecno ucrouaer Bony 43 KaMHa (Kpnuwanad H.A. Ha cCHHeM KaMHe: MHonOrMyecKue paccKa3bl H MOBEpbA O jlyxe-"XO3AHHE” Bogbt. Terposaponck, 1994). Ho camo uma [emp o3nauaet no-rpeyeckn “KaMeHb”. 3uaunt, erp w ecrb Kamen. “Thi Merp, 4 na cem Kamne [Kyp- cup Mol. — H.K.} # co3faM WepKoBb Moro”, — roBpoput Mucye Xpucroc, oGbIrpbiBad 3HaeHHe HMEHH CBOeTO yueHHKa M amocrona (EBaHresue OT Marges. 16, 18-19). Ecaw KaMens npH onpeneneHHbix oGcrosrenscrsax CHOCOGEH UCTOUATh BONY, OTOXIECTBIATHEA C HEIO, TO, CHEMOBATENBHO, H cam TleTp MoxeT paccMaTpHBaTbCa KaK HEKOE OMLETBOPEHHE BOMHO! CTH- XuH. Becte c Tem yHKuMio fapHTena “ppi6aykoro c4acThA” anil Mepco- Haxk XpHcTHaHCKOH MH@oNOrHH BOCNPHHAT M OT CBOero PuTOMOopdHoro (pacruTenbuoro) npequiecrBeHHHKa, KOTOpbIi NocTeneHHO TpakcdopMH- posa.ica B ero aTpHGyT. CopMellenve nepcoHaxell #3bI4eCKOl W XPHCTHAH- cKoit Mudponoruit B CHy TOKMeCTBEHHOCTH AX CPyHKHit 3aBepIIMTOCh 3a- Kpemlenvem MMeHH CBATOTO B MlepBoll UaCTH Ha3BaHMa uyfOReHCTBREHHOTO pacrenua. Bo BTopoit Ke ero YacTH cOxpaHHIMch OTTONOCKH MpeycTaBse- HMit 0 G6oxKecTBCHHOM 3Hake-cHMBone — B Kpecte. [loqo6Ho caMomy Mudpu- “@CKOMY PaCTEHHIO, YTOT 3HAK-CHMBOM, YXOAALIMH CBOHMH KOPHAMH B A3bI- ‘ICCKHe BEpOBAaHHA, Obi 3AHOBO OCBOEH HM MepeOcMbIcAcH XPHCTHAHCTBOM. Hemposasodck