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Федеральное агентство по образованию


Государственное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования
«Читинский государственный университет»
(ЧитГУ)

Е.С. Эмирзиади

A PANORAMIC VIEW OF NORTH


AMERICAN GEOGRAPHY

Развитие навыков устной речи

Учебное пособие для студентов 3 курса специальности


032301.65 - Регионоведение

Чита - 2008
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УДК 802.0(075)
ББКж Ш 13 (англ я 7)
ББКм 81.2 Англ я 7
Э 553

Эмирзиади Е.С. A Panoramic view of Geography of the USA: учеб.


пособие для студентов 3 курса специальности 032301.65
«Регионоведение» / Е.С. Эмирзиади. – Чита: ЧитГУ, 2008. - 138 с.

Ил. - 12 Табл. - 1 Библ. 12 наим.

В учебном пособии представлены тематические тексты с


упражнениями, предназначенные для развития навыков устной речи
по теме Физическая и экономическая география США. .
Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов третьего курса
специальности 032301.65 - «Регионоведение».

Учебное пособие разработано Е.С. Эмирзиади, старшим


преподавателем кафедры регионоведения Северной Америки

Утверждены и рекомендованы решением методического


совета ЧитГУ

Ответственный за выпуск: зав. кафедрой регионоведения


Северной Америки Т.Б.Макарова

Рецензенты:
1. к.филол.н., доцент кафедры английского языка
ЗабГГПУ им. Н.Г. Чернышевского Н.А. Маркова;
2. к.филол.н., доцент кафедры иностранных языков ГОУ ВПО
ЧГМА Ю.Г. Соловьева

© Читинский государственный университет, 2008


© Е.С. Эмирзиади, 2008
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A TABLE OF CONTENT
Geography as a Science..........................………..……….……............. 5
The Face of the Country ......…………………..….……..……….......... 12
The Rivers and Lakes ...........................………....……………….......... 24
The Climate and Weather ............………………………..……............ 34
The Plant and Animal Life ...………………………………….............. 48
The Mineral Wealth ........................………………….………….......... 57
The Population of the United States ..………………..……….............. 62
United States Parks ... Conservation of Beauty ………..…..…..…....... 72
The Main Economic Regions. The Northeast …....……...……............. 81
The Great Lakes and the South .............………………...……......….... 89
The Great Plains and the Rocky Mountains .......................................... 98
The Pacific Region ................................................................................. 112

SUPPLIMENTORY MATERIAL
Farming in the United States................................................................. 120
An Industrial Giant ............................................................................... 123
The American People ............................................................................ 125
Final Test ............................................................................................. 127
American Quilt ..................................................................................... 133

Bibliography…………………………………………………............... 137
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Предисловие
Учебное пособие разработано в соответствии с
программными требованиями к обучению навыкам устной речи и
принципами лингвострановедения. Цель данной работы –
познакомить студентов с физической географией США, природными
ресурсами, этносом страны и экономическими особенностями
регионов посредством изучения языковых единиц, являющихся
носителями страноведческой информации.
Студенты должны свободно ориентироваться по физической
карте, знать особенности рельефа, климата, почв и воды, а также
животного и растительного мира. В этом им поможет учебное
пособие, в котором представлены тексты, освещающие основную
тематику курса: Physical features of the United States, Climate and
Weather, Rivers and Lakes, the Population of the United States, Mineral
Wealth and Economic regions of the United States.
Также в учебном пособии дается аутентичный
аудиоматериал, способствующий развитию навыков аудирования и
самостоятельной работе с дополнительным материалом по темам.
Фактический материал, содержащийся в каждом тексте,
сопровождается упражнениями, направленными на обработку и
закрепление лексических единиц, а также на совершенствование
навыков устной речи. Упражнения построены на тематическом
материале текстов, основанных, в свою очередь, на оригинальных
образцах.
Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов 3-го курса
специальности 032301.65 - Регионоведение, для студентов языковых
факультетов вузов, а также для всех тех, кто интересуется
вопросами географии США.
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Geography (from Greek geo, “earth”, graphein, “to write”) is the


scientific study of the Earth's surface. The surface of the Earth is the
interface of atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. It
provides the habitat, or environment, in which humans are able to live.
This habitable has a number of special characteristics. One of the most
important is the complex interaction among many physical, biologic and
human elements of the Earth, such as land surface, climate, water, soil,
vegetation, agriculture, and urbanization. Another characteristic is the
high variability of the environment from place to place - hot tropics to cold
polar regions, dry deserts, humid equatorial forests, vast level plains to
rugged mountains, and uninhabited ice caps to densely settled
metropolitan areas. Yet another is the consistency with which significant
patterns occur, which makes possible generalizations about distribution
(obvious examples are measurements of temperature and rainfall, which
are the most important climatic elements affecting farming and many other
human activities).
Geography has been called the mother of sciences, evidently because
it is one of the oldest subjects of study (the first work to have the word
geography as its title appeared in the 3-rd century B. C.) It would be no
exaggeration to say that Geography sprang from human curiosity. Human
beings are inherently curious. They wonder how other people differ from
their own home and folk.
The fist recorded knowledge of such differences came in very early
history, mainly from the accounts of the travelers. The ancient Greek
writer Herodotus was an outstanding early example of one who carefully
recorded his personal observation made during many years of extensive
travel. Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Jacques Cartier, Amerigo
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Vespucci - those are only a few of the names of discoverers and explorers
whose contribution to the study of the globe can never be overestimated.
Though once associated entirely with mapping and the exploration
of the Earth, the discipline of Geography is today a wide-ranging one and
requires geographers to be conversant with the principles of the biological,
social, and earth sciences.
Thus, Geography is divided into subdisciplines which can be
grouped under three main headings: physical geography, human
geography, and regional geography, each of them comprising branches
too. The principal branches of physical geography are geomorphology,
climatology, biogeography, and soil geography. As human activity has
become more able to affect the landscape and ecology of the world, two
more branches have emerged: resource management and environmental
studies.
One of the central problems in human geography is to explain the
distribution and characteristics of people - this is the province of
population geography. But this distribution can be understood only if
attention is paid to how people satisfy their needs and make a living, the
field of economic geography; to their cultural ad social values, tools, and
organization, which are the fields of cultural and social geography; to
their concentrations in cities and metropolitan areas, the object of urban
geography; to their political organization, examined by political
geography; to their health and to the diseases that affect them, the field of
medical geography; and to the evolution of their present patterns, the
subject of historical geography.
Regional geography studies the distinguishing character of regions
which may be surface configuration, ice and snow, vegetation, or type of
human activity (pastoral, agricultural, industrial or commercial) and
which differs from place to place. High altitudes and steep slopes are the
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distinctive features of the Himalayas or Andes; forests are the features of
the Amazon Basin, Siberia, and northern Canada; dryness and scanty
vegetation, of the Sahara, the interior of Australia, and central Asia;
highly intensive agriculture, of the rice-producing areas of Monsoonal
Asia; commercial agriculture and livestock production, of the American
Midwest; ice sheets, of Greenland and Antarctica, etc., etc., etc.
Geography utilizes a battery of methods and techniques. Particularly
important are direct field observations and mapping. Methods of
observation have been enhanced by such means as aerial photography and
electronic remote sensing from artificial Earth satellites. Statistical
methods help in spatial analysis of quantitative data, particularly census
and survey data. Maps, however, remain the distinctive tool for the
geographer.
The discipline of Geography has many uses. It enables individuals
to know the basic features of the world in which they live, the great variety
of lands and peoples, the complex associations and interrelations of human
beings with resources and nature, and the problems faced by inhabitants of
other countries and regions. Geographic research provides explanations of
the distribution of physical, biological, and human features on Earth and
of their interconnection. Applied geographical analysis has proved useful
in managing resources, in understanding problems of the environmental
pollution or contamination by discharges of urban, agricultural, and
industrial wastes. The analysis of unanticipated environmental effects
caused by the construction of large dams and reservoirs has been
particularly important. Geographers are engaged in planning land use
and housing. They are an important resource in national and international
agencies that deal with the study, inventory, development, or
administration of natural or human resources.
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(Based on: Geography. From The New
Encyclopedia Britannica, Volume 5 (Macromedia), 1995)

Vocabulary

interface to spring aerial photography


habitat to overestimate remote sensing
consistency to enhance spatial analysis
conversant to utilize applied analysis
interior configuration natural hazards

Comprehension Check

Exercise I. Scan the text for answers to the following questions:

1. What is Geography?
2. What does the surface of the Earth consist of?
3. Is there any interaction among physical, biological and human
elements of the Earth?
4. Does the environment vary from place to place?
5. How old is Geography?
6. How did Geography appear?
7. What famous travelers do you know?
8. Is Geography an isolated science or is it connected with some
other sciences?
9. What is the division of Geography?
10. What are the principal branches of Geography?
11. What does Human Geography study?
12. What is understood by Regional Geography?
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13. What are the main methods and techniques used by
Geography?
14. What does geographical research provide?
15. What do you know about applied geographical analysis?
16. What is the use of Geography?

Vocabulary Study

Exercise I. Look up the following words in an English – English


dictionary and write out the principal meanings:

1) habitat n; 2) pastoral a; 3) altitude n; 4) slope n; 5) census n;


6) spring v; 7) contamination n.

Exercise II. Find in the text the English words and phrases
corresponding to the Russian equivalents:

1) переоценивать; 2) хорошо знакомый, сведущий; 3) место


распространения; 4) овцеводство; 5) внутренние районы страны;
6) последовательность, постоянство; 7) происходить, возникать;
8) очертания земли; 9) крутые склоны; 10) высоты; 11) аэросъемка;
12) непредвиденные природные явления; 13) пространственный
анализ; 14) природные катаклизмы; 15) использовать набор методов;
16) животноводство; 17) скудная растительность.

Exercise III. Supply the words or word combinations from the text
which correspond to the following:

1) a number of similar articles, items, or devices used together; 2) a


plane forming a common boundary between two parts of matter or space;
3) having knowledge or experience; 4) to come into being; 5) to highly
judge something with respect to its worth or significance; 6) to make use of
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something; 7) insufficient amount of plant life or total plant cover; 8) the
place or type of site where a plant or animal naturally or normally lives or
grows; 9) relating to shepherds or herdsmen and devoted to livestock
raising; 10) ground that forms a natural inline characterized by a rapid
and intensive increase; 11) to raise, to intensify; 12) a source of danger;
13) a process of polluting; 14) a complete or periodic enumeration of
population.

Exercise IV. Translate from Russian into English.

1. География – древняя наука и издавна служила


практическим целям людей. Первоначально она занималась
описанием новых земель, отсюда и пошло ее название: “гео” - Земля,
“графо” - пишу, что в переводе с греческого языка означает
землеописание.
2. Поверхность Земли состоит из атмосферы, литосферы,
гидросферы и биосферы. Они обеспечивают естественную среду
обитания растений, животных и человека.
3. Нельзя недооценивать вклад первых путешественников и
исследователей в развитие науки географии.
4. Современная география – это система наук, изучающих
природу, население, хозяйство отдельных стран и Земли в целом.
5. Физическая география изучает природу поверхности
Земли, а экономическая география – население и его хозяйственную
деятельность. Эти основные ветви географии подразделяются на
отдельные науки.
6. Климатология изучает климаты Земли, условия их
формирования, типы.
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7. Следует отметить биогеографию – науку, изучающую
состав и распространение растений и животных, их зависимость
от природных условий.
8. Картография – наука, которая изучает и разрабатывает
методы создания и использования географических карт.
9. Основной задачей физической географии являются
комплексные исследования природы отдельных областей и
природных процессов, происходящих в них.
10. Воздействие человека на природу усиливается и
становится опасным. Оно приводит к настоящим экологическим
бедствиям.
11. Неразумная хозяйственная деятельность людей,
загрязнение отходами рек, озер, водохранилищ, воздуха и почв грозит
катастрофой всему человечеству на Земле.
12. Современная география должна ответить не только на
вопрос какие изменения происходят в природе, но и почему они
происходят.
13. Ученые-географы занимаются разработкой
географических прогнозов, т.е. научным предвидением изменений
природы в будущем.
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The United States of America (the main landmass) is situated in


central North America, with Canada to the north, Mexico to the south, the
Atlantic Ocean to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. The two
newest states, Alaska and Hawaii, are separated from the continental
United States: Alaska borders on northwestern Canada, and Hawaii lies in
the central Pacific. In 1959 Americans welcomed Alaska (1,5 million
square kilometers) into the Union as the 49th state. In 1867 the peninsula
was purchased from Russia. The same year (1959) the territory of Hawaii
(16,7 thousand square kilometers) was admitted to the Union as the 50th
state — a state separated from the mainland by about 3,2 thousand
kilometers of the ocean.
Americans' encounter with their land has been abrupt and violent,
consuming much of the nation's energies. Americans had to confront and
to come to terms with a huge, wild country. It has been said that America
is a nation with an abundance of geography but a shortage of history. It
took less than 400 years to subdue more than 3 million square miles of
territory. It was often a painful process and people had to learn geography
from hard experience by trial and error. But the geography of the country
played into their hands and the land allowed Americans to become self-
sufficient in agriculture and basic minerals.
The United States occupies a favorable geographical position. The
Atlantic Ocean is of great importance for the country's sea
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communications with Europe, Africa and South America. The sea routes
to Asia and Australia pass over the Pacific Ocean. The sea route through
the Panama Canal, which connects the two oceans, runs over the Gulf of
Mexico and the Caribbean Sea.
The total area of the United States is about 9.4 million square
kilometers, the population — over 260 million people.
The United States of America is a country of great contrasts and
similarities. The diversity of the country stems from the fact that it is so
large and has so many kinds of land, climate and people. It stretches 2,575
kilometers from north to south, 4,500 kilometers from east to west. It is
impossible to generalize about the weather, the landscape, or even the way
of living because the nation occupies nearly half of a continent.
There are high mountains and the flattest of prairies, tropical heat
and arctic cold, fertile valleys and desert areas. All sorts of products are
grown, there are industries of every kind. The most densely and most
sparsely populated areas of the world are to be found in the United States.
In some parts of the country the way of life seems to have happened by
accident.
Each region of the United States has characteristics of its own.
There are large and modern cities with millions of people, but a great
proportion of the country consists of open land marked with farm-houses
and small towns. In some regions small communities are still provincial. In
spite of this, however, and in spite of the size of the country, there are
striking similarities in the American scene that surprise foreign observers.
There is an appearance of the country as a whole that might be said to be
typically American.
The rural village typical of many countries in Europe and Asia — a
collection of houses, close together, occupied by the people who work on
the surrounding lands — is almost unknown in 20th-century America. In
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the United States, instead, each farm family usually lives separately on its
own fields, often beyond the sight of its neighbors. The village or town is
predominantly a place where the farm family travels to buy supplies, to
attend church and to go for entertainment or political, social or business
meetings.
The usual town of average size, in any part of the United States, has
its "main street" with the same types of stores selling the same products.
Each town has the same type of drugstore and supermarket. There is some
variety of architecture, due to the differences in climate, locality and
national background of the people. Yet, many American residential areas,
especially new ones, tend to have a similar look.
THE PHYSICAL FEATURES OF THE UNITED STATES are
also greatly diverse. The majestic Rocky Mountains stretch all the way
from Mexico to the Arctic. They divide the country into two parts — the
East and the West. The East is occupied by the Appalachian Mountains, the
Atlantic Plain, the vast Central Plain and the Plateau of Prairies or the
Great Plains. The West is under the powerful Cordillera Mountain System,
and the Rockies are part of this system. Close to the Pacific coast, lying
between mountain ranges, stretches the California Valley, a narrow strip
of lowlands.
The mountain ranges of the United States stretch longitudinally and
afford no protection against the cold northerly winds. This accounts for the
country's climate, which is notably colder than that of Western Europe or
North Africa in the same latitudes.
The Appalachian Mountains run along the Atlantic coast of the
country. They extend from Georgia and Alabama in the United States to
parts of eastern Canada near the St. Lawrence River. Compared with the
Rockies in the West, they are ancient, strongly destroyed mountains of no
great height (2,000 m). They lost much of their height because of the action
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of glaciers and erosion. Railroad lines run along the river valleys and over
the low mountain passes, thus connecting the Atlantic coast with the
interior of the country. The eastern slopes of the Appalachians merge with
the Atlantic Coastal Plain, which, expanding in the south, adjoins the Gulf
Coastal Plain and the lowlands of the Peninsula of Florida. The greatest
width of the Appalachian belt in the south is nearly 320 kilometers, and in
the north — some 100 kilometers.
The Appalachian Mountains consist mainly of the numerous
mountain ranges which are nearly parallel with the Atlantic coastline and
extend from near the Gulf of Mexico north into Canada. Between the
Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Appalachian Mountains is a wide area of
low, rolling hills, called the Piedmont. The Piedmont has fast-flowing
rivers and streams. The Piedmont and the coastal plain are divided by a
fall line, where rivers drop sharply from the hilly region toward the
lowlands near the Atlantic Ocean, forming waterfalls and rapids.
Nearly all the Western part of the United States is occupied by the
Cordillera Mountain System. The Cordillera Mountains extend from
Mexico to Canada and Alaska. In the south they are drained by the
Colorado River, in the north — by the Columbia River. It is a region of
high plateaus crossed by streams which flow through deep canyons. The
Cordillera Mountain System includes a number of lofty ranges or chains
and plateaus.
The Rocky Mountains form the eastern chain of the Cordilleras.
They rank among the greatest of the world mountain ranges. They are high
(over 4,000 metres), sharp and rugged. Many peaks, especially those near
the state of Colorado, rise over 3,658 meters. The highest peak in the
Rocky Mountains is Mount Elbert in Colorado (it rises 4,993 meters above
sea level). As compared with the Appalachians, they are young and their
peaks are capped with snow. When the Rocky Mountains were formed
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(over 100 million years ago) the molten rock which was forced up carried
with it gold, copper, lead, silver and other metals, so they are very rich in
minerals.
Another subdivision of the Cordilleras is the Sierra Nevada —
Cascade Range, which extends from the Canadian border to the Mexican
boundary and is part of the Pacific ranges. Most of the major earthquake
activity in the region has occurred in the areas along the Pacific ranges.
The Sierra Nevada and the Cascade Range form an almost unbroken
mountain wall between inland United States and the Pacific coast land.
The only east route from the interior to the coast is at the point where the
Columbia River cuts through the mountains in a wide pass. There are great
forests in the Cascades and large gold deposits in the Sierra Nevada.
The Pacific slope of the Cordillera Mountains includes the Pacific
valleys and the Coast Ranges. These ranges form two parallel mountain
systems stretching along the Pacific coast. The Coast Ranges are known
also as the Maritime Cordilleras.
Between the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific ranges in the United
States lies an area of mixed landforms, which include the Colorado and
Columbia plateaus and the Great Basin. Deep gorges cut through parts of
the Great Basin. Mesas are also found between the Rockies and the Pacific
ranges in this area.
The eastern and western chains of the Cordilleras enclose the Great
North - American Plateau. The climate here is markedly continental and
dry, vegetation — of the desert and semi-desert types. The central part of
the Great North-American Plateau — the Great Basin — is a semi-desert
area with the only large sheet of water — the Great Salt Lake. In the
region between Salt Lake City, Utah, and Reno, Nevada, there is nothing
but dead lakes, dry rivers, snakes and small animal life, enormous mineral
wealth, and the inhuman beauty of the desert. The climate is so dry and hot
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that even fairly large rivers from the mountains evaporate so rapidly that
they die before reaching the end of the desert. The sun shines nine-tenths of
the year, and the temperature goes up to about 50 degrees centigrade in
the shade. But occasionally it rains, even here.
Close to the western edge of the Sierra Nevada, in California, there
is a particularly lonely stretch of desert named Death Valley by pioneers
who tried to cross it in their rush to the goldfields. For 225 kilometers
hardly a bush can be seen in this ancient lakebed 85 meters below sea level
— the bottom of the United States.
But even in the vast, silent desert there are rich and prosperous
towns, which were built where men found sufficient water. The Colorado,
the Gila and other smaller rivers have made the desert bloom along their
shores. Centuries ago, American Indians used these western rivers to
irrigate their fields. Ruins of their old canals are still found throughout the
desert. Observing these canals, early settlers reasoned that bringing water
to this land would be easy. They had seen that the mountains held plenty of
snow and rain, and that the Mountain Rivers could be put to work.
The water that is brought down the mountains is stored in two
natural lakes — Utah Lake and Bear Lake — and six man-made storage
facilities. These facilities account for about 75 percent of the total water in
the state. More than 100 towns and countless gardens now flourish in this
region which had once been considered worthless.
After 1848, when gold was found in the river beds of California,
great numbers of people crossed the mountains over trails discovered by
the hunters. Today, eight railroads and a dozen highways go winding over
the mountains, following routes made by these settlers.
It should be mentioned here that the United States is divided into 50
states. Those which border one another on the continent are grouped into
seven regions: New England (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New
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Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont), Middle Atlantic States (New
Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania), Southern States (Alabama, Arkansas,
Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi,
North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia),
Midwestern States (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota,
Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, Wisconsin),
Rocky Mountain States (Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Utah,
Wyoming), Southwestern States (Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas)
and Pacific Coast States (California, Oregon, Washington). In addition,
Hawaii and Alaska are grouped separately.

Vocabulary

provincial to border on sea communications


fertile to drain a sea route
maritime to bloom storage facilities
rugged to adjoin to extend from ... (in)to
striking to enclose to account for
peninsula to flourish to merge with
plateau to irrigate to evaporate
lakebed to subdue to come to terms with
encounter to confront to play into one's hands
abrupt latitude longitude

Comprehension Check

Exercise I. Scan the text for the answers to the following


questions:
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1. What proves the idea that America is an abundance of geography but a
shortage of history?
2. What is the general geographic outline of the United States?
3. How are the chief mountain ranges distributed across the country?
4. How do the Appalachians and the Cordillera differ?
5. Describe the Rocky Mountains.

Vocabulary Study

Exercise I. Look up the following words in an English – English


dictionary and write out the principal meanings:

1) basin; 2) plateau; 3) mesas; 4) rapids; 5) lakebed; 6) prairies;


7) fertile; 8) gorge.

Exercise II. Find in the text the English words and phrases
corresponding to the Russian equivalents:

1) путем проб и ошибок; 2) морские коммуникации; 3) покорить


территорию; 4) возникать, брать начало; 5) водохранилище;
6) процветать; 7) граничить с чем-либо, примыкать; 8) приморский;
9) прилегать, граничить с, соприкасаться; 10) экономически
независимый в области сельского хозяйства; 11) сыграть кому-либо
на руку; 12) пойти на уступки, принять условия, прийти к
соглашению; 13) преуспевать; 14) неожиданная встреча.

Exercise III. Supply the words or word combinations from the text
which correspond to the following:

1) to bring under control, into subjection, to conquer; 2) to reach an


agreement; 3) superior in influence, authority; 4) sudden, unexpected; 5)
to come face to face with; to face boldly or with defiance; 6) having a
quality that thrusts itself into attention; 7) distance north or south of the
20
equator, measured in degrees; 8) to enfold or to surround completely with
smth.; 9) to be the reason or explanation for; 10) to cause to change into a
vapor; 11) capable of reproducing or marked by great fruitfulness; 12) to
supply with water, as with channels or ditches or streams; 13) to flow off
gradually; 14) characteristic of the territory occupied by one of the
constituent administrative districts of a nation or their people; 15) angular
distance east or west of a given meridian, measured in degrees.

Exercise IV. Guess what is meant by the following definitions:

1. A line where rivers drop sharply from hilly region toward the lowlands.
2. A large or small depression, or low spot, in the land surface.
3. A relatively flat highland.
4. A large mass of land projecting into a body of water.
5. A part of a river where the current is very fast.
6. A flat tableland with steep edges.
7. A narrow deep ravine between mountains (usually with a river running
through it).
8. Topographically very uneven, rocky and steep.
9. A ravine formed by a river in an area with little rainfall.

Exercise V. Using the map, identify each location listed below by


writing the letter of the correct landform region in each blank.

A. Atlantic Coastal Plain; B. Gulf Coastal Plain; C. Appalachians;


D. Central Plains; E. Great Plains; F. Rocky Mountains and Western
Plateaus; G. Pacific West
____ 1. Everglades ____ 11. Cape Cod
____ 2. Missouri River ____ 12. Painted Desert
____ 3. Chicago, Illin ____ 13. Colorado Plateau
____ 4. Blue Ridge Mountains ____ 14. Black Hills
____ 5. State of Mississippi ____ 15. Grand Canyon
21
____ 6. Washington, D.C. ____ 16. Allegheny Plateau
____ 7. Bighorn Mountains ____ 17. Alaska
____ 8. Great Salt Lake ____ 18. Ohio River
____ 9. Mount McKinley ____ 19. Detroit, Michigan
____ 10. Snake River ____ 20. Rhode Island

Exercise VI. Match the best description on the right with the name
on the left.

1. Great Plains a. plain along the eastern coast


2. Great Basin c. highest point in the United States
3. Rockies e. mountains of eastern United States
4. Piedmont g. plains along the southern coast
5. Sierra Nevada i. lowest point in the United States
6. Mount McKinley h. mountains in Washington and
Oregon
7. Atlantic Coastal Plain f. western portion of the Interior
Plains
8. Death Valley d. mountain ranges in California and
Nevada
9. Appalachians j. chain of mountain ranges from
Alaska to Mexico
10. Gulf Coastal Plain b. hilly area between the east coast
and Appalachians
11. Cascades k. interior drainage area between
Rockies and Sierra Nevada

Exercise VII. Crossword. Here you should guess all the


geographical terms given in the text.

Vertical:
22
1. The history, traditions and qualities that a country has had for
many years. 2. To pass off in vapor as fluid; to disappear. 3. The line
around the world dividing north and south. 4. The distance of a place east
or west of the Greenwich Meridian. 5. Superior in influence. 6. To be
swallowed up or lost. 8. A place to accumulate something; 10. To make
dry, to swallow; 14. An area of land that is part of a mountain or hill; the
distinctive feature of the Andes. 15. Rough, uneven mountains. 16. The
surface of the Earth with atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and
biosphere. 18. A place that is high above sea level. 20. An area of low land
between hills or mountains; the land that a river flows through. 21. To join
or unite to.

Horizontal:

6. A period count of the population. 7. The important and


unchangeable method which geographers use. 8. To bring under control;
9. it is a habitat in which humans are able to live; 11. the scientific study of
the Earth's surface; 12. a large tract of grassland without trees; 13. a large
area of land that has very little water and very few plants growing on it;
17. natural hazard, characterizing by the temporary shortage of rainfall;
19. to show affection for some idea; 22. a deep valley with steep sides of
rock; 23. to water the artificial channels; 24. a large amount of water
covering an area that is usually dry; 25. to come face to face with
something.
23
2 3 4

5 6 7

10

11 12

13 14 15

16

17

18 19

20 21

22

23

24 25
24

THE UNITED STATES has many thousands of streams. Some of


them are mighty rivers, which cross the state and even international
boundaries. Others are tiny streams. Some rivers flow lazily across wide,
flat valleys, others rush swiftly down deep canyons and steep gorges which
they have carved out for their paths. The rivers of the United States belong
to the Atlantic and the Pacific basins.
The chief drainage system of the country is the Mississippi River
System. The Mississippi is one of the world's great continental rivers, like
the Amazon in South America, the Congo in Africa, the Volga in Europe, or
the Ganges and Amur in Asia. Its waters are gathered from two-thirds of
the United States and, together with the Missouri (its chief western
branch), the Mississippi flows some 6,400 kilometers from its northern
sources in the Rocky Mountains to its outlet in the Gulf of Mexico, which
makes it one of the world's longest waterways. It is a swift and wide river,
and navigable almost throughout its entire length. The Mississippi has
been called the "father of waters".
Curving through the heart of the whole western half of the Central
Basin is the Missouri River, the principal western branch of the
Mississippi. In the past it was the most destructive river in the United
States. When the first explorers reached this river, they were amazed by the
mighty stream of dirty water pouring down from the west.
Before the Missouri reaches the Central Basin, it runs for 1,600
kilometers through a region where there are long droughts and sudden,
extremely heavy rains. The Missouri is really two rivers: one of water, and
one of small bits of soil washed off the land. The people who live along the
Missouri's banks say that it is "too thin to plough and too thick to drink". A
devastating-flood in 1951 killed 41 people, left more than 200,000
25
homeless, put more than 800,000 hectares of farmland under water. Where
the Missouri pours into the Mississippi from the west, it colors the river
deep brown with small pieces of soil.
Other important tributaries of the Mississippi, which rank among the
most important rivers of the world, are, besides the Missouri, the Ohio
River, the Arkansas River and the Red River.
Like the Mississippi, all the rivers east of the Rockies finally reach
the Atlantic. All the rivers to the west of the Rockies finally arrive at the
Pacific. For this reason the crests of the Rocky Mountains are known as
the Continental Divide.
The two greatest rivers of the Pacific side are the Colorado in the
south, and the Columbia, which rises in Canada and flows to the north. In
the dry Western part of the country both rivers, very different in character,
are vital sources of life. The Columbia, wild in prehistoric times, cutting
and shaping the land, now flows with quiet dignity. But the Colorado is
still a river of enormous fury—wild, restless and angry. It is cutting deeply
into the desert rocks, forming the Grand Canyon, which strikes one's
imagination as a fabulous phenomenon of nature. Its perpendicular walls
go up to the hight of over 1,500 meters above river level.
In 1939 Hoover Dam was built to tame the red waters of the
Colorado and put it to work. All the farms and cities of the southwestern
corner of the country depend on its waters. More than 200 meters high, the
dam produces enough electricity to drive the industrial machines and light
the houses of all southern California. It irrigates 300,000 hectares of dry
land and prevents the raging floods that formerly threatened property and
human life each spring. It attracts thousands and thousands of tourists
from all over the world.
The Colorado and Columbia Rivers are navigable only in their
lower reaches, they have great value as sources of water power.
26
The Rio Grande, about 3,200 kilometres long, is the most important
river of the Southwest. It forms a natural boundary between Mexico and
the United States, which together have built irrigation and flood control
projects of mutual benefit. The Yukon River rises in the Canadian Rockies,
but in its lower course it flows westward across Alaska to its mouth in
Bering Sea. Many short rivers that rise east of the Appalachian Mountains
— the Delaware, the Potomac, the Hudson — flow into the Atlantic
Ocean.
The United States has thousands of lakes of all kinds and sizes. The
Great Lakes make up the largest group of lakes in the country, as well as
the greatest collection of fresh-water lakes in the world. The total area of
the Great Lakes (over 245,000 square kilometres) is equal to that of Great
Britain and forms a vast "inland fresh-water sea".
Only Lake Michigan lies entirely inside the United States. The other
four lakes, Superior, Huron, Erie and Ontario, form a border between
north-eastern United States and Canada. They stretch nearly half the
distance across the country. The lakes are interconnected by short rivers
and channels. Through the St. Lawrence River (on the Canadian side) and
the Hudson River the Great Lakes are connected with the Atlantic Ocean.
Between Lake Erie and Lake Ontario, on the Niagara River, which links
the two lakes, are the powerful Niagara Falls, precipitating from the hight
of almost 50 metres. Another group of lakes is to the west of the Rocky
Mountains. Some of these lakes are high in the mountains, in the crater pits
of inactive volcanoes. Others spread out as shallow sheets of salty water
across the western desert plains. The most famous of these salty lakes are
the Great Salt Lake, in Utah, and the Salton Sea, which lies some 80
metres below sea level in Southern California. The Great Salt Lake
contains six thousand million tons of salt. Other lakes hold millions of tons
27
of soda. The lakes often change size and shape with the rainfall and
sometimes dry up completely in hot weather.
The following region of numerous lakes lies along the Gulf of
Mexico and the Atlantic shore. There are hundreds of small lakes and
lagoons in dark coastal swamps or behind sandy coastal dunes. These
coastal lakes were formed when the ocean floor gradually rose out of the
sea to become the coastal plain.

Vocabulary

lagoon tributary reach


dune branch to tame
swamp source to curve through
stream mouth to precipitate
a fresh-water lake swift to carve out
mutual benefit crest drainage system
the Continental Divide navigable

Comprehension Check

Exercise I. Scan the text for answers to the following questions.

1. Does the diversity of the country transform onto the rivers?


2. What basins do the rivers of the United States belong to?
3. Why has the Mississippi been called «the father of waters»?
4. What are the principal tributaries of the Mississippi? Why do people say
that the Missouri «is too thin to plough and too thick to drink»?
5. What are the two greatest rivers of the Pacific side of the country?
Describe them?
28
6. What is the reason to consider the crests of the Rockies the Continental
Divide?
7. What are the main rivers of the Atlantic side of the country?
8. What is the importance of the Great Lakes for the country?
9. What are the main lakes of the Rocky Mountain region?
10. What are other kinds of lakes situated in the United states?

Exercise II. Develop the following points using information and


the vocabulary of the text.

1. The importance of the Mississippi River system for the country.


2. The economic role of :
a) the Colorado and Columbia Rivers; b) the Great Lakes.

Vocabulary Study

Exercise I. Look up the following words in an English – English


dictionary and write out the principal meanings:

1) tame v; 2) benefit n; 3) precipitate v; 4) tributary n; 5) divide n;


6) curve v; 7) carve v; 8) lagoon n; 9) crest n.

Exercise II. Find in the text the English words and phrases
corresponding to the Russian equivalents:

1) низвергать с высоты; 2) судоходный по всей длине;


3) изгибаться; 4) быстрое течение; 5) маленькие ручьи и могучие
реки; 6) усмирять бурные воды; 7) континентальный водораздел;
8) гребни гор; 9) устье и притоки рек; 10) “внутреннее пресное
море”; 11) прибрежные болота, песчаные дюны; 12) взаимовыгодные
проекты по контролю за наводнениями и орошению; 13) поражать
воображение.
29
Exercise III. Supply the words or word combinations from the text
which correspond to the following:

1) a watershed; 2) to domesticate, to discipline; 3) something that


aids or promotes well-being; 4) to fall vertically, sharply, or headlong;
5) able to be sailed on or through safely; 6) to bend without angles; 7) the
top of a mountain, ridge; 8) a branch that flows into the main stream;
9) moving or capable of moving with great speed, fast; 10) to make or get
by or as if cutting; 11) a system of watercourses or drains for carrying off
excess water.

Exercise IV. Guess what is meant by the following definitions:

1. A body of water cut off from a larger body by a reef of sand or coral.
2. Low land that is seasonally flooded and has more woody plants than a
marsh and better drainage than a bog.
3. A ridge of sand created by the wind and found in deserts or near lakes and
oceans.
4. A natural body of running water flowing on or under the earth.
5. A large body of water constituting a principal part of the hydrosphere.
6. A large natural stream of water (larger than a creek).
7. A body of (usually fresh) water surrounded by land.
8. A division of an ocean or a large body of salt water partially enclosed by
land.

Exercise V. Circle the best answer to complete each statement.

1. A body of water partly enclosed by land but having an opening to


the sea is called a
a) lake; b) current; c) bay; d) strait.
2. A point of land that reaches out into the sea is a
30
a) cape; b) strait; c) glacier; d) plateau.
3. The narrow strip of land that connects the continents of North and
South America is
a) a peninsula; b) a strait; c) an isthmus; d) island chain.
4. The moving sections of Earth's crust are known as
a) ocean ridges; b) tectonic plates; c) groundwater; d) faults.
5. Folding, faulting, and volcanic action are the main forces that
create
a) islands; b) seas; c) mountains; d) continents.
6. An earthquake on the ocean floor can cause a huge, destructive
wave called a
a) rift; b) tsunami; c) ridge; d) trench.

Exercise VI. Write the best of the phrase from column B on the
line before the term it identifies in column A.

A B
__ 1) saltwater areas a) stripping away of Earth's surface
__ 2) freshwater areas b) wind-deposited silt
__ 3) plain c) oceans, seas, gulfs, bays
__ 4) archipelago d) built-up silt deposits at a river's
mouth
__ 5) continent e) rivers, lakes, streams,
groundwater
__ 6) lava f) chain of islands
__ 7) erosion g) melted rock that reaches Earth's
surface when a volcano erupts
__ 8) delta h) one of Earth's seven largest
landmasses
31
__ 9) loess i) large area with level or rolling
land

Exercise VII. Crossword. Here you should guess all the


geographical terms given in the text.

Vertical:
1. The Gulf which is an arm of the Atlantic south of the United States
and east of Mexico. 2. The river that has been called the “father of
waters”. 5. A vast prairie region extending from Alberta and
Saskatchewan and Manitoba in Canada south through the west central
United States into Texas; formerly inhabited by Native Americans. 7. A
mountain range in the eastern United States extending from Quebec to the
Gulf of Mexico; a historic barrier to early westward expansion of the
United States. 11. A peninsula of the USA that juts out from the landmass
like a finger. 14. The northeastern part of Alaska is washed by this ocean.
15. The West is occupied by this mountain system. 16. A mountain range in
eastern California; a region of large gold deposits. 17. The longest river in
the United States; arises in Montana and flows southeastward to become a
tributary of the Mississippi at Saint Louis. 20. This lake contains 6 000
million tons of salt.

Horizontal:

3. A desert area in eastern California and southern Nevada; the


lowest point in North America. 4. The only lake that lies entirely inside the
United States. 6. New England region is washed by this ocean. 8. Hawaii
lies in this ocean. 9. The crests of these mountains are known as the
Continental Divide. 10. Hoover Dam was built to tame the red waters of
this river. 12. The eastern slopes of the Appalachians merge with this
32
Plain. 13. The subdivision of the Cordilleras. 17. Another name for the
Coast Ranges; 18. North American river; rises in southwestern Canada
and flows southward across Washington to form the border between
Washington and Oregon before emptying into the Pacific; known for its
salmon runs in the spring. 19. The strait which connects Russia and
Alaska. 21. The lake which forms a border between northeastern United
States and Canada. 22. The 49th state of the United States. 23. A string of
mountain ranges along the Pacific coast of North America from
southeastern Alaska to Lower California. 24. A state in the United States in
the central Pacific.
33

2 3

4 5

6 7

8 9

10

11

12 13 14 15

16

17

18

21

22

23 19 20

24
34
European climatic experience was not a very useful guide for
survival in America. It was especially true in the subtropical South and the
arid West. America’s western air comes not from the ocean, as in Europe,
but from the continental interior which is extremely cold in the winter and
ovenlike in the summer.
The main landmass of the United States is in the temperate zone.
The climatic conditions of the country are determined by the great
mountains and the wind. With every variation of surface it possesses every
variety of climates, from that of the tropics (Hawaii), to that of the Arctic
(polar) regions (Alaska). It is at the same time one of the hottest and one of
the coldest, one of the wettest and one of driest countries in the world.
In the Northern Hemisphere, the western parts of continents are
especially favored by the prevailing winds. This is because the western
lands gather the rains as they come from the ocean, blown by storms that
circle from west to east. This is an important factor in the climate
conditions of the United States. The circulation of air from west to east
does not take place in steadily blowing winds, but in cyclonic storms. In
these storms, winds blow from all directions toward the center of the
storm.
The Cascade Mountains and the Sierra Nevada Mountains, running
from north to south, are so close to the west coast, that they catch the
largest amount of the rain from the Pacific Ocean before it can go further
inland. As a result, there is too little rain for almost the whole western half
of the United States, which lies in the “rain shadow” of the mountains. In
a great part of that territory, therefore, farmers must depend on irrigation
water from the snows or rains that are caught by the mountains.
One of the most important geographical boundaries in the United
States is the 50-centimetre rainfall line, which runs north and south almost
through the middle of the country. East of the line, farming is relatively
35
easy, and the population is relatively large. West of the line, one finds man-
made irrigation systems, dry-farming, grazing and fewer people. West of
the Rocky Mountains, running all the way from the Canadian border to
Mexico, there are vast areas where almost no trees grow. In this section of
the country are the deserts which receive as little as 12,7 centimetres of
rainfall a year. Yet, west of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, there are places
in which 250 centimetres of rain falls annually. It is one of the wettest
places in the United States of America.
The location and vast sizes of landforms in the United States
influence the region's climate zones and vegetation. Practically all types of
the climate zones can be found in the United States.
A tropical rain-forest climate zone can be found in the Hawaiian
Islands. Many of the islands remain warm and wet throughout the year.
Although the state of Hawaii is located in tropical zone, its climate is
comfortable because of the ocean currents that pass its shores and the
winds that blow across the land from the northeast. The temperature
usually remains close to the annual average of 24 degrees centigrade. The
tropical-rain-forest vegetation includes broad-leaved evergreen trees and
shrubs. A tropical-savanna climate zone can be found in the southern -
most part of Florida. The wet and dry seasons encourage the growth of tall
grasses.
A desert (arid) climate zone is located in the southwestern United
States. This climate zone includes California's Death Valley, where
summer temperatures can reach 54 °C. Desert vegetation includes many
kinds of cactus plants. Steppe climate zones are found in the dry northern
parts of the Great Basin and on the Great Plains. The vegetation in desert
climate zones includes grasses and shrubs.
Further west, in the semi-arid region of short grass where farms and
cattle ranches begin, the situation is very precarious. In years when rain is
36
plentiful, the prairie grasses grow well and the herds of cattle grow fat. But
during frequent droughts large herds of cattle suffer and may even die.
Blazing summer heat dries up what little moisture is available, and in
winter arctic temperatures and howling blizzards make life hard.
Humid subtropical climate zones are found in the southern and
southeastern parts of the United States. Winter temperatures average
between 7 °C and 16 °C, and the long summers are hot and humid. Areas
near the Gulf of Mexico have heavy rainfall. Vegetation in humid
subtropical climate zones includes forests of broad-leaved deciduous trees
and evergreen trees. The climate is also good for a variety of valuable
subtropical crops, such as indigo, rice, and cotton.
Ocean currents, winds and protective mountains along the Pacific
coast help create a marine climate zone extending from northern
California to the southern border of Alaska. Parts of these coastal areas
receive more than 154 centimeters of rain each year. Dense forests of
evergreen trees grow in the marine climate zone. The vegetation in
northern California also includes giant redwood trees. Lands along
California coast south of 40 °N latitude have a Mediterranean climate
which makes this place a particularly alluring place. The combination of
cool and pleasant summers and mild, not very rainy winters makes it
possible to grow crops that will not mature anywhere else in the country.
The result is that California has the most lucrative agricultural industry in
America.
Continental climate zones cover most of the northern half of the
central and eastern United States. The most southerly continental climate
is a warm-summer zone that stretches from the Atlantic Ocean to the
eastern part of the Great Plains. Forests of deciduous trees grow in many
parts of the warm-summer zone, especially in lands east of the Mississippi
River. Prairies spread over lands father west. A cool — summer zone lies
37
north and northwest of the warm-summer zone. The vegetation consists
mainly of mixed forests with both deciduous trees and needle-leaved
evergreen trees.
Much of Alaska lies in a subarctic (subpolar) climate zone, which
has very cold winters. In those parts of the state which lie above the Arctic
Circle, Alaska still is a land of icebergs and polar bears. Ice masses lie
buried in the earth, which is permanently frozen to a depth of 90 or more
metres. From early May until early August the midnight sun never sets on
this flat, treeless region, but the sun cannot melt the icy soil more than two
thirds of a metre down. The Japan Current of the Pacific warms Alaska,
and the Arctic cools it. Lands along the Arctic coastlines of Alaska lie in a
tundra climate zone. Tundra vegetation consists of short grasses, mosses,
and lichens.
The higher parts of Rocky Mountains and the Pacific ranges have
mountain climates. Temperatures and vegetation vary with elevation.
However, temperatures tend to be colder and vegetation more sparse in
these highland areas than in the lands that surround them.
Seasonal weather conditions affect many people in the United
States. Some types of storms may cross climate zones. For example,
blizzards, or heavy snowfalls with high winds, may occur in the winter in
the Great Plains, the Central Lowlands, the mountain areas, the Northeast,
and the Far North. Tornadoes generally occur in the central and southern
parts of the United States during spring and summer. Informally called
«twisters», tornadoes are dangerous, because they can come about very
quickly and have such violent, high winds. Hurricanes are another
weather phenomenon that generally occur in areas along the Gulf of
Mexico and the southern part of the Atlantic coast from late July through
November.
38
Many areas of the country are subject of flooding. Usually flooding
occurs when there is heavy rain in a short period of time, as during
thunderstorms or hurricanes. Flooding also occurs when there is a sudden
warm spell that melts large amounts of snow quickly. When spring floods
are followed by heavy summer rains, whole towns can be wiped off the
map.
Sometimes certain local weather conditions are improvements over
the normal pattern for that climate zone. For example, a warm wind called
the chinook blows down the slopes of the Rocky Mountains in winter and
in early spring. This wind melts the snow at the base of the mountains,
exposing grass for cattle grazing. Without the chinook, snow would remain
on the ground longer.
The variations in temperature within the United States have had a
marked effect on the country’s economy and living standards. As the
Growing Season Map of the United States shows, there is a long crop-
growing season along the southeast coast where winters are milder, and
summers are hot. It was here that America first developed its reputation
abroad as a land of plenty. This is also true in several small strips to the
west where crops like grapes grow well during a large part of the year. In
some of the cooler climates or in climates, which combine coolness and
humidity, animals and products such as apples, wheat and corn are grown,
thus giving the United States a large range of agricultural products. These
pictures are typical of the north-eastern and eastern parts of the USA.

Thus, as we can see, the weather ranges from the warm, wet
conditions of the Appalachians to the desert conditions of some of the
western states. It varies from almost winterless climates in southern
Arizona and southern Florida to long, very cold winters in Montana, North
Dakota and South Dakota. In other words, the United States has
39
practically all the climatic zones, the variety of which rewards those who is
able of adapting to new circumstances.

Vocabulary

spell of the weather to expose humid


a land of plenty to circle temperate

blazing heat prevailing ovenlike

crucial line alluring tropical

arid precarious subarctic

sparse lucrative hurricane

crop – growing season to adapt to tornado


blizzard flooding

Comprehension Check

Exercise I. Scan the text for answers to the following questions.

1. How does America's climate differ from that of Europe?


2. What kinds of climate zones are found in the region?
3. What is the major landscape for the northeastern part of the United States?
4. Why can farmers in the southeastern states generally grow a larger harvest
than in any other place?
5. How do the climatic conditions influence the vegetation?
6. Does the climate influence weather? In what way?

Vocabulary Study
40
Exercise I. Look up the following words in an English – English
dictionary and write out the principal meanings:

1) adjacent a; 2) precarious a; 3) arid a; 4) alluring a; 5) expose v.

Exercise II. Find in the text the English words and phrases
corresponding to the Russian equivalents.

1) период хорошей погоды; 2) испепеляющая жара; 3) земля


изобилия; 4) умеренный; 5) влажный климат; 6) заманчивый,
соблазнительный; 7) скудная растительность; 8) прибыльный,
выгодный, доходный; 9) случайный; ненадёжный, сомнительный;
10) умеренный климат; 11) преобладающий.

Exercise III. Supply the words or word combinations from the text
which correspond to the following.

1) highly attractive and able to arouse hope or desire; 2) to show,


make visible or apparent; 3) water used to supply dry land by means of
ditches; 4) to be around, to surround; 5) a place with an abundance of
necessities and comforts; 6) uncertain, insecure, dependent on chance;
7) scorching hotness; 8) a period of indeterminate length (usually short)
marked by some action or condition; 9) producing a good profit;
10) containing or characterized by a great deal of water vapor; 11) free
from extremes; mild.

Exercise IV. Guess what natural disaster is meant by the following


definitions:

1. A violent weather condition with winds 64-72 knots (11 on the Beaufort
scale) and precipitation and thunder and lightening.
2. A severe tropical cyclone usually with heavy rains and winds moving a 73-
136 knots (12 on the Beaufort scale).
41
3. A storm with widespread snowfall accompanied by strong winds.
4. A warm dry wind blowing down the eastern slopes of the Rockies.
5. A localized and violently destructive windstorm occurring over land
characterized by a funnel-shaped cloud extending toward the ground.
6. A storm resulting from strong rising air currents; heavy rain or hail along
with thunder and lightning.
7. Shaking and vibration at the surface of the earth resulting from
underground movement along a fault plane of from volcanic activity.
8. The rising of a body of water and its overflowing onto normally dry land.
9. A violent rotating windstorm.

Exercise V. Match the correct climate with the following


descriptions by placing the correct letter in the blank.

A. Tropical-rain-forest E. Arid I. Subpolar


B. Tropical-savanna F. Semiarid J. Polar (arctic)
C. Humid subtropical G. Temperate K. Continental
D. Mediterranean H. Mountain Marine
______ 1. This climate is so old that the land is always frozen. No
plants grow in this climate.
______ 2. This high-temperature climate has wet and dry seasons.
______ 3. Places with this climate have little or no rain and the
highest daytime temperatures in the world.
______ 4. This high-temperature climate has heavy rainfall all year
round.
______ 5. This climate, which is very pleasant to live in, occurs in
California.
______ 6. Regions with this climate are very cold and have plenty of
precipitation. In the summers, some thawing takes place, thus turning the
land into a marsh.
42
______ 7. This climate, which has mild winters and humid summers,
is ideal for forests, food crops, and fiber crops. Florida has this climate.
______ 8. Regions with this climate are affected by the moderating
influence of the nearby ocean.
______ 9. Regions with this climate receive rainfall that is evenly
spaced throughout the year. Temperatures are colder in winter and
warmer in summer. The northeast part of the United States has this
climate.
______ 10. The most important factor in this climate is the elevation
of the land.
______ 11. This climate has a wet season and a dry season.
Droughts often occur.

Exercise VI. Use the clues to fill in the appropriate terms in the
blanks. When you have finished, the circled letters will spell a factor that
effects climate.

The clue words: Japan, elevation, temperate, moderate, Humboldt, tropics,


prevailing, marine, gulf, current, latitude, windward, monsoon, continental, arctic,
mountains, climate, leeward.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
43
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

Clues:
1. The name of the winds that blow almost constantly from a certain
direction.
2. The name of the winds that change direction seasonally.
3. The name of the climate that is moderated by the ocean.
4. An inland climate that is not moderated by the ocean.
5. Another name for the Peru current.
6. The name of the warm water current that starts in the North Pacific Ocean.
7. Another name for the low latitudes.
8. The term that means “height above sea level”.
9. Oceans and large _____, or make milder, the climate of the land near
them.
10.The term used to refer to slopes that face the prevailing winds.
11. ______ affect climate by blocking winds.
12. ______ measures how far north or south a place is from the equatoe.
13. The term that refers to the pattern of weather over a number of years.
14. ______ slopes face away from the prevailing winds.
15. The term used to refer to water in motion.
16. The ocean that lies near the North Pole.
17. England's climate is warmed by the _______ Stream.
18. The name of the climate zone that lies in the middle latitudes.

Exercise VII. Translate the following text into Russian.


44
Для основной территории характерны следующие типы
климата: умеренный и субтропический морской на побережье Тихого
океана, континентельно-морской на Атлантическом побережье,
континентальный на Внутренних равнинах и резко континентальный
на внутреннем плато и плоскогорьях Кордильер. Северная часть
Аляски имеет арктический климат с очень суровой зимой и холодным
летом, центральные и южные районы – субарктический морской на
Юге и континентальный на плоскогорье Юкон. Контрасты в
климатических условиях разных районов наиболее резко выражены
зимой. Наиболее низкие температуры наблюдались на плоскогорье
Юкон (- 64 °С). Температуры ниже 0 °С отмечаются зимой на всей
территории, кроме юго-западной части (штат Калифорния), южной
части полуострова Флорида и Гавайских островов. Летом различия в
температурах не так велики (кроме районов внутреннего плато
Кордильер, где удерживается очень жаркая погода). Средняя
температура июля: в Сан-Франциско 14 °С, в Нью-Йорке 23 °С, в
Вашингтоне 25 °С, в Новом Орлеане 27 °С. Наиболее высокая
температура (56,7 °С – самая высокая в Западном полушарии) – в
Долине Смерти. Атмосфера характеризуется значительным
загрязнением, особенно над крупными городами и промышленными
центрами; ежегодно над территорией страны в атмосферу
поступает до 215 млн тонн пыли, а также ядовитых газов.
Ежегодно смывается водами и уносится ветром 3 млрд т
почвы. Наблюдаются пыльные бури. Становится более интенсивным
засоление почв, загрязнение их отходами промышленного
производства и пестицидами.

Exercise VIII. A. Listen to the following weather forecast and fill


in the blanks with missing words and word-combinations.
45

We’ll _____ things out now. It’s very quiet and calm, and skies are
mostly clear over the ________. The temperature in Manhattan is ____.
It’s still ______________ out. Beautiful weather outside, and
___________________ is very comfortable across the region. We have
_______ winds, 57 % is the humidity level, our barometer reading is
steady right now at _______. So, some _____________ are outside at this
time.
We check our ___________________________________________.
The temperature has ___________________ there. High of 85 ºC earlier
today, low this morning was 60 ºC. But you might ___________________
tonight.
As far as the temperatures in Central Park today, it was nice and
warm, very comfortable: ___, starting out at _____ this morning. More
60s expected tonight. Even some 50 ºC north and west.
Pollen Report_____________UMDNJ in Newark. Grasses are
________, _______ are high; unfortunately, __________ remains very
high and _____________is high as well.
In Morristown, 63 ºC; down to 63 ºC in Newburgh, as well, 66 ºC in
White Plains, still in the 70 ºC in Newark and Belmar and Islip. It’s 75 ºC
in Stamford. But look at Binghamton and Bradford: in the 50s. And
Messina, NY, is down to 50 ºC. Looking at 40s across upstate New York
tonight.
______ air has______________ over the past 24 hours, following
_______ that came yesterday. Pretty much going to stay nice and clear for
us tomorrow, as well. We really don’t expect _____________________
until late Friday across the region from a system – another one coming out
of __________________. But in the ____________________: 50s north
and west, 60s across Long Island into the _________________________.
46
70s to low 80s tomorrow, beautiful day, maybe some high clouds
_______________ in the afternoon.
Boat and Beach Report
A nice day at the shore: ___________, temperatures between 78 and
83 with a _____________________. And the UV Forecast tomorrow is a
moderate 6. It will take about ________, so make sure you wear________.
And the _____________ from coast to coast looks pretty nice,
____________, tomorrow.
Here’s our forecast: For tonight, _______, ______, ___, nice and
cool. Tomorrow morning: ____ degrees, ________, and __________in the
afternoon, a high temperature of ___.
Five days Forecast shows that by Friday, we’ll start to see
_____________, with showers late Friday into early Saturday. And things
gradually __________ for us late Saturday with a high of 80 ºC. Cool
Sunday: 75 ºC during the day, 61 ºC Sunday night. In the city,
Monday’s___________ to 79 ºC. Labor Day looks great: _____________.

B. Listen to the Weather Forecast again and fill in the table.

Name of the city Weather Humidity Winds Barometer Temperature

Manhattan
River Edge
Central Park

C. Listen to the Forecast and fill in the right temperature for the
given region. For example: Trenton: 69 ºC

Morristown Seattle
Newark Denver
Newburgh Phoenix
W.Plains Atlanta
47
Buffalo Miami
Messina Washington D.C.

When early settlers from Europe approached the land that is now the
United States, they noticed a sweet and surprising "land smell", a clue that
they were near the shore. This "land smell" came from the great, thick
forest that covered all the eastern part of the country and stretched about
1,600 kilometres westward until it met the tall grass of the prairies, the
wide rolling and almost treeless plains.
Still farther west from the prairies the vegetation map looks quite
mixed. Forests cover the slopes where mountains catch enough rain. A few
grassy meadows lie in the high mountain valleys. On the dry lowland and
on high tablelands dry bushes grow, as well as grass common to arid
regions.
The greatest wonder of all are the forests of sequoia and fir trees on
the northwest coast, where the mountains catch the heavy Pacific rain.
These great trees, some of which are 3,000 years old, are among the oldest
living things known. Some of them were seedlings when Troy fell, and
already giants when Rome was founded. Most of these forests are
48
protected by law and preserved as a national treasure. Numerous national
parks are to be found in different parts of the United States of America.
The richest stands of softwood timber are to be found on the well-
watered Pacific Highlands. Washington, Oregon and northern California
are the leading sources of saw-mill timber in the United States. The coastal
margins of Alaska, too, are mild enough for large coniferous trees. But
much of the interior and the north, especially those parts away from the
river valleys, is covered only with sparsely distributed, stunted trees or
tundra.
In the eastern United States the dominant trees are hardwoods, but
valuable pine forests are found in the Upper Lakes region and in parts of
the Gulf-Atlantic plain. However, much timber has been destroyed in the
east, both by cutting and by fire, and in some places it has simply been
replaced by land under less valuable secondary trees. Now more care is
taken of what remains of the former vast forests. Over a quarter of the
country is still under forest, which ranges from the mangroves and swamp-
forests of Florida to the huge firs and redwoods of the Pacific States, and
from hickory, walnut, and oak of the east-central states to the pines of
Minnesota and the Rocky Mountains. More than 1,000 varieties of forest
trees have been described.
Animal life, or wildlife, was one of the chief resources of the United
States during the earliest years of its development. Today wildlife is fairly
unimportant as a natural resource, except for certain fur-bearing animals
and fish.
In the zone of mixed forests the brown bear, the lynx, the wolverine
are to be found. The forest is the home of the Virginia deer, the black bear,
the gray fox, the raccoon, and the common opossum. In small numbers
bisons are found (in reserves only). The alligator has its home in the south-
east of the country. For deserts and semi-deserts various rodents and
49
reptiles are characteristic, while the tundra and taiga animals are typical
of Alaska.
Fur-bearing animals today are found in some of the forested
mountains and in the swampy districts of both the North and the South. The
chief fur-bearing animals left in the United States are musk-rats, skunks
and raccoons. In some parts of the country farms have been established
where certain animals are grown. For their fur-silver fox and mink farms
have been especially successful.
50
Fish caught off the Atlantic, Pacific, and the Gulf coasts of the
United States are an important natural resource. Fishing also provides an
important industry on the Great Lakes. The coastal waters of New England
have excellent fishing grounds, where cod, herring and mackerel abound.
The Pacific coastal waters of Alaska are rich in salmon.
The Gold Rush that changed life so suddenly for Alaska was soon
ended, and although many stories about mining camps have become part of
American literature, the gold from Alaskan earth contributed less to
economic progress than the fish from Alaskan waters. The fish caught in a
single year ranges in value from 80 to 90 million dollars. Fur-bearing
animals are plentiful in the forests and streams, and valuable fur seals
inhabit the waters. Since 1911 Canada, Japan, Russia and the United States
have jointly agreed to control the hunting of seals.
As in many countries, fishing in the United States is not entirely a
commercial undertaking, but is also a popular sport. In summer many
tourists in various parts of the country try their luck in rivers and lakes.

Vocabulary

to stunt saw-mill mangrove


abound seal coniferous
mackerel tundra reptile
tableland hardwood softwood
hickory rodent sequoia

Comprehension Check

Exercise I. Scan the text for the answers to the given questions.
1. What did early settlers from Europe notice when they approached
the land that is now the United States?
51
2. What is the greatest wonder of the northwest coast, where the
mountains catch the heavy Pacific rain?
3. Where are the leading sources of saw-mill timber concentrated?
4. What proportion of the United States is still under forest?
5. What chief fur-bearing animals are left in the United States?
6. Where are the main fishing grounds of the country to be found?
7. What is the importance of various kinds of animals and fish for the
country?

Exercise II. Paraphrase the following expressions, using new


words and phrases from the text.

1) to be in great plenty; 2) the wood of broad-leaved dicotyledonous


trees (as distinguished from the wood of conifers); 3) American hardwood
tree bearing edible nuts; 4) relatively small gnawing animals, as rabbits,
rats; 5) gigantic coniferous evergreen trees native to California; 6) a place
where logs are sawn by mechanical power; 7) a tropical tree or shrub
bearing fruit that germinates while still on the tree and having numerous
prop roots that eventually form an impenetrable mass and are important in
land building; 8) a relatively flat highland; 9) relating to trees or shrubs
bearing cones and evergreen leaves; 10) any cold-blooded vertebrate;
11) wood that is easy to saw (from conifers such as pine or fir); 12) to check
the growth; to dwarf.

Exercise III. Fill in the blank with the correct word:

1. On the dry lowland and on high ... dry bushes grow, as well as
grass common to ... regions.
2. The coastal margins of Alaska, too, are mild enough for large ...
trees.
52
3. But much of the interior and the north, especially those parts
away from the river valleys, is covered only with sparsely distributed, ...
trees.
4. For deserts and semi-deserts various ... and reptiles are
characteristic.
5. The chief fur-bearing animals left in the United States are ..., ...,
and raccoons.
6. The coastal waters of New England have excellent fishing
grounds, where ..., herring and mackerel abound.
7. The Pacific coastal waters of Alaska are rich in ... .

Exercise IV. Find in the text the English words and phrases
corresponding to the Russian equivalents.

1) смешанная растительность; 2) плоскогорье; 3) редколесье


низкорослых деревьев; 4) лесонасаждения; 5) саженцы, сеянцы;
6) пушные звери; 7) мхи и лишайники; 8) скудная растительность;
9) хвойные деревья с примесью мелколиственных пород;
10) смешанные и широколиственные леса; 11) твёрдая древесина;
12) мягкая древесина.

Exercise V. Find out whether the statement is true or false


according to the information in the text.

1. When early settlers from Europe approached the land that is now
the United States, they noticed an unknown land.
2. A few grassy meadows lie in the high mountain valleys.
3. The richest stands of softwood timber are to be found on the well-
watered Atlantic Highlands.
53
4. The forest is the home of the Virginia deer, the black bear, the
grey fox, the raccoon, and the common opossum.
5. Fur-bearing animals are found in some of the forested mountains
and in the swampy districts of both the East and the West.
6. As in many countries, fishing in the United States is a commercial
undertaking.

Exercise VI. Translate into English.

Растительность. На Северо-Востоке страны и вблизи


Великих озёр в сочетании с лугами и пашнями встречаются хвойно-
широколиственные леса из сосен, елей, пихты, клёна, липы и ясеня. На
юге, в нижнем поясе Аппалачей они сменяются широколиственными
лесами (дуб, клён, тюльпанное дерево, платан); к югу в них
появляются магнолии, лавры и другие жестколистные вечнозелёные
растения. На Центральных равнинах ранее господствовала
высокотравная растительность прерий, ныне не сохранившаяся.
Степные ландшафты характерны для Запада и отдельных районов
Кордильер. Для пустынь и полупустынь Большого Бассейна
характерны полынь, лебеда, а также полукустарники и кустарники; к
югу— крупные кактусы и др. В Кордильерах преобладают хвойные
леса. На основной территории на наиболее сухих склонах — сосновые
леса, в более влажных привершинных частях — елово-пихтовые,
выше 2100 — 3300 м — субальпийские и альпийские луга. На Аляске
преобладают хвойные редколесья северо-таежного типа и
тундровая растительность. В американской тайге растут черная и
белая ель, бальзамическая пихта, американская лиственница, сосны
разных видов.
54
Животный мир. В зоне смешанных лесов обитают бурый
медведь, рысь, росомаха, куница, скунс; травоядные: лоси, олени
вапити. В лесах Аппалачей — виргинский олень, красная рысь,
большой бурундук, крот звездорыл, различные виды летучих мышей.
На юго-востоке — аллигатор, кайманова черепаха, пекари, сумчатая
крыса (опоссум); из птиц — фламинго, пеликан, колибри. В
небольшом количестве сохранились животные степей: бизоны
(только в заповедниках), антилопа, олени, койот, лисица прерий,
гремучая змея. Многочисленные местные виды хорьков, барсуков и
сусликов. Для полупустынь и пустынь характерны различные
грызуны и пресмыкающиеся. На склонах Кордильер обитают
снежный козёл, толсторогий баран, медведь гризли (главным образом
на Аляске), на Юге — ягуар, броненосец. На Аляске многочисленны
животные тайги и тундры, в том числе северный олень. В
прибрежных водах Атлантического океана большое промысловое
значение имеют треска, сельдь; в Тихом океане — лососёвые, палтус,
тунец, крабы, креветки, устрицы и др. В целом численность диких
животных резко уменьшилась.

Exercise VI. Crossword – test

Clues: 1) the largest land-dwelling species of the Mustelidae or


weasel family; also called the Glutton or Carcajou; 2) an elongate fish
found in fresh water in Europe and America; 3) a specific kind of
something; 4) any of several tropical American mammals which lack teeth
and feed on ants and termites; 5) any warm-blooded vertebrate having the
skin more or less covered with hair; young are born alive except for the
small subclass of monotremes and nourished with milk; 6) short-tailed
wildcats with usually tufted ears; valued for their fur; 7) relatively small
55
gnawing animals having a single pair of constantly growing incisor teeth
specialized for gnawing; 8) a large northern deer with enormous flattened
antlers in the male (it is called moose in North America ); 9) freshwater
carnivorous mammal having webbed and clawed feet and dark brown fur;
10) a pit viper with horny segments at the end of the tail that rattle when
shaken; 11) a large semiaquatic rodent with webbed hind feet and a broad
flat tail; construct complex dams and underwater lodges; 12) an
omnivorous nocturnal mammal native to North America and Central
America; 13) a terrestrial or aquatic flesh-eating mammal; 14) a kind of
polecat of prairie regions of United States; nearly extinct; 15) a long-eared
deer of western North America with two-pronged antlers; 16) an arctic
deer with large antlers in both sexes; called a reindeer in Eurasia; 17) an
alligator-like reptile of Central America and South America having a more
heavily armored belly; 18) a large shaggy-coated bovid mammal
intermediate in size and anatomy between an ox and a sheep; 19)
American musteline mammal typically ejecting an intensely malodorous
fluid when startled; 20) any of various predatory carnivorous canine
mammals of North America and Eurasia that usually hunt in packs; 21)
either of two amphibious reptiles related to crocodiles but with with
shorter broader snouts; 22) two-winged insect whose female has a long
proboscis to pierce the skin and suck the blood of humans and animals;
23) nocturnal arboreal marsupial having a naked prehensile tail found
from southern North America to northern South America; 24) any of
several large shaggy-maned humped bovids having large heads and short
horns; 25) very important usually small (to 18 in) fatty Atlantic fishany of
the family Scombridae; 26) large northern deer with enormous flattened
antlers in the male; called elk in Europe; 27) large American feline
resembling a lion, another name is puma; 28) burrowing chiefly nocturnal
mammal with body covered with strong horny plates; 29) any of several
56
slow-moving arboreal mammals of South America and Central America;
they hang from branches back downward and feed on leaves and fruits; 30)
slender-bodied semiaquatic mammal having partially webbed feet; valued
for its fur; 31) largest flying birds in the western hemisphere; 32) sturdy
carnivorous burrowing mammal with strong claws widely distributed in the
northern hemisphere; 33) beaver-like aquatic rodent of North America
with dark glossy brown fur.

1 2
W
3 4
I
5 6
L
7 8 9
D

10 11 12
L
13
I
14
F
15 16
E
17

18 19
O
20
F

21
A
22 23 24

M
25 27
E
26

28 29
R
30
I
31

C
32
A
33
57

Mineral resources of the United States include gold, silver, nickel,


iron, copper, uranium and zinc. The Rocky Mountains contain a great
wealth of gold, silver and copper. Important energy resources such as oil,
natural gas and coal are found throughout the United States.
The United States is the largest producer of oil and natural gas and
the world's leading importer and consumer. The principal areas of oil and
natural gas production include the Gulf Coast of Texas and Louisiana and
the Mid-Continent Field in Texas, Oklahoma, and adjacent states. Oil is
also produced in southern California, the Appalachian Plateau area from
Pennsylvania to Kentucky, and at scattered locations in Wyoming, the
northern plains states, and the Midwest.
The largest potential reserves of oil in the world lie buried in billions
of tons of oil shale rock in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah. But getting the
oil out of the rock is difficult and expensive, and the current extraction
process severely pollutes the environment.
Two other sources of petroleum promise to extend the country's
supply. In both cases, the costs of production are higher than traditional
oil-field operations. The first of these consists of off-shore deposits. Oil
companies have successfully drilled at sites off the coast of Louisiana and
Texas in the Gulf of Mexico. There are also potential deposits off the
shores of California, Alaska, and New England.
58
The second potential source of oil is in northern Alaska. Oil from
Prudhoe Bay moved by pipeline and tanker to the lower forty-eight states
for the first time in the summer of 1977.
Coal supplies in the United States are vast. The largest soft-coal
field in the world lies beneath the Appalachian Plateau from Pennsylvania
southward to Alabama. Much of this coal is suitable for making into coke,
a form of coal that burns at a high temperature. The large mills of the area
use this coal in the production of iron and steel.
Coal is a source of air pollution. Because of the standards set up by
the Clean Air Act of 1970, the use of coal has declined somewhat.
However, its use is expected to increase as oil becomes more expensive.
Increasingly coal from western states is being used. It burns cleaner,
although it has less heat value than eastern coal. Freight trains with more
than 100 cars move this western coal vast distances to power plants.
Hydroelectric sites exist only where there is falling water or a likely
site to collect water in a reservoir. The original fall line locations on the
Piedmont-Coastal-Plain border were at first used to turn water wheels.
This provided only a very limited amount of power. Today, large reservoirs
of water behind dams provide electricity. The power is generated by the
weight of the water which is allowed to shoot out at the bottom of the
reservoir to spin large turbines. These turbines generate electricity.
Places where hydroelectric power is important include the Ozarks,
the southern Appalachians, the St. Lawrence River in upstate New York,
the Columbia River in Washington and Oregon, and some mountainous
areas of California. As a source of energy, water power is good because it
is a renewable resource — the water is not used up when the energy is
produced. However, there is not enough water power available to supply
all our energy needs. It is estimated only about 5 percent of our electricity
could be generated by water power.
59
Most nuclear-power plants are under federal government
supervision. The increasing scarcity and price of oil makes this source of
power more attractive, despite the risks involved. One of these risks is the
accidental release of dangerous radioactive materials into the air and
water. In addition, the nuclear reactors need a large amount of water for
cooling.
More than seventy nuclear power plants now generate electricity in
the United States. While they are scattered throughout the country, they
are generally located close to large cities like Chicago and Boston, where
the demand for power is high and supplies of oil are scarce.
Geothermal and solar energy are two alternative sources of power
which are, at present, only in the experimental stage. Geothermal power
can be produced where cracks in the earth's crust allow heat from the
mantle to rise and boil water at the surface, powering turbines.
Geothermal energy is important in some parts of the world, most notably
Iceland, but in the United States only a few places are suitable, like
northern California.
Since the sun is expected to shine for a few billion more years, solar
energy is a virtually unlimited and inexhaustible resource. Today, however,
large-scale production of solar energy is not yet technically possible.
Energy problems will probably persuade industry and the
government to spend more money to develop this source of power.
Widespread use of solar power probably depends on developing small,
powerful batteries that can store the sun's energy. Perhaps most power
plants will be located in deserts, where the supply of sunshine is the
greatest or maybe huge satellites will collect solar radiation in space and
beam it to power plants everywhere on Earth.

Vocabulary
60

extraction to shoot out to collect water in a reservoir


petroleum soft-coal to turn water wheels
supervision mill to provide electricity
fall line coke to spin large turbines
release the mantle renewable resource
energy solar power the nuclear reactors
to drill to beam to collect solar radiation
to persuade to store the sun's
radioactive materials the experimental stage
off-shore deposits inexhaustible resource

Comprehension Check

Exercise I. Scan the text for answers to the following questions:


1. Why do Americans need to find new sources of cheap energy?
2. Where are the major areas of oil and gas production in the United
States? What other areas are thought to have important deposits?
3. Where are the nation's major coal deposits? Why is coal not
always acceptable substitute for oil?
4. What problems are associated with nuclear power plants?
5. What features of hydroelectric power, geothermal energy, and
solar energy make them good sources of energy? What limitations are
associated with each?

Exercise II. Translate from Russian into English:

Соединенные Штаты Америки обладают значительными


запасами полезных ископаемых, таких как нефть, газ, уголь, уран и
т.д.. Однако из 40 основных видов минерального сырья лишь по 18
61
США обеспечивают себя на 50 % и вынуждены экспортировать
остальные 68 видов.
Полезные ископаемые в Северной Америке найдены почти на
всей территории. В Северной части равнин преобладают
месторождения руд металлов: железа, меди, никеля и других.
На Центральных и Великих равнинах, а также на
Миссиссипской низменности много нефти, природного газа и
каменного угля.
В Аппалачах и их предгорьях залегают железные руды и
каменный уголь. Кордильеры богаты нефтью, природным газом,
каменным углем, а также магматическими ископаемыми: рудами
цветных металлов, золотом, урановыми рудами и другими.
62

When the first census was taken in 1790, much of the country had
not even been explored, and much of it did not belong to the United States,
but to France and Spain. The "western settlers" of that day were in the
Appalachian Mountains, and the total population was about 4 million.
By 1854, the United States had acquired the western part of the
country by purchase and by treaty. This region had been unified politically,
and there were about as many people living west of the Appalachians as
east of them, about 24 million. At that time people seriously believed that
the task of settling and developing the country would require at least 500
years. The speed with which it actually was settled is one of the most
exciting stories in American history. Within the period of one lifetime, vast
territories of forest were converted into farms and industrial centers. At
first, the settlers pushed westward in thin lines along the rivers; then they
began to fill the intervening spaces throughout the middle of the country.
And then, dramatically, the movement of the population jumped to the
Pacific, caused by the discovery of gold in northern California.
Now the population is estimated at about 236 mln with a density of
65 persons per square mile. Seventy seven percent of the population lives
in urban areas; 23 % — in rural areas. The peoples of the United States
represent cultures from around the world, thanks to the immigration which
played a vital role in the formation of the United States. Very many people
63
came from abroad, mostly from Europe, in search of political or religious
freedom. Others fled from poverty and hunger. Before 1880 most of the
immigrants came from northern and western Europe, and after that from
southern and eastern Europe. Thousands of Asians came to the Pacific
coast. The peak of movement was reached in the period from 1901 to 1910
during which some 8,8 million people entered the country.
The first Europeans to establish permanent settlements along the
Pacific coast were the Russians. They came late in the 18th century in
search of easily extracted riches. Here that proved to be furs, and they
established a number of trading posts and missionary activities that
eventually reached as far south as northern California. However, they were
concentrated in Southeastern Alaska. These posts never became self-
sufficient in foodstuffs, and the costs of maintaining these scattered, distant
posts consumed most of the profits. So in 1867 Alaska was sold to the
United States for a price of 7,2 million dollars. Many Americans
considered the price far too high, and the government was seriously
criticized for the purchase. Evidence of this Russian presence can still be
seen in some parts of Alaska in wooden architecture, onion-doomed
churches, cemeteries, and the Russian Orthodox faith.
Immigrants from different countries very often live by solid
communities - Franco-Canadians in the north of New England, Germans
in Pennsylvania, Swedes in Minnesota, the French in Louisiana, the Slavs
in the northeast and the Lake District. They use their native languages and
keep the customs and traditions of their forefathers. Representatives of
many nationalities and ethnic groups took part in the formation of the
American nation and it is a very complicated product.
A constituent part of the American nation consists of about 30
million Afro-Americans (about 12 % of the whole population). Half of them
live in the South, in the states of Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Georgia,
64
North and South Carolinas, Virginia. Spanish-speaking people from
Mexico, Puerto Rico, Cuba and other Hispanic countries make up another
group which equals 6 % of the population. The native people comprise
Indians (1,5 million), Eskimos and Aleuts. Minorities of Asian descent
include Chinese, Japanese, Indochinese and others.
North Alaska has been the home of Eskimos for countless centuries.
It is believed that the Eskimos moved there from Mongolia or Siberia,
probably crossing Bering Strait, named for Vitus Bering, the Danish sea
captain who discovered Alaska on his voyage for Russia in 1741. The
Eskimos, the Aleuts of the southwest, and the Indians of the southeast are
the state's earliest known inhabitants.
There are about 4 million people belonging to other ethnic groups.
But the great majority of the people of the United States are English-
speaking Americans (over 80 per cent), though their language under new
conditions of life and immigrant environment acquired a number of new
phonetical and lexical peculiarities.
In number of population (over 260 million) the United States holds
one of the first places in the world (after China and India). The average
density of population as a whole, without Alaska and Hawaii, is 26,2
people per 1 square kilometer, i.e. considerably less than in most of the
countries of Europe. More than half of the population is concentrated in
the industrial Northeast, and the density of population here is very high –
374 people per 1 square kilometer. The density of the population of the
South is over 30 people per 1 square kilometre. On the Pacific coast the
density is high again — 64 people per 1 square kilometre (California).
Meanwhile, California is the most populous state — 27 million people,
New York is second — 18 million. In the industrial and agrarian states of
the Lake District the density of population is lower and decreases sharply
in the purely agricultural states — North and South Dakotas and
65
Nebraska — 4—7 people per 1 square kilometre. In the mountainous
Cordillera States the density ranges from 2 people (Wyoming) to 12 people
per 1 square kilometre in Colorado.
The lowest density of population is in Alaska — 0,3 people per 1
square kilometre. But the tendency of movement of the population from one
region to another never stopped.
Interregional migrations of the population are closely connected
with considerable territorial differences in the level and rate of economic
development and reflect changes in the structure and distribution of
economy. As a result of the reduction of employment in agriculture and the
increase of those employed in industry, trade, finance, government, service,
the urban population of the country is continuously growing, now it is 74
per cent. The proportion of rural population is only 26 per cent. The
principal reason today for population movement is the growth of new
industries, especially in the West and South.
The population of 50 largest American cities constitutes 37,8 million
people (16,6 per cent of the country's population). At the top of the list is
the urban agglomeration of New York — the population of which is 17,9
million. It is followed by Los Angeles — 13 million, Chicago — 8,1 million,
San Francisco — 5,8 million, Philadelphia — 5,8 million, Detroit — 4,6
million, etc. As a whole, the United States has 182 cities with the
population of over 100 thousand people.
Today 95 per cent of the population of the United States are the
people who were born here. The great majority of the Americans belongs
to the Protestant and Catholic churches. As regards sex structure the ratio
of females and males is 51,4 to 48,6 fer cent. The expectation of life for a
white man is 71,3 and for a black man 65,4 years, for a white woman 78,3
and for a black woman 73,6 years.
66

The United States is one of the few countries in the world that has no
"official" national language. English is the common language by use, but it
is not the national language by law. About 30 million Americans speak a
language other than English at home. This means, for example, that if you
meet an American in New Mexico who speaks Spanish as his first
language, he could be a recent immigrant, having arrived in the USA only
a few years ago, or his grandparents could have arrived in the United
States a hundred years ago. It could also be that his ancestors had been
living in the area years before the thirteen American colonies were
established on the East Coast. A social foreign accent does not necessarily
mean that an individual is (or even was) a foreigner.

Vocabulary

to acquire forefathers to fill the intervening places


to unify minority to flee from poverty
to convert descent to play a vital role
to consume missionary solid community
migration populous the expectation of life
urban rural ratio

Comprehension Check

Exercise 1. Answer the following questions to cover the contents of


the text.
67
1. When was the first census taken? What was the population of the
USA?
2. What caused the westward migration of the people?
3. What played a vital role in the formation of the population?
4. When was the peak movement reached and why?
5. Who were the first Europeans to establish permanent settlements
along the Pacific coast? What evidence of it can be still seen in some parts
of Alaska?
6. In what states do immigrants live by solid communities?
7. What nationalities and ethnic groups took part in the formation of
the American nation?
8. How is the population distributed across the country? What is its
density?
9. What is the proportion of urban and rural population?
10. What are the chief urban agglomerations of the country?
11. What religion is predominant in the USA?
12. What language is spoken in the country?

Vocabulary Study

Exercise I. Look up the following words in an English - English


dictionary and write out the principal meanings. Use them in the
sentences of your own.

1) census n; 2) density n; 3) agglomeration n; 4) unify v;


5) community n; 6) ethnic a; 7) populous a; 8) minority n; 9) nationality n.

Exercise II. Find in the text the English phrases corresponding to


their Russian equivalents.
68
1) межрегиональные миграции; 2) плотность населения; 3)
перепись населения; 4) потреблять продукты питания; 5)
православная вера; 6. продолжительность жизни; 7)
густонаселенный регион; 8) отношение, пропорция; 9) возможный,
конечный, окончательный; 10) составляющая часть.

Exercise III. Supply the words and word combinations from the
text which are a periphrasis of the following.

1) a collection into a mass; 2) a grave-yard; 3) to make into a union


or a coherent whole; 4) to get as one's own, to come into possession of
smth.; 5) heathen, relating to races or large groups of people classed
according to common traits and customs; 6) compact, friendly or associated;
7) an expected number of years of life based on statistical probability; 8) the
ration between births and individuals in a specified population and time;
9) a unified body of individuals, the people with common interests living in
a particular area; 10) an organizational union for performing a specific
function, mainly, the propagation of a religious faith or carrying on
humanitarian work; 11) to alter the physical nature or properties, to
change from one form or function to another; 12) to occur or lie between
two things.

Exercise IV. Find out whether the statement is true or false


according to the information in the text.

1. The dramatic movement of the population from the East to the


Pacific was caused by the construction of Hollywood studios.
69
2. Representatives of many nationalities and ethnic groups took part
in the formation of the US nation and it is an extremely unique process.
3. More than half of the population is concentrated in the
agricultural Southeast, and the density of population here is very high.

4. The principal reason today for population movement is the growth


of new farm and ranches, especially in Alaska and the West.
5. The United States like many other countries has its "official"
national language.

Exercise V. Use the clues to help you fill in the blanks with the
correct words. Then write each numbered letter above the matching
number on the blanks provided below. The completed word puzzle will
describe one of the problems the world faces today.

1. 5 20 1 12

2. 15 21

3. 8 9

4. 23 6

5. 18 3

6. 4 24 25

7. 22 16 14

8. 10 17 7

9. 13 19

10. 2 11

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

Exercise V. In each sentence below, the word or words in capital


letters have been scrambled. Write the words correctly on the blanks.

_________ 1. The first Americans are now called DANSINI.


70
_________ 2. People of Spanish ancestry are called PICASHISN.
_________ 3. Many people from CAIRAF were brought to the
Americas as slaves.
_________ 4. At the end of the CLIVI RAW, slavery was outlawed.
_________ 5. People who move frequently are considered very
BLEOMI.
_________ 6. About 75 percent of the American people live in
BURNA areas.
_________ 7. The United States is a representative MARCCDEYO.
_________8. The largest minority group in America consists of
FROASANACIRE.
_________9. SRETIMNALANASIC are another ethnic group of
people from Mexico, Puerto Rico, Cuba.
_________ 10. Minorities of Asian STENDEC include Chinese,
Japanese, Indochinese and others.

Exercise VII. Translate the following text into English using new
words and word combinations from the text.

Население США
Основную часть населения составляют американцы — нация,
сформировавшаяся в ходе смешения и этнической интеграции
потомков переселенцев из стран Европы. Среди иммигрантов XVII —
XVIII вв. преобладали англичане, ставшие ядром американского
народа, шотландцы, голландцы, немцы, ирландцы; с 3-й четверти
XIX в. — немцы, ирландцы, англичане, выходцы из скандинавских
стран; с последней четверти — итальянцы и переселенцы из Австро-
Венгрии, России и др. стран Южной и Восточной Европы. В XX в. в
иммиграции всё более усиливается доля переселенцев из стран
71
Американского континента — Канады, Мексики, Вест-Индии. В XVII
—XVIII вв. из Африки ввезено много негров - рабов. Все эти группы
постепенно ассимилировались, воспринимали английский язык (в его
американском варианте) и участвовали в создании американской
культуры. Этот процесс сопровождался экономической и бытовой
дискриминацией, которой в меняющихся формах подвергались разные
группы населения. В силу особенностей формирования американская
нация сохраняет внутреннюю неоднородность. Особенно выделяются
негры (около 23 млн чел.), образовавшие своего рода
этнографическую группу внутри американской нации. Иммигранты
составляют переходные этнические группы. Между ними и
собственно американской нацией невозможно провести чёткой
разграничительной линии. Численность американцев в узком смысле,
включая негров и иммигрантов (начиная с 3-го поколения), —
примерно 180 млн чел.
Наряду с продолжающейся ассимиляцией наблюдается
тенденция к обособлению и сплочению ряда этнических групп. По
вероисповеданию около 55 % населения — протестанты разных
церквей и толков, около 37 % — католики, остальные —
православные, иудаисты, небольшое число мусульман, буддистов и
др.
72

Few people realize that the United States national-park system is


constantly growing and changing. Each year the Interior Department’s
National Park Service adds a park or monument here, discards one there.
Much more land is being added than dropped. For example, between 1955
and 1960 the system grew by 500,000 acres to reach a grand total of
nearly 24,500,000 acres. This immense stretch, larger than each of several
whole nations in Europe, incorporates not only national parks, monuments
and recreational areas but several other categories. These include
historical parks, battlefield sites, military parks, historic sites, parkways
and so on. The Department of Agriculture also maintains a number of
national forests to protect and develop timber resources.
The park service’s housekeeping job has become enormous. In 1956
the service began, in a project called Mission 66, to increase facilities to
meet the expected influx. The Congress responded by increasing the
service’s budget. A number of private donors also contributed, enabling
the service to improve trails, roads, utility systems, campgrounds, trailer
courts and parkways throughout the nation.
A major aim of Mission 66 is to promote understanding of the park
system. Several visitor centers have been built near parks and sites. Such a
center offers lectures, displays maps, distributes pamphlets and even shows
motion pictures about the area. Mission 66 has also built roads linking the
three historic spots, the whole forming the new Colonial National
historical Park.
73
Among the many additions made to the park system late in the 50s
were the Cumberland Gap National Historical Park in Kentucky,
Tennessee and Virginia; the Virgin Islands National Park in the Virgin
Islands; and two sites honoring national leaders – Theodore Roosevelt
Memorial Island in the Potomac River, Washington, D.C.; and Booker T.
Washington National Monument near Rocky Mount, Virginia.
The park system has deep historical roots. Before the adoption of the
Articles of Confederation several of the states claimed unoccupied lands
west of the Alleghenies. These they ceded to the national Government; and
as additions were made to the United States, the ownership of all land
(except in Texas) not already in private hands was vested in the
Government.
Most of these lands have now passed into private ownership.
However, the Government still owns millions of acres scattered through
many states of the West. Some of them are open to settlement (although all
the best agricultural land is gone), but much of them have been set aside
for the recreational use of all the people. The first of the national parks
was Wyoming’s Yellowstone, created in 1872. Such parks are created by
Congress for the sake of developing and perpetuating them for the public
enjoyment. National monuments, on the other hand, are proclaimed by the
president to conserve some restricted area of unusual scientific or historic
interest. Most of the national monuments are small, though some include
large areas. Parks, monuments and forests welcome thousands of
vacationists every summer.
A map of national forests would show vast areas reaching from
Canada to Mexico along the rocky backbone of the continent and from the
desert to the mountain meadows. Most of the national parks and nearly all
of the national monuments would show up as mere dots here and there,
although Yellowstone Park has an area of 3,458 square miles, chiefly in
74
Wyoming, though spreading into Montana and Idaho; and Glacier Park on
the Canadian border is nearly half as large. Several others are of
considerable size.
The national parks may be roughly classified as four kinds – (1)
those remarkable chiefly for their extraordinary scenic beauties, as
stupendous waterfalls, gigantic trees of prehistoric age, the highest
mountain peak in North America and the marine vistas of historic Acadia;
(2) those displaying such evidences of erosion as remarkable limestone
caves and stupendous canyons wonderfully carved and colored; (3) those
illustrating glacial action; and (4) those containing volcanic phenomena,
geysers and hot springs. Instead of describing them in their chronological
order, it seems more interesting to group them according to
characteristics. The nation has provided roads, trails, supervised
campgrounds and hotels.
Three scenic parks are in the East. Acadia, in Maine, was first
established, then the Great Smoky Mountains in North Carolina and
Tennessee sees, and the Shenandoah in Virginia.
Yosemite National Park is famous for its falls. Yosemite Valley, the
best known feature of Yosemite National Park, is a canyon seven miles
long with walls in places three thousand feet in height down which pour
Yosemite Falls. Vernal Falls are unsurpassed for sheer loveliness. Bridal
Veil Falls, aptly named, drops 620 feet and the slender Ribbon Falls makes
a straight drop of 1,612 feet. Nevada Falls drops 594 feet behind the
evergreens. Equally spectacular are the summits that rise from the valley
floor. Cathedral Rocks, El Capitan and Sentinel Dome are exceeded by
Half Dome and Clouds Rest.
Of the parks remarkable as works of erosion, the Grand Canyon of
the Colorado in Arizona is by far the most extraordinary. Throughout the
ages the Colorado River and its tributaries have gouged out of the
75
sandstone a network of mysterious chasms and at one point the water flows
red-silted nearly six thousand feet beneath the canyon’s rim. The great
natural barrier is more than two hundred miles in length, but in places one
may descend on mule-back by trails that loop in zigzag. The total area of
the park is over thousand square miles.
Mesa Verde, Colorado, is a green tableland, which is famous for its
prehistoric cliff-dweller ruin, called Cliff Palace. The park was created in
1906 when Spruce Tree House was discovered and Sun Temple was
unearthed. The latter is the largest of many cliff–dwellings, each of which
had living and storerooms for numerous clans, as well as kivas or rooms
for religious ceremonials.
Caves as well as canyons have been formed by erosion, and numbers
of limestone caverns have been formed by the action of underground
waters, perhaps through ages of time; and all are more or less
characterized by stalactites formed by the drip of water impregnated with
carbonic acid and by stalagmites formed by the ground splash from the
stalactites which has caused them to grow slowly upward beneath them.
The national parks of such wonders are the Carlsbad Caverns in the
Guadalupe Mountains of New Mexico, Wind Cave of South Dakota and
Mammoth Cave of Kentucky. The national monuments include several
additional caves of great beauty – Jewel Cave in South Dakota, Lehman
Caves in Nevada, the Oregon Caves, and Shoshone Cave of Utah.
The parks characterized by glaciers are Glacier Park and Rainier,
while Rocky Mountain Park, in northern Colorado, and Grand Teton, in
Wyoming, show signs of glacial action. The snowfalls, settling in the
crater, press themselves into ice and slide, of their own weight, down the
rocky slopes, here grinding down the softer rock strata, there rumbling
over precipices until the air of lower altitude melts them to rivers milky
with sediment. As there is less to impede the ice-flow in mid-stream,
76
crevasses are formed which yawn, green and clear, for hundreds of feet,
and climbing-parties are safe only with experienced guides.
The national parks distinguished first for their volcanic origin
include Hawaii, with two active volcanoes, a lake of boiling lava and an
extinct volcano, Crater Lake and Yellowstone Park. This park contains
more geysers than are found in the rest of the world put together. This
largest park was preceded by forty years by the smallest, the radioactive
Hot Springs of Arkansas. Lassen Volcanic National Park in northern
California was created just before the eruption of Lassen Peak in 1916.
Many famous battlegrounds – Yorktown, Gettysburg, Chickamauga,
Richmond and Little Bighorn, to name only few – are marked by parks,
cemeteries and monuments. Some historical sites that have been set aside
as national monuments include that of the first permanent English
settlement at Jamestown, Virginia; Fort McHenry in Maryland, where the
national anthem was inspired; Appomattox Court House in Virginia
where General Robert E. Lee’s surrender to Ulysses S. Grant in 1865
brought an end to the bloody Civil War.
When the United States Government first awoke to the need of forest
conservation, an act of 1891 gave President Harrison authority to set aside
ungranted land as forest reserves. In 1905 was organized under the
United States Department of Agriculture. In 1907 the name Forest
Reserves was changed to National Forests. President Theodore Roosevelt
showed special zeal in adding forests to the conservation areas.
The national forests of the US and its territories cover approximately
180,000,000 acres – more than one acre for each inhabitant, on the
average. Each year they yield millions of dollars to the Federal
Government, chiefly from their timber crop, partly from the leasing of
grazing and other privileges. Yet fire annually destroys over a billion
board feet of timber; insects, disease and occasional windfalls an even
77
greater quantity. The fire-fighting is led by the Forest Rangers, the saving
of trees from loss and the planting of new growth is therefore of extreme
importance. The Forest Supervisor is in charge of a property which must
be protected, developed and improved; but he is also a sales manager and
his responsibilities include fire protection, forest experiment stations and
tree nurseries, forest products laboratories and the enforcement of grazing
and lumbering privileges. The states which include the largest areas of
national forests within their boundaries are Idaho, California, Montana,
Texas, Colorado and Arizona.

Vocabulary

to incorporate influx to loop in zigzag


to perpetuate backbone to be in charge of
to impregnate aptly hot spring
to cede stupendous an extinct volcano
to impede stalactites to show one's zeal
to surpass stalagmites Forest Service
chasm kiva tree nursery
to discard forest reserve scenic
to rumble over precipices

Comprehension check

Exercise I. Scan the text for the answers to the given questions.

1. What is the history of parks coming into being?


78
2. What is understood under Mission 66?
3. Are the national parks in private ownership or in governmental?
4. What is the purpose of national monuments?
5. How variable is the map of national forests?
6. Is there any way of classifying the national parks? Give the examples.
7. What is the purpose of preserving battlefield sites?
8. When did the US Government first awake to the need of forest
conservation? Why?
9. Who is in charge of keeping forests save and alive?

Vocabulary Study

Exercise I. Find in the English – English dictionary the difference


between the following words. Use them in the sentences of your own to
illustrate their meaning.

1) cave n; 2) kiva n; 3) crevasse n; 4) precipice n; 5) chasm n;


6) stalactite n; 7) stalagmite n.

Exercise II. Paraphrase the following expressions, using new


words and phrases from the text.

1) suited to a purpose; 2) a cylinder of calcium carbonate hanging


from the roof of a limestone cave; 3) to move in an arc (in alternating
directions); 4) the visual percept of a region; 5) a Pueblo Indian
ceremonial structure that is usually round and partly underground; 6) a
cylinder of calcium carbonate projecting upward from the floor of a
limestone cave; 7) to make a low noise over a very steep cliff or
overhanging place; 8) relating to natural scenery; 9) a source of ground
water with temperature above 98 °; 10) a broad landscape thoroughfare;
11) to blend or combine thoroughly to form a consistent body; 12) inflow;
79
13) to make something everlasting; 14) awesome, marvelous; 15) throw or
cast away.

Exercise III. Translate from Russian into English.


Один из крупнейших национальных парков США — заповедник
Йеллоустон — находится на северо-западе штата Вайоминг. Это
геологическое чудо природы с 200 гейзерами, ошеломляющим
буйством красок и ущельями, выпускающими облака пара из серных
источников. Национальный заповедник Гранд-Каньон расположен на
северо-западе Аризоны.
Это самый большой речной каньон мира и самая большая
достопримечательность юго-запада США. Самое популярное
времяпрепровождения здесь — экскурсия над каньоном на вертолете
и сплав на плотах вниз по Колорадо до тех мест, где река выходит на
равнину. Лучшее место для осмотра Каньона - Яки-Пойнт, вид на
изгиб Каньона оттуда открывается потрясающий, гораздо
интереснее, чем на западных смотровых точках.
Недалеко от Каньона находится знаменитый Метеор-Крейтэ
— здесь 50 тыс. лет назад упал метеорит, оставив воронку в 174 м
глубиной и 1 250 м диаметром, сохранившуюся почти неизменной
благодаря сухому климату. Тут же музей, посвященный метеоритам,
а поскольку в кратере тренировались американские астронавты
перед высадкой на Луну — то есть и раздел, посвященный
американской астронавтике.
Национальный парк Брайс-Каньон (шт. Юта) — огромная
котловина, заполненная колоннами, шпилями, "пальцами" самых
невероятных форм и нежнейших расцветок — красные, розовые и
белые песчаники, изрезанные до невероятности, переплетение
80
цветов, наложенное на нереальные фигуры. Длина каньона 443 км,
ширина в среднем 16 км (максимальная — 29 км), глубина 2103 м.
Национальный парк Роки-Маунтин — любимое место летнего
отдыха американцев. Маршруты на любой вкус — к озерам, к
водопадам, на вершины, а также в районы обитания многочисленных
животных.
Тропический рай ("Попугаевые джунгли") — парк,
ботанический и зоологический сад, с экспозицией в более чем 1100
экзотических птиц и 1200 тропических растений, а также джунгли,
водопады, озера, прекрасное шоу с дрессированными редкими
птицами и животными. Национальный заповедник Эверглейдс
расположен на 557 тыс. га земли и водного пространства с
прекрасно сохранившейся дикой субтропической природой,
мангровыми зарослями, редкими видами птиц и уникальными
тропическими растениями.

The United States is the leading economic power in the world. It is a


fully-developed industrial country with a very solid agricultural basis. Its
people enjoy a high standard of living though there remain many important
social problems which are to be solved. Highly-advanced technology
81
provides a system of communications and transportation to tie the country
and its people together.
The states of the United States can be grouped into regions that have
common historical, economic and physical characteristics. From this point
of view we can single out major regions. They are: (1) the Northeast, (2)
the Great Lakes, (3) the South, (4) the Plains, (5) the Rocky -Mountains,
and (6) the Pacific states. In some cases, these economic regions include
the same areas as the major physical regions.
THE NORTHEAST. The Northeast is made up of the New England
states and the Middle
Atlantic States. The New
England states generally
lie east of the Hudson
River valley. They are
Maine, Vermont, New
Hampshire,
Massachusetts, Rhode
Island, and
Connecticut. The
Middle Atlantic States
are New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, New Jersey and Maryland.
The manufacturing industry and trade have made the Northeast an
urban region. About 80 percent of the people live in cities that produce
goods like steel, clothing, and books.
The Northeast was the first region in the United States to
industrialize. This is the place often called the "melting pot" – the fusion of
people from many nations into Americans. It was a gateway to the rest of
the land.
82
Generations of exasperated farmers in New England complained
that the chief product of their land is stones. But the very rockiness of the
soil was a great aid to industry. In the mountains and hills of New England
rocks created numerous waterfalls that could be harnessed for
waterpower. In the 1800's, factory owners used the fast-moving rivers
flowing down from the Appalachian Highlands to power machinery for
textile mills. Important resources of iron ore, coal, limestone and timber
provided for growth of industry. Today, manufacturing employs more
people in the region than any other activity.
The region's largest cities are ports built around good natural
harbors. They are Boston, Providence, New York, Philadelphia and
Baltimore. An almost unbelievable quantity of freight is carried across the
Great Lakes, and most of the shipments are raw materials. The cargo
tonnage, which passes between Lake Superior and Lake Huron, is
approximately equal to the combined capacity of the Panama and Suez
Canals.
The skyscrapers of New York, the steel mills of Pittsburgh, the
automobile assembly lines of Detroit - these symbols of industrial America
belong to this region. New York is the largest city in the country and one of
the major cities of the world with more than 7 million people. But the New
York metropolitan area - the city with the closely connected suburbs and
smaller cities - has over 9 million people. Baltimore and Philadelphia are
among the largest cities in the country. Buffalo is an important river port
and grain-milling centre.
It should be mentioned that several of the cities on the Great Lakes
grew up first as grain-milling centres, and even today grain is a major
cargo of the Lakes freighters. Detroit, the heart of the automobile industry,
began as a wagon-making town using wood from the forests that covered
the peninsula between Lake Michigan and Lake Huron. There are still
83
areas of the true wilderness such as the forests on the northern part of the
State of Maine where to this day the only way of crossing great stretches of
land or water is by foot or canoe. Today, four of the most heavily
populated areas in the Northeast are centered around the seaports of
Boston, New York, Philadelphia and Baltimore. These four places are not
only important ports, but also leading industrial centres.
The greatest part of America's industry depends upon three
resources: iron ore from the Lake Superior area, coal from the Allegheny
hills of western Pennsylvania and West Virginia, and transportation across
the Great Lakes. Steel-making is basic, but there are many other related
industries in this area too – glass, nonferrous metals, chemicals, rubber,
and machinery. Pittsburgh, in the heart of coalfields, was the first of the
great steel cities. Today, the Pittsburgh area still produces about one-fifth
of the nation's steel, and also ships coal to the other great steel-making
centers – Chicago, Detroit, Toledo, Cleveland, Buffalo, etc.
In addition to manufacturing and trade, about 20 percent of the
economic activity of the Northeast is connected with service. A service
industry can include such activities as finance and banking, entertainment,
education, insurance, government. Newark, New York, Hartford and
Boston, for example, are cities where the country's largest insurance
companies are situated. New York is a world centre of banking and
entertainment. Boston has for long been one of the country's most
important centres of higher education. Washington D.C., the nation's
capital, has about half of its workers in government service.
As an agricultural region, the Northeast does not have large areas of
good land. Small farms are numerous in this region. Most are around 81
hectares in size. In the Middle Atlantic States grains, fruits, and vegetables
are grown. There is extensive farming in the New England states with one
crop being grown. Maine is famous for potatoes. The Connecticut River
84
valley is known for tobacco. Dairy and poultry farms are found in several
areas.
In addition to this farming, the Northeast is well known all over the
United States for its fishing industry. This is quite natural because of the
influence of the Atlantic Ocean. The Northeast has rich fishing areas along
the Atlantic coast. The fishing industry developed rapidly here to
compensate the rocky land and the poor soils. Today, large numbers of
flounder, cod, herring, halibut and other fish are caught. The fishing rules
are very strict; and the government takes very severe measures against
those who do not observe the fishing regulations. This explains why it is
possible to achieve good catches of fish, and at the same time preserve the
fishing grounds with the necessary supply of fish. The fish are caught,
processed and shipped both overseas and to other areas of the United
States. The fish market in New York is famous not only in the United States,
but all over the world both for the amount of fish sold and the different
types of fish which satisfy the tastes of any buyer.

Vocabulary

to single out fusion steel-making industry


to industrialize freight a service industry
to harness a good catch exasperated
to compensate an assembly-line
to power machinery dairy and poultry farms
to take severe measures

Comprehension Check
85

1. What does highly-advanced technology provide?


2. How many major regions can you single out in the United States?
3. What has made the Northeast an urban region?
4. Is service industry an important activity in the Northeast? If so,
why?
5. Does the Northeast have numerous small or large farms? What is
the role of agriculture in the Northeast?
6. Why is the fishing industry well developed in the Northeast of the
USA?
7. Where is the famous fish market situated in the United States of
America?
8. What are the main cities of the Northeast and their role in the life
of the country?

Exercise II. Find in the text the English words and phrases
corresponding to the Russian equivalents:

1) слияние, объединение; 2) сборочный конвейер; 3) снабжать


силовым двигателем; 4) выделять; 5) предпринимать суровые меры;
6) использовать водопад как источник энергии; 7) сектор услуг;
8) хороший улов; 9) фрахт, груз; 10) основательный, надёжный;
11) плавильный котел.

Exercise III. Supply the words or word combinations from the text
which correspond to the following:

1) an arrangement of machines, equipment, and workers in which


work passes from operation to operation in direct line; 2) load; 3) a
merging of diverse elements into a unified whole; coalition; 4) to
neutralize the effect of something; to countervail; 5) to select from others
86
for special attention; 6) to utilize water as energy resource; 7) to make or
become industrial; 8) to supply the machines with power; 9) the total
quantity caught at one time; 10) agricultural establishments producing
milk and other milk products; 11) irritated or annoyed especially to the
point of injudicious action; 12) of good quality and condition; 13) an
environment in which many ideas and races are socially assimilated.

Exercise IV. Fill in the blank with the correct word:

1. The United States is the leading economic ... in the world. 2. We


can ... six major regions. 3. ... have made the Northeast an urban region.
4. The Northeast was the first ... in the United States to industrialize. 5. The
region's largest cities are ... built around good natural ... . 6. In addition to
manufacturing and trade, about 20 per cent of the economic activity of the
Northeast is ... with service. 7. In addition to farming, the Northeast is well
known all over the United States for its ... industry.

Exercise V. Find out whether the statement is true or false


according to the information in the text.

1. The American people enjoy a low standard of living. 2. About 20


per cent of the people live in the cities that produce goods. 3. The region's
largest cities are ports. 4. Buffalo is an important sea port. 5. In addition
to manufacturing and trade, about 20 per cent of the economic' activity of
the Northeast is connected with fish. 6. The Northeast is well known all
over the United States for its oil industry.

Exercise VI. Guess what state is meant:

1. It is north of Maryland, it borders Lake Erie and it is west of New Jersey.


87
2. It is south of Massachusetts, it’s on the Atlantic coast and it’s smaller than
New Jersey.
3. It borders Massachusetts, it borders Canada and it doesn’t border Lake
Ontario.
4. It is on the Atlantic coast, it borders Pennsylvania, and it borders
Delaware.
5. It is on the Atlantic coast, it is east of New York and it is south of New
Hampshire.
6. It is on the Atlantic coast, it is north of Massachusetts and it borders
Canada.
7. It borders Canada, it borders New Hampshire and it is larger than
Vermont.
8. It is south of Pennsylvania, it borders New Jersey and it is east of
Maryland.
9. It is on the Atlantic coast, it is east of New York and it is south of
Massachusetts.
10. It borders Canada, it is on the Atlantic coast and it borders Vermont.
11. It is on the Atlantic coast, it borders Pennsylvania, and it is south of New
Jersey.

Exercise VII. Write the number of the state that matches each of
the following descriptions. Use the map of your textbook to help you.

A. Maine E. Rhode Island I. New Jersey


B. New Hampshire F. Connecticut J. Maryland
C. Vermont G. New York K. Delaware
D. Massachusetts H. Pennsylvania

1. This is the region's least densely populated state.


2. This is the state with the largest city in the United States.
3. The smallest state in the Northeast is _____ .
88
4. The eastern border of this state is partly formed by the
Connecticut River.
5. Concord is the capital of this state.
6. Cape Cod is located in this state.
7. This state is located west of Rhode Island.
8. The nation's capital is located along the border of this state.
9. The cities of Philadelphia and Pittsburgh are located in this state.
10. The western boundary of this state is formed by the Delaware
River.
11. This state shares a peninsula with Maryland.

THE GREAT LAKES. The region of the Great Lakes includes the
states of Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, and Wisconsin. Lakes
Superior, Huron, Michigan and Erie form the Northern part of the region.
The Ohio River forms the southern border of the region, the Mississippi
river — its western border. Water routes by way of the rivers and lakes
have contributed to the region's economic growth. Raw materials are
shipped into the region for use in the factories. Finished goods are shipped
out to other parts of the country and abroad to foreign markets.
89
The Great Lakes
region is the industrial
heart of the United States.
The region's factories
produce steel, heavy
machinery, farm
equipment, and
automobiles.
The automobile industry was once concentrated in Detroit, but now
it has decentralized to other cities within the region. Cars are assembled
and parts are made in such cities as Akron, Cleveland, Cincinnati,
Youngstown, Milwaukee and Indianapolis. Chicago and Gary are the
centers of a large steel-making area along the south shore of Lake
Michigan.
Chicago is the largest city in the region and the second largest city
in the country. It has a population of about 3 million people. The Chicago
metropolitan area has some 7 million people. Its importance is tied to the
same waterways that helped to develop the region. Chicago is located on
Lake Michigan. It is also tied to the Mississippi River by way of canals.
Chicago, as a result, is the country's busiest inland port. It is also the
busiest railroad and airline centre in the country.
In recent years, industrial growth has declined in the Great Lakes
region. In part, this is because of the region's dependence on heavy
industry when the greatest industrial growth is taking place in the new and
newest industries, such as electronics.
Another important reason is due to growing competition from
foreign countries, especially Japan. Competition is especially great in the
areas of automobiles and steel. As automakers buy large amounts of steel,
90
glass, rubber for making cars, a decline in the auto industry has a negative
effect on other branches of the economy.
The Great Lakes region is also an important area for farming. Corn,
wheat, and dairy products are the most important agricultural items.
Farmers often rotate soybeans and corn — that is, planting corn in a field
one year and soybeans the next. This rotation is needed to keep from
wearing out the soil. The region has enough rainfall, which is very
important for hay, grown to feed dairy cattle. Wisconsin is the most
important dairy state in the region.
THE SOUTH. The region lies roughly south of the Ohio and
Potomac rivers, and, with the exception of Louisiana and Arkansas, east of
the Mississippi River. Those states along the Atlantic Coastal Plain —
Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia — are
known as the South Atlantic states. Those states in the Appalachian
Highlands and along the Gulf Coastal Plain are known as the South
Central states. They are West Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama,
Mississippi, Arkansas and Louisiana.
Agriculture has
long been the major
economic activity of the
South, although this
dominance has become
less in recent years. The
moist, warm climate
contributes to the
extensive growth of
tobacco in Virginia, North
Carolina and South
Carolina. The tobacco grown here is of high quality, and the tradition of
91
growing it goes down to the early days of colonization. The Red Indians
taught the white settlers the way to grow tobacco and they made
tremendous profit out of this crop exporting it to Europe. Besides the above
mentioned states it is also an important crop in Kentucky.
Cotton is another important crop for southern farmers, especially in
Arkansas and Mississippi. Pecans (very specific and tasty nuts) and
peanuts are grown in Georgia and citrus fruits, vegetables in Florida.
Soybeans are an important crop in Arkansas. Some of the country's
leading fishing areas are found along the Gulf coast. In fact, southern
waters produce more than half the total national catch. Shrimp is
important in the waters near Louisiana. Oysters and menhaden (American
herring) are caught off the shores of Alabama and Mississippi. The waters
around Florida are the source for turtles, sponges and groupers. Rivers in
the South provide catches of such fish as the catfish.
Light industry, textile manufacturing, lumber mills, paper mills and
the processing of food products make their contribution to industrial
activity in the region. The pine forests of Mississippi, Alabama and
Louisiana have trees for a wide number of wood products. Florida is a
popular tourist area and thousands come to this beautiful place for rest
and entertainment. This romantic state attracts a lot of retired people who
like to enjoy their retirement in peace and warmth.
Atlanta is to the South what Chicago is to the Great Lakes region. It
is a most important centre of railroad and airline transportation in the
South. The city's population is more than 422,000 people, but the
metropolitan area has just over 2 million people. In Florida the major
urban centres are Jacksonville, Miami, Tampa and St. Petersburg.
Recent years indicate a large movement of people to this state,
especially of retired people, who like the warm climate, and of immigrants
from Latin America and the islands in the Caribbean Sea.
92
Mining and oil drilling are important economic activities in the
South Central states. There is oil and natural gas in Louisiana. Some of the
country's largest coal deposits lie in the states of West Virginia, Kentucky
and Tennessee. In fact almost three-fourths of United States coal
production comes from the South Central States. The reserves of coal and
iron ore near Birmingham have made the city an important steel centre in
the South.
Leading cities of the South Central states include Memphis, New
Orleans, Nashville, and Louisville. In addition to being an important river
port, Memphis provides furniture and floor products for the whole country.
New Orleans is an important trading port in the delta of the Mississippi
river and a major banking centre of the South. Nashville is a centre for
publishing and printing and a tourist attraction as the center for the
country's music industry. Louisville has the world's largest electrical
appliance plant.

Vocabulary

decline to contribute with the exception of


competition to rotate diversification
dominance to assemble to be instrumental in
tremendous to expand to wear out
to decentralize to tie to assume a rational attitude

Comprehension Check

Exercise I. Scan the text for answers to the following questions:

1. What states does the region of the Great Lakes consist of?
2. What is the economic importance of the region's rivers and lakes?
93
3. Why is the region of the Great Lakes the industrial heart of the United
States?
4. What industry is this region famous for?
5. What are the reasons for the decline in industrial growth in this region?
6. What are the region's most important agricultural items?
7. What states does the South of the USA consist of?
8. What is the major economic activity of the South?
9. What are the most important agricultural crops grown in this region?
10. What other industries are developed in this region?
11.What are the leading cities of the South?
Vocabulary Study

Exercise I. Fill in the blank with the correct word:

1. The Great Lakes region is the industrial … of the United States.


2. The greatest industrial growth is … … in the new and newest industries,
such as electronics.
3. The …, warm climate contributes to the growth of tobacco in Virginia.
4. The Red Indians taught the white settlers the way to grow tobacco and
they … … out of this crop.
5. Cotton is another important … for southern farmers.
6. Some of the country’s leading … areas are found along the Gulf coast.
7. Florida is a popular … area and thousands come to this beautiful place
for rest and entertainment.

Exercise II. Complete the sentence with the best answer (a, b or c )
according to the information in the text:

1. The automobile industry was once concentrated in Detroit, but


now a) it has moved to Texas;
b) it has decentralized to other cities within the region;
94
c) it is concentrated in the suburbs of the city.
2. Chicago is a) the largest city in the USA;
b) the largest city on the south shore of Lake Erie;
c) the largest city in the region and the country's busiest
inland port.
3. Industrial growth has declined in the Great Lakes region because
a) of the region's dependence on heavy industry;
b) many workers have left the region;
c) agriculture has become more important.
4. Agriculture has long been
a) the weakest sector of the economy of the South;
b) in decline because of the cold climate of the region;
c) the major economic activity of the South.
5. Three-fourths of United States coal production comes
a) from California;
b) from the South Central Basin;
c) from Texas.

Exercise III. Guess what state is meant.

1. It’s east of the Mississippi River, it borders West Virginia and it borders
Tennessee.
2. It borders the Mississippi River, it is north of Arkansas and it borders
Wisconsin.
3. The Mississippi River borders it, it is south of Missouri and it is on the
Gulf of Mexico.
4. It borders Georgia, it is east of Tennessee and it is on the Atlantic coast.
5. It is on the Atlantic coast, it borders Georgia, it is north of Florida.
6. It borders the Mississippi River, it is south of Missouri, and it is west of
Tennessee.
95
7. It borders the Mississippi River, it borders Iowa and it borders Lake
Michigan.
8. The Mississippi River borders it, it is south of Missouri and it is on the
Gulf of Mexico.
9. It is on the Atlantic coast, it is in the southeast and it borders Georgia.
10. It is north of Kentucky, it borders Lake Michigan and it borders the Ohio
River.
11. It borders the Mississippi River, it borders Arkansas and it is not on the
Gulf of Mexico.
12. It is on the Atlantic coast, it borders North Carolina, it is south of
Virginia.
13. It borders Kentucky, it borders the Ohio River and it borders
Pennsylvania.
14. It borders Lake Superior, it borders Lake Michigan and it borders Lake
Huron.
15. It borders Illinois, it is east of Missouri, and the Ohio River borders it.
16.It borders the Ohio River, it borders Indiana, and it borders Lake
Michigan.
17. It is east of the Mississippi River, it is on the Gulf of Mexico and it is west
of Georgia.

Exercise IV. Guess to what state the following mottoes belong:

1. We dare defend our rights. 2. State sovereignty, national union. 3.


The people rule. 4. Wisdom, justice and moderation. 5. In God we trust. 6.
Union, justice and confidence. 7. United we stand, divided we fall. 8. If you
seek for a pleasant peninsula, look around you. 9. To be rather than to
seem. 10. By valor and arms. 11. With God, all things are possible. 12.
Agriculture and commerce. 13. Prepared in mind and resources. 14. Thus
96
always to tyrants. 15. Mountaineers are always free. 16. Forward. 17. The
crossroads of America.

Exercise V. A. Write the name (abbreviation) of each state after the


number that identifies it on the map.

1. _____; 7. _____;
2. _____; 8. _____;
3. _____; 9. _____;
4. _____; 10. ____;
5. _____; 11. ____;
6. _____; 12. ____.

B. Write the number of the correct state from the list above in the
blank before each sentence.

___ 1. This state is a peninsula.


___ 2. The Mississippi delta is here.
___ 3. The major industry of this state is steel.
___ 4. This state is directly south of Kentucky.
___ 5. Atlanta is the capital of this state.
___ 6. The capital of this state is on the James River.
___ 7. This state has the highest overall elevation of all southern
states.
___ 8. The capital of this state is Jackson.
97

The region of the Plains is made up of those states between the


Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains with the exception of Louisiana
and Arkansas. The Northern Plains states are North Dakota, South
Dakota, Nebraska, Iowa, Kansas, and Minnesota. Missouri, Oklahoma and
Texas make up the Southern Plains states.
The first American explorers of the Great Plains thought that this
region was a desert. They even called it the "Great American Desert".
They noted that there was a lack of trees and an almost endless sea of
grass. This is a land of extreme heat and extreme cold. It is almost flat,
until it suddenly meets the mountains to the west.
Nowhere is the rainfall more unpredictable or the climate more
violent than on the Great Plains. For two or three years, there may be
enough rain. Then there is a year when rain fails, when the streams from
the mountains dry up and their channels are filled with sand. Often the
98
weather destroys a year's work in a single day. Only the Native Americans
knew how to exist in this place without trees or arable soil. They lived by
hunting the millions buffaloes roaming the Great Plains.
In 1868 the railroads reached into the plains and the builders and
hunters brought death to the buffalo. This forced the Native Americans to
abandon the plains. The cowboy and huge herds of cattle took their place.
At that time the supply of good free farm land was exhausted and therefore,
some settlers, lured by the promise of land, did stay in the Great Plains to
coax life from the hard, dry soil.
These were the first of the "homesteaders" – farmers who received
64 hectares of free land from the federal government in exchange for living
on the claim and cultivating it for at least five years. At that time Indians
and the cattlemen controlled the plains and the homesteader with his
fences and plowed fields was an interloper encroaching on the cattlemen's
grazing land and the Indians' hunting grounds. For years, conflict between
these three forces flared up in violence, but two inventions which reached
this region in he 1870s assured the farmers' victory. The first of these was
barbed wire which stopped cattle from overrunning the cultivated areas.
The other was the windmill which saved the farmer's life during droughts
by pumping surface water to irrigate his vegetables and water his
livestock.
The farmers didn't realize it, but they were wasting their land by
"square farming". Today's farmer has learned to rotate his crops and also
to terrace his land and to plant grass along the natural courses where the
water drains away.
Today, the region of the Great Plains is considered the "American
breadbasket". It yields great quantities of crops, especially wheat. Wheat
is important in the states of Kansas, Minnesota, Nebraska, and the
Dakotas.
99
Here a few words should be said about corn. It is the most important
of all American crops, as basic to American agriculture as iron to
American industry. Probably one of the US' greatest resources is its ability
to grow great quantities of corn. Most of the yield - some three-fourths of it
- is used to feed livestock. Corn also has proven to be an astonishingly
versatile industrial material. From a corn distilling manufacturers extract
alcohol-fuel, or gasohol, used in many farm vehicles and growing numbers
of cars.
Until recently, most of the farmers in the Plains practiced "general
farming", that is, the family produced as much of it own food and
equipment as possible, and sold whatever remained to buy things it could
not raise or make. Today, however, nearly all the farm families in the
Plains do "commercial farming"; they grow crops exclusively for sale and
not for their own consumption. This change from general farming to
commercial farming represents another kind of agricultural revolution
typified by a decline in the number of farm families and an increase in the
size of farms.
Iowa is considered the richest of the farming states of the Northern
Plains. Nearly 96 per cent of the land is arable that is fit for cultivation.
The average size of a farm in Iowa is 114 hectares. Since Iowa is situated
in the eastern part of the plains, it receives more rainfall than the states in
the west. Corn is grown instead of wheat. In fact, Iowa is the leading state
in the USA in corn production. Because of the great amount of corn which
is used for fodder. Iowa also leads the nation in the raising of hogs.
The cities of the Northern Plains have developed as markets and
food processing centres. The most typical ones are as follows:
Minneapolis, St. Paul, Kansas City, and Omaha.
St. Louis, the largest city in the Northern Plains, was founded as a
trading centre in the 1700's. But in the last 150 years it became a major
100
industrial city. Today, manufacturing is the most important economic
activity. Among its products are metals, chemicals, airplanes and
automobiles.
Oil is the most important natural resource in the Southern Plains.
The growing demand for oil products brought great wealth to Texas and
Oklahoma City, Tulsa, Dallas, and Houston.
In addition to oil, farming is important to the Southern Plains states.
The farms in the state of Oklahoma grow wheat, sorghum, cotton, corn,
and peanuts. However, the state has a serious problem with soil erosion. In
order to overcome this problem much of the cropland has been converted
to grass land. This change has given good results: cattle raising has
become a major agricultural activity in Oklahoma.
Texas is one of the most important agricultural states in the region
and the country. The average size of a farm in Texas is 270 hectares, which
means that the farms are quite big. Many farms belong to large
corporations. Such farms are much bigger than the usual ones. They have
a size of 405 hectares or even more. Vegetables and citrus fruit are grown
in south Texas, and wheat and cotton are grown in the north of the state.
Texas leads the country in both the number of cattle and sheep.
Though Texas has more individual farmers than any other state,
most of the people in the state live in cities of over 50,000 population. In
recent years the growth of the population in Texas is rapid. Many people
migrate to Texas from other states because of its warm climate and the
availability of service jobs in the growing cities.
It should be mentioned that the Great Plains are also America's
cattle country. The cattle were scattered over hundreds of miles of country
and had to be rounded up by cowboys who knew how to ride, and ride
hard. The drive to the meat packing plants in Chicago was long and slow.
A herd might travel 20 miles during a day, and at night the nervous cattle
101
had to be calmed. To keep them quiet, cowboys circled the herd throughout
the night, singing to the animals. This was part of the cowboys' work and
their sad ballads have become part of American culture.
With the development of refrigerated railroad-cars which permitted
the shipment of fresh meat over long distances cattle-raising extended over
the entire plains. But there were many difficulties. In summer the heat
scorched the grass and there were grass fires. In winter farmers had to
contend with extreme cold and blizzards of snow.
Today a new cattle industry occupies the Great Plains. Cooperative
associations have been formed which divide the land among the members
and decide on the number of cattle on each plot. Many problems remain,
but the cattlemen are trying to restore the pastures just as farmers are
restoring the soil.
Houston is among the largest cities of the USA with around 1, 5
million people in the city and about 3 million in the metropolitan area. It is
becoming the national centre for technology for space exploration, energy
and medicine. Dallas is the second largest city in Texas with about 1
million people. The Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area has about 3
million people. Its economy is based on the manufacturing of electrical
equipment, airplane parts, clothing, and the processing of food products.
San Antonio is the third largest city in the state and among the largest
cities of the country. Its population of about 800,000 people is engaged in
food processing,
manufacturing and
government service.
THE ROCKY
MOUNTAINS. The
Rocky Mountain
region is made up of
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the states of Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico,
Utah, and Wyoming. The most striking feature of this region is the small
population compared to other regions of the United States. Large parts of
the region have few or no people. This is mainly due to the lack of water,
which will continue to influence the development of the region in the
future.
In the days when gold was king and thousands of men lived in the
mining camps in the wilderness, agriculture began in the Rockies. In this
land of little water, farming was very difficult - and would have been
impossible without streams of irrigation canals that bring water from the
high mountain streams to the dry valleys below.
Today farms m the dry areas of the region are also situated along
the water-ways or where there is irrigation. The main crops are cotton,
potatoes, wheat, barley, and sugar beets. As there is lack of water, many
farmers find it more profitable to raise livestock; the cattle and sheep
require a lot of land on which to graze. Therefore many of the ranches in
the region are very large. Their sizes can be as large as 900 hectares.
Though agriculture in the region has many problems because of lack
of water and poor soils, the Rocky Mountains are rich in mineral and
energy resources. Gold and silver were the first resources discovered in
the 19th century. Today, a number of minerals are mined such as copper,
mercury, and molybdenum, which is used to strengthen steel. Coal and
iron ore are mined in Arizona, Colorado, and Utah. On this basis a
regional steel industry has developed.
Oil, natural gas, and coal are now of major importance to the Rocky
Mountains region. It is believed that under much of Wyoming and
Colorado there are large deposits of oil shale that is rocks containing oil.
From these rocks oil can be received. The Powder River Basin of Wyoming
is now one of the most important coal mining regions of the country.
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The major cities of the region are Phoenix and Denver. Phoenix has
about 800,000 people in the city and 1,5 million in the metropolitan area.
It is an important producer of electronic products, computers, airplanes,
steel, aluminum, and chemicals. Denver with about half a million people in
the city and 1,6 million in the metropolitan area has an economy based on
federal government service including a mint where they make coined
money. Food processing and the making of transportation equipment are
also important.

Vocabulary

unpredictable to roam versatile


arable to encroach homesteader
interloper to coax life to terrace the land
square farming to restore to live on the claim
to flare up in to extract to scorch
to contend with fodder
Comprhension Check

Exercise I. Scan the text for answers to the following questions.

1. Where is the region of the Plains situated?


2. Why did the first settlers call this region the "Great American Desert"?
3. Who were called "homesteaders" and why did conflicts after their
settlement in the Plains flare up?
4. Why is the region called the "American breadbasket"?
5. Why is Iowa the leading state in the USA in corn production? How much
of the land in Iowa arable?
6. What are the main centers of oil production in the Southern Plains?
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7. Does the state of Oklahoma have a serious problem with soil erosion?
How is this problem solved?
8. What is grown in the farms of Texas?
9. How has it happened that the Great Plains are America's cattle
country? What problems has America been facing in this field?
10. Why are ranches in the Rocky Mountains region large?
11. Are Arizona, Colorado and Utah agricultural states?
12. Is the Powder River Basin of Wyoming rich in gold? If not, name
the main mineral resources.

Vocabulary Study

Exercise I. Fill in the blank with the correct word:

1. The first American ... of the Great Plains thought that this region was a
desert.
2. The ... size of a farm in Iowa is 114 hectares.
3. St. Louis was ... as a trading centre in the 1700's.
4. In order to ... this problem much of the cropland has been converted to
grass land.
5. Many people migrate to Texas because of its warm climate and the ... of
jobs in the growing cities.
6. Houston is becoming the national centre for technology for ... ..., energy
and medicine.
7. The most striking ... of the Rocky Mountains is the small population
compared to other regions of the United States.

Exercise II. Complete the sentence with the best answer (a, b or c)
according to the information in the text:
105
1. Today the Plains is considered
a) the centre of the auto industry of the USA;
b) the most popular place for tourism;
c) the "American breadbasket".

2. Iowa is the leading state in the USA


a) in coal production;
b) in corn production;
c) in the raising of hogs.

3. Texas and Oklahoma became very rich


a) because of the growing demand for oil products;
b) due to their favorable geographical position;
c) due to tourism.
4. Large parts of the Rocky Mountains have few or no people
a) because they left the region trying to find jobs in others places;
b) as the climate here is very wet;
c) due to the lack of water.
5. Many ranches in the Rocky Mountains are large
a) as they specialize in growing wheat;
b) because livestock is raised and cattle require a lot of land on which to
graze;
c) due to the great amount of vegetables produced here.

Exercise III. Find out whether the statement is true or false


according to the information in the text:

1. The first American explorers of the Great Plains called it the


“Great American Desert”
2. Oil is the most important natural resource in the Northern Plains.
106
3. The Dallas — Fort Worth metropolitan area is a major centre of
the steel and food processing industries.
4. The main crops grown on the farms of the Rocky Mountains
region are rice, sugar beets where there is no irrigation.
5. The major cities of the Rocky Mountains region are Phoenix,
Denver and Houston
6. Phoenix is famous for its mint where they make coined money.

7. Denver with about half a million people in the city and 1,6 million
in the metropolitan area has an economy based on federal government
service.

Exercise IV. Supply the word combinations from the text which are
periphrases of the following:

1) coarse food (especially for cattle and horses) composed of entire


plants or the leaves and stalks of a cereal crop; 2) to intrude on the
property or rights of another person; to trespass on something; 3) farming
“square acres” of land; 4) changing or fluctuating readily; 5) to break out
or intensify usually suddenly or violently; 6) a person who acquires or
occupies a tract of public land to live on and cultivate it.; 7) to separate a
metal from an ore to withdraw by physical or chemical process; 8) the
action or process of wearing out (exhausting); 9) an intruder, someone
who likes interfering with other people’s affairs; 10) to devastate
completely especially before abandoning; 11) to manipulate with great
perseverance and usually with considerate effort toward a desired state or
activity; 12) to live on a tract of land staked out; 13) to strive or vie in
contest or rivalry against difficulties; to struggle for; 14) to go from place
to place without any purpose or direction.
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Exercise V. Find in the text the English phrases corresponding to
the Russian equivalents.

1) пахотная земля; 2) соперничать, состязаться; 3) опалять


выжигать; 4) многосторонний, непостоянный; 5) владелец участка,
поселенец; 6) устраивать в виде террасы; 7) восстанавливать,
возмещать; 8) человек, вмешивающийся во все личные дела каждого
из нас; 9) вспыхнуть; 10) терпеливо устраивать жизнь; 11) участок
земли, отведенный для разработки недр; 12) эрозия почв;
13) вторгаться; покушаться на чужие права, посягать.

Exercise VI. Guess what state is meant:

1. It borders Colorado, it is south of Nebraska and it borders Missouri.


2. It is south of Wyoming, the Colorado River runs through it and it borders
Nevada.
3. It borders the Mississippi River, it is west of Illinois and it is north of
Missouri.
4. It is west of the Mississippi River, it is east of the Rocky Mountains and it is
north of Texas.
5. It is west of the Mississippi River, the Rocky Mountains run through it and
it borders Idaho.
6. The Rocky Mountains run through it, it doesn't border Canada and it is
north of New Mexico.
7. It is south of Wyoming, the Rocky Mountains run through it and it borders
Oklahoma.
8. It borders Canada, it borders the Great Lakes and it is west of Wisconsin.
9. It is west of the Mississippi River, it borders Canada and the Missouri
River runs through it.
10. It is east of California, it borders Utah and it is west of New Mexico.
108
11. It is in the northwest, it borders Wyoming and it is north of Utah.
12.It is west of the Mississippi River, the Missouri River runs through it and it
doesn't border Canada.
13. It is south of Washington, it is east of California and it borders Arizona.
14. It borders Louisiana, it borders Arkansas and it is west of the Mississippi
River.

Exercise VII. Guess to what states the given mottoes belong:


1. To the stars through difficulties. 2. Our liberties, we prize and our
rights we'll maintain. 3. The star of the north. 4. Friendship. 5. God
enriches. 6. Nothing without providence. 7. The welfare of people shall be
the supreme court. 8. Equality before law. 9. Under God, the people rule.
10. Labor conquers all things. 11. Liberty and union, now and forever, one
and inseparable. 12. It grows as it goes. 13. Equal rights. 14. All for our
country. 15. Industry. 16. God and silver. 17. It is all for my country.

Exercise VIII. A. Each of the states on this map has been


mislabeled. Write the correct abbreviation for the name of each state in
the blank provided.
109
B. Draw a line through the phrase in each item below that does not
describe the state. Use the maps to help you.

1. MINNESOTA: borders Lake Superior,


source of the Mississippi River,
borders Illinois
2. SOUTH DAKOTA:
average population density: 2 ... 25 people per square mile,
divided by Missouri River,
father cast than Minnesota
3. MICHIGAN: borders four Great Lakes,
shares no border with Illinois,
forestry is important industry
4. MISSOURI: the Missouri River ends here,
most of state at 700 ... 1500 feet above sea level,
west of Kansas
5. KANSAS: capital is Kansas City,
has three climate zones,
population is sparser than Iowa's
6. WISCONSIN: capital is Milwaukee,
borders two of the Great Lakes,
north of Illinois
7. ILLINOIS: elevation is lower in south,
boundaries include three rivers,
cast of Indiana
8. INDIANA: has no natural boundaries,
south of Michigan,
humid continental climate
9. IOWA: south of Minnesota,
borders Lake Michigan,
eastern boundary is the Mississippi River
10. NEBRASKA: south of Kansas,
heaviest population along the Platte River,
110
the Missouri River forms east border
111

THE PACIFIC
REGION includes those
states which are washed
by the Pacific Ocean.
They are Alaska,
California, Hawaii,
Oregon, and Washington.
Due to its location
on the ocean, the region
has important fisheries.
California holds the first
place in the country for its catch. The most important fish caught are
anchovy, tuna, and mackerel. Alaska and Washington are the main
suppliers of salmon and halibut. Fishing in Hawaii is mainly for sport and
recreation.
California also leads the Pacific states in farming. It is the country's
leading grower of fruits and vegetables. Much of California's farming is
done in the Central Valley. The farms in the valley produce cattle, dairy
products, cotton, grapes, tomatoes, and citrus fruits.
In Oregon and Washington, the Cascade Mountains divide the states
into two different farming zones. In the dry eastern zone, wheat is grown,
and the cattle is raised. West of the Cascade Mountains, in Oregon's
Willamette Valley, for example, regular rainfall and a mild climate allow
good yields of such crops, as beans, pears, onions, and corn. In
Washington, cherries and apples are major fruits. Both states are among
the most important sources of timber in the United States.
112
Some large-scale commercial farms in Hawaii grow sugarcane and
pineapples. However, both Alaska and Hawaii must import most of their
food from the mainland states.
Tourism plays a very important role in the economy of Hawaii.
Alaska, which in the past depended mainly on fishing and timber, now
receives great profit from oil production. Production began in 1959, the
year Alaska became a state. In 1968, oil was discovered in the North Slope
of the Brooks Range near Prudhoe Bay. Today a pipeline takes oil pumped
at Alaska's Prudhoe Bay in the north to the port of Valdez in the south for
further shipment. Construction of the massive pipeline over thousands of
kilometres of wilderness had been delayed because of serious concerns for
the environment. Completion of the pipeline has helped increase Alaska's
profits. Today the state has the highest profits per capita, or per head of
the population of the state.
The fastest growing industries in the Pacific region are in
electronics and technical products. A large number of companies making
electronics parts are found in an area around the city of San Jose. This
area is known as the Silicon Valley. It is named for the Silicon Chip, which
is a basic part in modern electronics products.
Most of the region's large cities are ports. Los Angeles, the third
largest city in the country, has a population of about 3 million people.
There are some 7,5 million people in the Los Angeles metropolitan area.
Los Angeles and neighboring Long Beach have very good harbors which
are well protected behind 15 kilometers of break water. Together with
several fine airports they serve as the West Coast's major gateways for
trade with the countries of the Pacific Ocean. The Los Angeles area is a
giant center of aircraft production, computers, communications equipment,
motor cars, and cosmetics. It is also a major region of space technology.
Los Angele's position as a world center of finance and industry has also
113
stimulated the development of such services as health care, accounting,
education, law. However, Los Angeles is also known all over the world as
the city of entertainment because of Hollywood, which is the world capital
of film production. In the 1940s, the peak years of movie making,
Hollywood produced more than 400 films a year. Today TV is competing
successfully with the traditional film industry, but Hollywood has also
changed, producing quite a lot of films for American TV. Los Angeles is
also a city of striking contrasts. There are many Hispanics, Asians, Blacks
living here and these people in their majority have poorly paid jobs.
Therefore social tension in many districts of Los Angeles is very high. It
was no wonder that in 1992 there were mass riots in Los Angeles which
shocked all America.
The other major city on the Pacific coast of the United States is San
Francisco. It lies at the tip of land broken by the narrow channel of the
Golden Gate. Through this channel the tides of the Pacific pour into a
great bay. The city has long been a centre of trade, finance, shipping,
culture for more than three million people in the metropolitan bay area.
Asian immigrants together with many waves of European settlers have
made San Francisco a city of many nationalities and different cultures.
Freight from ports all over the world is unloaded at a fine harbor, while
long lines of freight trains bring into the city the fruit from the countryside.
The transcontinental railroad connects San Francisco with the industrial
and agricultural centres of the Midwest and the East, thus providing an
interchange of goods and passengers. And at the city's airport, which is
one of the largest in the United States, there are about 400,000 landings
and takeoffs a year. Great streams of motor traffic cross the beautiful
Golden Gate Bridge, which is 1,6 kilometres long, to the north shore.
In the first decade of the 20th century, this major city of the west was
in ruin. In 1906 a great earthquake destroyed the city. But within three
114
years, 20,000 new buildings were constructed, and in seven years, a new
city had risen out of the ashes. Several years ago, another serious
earthquake hit the city, but it did not cause much damage because the
buildings were well protected against the forces of nature.
To draw a conclusion, it's clear that unlike the dry hot desert of the
mountain area, the northwest coast of the United States abounds in rich
land. Many manufacturing and fishing towns lie along the forested hills
and lowlands that flank the bays and inlets of the coast.
Just as the natural harbors of New England are America's door to
Europe, the shores of Puget Sound (the Pacific Ocean harbor of Seattle)
open the way to the Orient. At cities like Seattle, Portland, Everret, and
others goods from Asia and the South Pacific are unloaded while fruit,
grain, fish, timber, or machines are put aboard ships bound for ports all
over the world.

Vocabulary

to pump a pipeline inlets


to delay flank concerns for
per capita break water landings
social tension mass riots takeoffs
to bind for

Comprehension Check

Exercise I. Scan the text for the following questions:

1. Is the Pacific region famous for its fisheries?


2. How do the Cascade Mountains influence the development of agriculture
in Oregon and Washington?
3. Do the farms in Hawaii produce important crops?
4. When did oil production begin in Alaska?
115
5. How many films were produced in Hollywood in its peak year of movie
making?
6. Is San Francisco connected with the industrial and agricultural centers of
the Midwest and the East? In what way?
7. Did it take much time to restore San Francisco after the1906 earthquake?

Exercise II. Fill in the blank with the correct word:

1. California ... the Pacific states in farming. 2. Construction of the


massive pipeline in Alaska had been delayed because of serious ... for the
environment. 3. Los Angeles is also known all over the world as the city
of ... because of Hollywood. 4. In 1992 there was mass ... in Los Angeles
which shocked all America. 5. ... from parts all over the world is unloaded
at a fine harbor in San Francisco. 6. Great streams of ... ... cross the
beautiful Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco. 7. In 1906 a great
earthquake ... San Francisco, but in 7 years a new city had risen.

Exercise III. Guess what state is meant:

1. It is west of the Mississippi River, it is on the Pacific Coast and it is west of


Nevada.
2. It is west of the Mississippi River, it is smaller than Nevada and it is west
of California.
3. It is west of the Mississippi River, it borders Mexico and it borders
Nevada.
4. It is in the northwest, it is on the Pacific coast and it is west of Idaho.
5. It borders Canada, it is on the Pacific coast and it doesn't border Oregon.

Exercise IV. Guess what state the following mottoes belong to:
116
1. North to the future. 2. Eureka! (I found it!). 3. The life of the land
is perpetuated in righteousness. 4. She flies with her own wings. 5. By and
by.

Exercise V. A. Give the right answer to the following questions.

1. Name the only state


with a subpolar climate; with a
Mediterranean climate.
2. Name three mountain
ranges where a highland
climate is found.
3. Name the four western
states that border Canada.
B. Write the number of
the state from the list below in
the correct blank on the map.
Name the only four states that
meet at one point

Exercise VII. For this exercise, you will need a list of the two-letter, post
office abbreviations for the states. Each of the statements below describes a
state. Write its abbreviation on the line with the matching letter. Each pair of
abbreviations will form a common word without rearranging any of the letters.
Some states are used more than once.

1. a. Hollywood is located here. ______+______=_________


b. This is the easternmost state. a b

2. a. The nickname of this state is the Centennial State


b. This is a southern state that produces a large amount of steel.
117
_____ + _____ = ________
a b
3. a. This state entered the United States on November 11, 1889.
b. This is the 24th largest state. ______+______=________
a b
4. a. The Pictured Rocks are here. _____ + ______ = _______
b. This is the site of Acadia National Park. a b
5 a. This state is the nation’s major goober producer.
b. This state is known as the Crossroads of America.
____+_____=_________
a b
6. a. This was the eighth state to ratify the Constitution.
b. This was the 25th state to enter the Union. _____+______=________
a b
7. a. The largest city in this state is Wilmington.
b. Helen Keller was born in this state. _____+_____ = _______
a b
8. a. The first water-powered mill was built in this state.
b. Author Louis L’Amour was born here. ______+______=_________
a b
9. a. The highest point in this state is Timm's Hill.
b. Scott's Bluff Monument is located here. _____+______ = ________

a b
10. a. Pineapple, sugar, and coffee are grown here.
b. This state is called the First State. ______+______ = _______

a b
11. a. The only diamond mine in the United States is located here.
b. This state's song is "Home on the Range." _____+______ = _______
118
a b
12. a. The nation's second capital was located here
b. This state is nicknamed the Nutmeg State. _____+______=________
a b
13. a. This state is called the Keystone State.
b. This state is famous for potatoes. ______+______ = _______

a b
119
SUPPLIMENTORY MATERIAL
Task: Listen to the following texts on the tape-recorder, fill in the
blanks and do the exercises after them.

1. FARMING IN THE UNITED STATES

The industrial power of the United States is matched by the


_________ of its agriculture. Because the United States has diverse
climates and soils, its farms produce an _______________________. In
California's Central and Imperial valleys, for example, fruits and
vegetables as well as cotton grow year round. The long
______________________ in the South makes it a good region for the
growth of fruits, vegetables, and cotton. In Texas,
_____________________, about 40 percent of the farms grow this
important crop. Washington, Oregon, Michigan, and New York are also
major fruit-growing states. But perhaps the most important cash crops are
grown in the wide _______________ of the United States.

Extending from the Great Plains in the west to the Appalachian


Mountains in the east is a vast area of farmland that regularly produces
some of the largest crops of _______ in the world. Wheat,
_________________ in breads, cakes, and rolls, grows mainly in the
western section of this area, from Texas in the south to North Dakota in the
north. Kansas is usually the largest _________________.
Corn, the principal source of ________ for cattle and hogs, grows
from central Minnesota through Ohio. Iowa and Illinois usually produce
the most corn in this region. Though not a grain, _________ are grown in
the same area as corn and are used in a variety of ways, often as
________________.
120
So much grain is produced in the United States—much more than we can use—
that a major part of the crop is shipped to other countries.

The United States ______ its remarkable grain harvests in large part
to soil and climate. The soil is excellent for ____________________
because it is rich with ____________ and the land is relatively level.
During the Ice Age, glaciers ground off the tops of hills and filled in the
valleys on their _________________, leaving relatively level land that is
perfect for the use of machinery. The growing season varies from 110 days
near the Canadian border to 140 days in the southern part of the region,
just right for grain crops. Rainfall tends to come ____________, especially
in the early summer, _______________ with sunny and humid conditions,
again ideal for these plants.
To hold a good position in the world economy, a country must
_______________. Today Japan and many West European countries
compete on the ________________ with the United States to sell industrial
goods, such as steel, automobiles, and electronic equipment. Therefore,
agricultural products have become even more important in the US
economy. In the 1970s, grain crops provided the ____________ of
American exports, making up somewhat for the ______________ of oil
bought from the oil-producing countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin
America.
Because grain harvests are large, food is relatively cheap. The
average American spends less of his or her income on food than do people
from other countries.
Inexpensive food is __________________ for non-farmers, but
________ for farmers who must pay high prices for the goods they buy.
Unlike most American workers, the farmer has few
_________________________. There is no guarantee that enough rain
will fall or that frost will not __________________ or that the market
121
price will be high enough ________________________. Thus farmers
must rely on _____________, on government __________________ to
other countries, and on government _________________ when prices are
unusually low.

Exercise I. Answer the following questions to check you


understand the idea of the text.

1. What natural features encourage the growing of grain in the


United States?

2. Why is agriculture important to the United States economy?

3. What economic problems do many farmers face?


122
2. AN INDUSTRIAL GIANT

Industrial America lies in a wide belt stretching from


__________________ to ______________________. In addition, there
are also major __________________ in the Southeast, in Texas, and on
the Pacific Coast. In the industrial cities of the North are the older, heavy
industries, like _______, _________, _________, __________,
automobiles, and ___________________, as well as the complete range of
consumer goods. The newer _____________________ have
____________ in Washington State and in the __________ states of
California, Texas, Georgia, and Florida.
In the past fifty years, the United States has been developing its
____________________. The network of railroads that was built in the
nineteenth century has been paralleled, and in some areas largely
replaced, by ___________ of highways for cars, trucks, and buses, as well
as by a large system of air transport. The construction of the
______________________________ in the 1950s opened up the heart of
the country to ocean shipping.
New resources such as ______________ (aluminum ore),
_________ (for nuclear reactors), and ______________ (a heat-resistant
metal used in ___________) have been developed. Devices such as
washing machines, television sets, refrigerators, ___________________,
stereo equipment, synthetic _______, and computers have changed the way
Americans live. Mass production has put former ___________, like cars
and home appliances, _______________ of nearly all Americans. Growth,
expansion, and progress have continued to be an expected part of
"________________________”.
The ______________________, the total dollar value of goods and
services products, in the nation, doubled in the 1950s. By the 1980s it
123
reached well over two trillion dollars each year. Nevertheless, throughout
the 1970s, the number of unemployed workers ______________ between 7
and 9 percent of the total work force, leading to ___________ for many
millions of Americans. But though ________________ and poverty have
continued ____________________, Americans as a whole tend to have a
higher standard of material wealth than the people of most other countries.
This __________ (material wealth) is largely the result of continued
industrial growth.

CHECKUP
1. Where are the main manufacturing centers in the United States?
2. How have transportation patterns changed in twentieth century?
3. What are the meanings of the terms gross national product and
affluence?
124
3. THE AMERICAN PEOPLE
Since 1790, the federal government has conducted _________ every
ten years to determine how many states each state
_______________________ in the House of Representatives. This is
required by the United States Constitution.
From the very beginning, the census takers did more than simply
count heads. They asked questions about ______, ________, national
_______, and so on. Gradually more and more kinds of questions were
asked so that today the Census Bureau gathers a wide variety of
information.
Each census has recorded more people living in the United States
than at the time of the previous one. The population constantly changes as
some people are born and others die, as some ___________ into the
country and others____________. If the figures exactly balance, taking
into account additions and subtractions, there will be
________________________. This has yet to happen in the United States
because, on the average, people are living longer each year due to the
advances of modern medicine. Also, immigration continues into the United
States, accounting for about 20 percent of the new Americans each year.
Births account for the other 80 percent.
The combined effect of longer life spans and the fact that fewer
babies are being born will tend to increase the ____________ of the
American people. In fact, population experts estimate that the median age
will come close to 40 by 2030, if present trends continue. Median age is
determined by making a list of all the ages of the people from youngest to
oldest. This aging of the population will have major effects on the
economy and the pace of life in the United States.
The fastest-growing segment of the population will be the 20- to 44-
year-olds, who buy most of the____________________[such as
125
automobiles and large appliances] that ________________________ the
nation's economic growth. And with fewer children and more two-income
families, people will have more money to spend for luxuries and services.
As the United States becomes a nation of middle-aged and older
people, cultural values will probably change, too. America's frantic
worship of the young, the new, the different________________.
Geographers are interested in how people __________ themselves
over the land. The Census Bureau reports this data in terms of
_____________________, the average number of people living on each
square mile of land. The West of the country is less densely populated than
the East, especially the northeastern quarter of the United States.
Away from the dense Northeast, ________________ population
densities are located in the upper South, around major cities on the eastern
edge of the Great Plains, at _________________ in the Rocky Mountains
and the Great Basin, and in a series of ______________ along the West
Coast from northwest Washington south to the Mexican border.
CHECK UP
Exercise A. Fill in the Blanks
The motto of the United States is (1)____. The phrase could refer
to the American population because so many people came as (2)____
or (3)____. Since 1790, the total population has (4)____, and the
proportion of women has (5)____. Four major population movements in
the past century have been (6)____, (7)____, (8)____, and (9)____. The
United States does not have zero population growth because of longer life
spans and (10)____.
126

Final Test
Task I. Fill in the blanks with necessary geographic notions.
The United States is one of the most diverse land masses in the
world. The lands go from high steeping mountains (the tallest mountain is
in Alaska – (1)____ to the deep valleys (the lowest point is (2)____ in
California).
There are two main mountain ranges in America – (3)____ and
(4)____. The (5)____ Mountains run from (6)____ to (7)____. The (8)____
are in (9)____.
Pacific Ranges is a name given to all mountains on the western coast
line. This includes (10)____, (11)____ (in northwest) and (12)____(in
California).
There are two different types of plains: coastal and interior. In
America there are two major coastal plains: the (13)____ Plains, which
are located from Massachusetts to Florida, and the (14)____ Plains, which
extend from Texas. Other coastal plains are located along the Arctic
Ocean and near the southern shores of the Hudson Bay. The second type of
plains are interior plains. The two major include the (15)____, which lies
between the (16)____ mountains and the (17)____ River, and the (18)____
Plains, which stretch from the (19)____ to the (20)____ Mountains.
There are many rivers in America. The number one river, the longest
in the US, is the (21)____ River. It runs between (22)____and (23)____. Its
main tributary is the (24)____ River. Another river is the (25)____ River,
which runs with quiet dignity in the northwestern part of the US. In
contrast this river, (26)____, is a river of enormous fury. The natural
boundary between the US and Mexico is the (27)____.
In America many lakes were formed from water filling huge
depressions left by ice age glaciers. There are two kinds of lakes in
127
America: salt and fresh water lakes. There are five major fresh water lakes,
called (28)____. They are (29)____. The other type of lake is a salt water
lake and the main are (30)____ in (31)____ and (32)____ in (33)____.
There are also two natural lakes where the water brought down the
mountains is stored; they are (34)____ and (35)____.
As for the natural resources the US has over 100 varieties of
minerals. America is ranked as the first in (36)____, the second in
(37)____, and the third in (38)____. It also is rich in (39)____.
Though America lacks such necessary resources as (40)____.
One - third of America is a forest land. There are over 1000 varieties
of trees described, among them are (41)____. As for the wild life? It is also
very diverse. There are such fur-bearing animals as (42)____, (43)____,
(44)____, (45)____, (46)____, (47)____.
In farms they grow (48)____ and (49)____. In forests and in zone of
mixed forests you can see (50)____. Florida is a home of , and
the prairies are for (51)____ or (52)____. The coastal water are abundant
with such fish as (53)____ and such sea food as (54)____.

Task II. Give the English equivalents to the given words and word
combinations.

1) долгота, широта; 2) полушария; 3) доисторические времена;


4) средняя плотность населения; 5) самые плотно / густо заселенные
и самые редконаселенные штаты; 6) город средних размеров;
7) быстрый рост населения; перепись населения; 8) естественная
граница; 9) действующие / потухшие вулканы; 10) склон / горы;
11) крутые и складчатые горы; 12) горы с заснеженными вершинами;
13) растительность; 14) зона полупустынь; 15) ниже уровня моря/
выше уровня реки; 16) русло руки; 17) притоки рек; 18) пресноводные
озера; 19) в низовьях реки; 20) в дельте реки; 21) судоходный;
128
22) климатические зоны; 23) влажность; 24) общие запасы;
25) залежи; 26) нефтеносные районы; 27) добывающая
промышленность; 28) тяжелая промышленность; 29) города -
призраки; 30) самый заселенный штат; 3) городская агломерация.

Task III. Do the translation.

С самых первых шагов колонизации на территории будущих


США стали складываться районы с резкими различиями между ними.
Северная часть страны заселялась в основном мелкими фермерами, а
южная - белой беднотой и плантаторами, которые использовали
чернокожих рабов. Поэтому сразу возник сильный социально-
экономический и культурный контраст между Севером, где
развивались капиталистические отношения, и рабовладельческим
Югом. Граница между ними официально проходила по границе между
штатами Пенсильвания и Мэриленд (37 ° с.ш.). Так возникли два
главных региона США, которые настолько сильно отличались по
своему общественному устройству, что их противостояние привело
к гражданской войне. Кроме того, начал формироваться третий
крупный регион - Запад. Эта линия получила название "фронтир"
(рубеж).
Три главных региона США окончательно оформились к началу
XX в. Названия их кажутся слишком простыми, даже
примитивными (указаны стороны света), но в американской
культуре они насыщены глубоким смыслом. Север для американцев -
это могучая индустрия, гигантские города, предприимчивость,
демократизм, обилие иммигрантов. Американский Юг - это не
просто жаркий климат, но и высокая доля чернокожих, расовые
предрассудки рабовладельческой эпохи, четкое классовое расслоение
129
общества, замедленный ход социальной жизни, известная
отсталость; в то же время это, по американским меркам, более
"человечное" общество, где отношениям между людьми уделяется
гораздо больше внимания, где выше понятия о личной чести,
взаимопомощи и т.п. Запад же — это широкие горизонты и широкие
возможности для деятельного человека, это еще слабо освоенная
территория с богатыми ресурсами, но заодно и с упрощенным
бытом, и с упрощенными правилами жизни.
Региональная структура США постоянно усложнялась, и к
середине XX в. Север стали разделять на два района – северо-восток
и Средний Запад. Эти названия тоже имели большое культурное
значение. Северо-восток был освоен еще в колониальный период и
прошел долгую эволюцию, глубокие преобразования. Для американцев
это "древний" район. Развитие же Среднего Запада совпало с
расцветом американского капитализма в XIX в., и этот район стал
олицетворением американизма — громадные города и громадные
заводы, тучные нивы и тучные стада, резкие контрасты богатства
и бедности, динамизм развития и господство американского
индивидуализма.
Границы между этими четырьмя главными районами США
весьма расплывчаты и условны, но для простоты их зачастую
проводят по границам штатов.

Task IV. Circle the best answer to complete each statement.

1. The western section of the interior plains region of the


United States is called the
a) Gulf Coastal Plain; с) Atlantic Coastal Plain;
130
b) Great Plains; d) Central Plains.

2. The coastal area of the eastern United States ends with the
highlands of the

a) Superior Upland and the Black Hills;


b) Ozark Plateau;
c) Piedmont and Appalachian Mountains;

d) Bitterroot Range.
3.Heavy rainfall supports thick needleleaf forests in the region of
the
a) Gulf Coast; с) Great Salt Lake;
b) Pacific Coast; d) Sangre de Cristo.

4. The ecosystems of the eastern portion of the United States


include large areas of

a) tall grass and broadleaf forests;


b) mosses and short bushes;
c) short grasses and scattered trees;
d) broadleaf or mixed broadleaf and needleleaf forests.

5. Between 1880 and 1930, many jobs in the nation's industrial


cities were filled by a wave of immigrants from
a) southern and eastern Europe; c) Latin America;
b) South Asia; d) East Asia.

6. The most recent immigrants to the United States come mainly


from Latin America and
a) Africa; c) Canada;
b) Western Europe; d) Asia.

7. Most of New England is a region of a) winds, mountains, and


frequent rains;
131
b) moist climate conditions and level land;
с) poor soil, long winters, and hilly land;
d) short growing seasons and rich soil.

9. Farmers of the Midwest have suffered setbacks recently due to


a) land shortages; c) falling income;
b) soil erosion; d) outdated equipment.

10. The nation's industrialized heartland consists of the urban


areas of the Midwest and the

a) Northeast; c) Gulf Coast; b) Pacific Coast; d) South.


11. Many factories have moved to the South in recent years
because
132

a) lumber for building is plentiful there;


b) its taxes, cost of land, and other expenses are low;
с. the steel industry is centered in the region;
d. foreign automakers have located there.

12. Continuing the South's oldest major industry, factories in Virginia,


Georgia, and the Carolinas produce a variety of
a. dyes and chemicals. c. canned fruit and vegetables.
b. cooking oils. d. textiles and clothing.
133
134

American Quilt

Название Административ Крупные Прозвище штата Год


штата ный центр города присоединения
к США

Alabama Montgomery Birmingham Cotton State 1819


Алабама Монтгомери Бирмингем «Хлопковый штат»
Alaska Juneau Anchorage Last Frontier 1867
Аляска Джуно Анкоридж «Последняя граница»
(отделен Fairbanks
Канадой) Фэрбенкс
Arizona Phoenix Phoenix Феникс Grand Canyon State 1912
Аризона Феникс Tucson Tаксон «Штат Большого Каньона»
Arkansas Little Rock Little Rock Land of Opportunity 1836
Арканзас Литл-Рок Литл-Рок «Страна возможностей»
135
California Sacramento Los Angeles Golden State 1850
Калифорния Сакраменто Лос-Анджелес «Золотой штат»
Colorado Denver Denver Centenary State 1876
Колорадо Денвер Денвер «Штат столетия»
Connecticut Hartford Hartford Constitution State 1788
Коннектикут Хартфорд Хартфорд «Штат конституции»
Delaware Dover Довер Wilmington First State 1787
Делавэр Уилмингтон «Первый штат»
Florida Tallahassee Jacksonville Sunshine State 1845
Таллахасси Джексонвилль «Солнечный штат»
Georgia Atlanta Atlanta Empire State of the South 1788
Атланта Атланта «Имперский штат юга»
Hawaii Honolulu Honolulu Aloha State 1959
Гавайи Гонолулу Гонолулу «Гостеприимный штат»
Idaho Boise Boise Gem State 1890
Айдахо Бойсе Бойсе «Драгоценный камень»
Illinois Springfield Chicago Land of Lincoln 1818
Иллинойс Спрингфилд Чикаго «Земля Линкольна»
Indiana Indianapolis Indianapolis Hoosier State 1816
Индиана Индианаполис Индианаполис «Штат-мужлан»

Продолжение таблицы
Название Административ Крупные Прозвище штата Год
штата ный центр города присоединения
к США
Iowa Айова Des Moines Des Moines wk-eyed State 1846
Де-Мойн Де-Мойн Штат соколиного глаза»

Kansas Topeka Wichita Sunflower State 1861


Канзас Топика Уичито «Подсолнуховый штат»
Kentucky Frankfort Louisville Bluegrass State 1792
Кентукки Франкфорт Луисвилл «Пырейный штат»
Louisiana Baton Rouge New Orleans Pelican State 1812
Луизиана Батон-Руж Новый Орлеан «Пеликаний штат»
Maine Augusta Portland Pine Tree State 1820
Мэн Огаста Портленд «Сосновый штат»
Maryland Annapolis Baltimore Old Line State 1788
Мэриленд Аннаполис Балтимор «Штат старой линии»
Massachusetts Boston Boston Bay State 1788
Массачусетс Бостон Бостон «Штат у залива»
Michigan Lansing Detroit Wolverine State 1837
Мичиган Лансинг Детройт «Штат росомах»
Minnesota St. Paul Minneapolis Gopher State 1858
136
Миннесота Сснт-Пол Миннеаполис «Сусликовый штат»
Mississippi Jackson Jackson Magnolia State 1817
Миссисипи Джексон Джексон «Магнолиевый штат»
Missouri Jefferson-City St.Louis Show Me State 1821
Миссури Джефферсон Сент-Луис «Штат недоверчивых»
-Сити
Montana Helena Billings Treasure State 1889
Монтана Хелина Биллингс «Штат сокровищ»
Nebraska Lincoln Omaha Cornhusker State 1867
Небраска Линкольн Омаха «Кукурузный штат»

Nevada Las Vegas Silver State 1864


Carson City
Невада Лас-Вегас «Серебряный штат»
Карсон-Сити

Продолжение таблицы
Название Администрати Крупные города Прозвище штата Год
штата вный центр присоединения
к США
New Concord Manchester Granite State 1788
Hampshire Конкорд Манчестер «Гранитный штат»
Нью-Гемпшир
New Jersey Trenton Newark Garden State 1787
Нью-Джерси Трентон Ньюарк «Садовый штат»

New Mexico Santa Fe Albuquerque Land of Enchantment State 1912


Нью-Мексико Санта-Фе Альбукерке «Страна очарования»

New York Albany New York Empire State 1788


Нью-Йорк Олбани Нью-Йорк «Имперский штат»

North Raleigh Charlotte Tarheel State 1789


Carolina
Роли Шарлотт «Штат чернопяточников»
Северная
Каролина
North Dakota Bismarck Fargo Flickertail State 1889
Северная Бисмарк Фарго «Штат золотистого дятла»
Дакота
Ohio Columbus Cleveland Buckeye State 1803
Колумбус Кливленд «Штат конского каштана»
Огайо
Oklahoma Oklahoma Oklahoma Sooner State 1907
Оклахома Оклахома-Сити Оклахома-Сити «Штат землезахватчиков»
137
Oregon Salem Portland Beaver State 1859
Орегон Сейлем Портленд «Бобровый штат»

Pennsylvania Harrisburg Philadelphia Keystone State 1787


Пенсильвания Харрисбург Филадельфия «Штат замкового камня»
Rhode Island Providence Providence Ocean State 1790
Род-Айленд Провиденс Провиденс «Штат у океана»
South Columbia Columbia Palmetto State 1788
Carolina Колумбия Колумбия «Штат пальметты»

Продолжение таблицы
Название Администрати Крупные города Прозвище штата Год
штата вный центр присоединения
к США

South Dakota Pierre Sioux Falls Sunshine State 1889


Пирр Си у - Фоле «Солнечный штат»
Tennessee Nashville Memphis Volunteer State 1796
Теннесси Нашвилл Мемфис «Штат добровольцев»

Texas Техас Austin Остин Houston Lone Star State 1845


Хьюстон «Штат одинокой звезды»

Utah Юта Salt Lake City Salt Lake City Beehive State 1898
Солт-Лейк- Солт-Лейк- «Штат пчелиного улья»
Сити Сити
Vermont Montpeler Burlington Green Mountain State 1791
Вермонт Монтпильер Берлингтон «Штат зеленых гор»

Virginia Richmond Norfolk Old Dominion State 1788


Виргиния Ричмонд Норфолк «Штат старого Доминиона»

Washington Olympia Seattle Evergreen State 1889


Вашингтон Олимпия Сиэтл «Вечнозеленый штат»

West Virginia Charleston Huntington Rosebay Rhododendron 1863


Западная Чарлстон Хантингтон «Лавровый рододендрон»
Виргиния
Wisconsin Madison Milwaukee Badger State 1848
Висконсин Мадисон Милуоки «Барсучий штат»
138
Wyoming Cheyenne Cheyenne Equality State 1890
Вайоминг Шайенн Шайенн «Штат равноправия»

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

1. Барановский Л.С. Здравствуй, Америка! / Л.С. Барановский, Д.Д.


Козикис. – М.: Высшая шк., 1997. – 309 с.
2. Нестерчук Г.В. США и американцы / Г.В. Нестерчук, В.М.
Иванова. – Мн.: Высш. шк., 1997. – 238 с.
3. Ощепкова В.В. США: страна, люди, традиции. Книга по чтению по
страноведению / В.В. Ощепкова, А.П. Булкин. – М.: РТ – Пресс, 2001. – 168 с.
4. Токарева Н.Д. Америка. Какая она?: учебник по страноведению
США / Н.Д. Токарева, В.Леппард. – М.: Высш. шк., 1998. – 334 с.
5. Эмирзиади Е.С. Методические рекомендации к текстам и
упражнения для обучения аудированию / Е.С. Эмирзиади. – Чита: ЧитГТУ,
2002. – 30 с.
6. Danzer Gerald A., Larson Albert J. land and People. A World
Geography. Teacher’s Annotated Edition. Scott, Foresman and Company, Glenview,
Illinois, 1998.
7. Fifty States. A colorful, portable atlas of the United States / By Thomas
J. Craughwell. Workman Publishing Company. New York. – NY, 2001.
8. US National Parks. National Geographic, October 1994.
139

9. Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary. G&C Merricam Company.


Springfield, Massachussets, USA, 1979.
10. World Geography. Workbook / By Linda K. Hillestad. D.C. Health and
Company. Lexington. – MA, 1989.
11. http://gorp.away.com/gorp/resource/us_national_park/park_picks2.htm
12. http://www.us-parks.com

Елена Сергеевна Эмирзиади

A PANARAMIC VIEW OF NORTH AMERICAN


GEOGRAPHY

Учебное пособие
140

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