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A PROJECT REPORT on

DARK ENERGY PROBLEM IN f(R, T) GRAVITY

by

OMKAR ABHISHEK- 2016B4A10449H

under the supervision of

Prof. PRADYUMN KUMAR SAHOO

SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULLFILLMENT OF


THE REQUIREMENTS OF
MATH F266 STUDY PROJECT

BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND


SCIENCE PILANI (RAJASTHAN)
HYDERABAD CAMPUS
(MARCH 2020)

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like thank Prof. Pradyumn Kumar Sahoo and


the institute BITS Pilani Hyderabad Campus for giving
me the wonderful opportunity to work on this amazing
project “Dark Energy Problems in f(R,T) gravity”. I
would also like to thank him for his immense support
during the project which helped me to learn many new
things, taught me how to use special tools and much
more.

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Birla Institute of Technology and
Science-Pilani,
Hyderabad Campus

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project report entitled “Dark


Energy Problems in f(R,T) gravity” submitted by Mr.
OMKAR ABHISHEK (ID No. 2016B4A10449H) in par-
tial fulfillment of the requirements of the course MATH
F266, Study Project Course, embodies the work done by
him under my supervision and guidance.

Date PK Sahoo
16-03-2020 BITS-Pilani,Hyderabad Campus

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ABSTRACT
The biggest mystery in the field of Physics still revolves
around the fact of accelerated expansion of the Universe.
The reason for this very early(Inflation) and late time
acceleration(Dark energy) has to be same for both these
events as they both are similar scenarios. Over the cen-
tury, wide variety of models have been proposed as an
explanation to this phenomenon. Dark energy, being one
of them, however, deals with both experimental and the-
oretical issues. Another approach to this problem has
been another approximation, Modified theories of Grav-
ity. This alternative has gained a lot of popularity over
the time period because of the strong motivation com-
ing behind from high-energy physics and cosmology. It
has been backed up with theoretical and experimental as-
pects.

f(R, T) theory of gravity-one of the modified theories,


is the simplest modification to General Relativity. It in-
volves arbitrary function of Ricci scalar in contrast to
Ricci scalar in General Relativity. In last 15 years, a lot
of interesting results have been obtained in this theory.
This report starts with an introduction to this theory and
then setting up the Einstein’s field equations. The field
equations in this space-time are subjected to Non-mininal
Kinetic coupled gravity models and worked upon to find
exact solution.

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CONTENTS

Title Page...................................1

Acknowledgements.....................2

Certificate..................................3

Abstract.....................................4

Chapter 1...................................6

Chapter 2...................................7

Chapter 3..................................10

Chapter 4..................................11

Chapter 5..................................13

Chapter 6..................................13

Future Work..............................14

References.................................15

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1 Chapter 1 - Metric Tensor

Given Metric :
2 2 2 dr2
ds = −dt + a (t)( 2
+ r2(d2θ + sin2 θd2φ))
1 − kr
For this metric tensor will be :

 
1 0 0 0
−a2 (t)
0 0 0
 
1−kr2 
gij = 0 −a2(t)r2
 
0 0 
2 2 2 
 
0 0 0 −a (t)r sin θ

We get
cofactor of gij of g
g ij =
|g|

−a6(t)r4 sin2 θ
|g| =
1 − kr2

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 
1 0 0 0
kr2 −1
1 0 0
 
a2 (t)

ij −1
 
g =1 0 0 
a2 (t)r2 
1 −1
 0 0 
a2 (t)r2 sin2 θ 

2 Chapter 2 - Christoffel Symbols

In mathematics and physics, the Christoffel symbols are


an array of numbers describing a metric connection. The
metric connection is a specialization of the affine con-
nection to surfaces or other manifolds endowed with a
metric, allowing distances to be measured on that sur-
face. In differential geometry, an affine connection can
be defined without any reference to a metric. Christoffel
symbols are used for performing practical calculations.
To find the Chirstoffel Matrix we need to find the chirstof-
fel symbols using gij and g ij .

1 ∂gjl ∂gil ∂gij


Γkij = g kl ( i + j − )
2 ∂x ∂x ∂xl

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ȧa
Γ011 =
1 − kr2

kr
Γ111 =
1 − kr2

Γ022 = ȧar2

Γ033 = ȧar2 sin2 θ


Γ101 =
a


Γ202 =
a


Γ303 =
a

Γ122 = −r(1 − kr2)

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Γ133 = −r(1 − kr2) sin2 θ

1
Γ212 =
r

1
Γ313 =
r

Γ233 = − sin θ cos θ

Γ323 = cot θ

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3 Chapter 3 - Christoffel Matrix

Chistoffel Matrix is of the form :

 
Γ000 Γ001 Γ002 Γ003
Γ1 Γ101 Γ102 Γ103
 00 
Γ2 Γ201 Γ202 2 
Γ03
 00
 3
Γ00 Γ301 Γ302 Γ303

 0
Γ10 Γ011 Γ012 Γ013

 1
Γ111 Γ112 Γ113

Γ10
 2
Γ211 Γ212 Γ213

Γ10
 3 
Γ10
 Γ311 Γ312 3 
Γ13
Γ0 Γ021 Γ022 Γ023
 20 
Γ1 Γ121 Γ122 1 
Γ23
 20
Γ2 Γ221 Γ222 Γ223
 20 
 3
Γ20 Γ321 Γ322 3 
Γ23
 0
Γ30 Γ031 Γ032 Γ033

 1
Γ131 Γ132 Γ133

Γ30
 2
Γ231 Γ232 Γ233

Γ30
Γ330 Γ331 Γ332 Γ333

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Chirstoffel Matrix :
 
0 0 0 0
0 ȧ 0 0 
 a 
0 0 ȧ
 a 0 

0 0 ȧ
 0 a


ȧa
0 1−kr2 0 0
 

kr
0 1−kr2 0 0
 

1
 
0 0 0 
 r 
0 0 0 0 
 
0 0 2
 ȧar 0 

0 0 kr3 + r 0 
 
0 0 0 0 
 
0 0 0 cot θ
 

0 0 0 ȧar2 sin2 θ
 

−r(1 − kr2) sin2 θ
 
0 0 0
 
0 0
 0 − sin θ cos θ 

0 0 0 0 

4 Chapter 4 - Ricci Tensor

In relativity theory, the Ricci tensor is the part of the cur-


vature of spacetime that determines the degree to which
matter will tend to converge or diverge in time . It is
related to the matter content of the universe by means of
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the Einstein field equation.
Now we can calculate the Ricci Tensor
Rij = ∂l Γlij − ∂j Γlil + Γlij Γlil − Γlil Γlll

Substituting and calculating the values we get ;



R00 = −3
a
äa + 2ȧ2 + 2k
R11 =
1 − kr2
R22 = r2(äa + 2ȧ2 + 2k)
R33 = r2(äa + 2ȧ2 + 2k) sin2 θ

The Ricci Tensor Matrix is as follows :


 

−3 a 0 0 0
2
 0 äa+2 ȧ +2k
0 0
 
1−kr 2
Rij = 

r2(äa + 2ȧ2 + 2k)

 0 0 0 
0 0 0 r2(äa + 2ȧ2 + 2k) sin2 θ

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5 Chapter 5 - Ricci Scalar

Ricci Scalar :

ä ȧ2 k
R = −6( + 2 + 2 )
a a a

6 Chapter 6 - Einstein Tensor

We know,
1
Gij = Rij − Rgij
2

After substituting the obtained Einstein Tensor is, Gij =


 2 
ȧ +k
3( 2 ) 0 0 0
 a 2
−2aä−ȧ −k
 0 0 0

1+kr2

2 2
 
 0 0 r (−2aä − ȧ − k) 0 
0 0 0 r2 sin2 θ(−2aä − ȧ2 − k)

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FUTURE WORK
1. To study feasibility of f(R,T) theory of gravitation.
2. To find solutions of Einstein field equations using var-
ious techniques.
3. To study the existence of exact solution of this theory.
4. To study the impact of dark energy in this theory.

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REFERENCES
1. Yousaf, Z., Ilyas, M. Zaeem-ul-Haq Bhatti, M. Eur.
Phys. J. Plus (2017) 132: 268. https://doi.org/10.1140/epjp/i2017-
11541-6
2. Kar, S., Dadhich, N. Visser, M. Pramana - J Phys
(2004) 63: 859. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02705207
3. Wang, D. Meng, XH. Eur. Phys. J. C (2016) 76:
171. https://doi.org/10.1140/epjc/s10052- 016-4024-x 4.
www.maplesoft.com
5. en.wikipedia.org/wiki

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