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Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации

Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение


высшего профессионального образования
«Курский государственный университет»

Кафедра иностранных языков и профессиональной коммуникации

Essential English
Базовый курс английского языка
Часть 1

Учебное пособие для бакалавров

Курск 2015
УКД 802/809
ББК 81.2 Англ я 73
О-28

Печатается по решению
Редакционно-издательского совета
ФГБОУ ВПО «Курский государственный университет»

О-28
Essential English. Part 1. (Базовый курс английского языка): Учебное
пособие для бакалавров.
Часть 1. – Курск: Изд-во «Курского гос. ун-та». 2015. – стр.

УКД 802/809
ББК 81.2

Составители: Астахова Н.В., Бурак М.А., Герасимова Н.И.,


Манжосова Ю.А., Плаксина Н.В., Праведникова Т.В., Стародубцева Е.А.,
Терещенко О.С.

© ФГБОУ ВПО «Курский государственный университет», 2015


Предисловие

Essential English представляет собой комплексное учебное пособие


по английскому языку, предназначенное для студентов – бакалавров 1
курса различных направлений обучения.
Учебное пособие Essential English состоит из 6 модулей и
дополнено тестовыми заданиями в конце каждого модуля, справочным
разделом по грамматике и приложением, содержащим список
неправильных глаголов и задания для развития навыков письменной речи.
Структурный состав каждого модуля включает 6 уроков (Lessons), в
каждом уроке имеются следующие разделы:
Warm up – раздел, предлагающий мотивационные темы для
обсуждения в виде вопросов, известных высказываний, фотографий и
картинок;
Vocabulary – основной лексический минимум по теме урока;
Reading – базовые тексты по основной теме урока;
Listening or Watching – задания, направленные на развитие навыков
восприятия иноязычной речи на слух и сопровождаемые упражнениями
для дальнейшей практики языкового материала;
Speaking – коммуникативные упражнения и творческие задания для
развития навыков устной речи;
Writing – упражнения для развития письменной речи, нацеленные на
ситуативное употребление лексических и грамматических единиц.
Предлагаемое учебное пособие отвечает основным дидактическим и
методическим принципам обучения.

3
Module Lesson Language Skills
Introduction Welcome to Grammar: to be, Listening and speaking: getting
p.8 the class! personal and possessive basic information about people
p.8 pronounces Jazz chants: Meeting and
introducing people
Module 1. Lesson 1. Grammar: Speaking: Types of families
My home is Family ties demonstrative Reading: Modern families
my castle p.10 pronounces, plurals Project: Family tree
p.10 Vocabulary: family
members and relations
Lesson 2. Grammar: Present Reading and listening: An
Daily life Simple 1, adverbs of interview with an actor
p.17 frequency, prepositions Speaking: Are you an early bird
of time or a night owl?
Vocabulary: everyday Writing: Blog
activities
Lesson 3. Grammar: Present Reading: The most difficult work
World of Simple 2 (he, she, it) in the world
work Vocabulary: jobs, time Listening: Two outdoor jobs
p.22 phrases Speaking: Talking about family
members or friends
Lesson 4. Vocabulary: hobbies Reading: Perfect weekend
Family and spare time Listening: My spare time
weekends activities Jazz chants: Inviting/ Accepting
p.25 invitation/ Refusing
Lesson 5. Grammar: there is/are Listening: Finding mistakes in the
Home, Vocabulary: furniture, description
sweet home gadgets Reading: Living in a bubble
p.29 Speaking: My perfect house
Writing: Describing a house
Lesson 6. A Grammar: Listening: Homes around the
flat to rent prepositions of place world
p.33 Speaking: Renting a flat
Progress test 1
Module 2. Lesson 1. Grammar: Some, any, Listening: Preferences in food
An apple a Tastes no, a/an Reading: Pizza fan
day… good! Vocabulary: Basic
p.36 p.36 vocabulary on food
Lesson 2. Grammar: Past Reading: The man behind KFC
Eating out Simple Listening and speaking: Offering
p.39 Vocabulary: food
Restaurants
Lesson 3. Grammar: Reading: Keep fit – the easy way!
Keeping fit Much/many/little/few/a Listening1: Fast food restaurant
p.44 little/a few Listening2: Radio program
Vocabulary: Keeping Speaking: Survey
fit Writing: Two emails
Lesson 4. Grammar: Present Reading : Food around the world
Food Simple/ Past Simple Listening: Favourite national dish
around the Reading and speaking: Giving a

4
world p.48 recipe
Lesson 5. Grammar: Used to Watching a video: English food
One full Reading: What did the British use
English to eat 100 years ago?
breakfast, Project: Russian cuisine
please! p.51
Lesson 6. Vocabulary: Shop Listening: Lisa`s shopping
Shopping sections, containers Song: I love food
list Jazz chants: Talking about food
p.54 Progress test 2
Module 3. Lesson 1. Grammar: modals, Listening1: Preferences in sport
Ready My sports prepositions Reading 1: Underwater hockey
Steady Go weekends Vocabulary: basic Reading 2: Sport in Britain
p.57 p.57 vocabulary on sport, Listening and speaking: The sport
expressions likes event you watches last
dislikes
Lesson 2 Vocabulary: Reading: Swimming lessons
Swim or swimming Speaking: the importance of
not to swim swimming
p.62
Lesson 3 Vocabulary: winter Reading and listening: Getting e-
Citius, and summer sports sports into the Olympics
Altius, Speaking: giving arguments for
Fortius and againts
p.64
Lesson 4. Vocabulary: extreme Listening: Historic jumps made
Extreme sports above Mt. Everest
sports Speaking: Roleplay discussing
p.69 skydiving
Project: The record-breaking jump
above Everest

Lesson 5. Grammar: Present Reading: Football around the


Global Perfect world
passion Vocabulary: football Speaking: Football ‗has totally
p.72 changed the worlds of sport
Writing: A biography
Lesson 6. Grammar: expressions Reading: Immoral earnings
Sports and with worth Speaking: Professional sport and
money big money
p.75 Progress test 3
Module 4 – Lesson 1. Grammar: Present Reading: A letter from Brazil
The best University Continuous Speaking: Guess game!
time of your connections Vocabulary: Writing: Comparing friends
life p.78 appearance, personality
p.78 Lesson 2. A Vocabulary: basic Listening: Taiwan Changes
Sleepless vocabulary on Entrance Exams to Promote
Night studying, types of Innovation
p.83 examinations Speaking: phone talk with a friend

5
Lesson 3. Vocabulary: Listening: USA university
Somewhere university dormitories
to Live accommodation Reading: Disadvantages of living
p.86 in a dormitory (a dialogue
between students)
Speaking: ―Mime‖ game

Lesson 4. Vocabulary: Reading: LSU


Join! extracurricular activity Watching a video: Have a great
Participate! time at university!
Contribute! Speaking: presentation of a
p.88 university club

Lesson 5. Listening and reading:


It’s Time to International Students' Day
Relax! Watching a video: Chinese
p.91 students don‘t party
Speaking: talking to a friend –
persuading doing something,
asking about the past events
Jazz chants: Inviting
Lesson 6. Vocabulary: countries Reading: Experiences of studying
Studying and nationalities abroad
abroad Listening and reading: Being an
p.94 Au Pair
Speaking: project
Progress test 4
Module 5. Lesson 1. Vocabulary: basic Reading and speaking: Higher
Alma Mater Academic vocabulary on education in Britain, the USA and
year education Russia: comparing
p.97
Lesson 2. Grammar: Present Listening: Marija`s studies
Learning simple/present Reading and listening: Studying at
can’t be fun progr./questions the University of the Third Age
p.102 Vocabulary: university Speaking: your studies
education
Lesson 3. Vocabulary: the first Listening and Reading: Freshers‘
Freshers’ week at university week
week Speaking: ―Are you a fresher
p.105 here?‖
Lesson 4. Grammar: Questions Listening: Learning experiences.
Experiences words/review WH- Reading: Learning experiences.
of learning questions, Past Simple Interview
p.109 (revise) Speaking: your learning
Vocabulary: experiences
university subjects,
types of educational
institutions, schools,
colleges
Lesson 5. Vocabulary: some Listening: College Majors

6
What are idioms and phrasal Listening and reading: First day
you verbs on university of class
majoring studies Speaking: planning your
in? university class schedule
p.113
Lesson 6. Grammar: Past Listening and Reading: Getting an
Getting an simple/present perfect Online University Degree;
Online (revise) Distance Education and Online
University Vocabulary: basic Degrees
Degree. vocabulary on distance Writing: Filling in forms
p.117 education Progress test 5
Module 6. Lesson 1. Grammar: to be going Reading : Climate peculiarities
Choose life Weather to Listening and speaking: why it‘s
before it’s and Vocabulary: basic important to know about climate
too late! Climate vocabulary on weather Jazz chants: Talking about the
p.120 p.120 and climate weather
Lesson 2. Vocabulary: basic Reading and speaking: air
A serious vocabulary on pollution
problem environment
p.125
Lesson 3. Grammar: Future Reading: Earth day
A chance Simple and time Listening: Global warming
for the clauses Speaking: How green are you?
planet Vocabulary: Earth day
p.128
Lesson 4. Vocabulary: noise Reading: Noise pollution
A quiet pollution Listening: Nature Protection
place Centre biologist‘s speech
p.131 Speaking: talking about air and
noise pollution

Lesson 5. Vocabulary: water Reading: water pollution


Drop by pollution Speaking: talking about the
drop danger of water pollution
p.133
Lesson 6. Vocabulary: Reading : land pollution
The Land environment protection Listening : Heal the world (song +
needs a activities)
friend Writing: An essay
p. 135 Progress test 6

7
Welcome to the сlass!

Introduction

TS 0.1 Listen to the conversation and fill in the gaps.

- Hello! My ________________ Lisa. _________________ name?


- Mike.
- __________________ from, Mike?
- ____________ Boston. Where ______________?
- ________________ Boston, too!

2. Read the information about Lisa and complete the questions about her. TS 0.2 Then
listen and check them.

Surname Jefferson
First name Lisa
Country The USA
Job journalist
Address 89, Franklin Street,
Cambridge, Boston
Phone number (616) 326 1204
Age 26
Married No

1) What`s ___________ surname?


2) ____________ her first name?
3) ______________ she from?
4) _______________ job?
5) __________________ address?
6) ______________________ phone number?
7) How old____________________?
8) Is she______________?

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3. Lisa has a brother. Write questions about him. TS 0.3 Then listen and complete the
information.

Surname Jefferson
First name
Country
Job
Address
Phone number
Age
Married

4. Have a talk with two of your group mates and complete the same chart about them.
Tell about one of them without giving surname and first name. Let the class guess who
you are talking about.

She is from Russia and she is a student. Her address is…


Is this Anna?
Right you are!
Jazz chants

5. a) TS 0.4 TS 0.5 TS 0.6 Listen to the jazz chants and repeat them with the singer.

1. Harry, This Is Mary 2. What`s Your Name? Where Are You


(an informal introduction) From?
Harry, this is Mary. Hi. What's your name?
Hello. Where are you from?
(a more formal variation) What's your name?
Harry, this is Mary. Where are you from?
How do you do? What's your name?
How do you do? Where are you from?
(a formal variation) How long have you been here?
Harry, I'd like you to meet my sister Mary. How long have you been here?
How do you do, Mary. I'm very glad to How long have you been here?
meet you. What's your name?
Thank you, I'm glad to meet you. Where are you from?
How long have you been here?
3. Nice to Meet You
Nice to meet you.
Nice to meet you. Nice to meet you.
Nice to meet you. Nice to meet you. I'm so glad to meet you.
Thank you, I'm glad to meet you.

b) Have a talk with your group mates. Use the cards distributed by your teacher.

9
Module 1. My home is my castle

Lesson 1. Blood is thicker than water

Warm up

1. TS 1.1 Listen and repeat these tongue-twisters. Try to do it as quickly and correctly as
possible.
a) Ann and Andy's anniversary is in April. b) Mommy made me eat my M&Ms.

c) My sister Susi's got short blond hair,


My brother Bruno's got big blue eyes.

Vocabulary

2. a) Do you know these words? Translate them.

aunt brother cousin daughter father granddaughter grandfather grandmother


grandson grandparents mother nephew niece sister son uncle parents
great- grandparents

b) Complete the table with the words describing family relations.

MEN/BOYS WOMEN/GIRLS BOTH

3. a) What do you associate the British Royal Family with? Do you know any members
of the British Royal Family? Read the text about the British Royal Family and fill in the
gaps. Then look at the royal family tree. Were you right?

The British Royal Family's surname is Windsor. Her Majesty the Queen Elizabeth II is the
___________ of the family. Her ____________ is His Royal Highness Phillip. They have
three __________ (Charles, Andrew, Edward) and one __________ (Anne). Prince Charles,
known as "The Prince of Wales", is the Queen's eldest son and he is the heir of the throne. He
has been married twice. His second _________ is Camilla, the Duchess of Cornwall. His first
wife was Diana, the Princess of Wales. They divorced in 1996 and in 1997 she died in a car
crash. Prince Charles and Princess Diana have two sons: William and Harry. Each of Queen
Elizabeth`s children have two children – so she is a _____________ for eight ___________.
William is going to heir the throne after his father Phillip. William is married, his ______ is
Kate Middleton. Queen Elizabeth II is also _________________, because William and Kate

10
have two children: the son George and the daughter Charlotte. The Royal Family is the main
symbol of the United Kingdom.

Prince Princess Savannah Isla Mia


George Charlotte Phillips Phillips Tindall

b) Look at the Royal Family tree. Choose the correct word.


‘’

1) William is Queen's husband/grandson.


2) Camilla is Charles's wife/mother.
3) Charlotte and George are William's cousins/children.
4) Anne is Charles's sister/brother.
5) Peter and Zara are William's parents/cousins
6) Harry is George's father/uncle.
7) Anne is Harry's mother/aunt.

4. Who is who? Make sentences about these people. See Grammar Reference p. 148-149

Anne is Edward's sister.


Charlotte and George are Mia's cousins.

1) Elizabeth → Phillip
2) Savannah → Isla
3) Charles → Andrew
4) Harry → Elizabeth
5) Charlotte → Charles

11
6) William → Eugenie
7) Harry → George

5. Guess-game! Work in pairs. Student A makes a statement about the Queen's Family.
Student B tries to guess the person.

This is William's brother.


Is it Harry?
Yes, it is!
These are Anne's children.
Are they George and Charlotte?
No, they aren't.

6. a) Study more types of families. Look at the pictures. Explain what these terms mean.
Describe these pictures. How many people can you see in each type of family? What are
they doing? Do they look happy? Are they having fun together?

A nuclear family is just parents and children.


In the second picture we see a family of four: a mother, a father and two children. It is a
nuclear family. They are smiling. They look happy. They are having fun together.

an extended family a nuclear family

a family having many children

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a single parent family

b) Let’s find out more about these families. Look what these people are saying about
their families and how they feel. Match their words with a photo. More than one answer
is possible.

1. All the members of my family have close relations. We live together.


2. The only child is the centre of attention.
3. We are many. We share our parent's attention.
4. In a big family you have much love and support.
5. We enjoy doing many things together.
6. We love to celebrate holidays together. We have a lot of great parties.
7. There are only two of us. We do everything together.
8. I have my own room. I have a lot of privacy.
9. When I have a problem I can always find a person to discuss it frankly.
10. Sometimes I feel lonely. I wish I had a brother/sister.
11. Sometimes I feel a lack of one parent badly.
12. The advantage of having a big family is that you always have a baby-sitter in the house.
13. I'm a twin. It's an advantage. We are very close.
14. The problem of being the oldest child in the family is that you should take care of the
younger ones.
15. I have young parents. It's an advantage.

7. Have a conversation with your friend about the following ideas. Do you have the
same opinion with your friend?

What is the average family in your country?


Are you the only child in your family?
Would you prefer to be the only child or one of two or three children?
Why is family important in your life?
What are the advantages and disadvantages of each type of family?

I (don't) think, that... It is (isn't)...


It is (isn't) important

13
Reading and speaking

8. a) What does “family” mean for you? Who do you live with? Do other members of
your family live near you, or do you have to travel to see them?

b) Read the preface for the article. Do you share the same opinion about modern
families? Discuss it with your friend.

Modern Families
What is a "traditional" family nowadays? With more and more couples choosing not to get
married, and with the number of divorces and second marriages increasing, the idea of the
"traditional family" (two married parents, an average of two children, grand parents living
nearby) is rapidly disappearing in some countries. Here are some personal examples and
statistics from the English- speaking world.

c) Choose one of the following stories together with your friend. Read it and say whether
this family is traditional or not.

1) I'm Callum, and I live with my parents in


Cambridge, in the east of England. We
moved here when I was five because of Dad's
job, but my mum comes from the north of
England, and Dad comes from Scotland. I've
got a grandma in Edinburgh and a granddad
in Yorkshire. And I've got two cousins who
live near London, because that's where Dad's
sister and her husband live. We see my
cousins about three times a year, and we go
up to Edinburgh every New Year, but I can't
remember when I last saw my granddad in
Yorkshire. He always sends me presents,
though!

2) My name's Meera, and I live in


Wolverhampton, near Birmingham, in
England I live with my parents and
my brother. My grandmother lives
next door. My mum was born here in
Britain, but my grandmother moved
here from India in the 1960s when my
dad was a little boy. My dad has two
sisters - Auntie Sunita and Auntie
Rani. Auntie Sunita lives in the same
street as us, and Auntie Rani lives in
Birmingham, which is only 15 miles
away. They're both married, and I've got five cousins. We see them almost every week.
Someone is always visiting our house, or we go to Birmingham to see them. And two years
ago we all went to India to see our family there.

14
3) I'm Ben, from Portland, Oregon, and
my family is a bit complicated! I've got a
sister called Ella, but three years ago my
parents got divorced and now both
of them are re-married. We live with my
mom, Julie, and my stepfather, Bob. Bob's
got a daughter called Daisy, but she
doesn't live with us, she lives with her
mom. My father's name is Pete. He and
his second wife have just had a baby boy,
Charles, so I've got a new half-brother!

4) My name's Trudi and I've got a sister called Beth.


Our mum and dad are divorced, so we live with just our
mum in the suburbs of Melbourne, Australia. Our dad
has an apartment in the centre of town, and we spend
every other weekend there. After school every day we
go to our grandma's house and have a meal there,
because our mum doesn't finish work until six o'clock.
She collects us at half past six, except on Wednesday
evenings when we go swimming with our dad.

d) Exchange your ideas with friends. Find out which families they find traditional or
not.

Name Callum Meera Ben Trudi


Traditional
Not traditional
Commentary

9. One little child mixed up all the words and the definitions. Help him to match these
words with their definitions.

1. ex-wife/ ex-husband a. someone that is married to one of your


parents, but isn't your parent
2. late wife/late husband b. someone who has the same mother, or
the same father, as you, but not both
parents
3. second wife /second husband c. someone that you were married to in the
past who is now dead
4. stepmother/stepfather d. the child of someone that is married to
one of your parents
5. stepsister/stepbrother e. someone that you were married to in the
past but are now divorced from
6. half-sister/half-brother f. someone that you marry when you have
already been married to someone else
before

15
Speaking

10. a) You’ve read the texts about different types of families. Here is the statistics about
families in the USA and the UK, that was published in a newspaper. How do you think
that the same statistics would be different in your country?

Families in the USA in the UK

Marriages that end in 50% 33%


divorce
Families with only one 25% 25%
parent
Children who live in a 50% 33%
single-parent home at some
time
Children whose parents 33% 40%
aren't married
Single parents who are men 10% 10%

Project

11. Do you have a family? Is your family big or small? Do you all live together? Do you
remember your great-grandparents? Are you a close family? Tell about your family. To
make your story more vivid, draw your family tree. Present your project to the group
mates. Here is an example.

16
Lesson 2. Daily life

Warm up

1. Put days of the week in order. Which days are you particularly busy? Which days can
you take some rest?

Tuesday Friday Sunday Wednesday Monday Thursday Saturday

I`m particularly busy on Mondays, because I have 4 classes at university and a lot of
homework for Tuesday.

Vocabulary

2. a) Do you know these words and word combinations? Read and translate them.

wake up early/late have shower brush teeth wash face get up go to bed
leave home have breakfast/lunch/dinner get home start work/classes finish
work/classes study sleep go out stay in eat out go to the
cinema/theatre do sport go shopping have coffee with friends

b) Which of these do you do:


- in the morning
- in the afternoon
- in the evening
- at night?

Reading and listening

4. a) Is life of celebrities different from ours? When do you think they get up? have
breakfast? start work? have lunch?

b) Read an extract from the interview with a famous actor, Sam Dane, and check your
ideas.

Glamorous life behind the camera


Beautiful clothes, expensive restaurants, all-night parties,
holidays in the Caribbean. This is the glamorous life of a
film actor. Or is it? We talk to Sam Dane, star of Good
Times, Bad Times, about his daily routine.

R: Sam, tell us about your life as a film actor.


S: Well, a typical film is about three months' work. We
work very long days and a lot of the actors live in a hotel,
not at home.
R: What time do you get up?
S: I get up at five o'clock in the morning. The people from the studio phone us then.
17
R: You get up very early!
S: Yes and I'm not a morning person, so it's always difficult! We leave the hotel at 5.15 and I
get to the studio at about 5.30. That's when I have my first coffee of the day. Then we start
work at about 5.45.
R: What about breakfast?
S: We have breakfast at the studio at about 7.30. But that's only for half an hour
R: And lunch?
S: We have lunch at twelve and we start work again at about one o'clock.

c) Are these statements true or false?


1 A lot of the actors live at home.
2 They get up late.
3 The actors have breakfast at the studio.
4 They have 45 minutes for breakfast.
5 After breakfast, they work for four hours before lunch.
6 They have an hour for lunch.

5. TS 1.2 Listen to the end of the interview about Sam`s afternoon and evening routines
and choose the right variant in each statement.
1 Most days we finish at about 9/7 o'clock
2 But some days 1 sleep for four hours /an hour or two in the afternoon.
3 We have dinner at the studio at 9.30/11.30 p.m.
4 I get back to the hotel at 10.30/12 o'clock.
5 Then I sleep for seven/six hours.

7. a) What`s the time? Look at the clock and write the time.

18
b) TS 1.3 Listen and complete the conversations. Practice them with your partner.

1. A Excuse me. Can you tell me the________, please?


B Yes, of course. Its_______after_______o'clock.
A Thank you_________much.

2. C ______me. Can you________me the time, please?


D I'm________. I don't have a watch.
C Never mind.

3. E Excuse me. What time does the bus leave?


F At_________ten.
E Thank you. What time is it now?
F It's__________five past.
E Five past ten?!
F No, no, five past__________You're OK. No need to hurry.

4. G When does this lesson.


H At four o'clock.
G Oh dear! It's only________past three!

6. a) Make up questions in the first column and match them with the answers in the
second column. Use the Grammar reference to help.

See Grammar reference p. 149

1. do/ wake up / What time/ usually/ you? A. I usually get home at 6 o`clock.
2. breakfast / you/ do/ usually/ for/ have/ What? B. I usually have lunch at university
canteen.
3. you/ do/ When/ for/ leave/ classes? C. I get to university by bus.

4. do/ university / you/ How/get / to? D. I usually leave at 8.30.


5. take/ does/ you/ How long/ to/ get/ it/ there? E. I usually wake up at 7 o`clock.
6. usually/ do/ lunch / you/ have/ Where? F. I usually have a sandwich and a
cup of tea for breakfast.
7. get/ you/ When/ usually/ do/ home? G. It takes me about 20 minutes.

b) How do you spend your working days? Write ten sentences about your daily routines.
Have a talk with your partner and find out how he spends his days.

7. a) Do you know these frequency adverbs? Translate them.

hardly ever never sometimes often usually always

b) Which preposition do these time expressions go with? Distribute them in the chart.

Saturday the morning the afternoon half past three night Mondays
the weekend Tuesday morning the evening holiday birthday

19
at in on

Speaking

a) Do you like waking up early in the morning? Or do you prefer to stay in bed till
midday? Here`s a survey to find out if you are an early bird or a night owl!

1. When I get up in the morning ...


a) I'm always happy and I have a lot of energy.
b) I'm sometimes happy, but I don't have a lot of energy.
c) I‘m not very happy and I never have a tot of energy.

2. At the weekend...
a) I sometimes get up before 9 a.m.
b) I always get up before 9 a.m.
c) 1 hardly ever get up before 9 a.m.

3. When there's a good film on TV late at night.,,


a) I always watch it to the end.
b) I usually record It and go to bed.
c) I often watch the beginning but I never see the end.

4. When I go to a party...
a) I always stay to the end.
b) I sometimes stay to the end.
c) I never stay to the end.

5. When I see friends at the weekend ...


a) I usually see them in the afternoon.
b) I sometimes have coffee with them in the
morning
c) I hardly ever see them before 9 p.m.

6. When a friend phones me before 8 am ...


a) I'm always happy to talk to him/her,
b) I'm sometimes happy to talk to him/her.
c) I never answer the phone.

1 a) 1 point b) 2 points c) 3 points 4 a) 3 points b) 2 points c) 1 point


2 a) 2 points b) 1 point c) 3 points 5 a) 2 points b) 1 point c) 3 points
3 a) 3 points b) 1 point c) 2 points 6 a) 1 point b) 2 points c) 3 points

3-7 points:

You're definitely an early bird. You probably get up very early and do lots of things before
lunchtime. But you're probably not a good person to go to an all-night party with!

20
8-11 points:
You're not a night owl or an early bird -so you're probably an afternoon person! You probably
get up early in the week and then sleep a lot at the weekend. 12—15 points:

12-15 points:
You're definitely a night owl. You probably go out a lot in the evening and watch TV late at
night. But you're probably not a good person to have breakfast with!

b) Do you think there are more early birds or night owls in your group? Interview your
friends to find out this fact.

21
Lesson 3. World of work

Warm up

1. What are the jobs of your family? Tell the class.

My father is a doctor
My sister is a psychologist

Vocabulary

2. a) Do you know all these jobs? Match each one with the picture.

architect
nurse
pilot
dentist
receptionist
lawyer
taxi driver
hairdresser
journalist
accountant

b) Complete the sentences with a job.

1. She's a______________. She cuts hair.


2. He's a_____________. He flies from Heathrow
airport.
3. She's a____________. She works in a hotel.
4. He's an____________. He designs buildings.
5. She's a___________. She works for a family law
firm.
6. He's a___________. He knows all the streets of
London.
7. She's a___________. She writes news stories.
8. He's a _______________. He looks after people's
teeth.
9. She's a ______________. She works in the City
Hospital.
10. He's an ____________. He likes working with
money.

c) Take turns asking questions about jobs.

What does a dentist do?


He looks after people`s teeth.

22
Reading and speaking

4. a) What do you think is the most difficult work in the world? Read an article about a
woman who is busy 24 hours a day!

Sue Povey gets up at six every morning


and makes breakfast for fifteen people. Sue
has a difficult job, she works hard every
day. Why? Because she's a mother with
fifteen children, and thirteen of them live
at home.
Sue Povey and her family live in Swindon
in the south of England. After breakfast
her husband, Ian goes to work. Sue drives
the children to school (she needs a minibus
for this!). Nine children go to school and
she drives home with the other four
children. Every weekday she looks after
the children and cleans the house. She does the washing eight times a day, and she irons
clothes for three hours.
Every afternoon at 3.30 she collects the children from school in the minibus. Then she helps
them with their homework. After that she cooks dinner for fifteen. Her husband comes home
at six. After dinner, she goes to the supermarket with two of her sons. They help her with the
shopping. She buys 50 litres of milk a week!
Sue says: 'I love my big family. All the children help me and help each other. I want more
children!"
Her husband Ian says: 'It's never boring in this family-'
Thomas, 7, says: 'I always have someone to play with.'
Katie, 5, says: 'I like having new babies in the house.'
And Matt, 9, says: 'It's very noisy!'

b) What are Sue`s responsibilities? Take turns to tell about her day.
c) How do her children help her?
d) In what way do you help your parents?

Listening and grammar

5. TS 1.4 Listen about Andrew and Claudia, people with different outdoor jobs, and
complete the chart about them.

Andrew Claudia
surname
age
country
job
salary
free time
married?

23
b) Make up questions about Andrew. Give the answers.

See Grammar Reference p. 149

1.Where ___________ he __________ from? He__________________.


2. Where ___________he__________? He __________ on __________.
3. _______ he ________ hard? Yes, he _________.
4. How much ______________ he __________? He ____________ about £______ a day.
5. ___________ he _________ his job? Yes, he _________.
6. ___________he __________ a dog? No, he __________.
7. What ________ he________in his free time? He _________________.

c) Ask and answer questions about Claudia.

What does Claudia do?


She is a zoologist and she teaches at university.

6. Complete the sentences with the verbs in the correct form. Make sentences true to
you.

My mother works (work) at school. My mother doesn`t work at school, she works in a factory.

1 My father _______________(come) from Belgium.


2 My grandmother_____________(live) in the next town.
3 My mother______________(love) reading.
4 My father____________(travel) a lot in his job.
5 My sister____________(speak) Spanish very well. She_________(want) to learn French,
too.
6 My little brother__________(watch) TV a lot.
7 My friend __________(write) a blog on the Internet.

Speaking

7. Write a name of your friend or relative. Ask and answer questions with your partner.

Who is she?
She is my friend.
What does she do?
She is a journalist.
Where does she work?
She works for a newspaper.
What does she like doing in her free time?
She likes listening to music.

Writing

See Writing Bank p. 139

24
Lesson 4. Family weekends

Warm up

1. Answer the questions:

a) Do you wake up early at weekends?


b) Do you prefer active rest or do you like staying in and doing nothing?
c) Does your family have any special traditions of having rest together?
d) What season is it now? Say all the other seasons.
e) What month is it now? Say all the other months.

Vocabulary

2. a) Match the following hobbies with the pictures and translate them. How many other
hobbies can you add to the list?

A. playing golf
B. listening to music
C. sailing
D. going to the gym
E. cooking 1 2 3
F. skiing
G. jogging
H. cycling
I. surfing the Internet
J. dancing
K. reading
4 5 6
L. playing tennis
M. coin collecting
N. hiking
O. knitting
P. drawing/painting
Q. taking photos
7 8 9

10 11 12 13

15 16 17
14

25
Listening and speaking

3. TS 1.5 Listen to five people. What do they like doing in their free time? When exactly
do they like doing it? Complete the chart.

What? When?
Andy
Roger
Linda
Ben and Josh
Sandra and
Brian

4. Find out what your group mates like doing. Ask and answer questions about their
hobbies.

What do you like doing?


I like cycling.
When do you like cycling?
In summer and in autumn.

Reading

5. a) What do you like doing at weekends? How do you think celebrities spend their
weekends? Here are two texts about two absolutely different people – a jazz musician
Jamie Cullum and a Bollywood actress Shilpa Shetty.

Group A. Read about Jamie Cullun


Group B. Read about Shilpa Shetty

My perfect weekend
Jamie Cullum

Song-writer and jazz pianist Jamie Cullum lives in London


with his wife Sophie Dahl, the model and cookery writer. He
enjoys going to markets, French films, and playing cards at
weekends.

Jamie says, 'In my work I travel a lot and I stay in different


hotels, so my perfect weekend is at home with my family and
friends. I live in a flat in north-west London next to my
brother, Ben, and at weekends I like being with him and my
wife, Sophie. On Friday nights, we often go to a club - we all
love dancing.
On Saturdays, we get up late and I make breakfast; that's
important to me. Then I sit at my piano - it's in my kitchen -
and I play for a couple of hours. I don't write songs, I just
play. My cat, Luna, listens.. Sometimes in the afternoon we
go shopping in Portobello Market. I love old things. I have black leather cowboy boots from

26
there. Also, I look for old postcards - I like reading about people from the past. In the evening,
we often watch a French or Japanese film - I enjoy foreign films.
After that I like playing cards - poker - with friends, sometimes until early Sunday morning.
We sleep fate on Sundays, but then I like cooking Sunday dinner, usually roast chicken. I
really enjoy cooking. In the evening I call my parents and my nan - they like hearing about
my week.'

Shilpa Shetty

Indian film actress and model Shilpa Shetty has homes in


Mumbai and England. She enjoys takeaway pizza, going to
garden centres, and playing cards at weekends.

Shilpa says, 'Here in England my perfect weekend begins at my


home in the countryside with my husband Raj Kundra. On
Fridays, we usually watch TV, but sometimes friends or family
come to play cards - poker. I love poker. We get a takeaway
pizza - pizza goes best with playing cards - and I drink green tea.
I love green tea.
On Saturdays, I get up late, at about 10.45, and then 1 have a
long bath. Sometimes I watch TV in the bath or listen to music. I
like staying in the country at weekends - I love walking barefoot
on the grass. We go to a pub for lunch - I like the puddings,
especially sticky toffee pudding. I prefer to have Saturday
evening at home. We like watching cookery programmes; Jamie Oliver is my favourite. I like
cooking Indian food, but not at weekends.
On Sundays, I love shopping and gardening. I always buy my clothes from small boutiques,
and I love visiting garden centres. I love flowers. My homes in Mumbai and England are
always full of beautiful white lilies. I don't cook on Sunday, we prefer eating out and
sometimes, if we have time, we go to a spa hotel for a swim and a massage. It's a great way to
end a perfect weekend.'

b) Have a talk to your friends in the same group about this celebrity. You can use the
following questions to help.

1 Does he/she stay in the town or country at weekends?


2 Who does she/he like to be with?
3 What does he/she do on Friday evening?
4 What does she/he like doing on Saturday morning?
5 Where does he/she go shopping?
6 What does she/he do on Sunday?
7 Does he/she like playing cards?
8 Does she/he like cooking?

c) Work with a partner from the other group. Compare Jamie and Shilpa.

• What things do they both like doing?


• What things are different?

27
d) Do you think these are typical celebrities’ weekends?

Jazz chants

6. a) TS 1.6 TS 1.7 TS 1.8 Listen to the jazz chants and repeat them with the singer.
Translate them.

1. Let's Have Lunch 3. Would You Like to Go to the Movies


( usual invitation) Tonight?
Let's have lunch today. OK. Would you like to go to the movies tonight?
Let's have lunch today. OK. I'd love to. I'd love to.
Let's have lunch. Let's have lunch. I feel like going to the movies tonight.
Let's have lunch today. OK. I do too. Let's go.
Let's have dinner tonight. I feel like going to the movies tonight.
All right. Let's have dinner tonight. So do I.
All right. Let's have dinner. Let's go. I don't feel like studying tonight.
Let's have dinner. Let's have dinner tonight. Neither do I.
All right. Let's go.
2. Were Having a Party
We're having a party next Saturday night.
Can you come? Can you come?
I'd love to.
I'd love to.
That sounds great.
I'd love to.
We're having a party next Saturday night.
Can you come?
I'd love to.
We're having a party. I hope you can come.
That sounds nice.
I'd love to.
Sounds great.
Sounds good.
Sounds like fun.
I'd love to.
We're having a party next Saturday night.
Can you come? Can you come?
I'd love to.
I'd love to.
That sounds great.
I'd love to.

b) How do you spend your weekends? Do you like going out? Find out several upcoming
events in your city and invite your group mates.

28
Lesson 5. Home, sweet home

Warm up

1. Answer the following questions:

a) Do you prefer living in a flat or in a house? Why?


b) Do you enjoy decorating your home?
c) Do you agree that a house is always a reflection of personalities of those who live in it?
Why?
d) Look at the following picture. Do you think these apartments belong to a woman or a man?
Why?

Vocabulary

2. Do you know these words? Read and translate them. Complete the chart.

sofa DVD player cooker table armchair fridge oven washing


machine mirror shelves rug/carpet wardrobe window wall floor ceiling
dressing-table curtains cupboard bookcase stairs

kitchen living room bedroom bathroom hall

Speaking and grammar

3. a) Suzie`s got a new flat. Look at the photo of her living room. Ask and answer
question about these things.
See Grammar Reference p. 151

29
a mirror a clock a coffee table a rug a pictures magazines shelves cushions
fireplace a sofa a DVD player a curtains candles
plant a lamp

Is there a mirror on the wall?


No, there isn`t.
Are there cushions on the sofa?
Yes, there are.

b) Describe Suzie`s living room completing the sentences with a preposition.

on under next to in front of behind

1. The plant is__________ the armchair_________ the fireplace.


2. There`s a picture ____________ the fireplace.
3. There`re some books ____________ the shelves.
4. There is a rug ___________ the table.
5. There are some magazines _______ the table_______ the cup.
6. There are two armchairs____________ the sofa.

Listening

4. TS 1.9 Look at the picture and listen to someone describing it. There are five mistakes
in this description. Each time you hear a mistake say “Stop!” and correct it.

30
Stop! There aren`t three people in the room,
there are four of them!

Reading and speaking

5. a) There are some very unusual houses in the world. Do you find the house in the
picture below unusual? What does it look like?

I think it‟s very unusual because it is round


It looks like a cloud, bubble…

b) Read about this house. Do you like it? Would you like to live in such a house?

LIVING IN A BUBBLE

Is this a modem house? Is this a house of the future? Well, no, it isn't. Cyril Jean's house in
the south of France Is 40 years old. There are more houses like this in the south of France.
They are called “bubble houses” and you can see why!

31
Cyril Jean Is a designer and he loves round things. He collects old records and clocks. He also
collects round furniture. And now he has a completely round house for it all.
The centre of the house Is one very big bubble. This is both the living room and dining room.
There are round armchairs, a round table, and a big round rug in front of a round fireplace.
Around the living room are three small bubbles. One bubble is a kitchen with round
cupboards, another bubble is the garden room, and the third bubble is a music room for all
Cyril's old records. Upstairs there are two more bubbles-a bedroom, and a bathroom.
The doors and windows are also round, of course. The windows are like eyes. There aren't
any curtains in the house, because Cyril likes to see the garden all the time.
Bubble houses are the idea of a Hungarian architect Antti Lovag. Lovag thinks that a lot of
modern houses are bad for us, especially tall blocks of flats. He thinks that people are happy
in round homes because they are more natural. Cyril agrees with this. ―Some people think my
house is funny‖, he says, ―But for me, this is the perfect home‖.

c) Are the sentences true (T) or false (F)?


1 Cyril's house is modern.
2 There aren't any 'bubble houses' in the south of France.
3 There are a lot of clocks in the house.
4 The centre of the house is the kitchen.
5 Cyril doesn't like listening to music.
6 The windows don't have curtains.
7 There are three rooms upstairs.
8 Antti Lovag thinks the house is funny.

d) Have a talk with your partner. Here are you roles:

 You’ve just visited this amazing house. You are so impressed by what you saw
there that you want to share emotions with your friend. Use the following
questions to help:
 You’ve just visited this bubble house. You find it boring because everything is
round. You don’t think the designer is very smart so you want to tell your friend
about what you saw there. Use the following questions to help:

1. Where is Cyril's house? How old is it?


2. Why is it called 'a bubble house'?
3. What does Cyril do?
4. What does Cyril collect?
5. How many rooms are there in his house?
6. Is there a garden?

Speaking

6. Think about your perfect home and describe it to your partner.

In my perfect house there is a big living room and two bedrooms.

Writing

See Writing Bank p. 140

32
Lesson 6. Renting a flat

Warm up

1. a) Read the following quotes. Which one do you like most? Why?

―A house is not a home unless it contains food and fire for the mind as well as the body.‖
Benjamin Franklin
―There is nothing like staying at home for real comfort‖. Jane Austen
―Home is the place we love best and grumble the most.‖ Billy Sunday
―Since I travel so much, it's always great to be home. There's nothing like getting to raid my
own refrigerator at two in the morning.‖ Amy Grant

b) What makes home being home for you?

Listening

2. a) Homes are different around the world. Look at the pictures with the houses and
their owners and guess where they are situated. Why do you think so?

Seoul Lisbon Samoa New England

Candy and Bert


Manola

Kwan Alise

b) TS 1.10 Now listen to these people talking about where they live. Complete the chart.
Were you right?

33
Candy and Bert Alise Kwan Manola
House or flat?
Old or modern?
Where?
How many
bedrooms?
Live(s) with?
Extra
information

Reading and speaking

3. a) Have you ever rented a flat? What do you think is the most important thing – the
location, the price, the furniture, the gadgets and devices the flat is equipped with?

b) Manola has recently moved to Madrid. Read a piece of her letter to her friend about
the flat she is renting.

… and the flat is great! It`s in the very centre of the city, in Gran
Via street. There are lots of various cafes and shops nearby, though
they are all quite expensive. It`s on the second floor, but the view
is amazing – I can see all lights of the main street! There is a
spacious living room, which is also a bedroom for me, and a
kitchen. There are all necessary gadgets and devices – a TV, a wi-fi,
a dishwasher, a washing machine. There are even such
conveniences as an elevator and a central heating, which is
absolutely abnormal for such an old house! There isn`t a dining
room, but I never have dinner at home. There is a bus stop next to
my house, so it`s very easy to move around the city. And there is a
cinema opposite the bus stop (I go there practically every week)
and a very nice and cheap bakery under my flat. At the same time
the price is more than reasonable. I`m so glad I`ve found it! And
you know…

c) Complete the questions about Manola`s new flat. Take turns to ask and answer them.

1) Where _______ the flat?


2) How many bedrooms__________ in the flat?
3) _______ a garden?
4) ____________ any shops ________ the house?
5) ____________a cinema _________ the bus stop?

34
6) ____________ a bakery __________ her flat?
7) Which floor ______ the flat ______?
8) What conveniences ____________ in the house?
9) ___________ a separate bedroom?

4. a) You and your friend are moving to another city and you need to find a flat to rent.
You have two different adverts. Copy the chart and find out the details of your friend`s
advert.

Street
Price
Rooms
Location
Shops and transport

A B

b) Decide which flat you will rent. Explain your choice.

35
Unit 2. An apple a day…

Lesson 1. Tastes good!

Warm up

1. Let`s discuss which of these activities are good or bad for us.

I think playing computer games is bad for me, because…

a) eating fruit and vegetables f) running every day


b) sunbathing g) waking up early in the morning
c) smoking cigarettes h) playing computer games
d) going to the gym i) drinking a lot of water
e) laughing a lot j) surfing the Internet

Vocabulary

2. Do you know these words? Read and translate them. Which of these things can you
find in the picture given below? Take turns to ask and answer questions according to the
model.

bread beer cereal chicken fish lemons peas hamburgers cakes


meat pasta rice sweets sugar salt cucumbers vegetables tomatoes
juice broccoli pepper mineral water chips strawberries carrots
fruit biscuits bananas crisps

36
Are there any lemons in the picture?

Yes, there are some lemons in the picture, but there aren’t any sweets.

Is there a pizza in the picture?

No, there isn`t a pizza, but there is a chicken.

2. TS 2.1 Listen to Daisy and Piers talking about what they like and don`t like eating. In
the list given above tick the thing that Daisy (D) and Piers (P) like. What don`t they like?

b) Who said it? Write D for Daisy and P for Piers for each statement.

__ I don`t like coffee at all.


__I like orange juice but I don`t like oranges.
__I don`t like fruit very much at all.
__ I quite like bananas.
__ I like all fruit.
__ I like vegetables, especially carrots and peas.

3. a) What food do you enjoy? Make a list of the things you like and don`t like eating.
Have a talk with your partner and find out what his/her favourite food is.

Do you like eating pizza?

Yes, I do, but I don`t like eating fish.

b) Compare it with the list of your partner. Do you have similar preferences?

We both like eating pizza, but I like hamburgers and Anna doesn`t.

4. Copy the table. How many words can you add in three minutes?

meat/ fish chicken


fruit lemons
vegetables onions
drinks water
other food rice

Reading and speaking

5. a) Do you like eating pizza? Liz is a pizza fan and she`s telling about her experience of
ordering one.

I eat pizza at least once a week with my roommate. I usually order a large pizza with some
toppings: sausage, pepperoni, and green onions, but my roommate doesn't like any sausage or
green onions, so we usually order a half-and-half pizza. On one half, we order some toppings
that I like, and on the other half, he asks for some mushrooms, bacon, and olives. We both
like pepper, so we can agree on that. Also, we order some extra cheese on the pizza. Besides

37
the pizza, we usually order bread sticks and a 2-liter bottle of mineral water. But we don`t
order any fizzy drinks, because we think it`s really unhealthy. Some pizza restaurants run
weekly specials, so if you buy two pizzas at the regular price, you get the third pizza at a
discount. This week however there are no discounts. They don`t have any specials during
weekends, only during week days. So, if we have pizza leftover from a party, we throw it in the
fridge and eat it for the next several days.

b) Now look through the text again and answer the questions.

- Does Liz like any mushrooms on her pizza?


- What does her roommate like on his pizza?
- Do they order any fizzy drinks?
- Are there any specials during weekend?
- Is there a discount today?

Grammar

6. Here`s a dialogue between Liz and her roommate before ordering a pizza. Complete it
using some, any, no or a.

See Grammar Reference p. 153

- So what would you like the pizza to be with?


- I`d like _________ onions and sausage on it.
- But I don`t like _______ sausage. I prefer more vegetables - _______ mushrooms and
tomatoes, for example. Can we order _____ half-and-half pizza?
- Yes, of course. Are there _______ specials today?
- Yes, there are. They have ______ discounts only during weekends.
- Great, then I`d like my half to be with _________ pepperoni and tomatoes on it. Oh, and
let`s take ________ extra cheese!
- Ok, shall we take_________ drinks? Mineral water or juice?
- _______ of them!

7. Correct the mistakes in the following sentences.

1. There isn‘t no milk in the fridge.


2. Would you like any tea?
3. This song is very popular – you can hear it in some corner.
4. Can I have any coffee, please?
5. There aren`t some apple juice in this café.

Speaking

8. Do you lead a healthy lifestyle? What should healthy diet include? Make a list of
healthy diet tips and share them with the class.

For breakfast eat some eggs or porridge. Don`t drink fizzy drinks – it`s unhealthy!

38
Lesson 2. Eating out

Warm up

1. Do you enjoy eating out? Discuss the following questions with your group mates:

- Do you often eat in cafes and restaurants? When did you last eat out?
- What do you think about fast food restaurants? Why are they so popular all over the world?
- Do you know where restaurant culture takes its roots?

2. Now let`s check your ideas. Read a short piece of information on the history of
restaurants. Were you right?
The term "restaurant" first appeared in the 16lh century, meaning "a food which restores",
and referred to a highly flavoured soup. The modern sense of the word was born in around
1765 when a Parisian soup-seller named Boulanger opened his cafe. The first restaurant in the
form that became standard (customers sitting down with individual portions at tables,
selecting food from menus, during fixed opening hours) was the Grand Taverne de Londres,
founded in 1782 by a man named Beauvilliers. Inns and taverns were known from antiquity,
these were establishments aimed at travelers. The motherland of the tradition of eating out is
France. After the French Revolution broke out there were a lot of former aristocrats left
without their home chefs. At the same time in Paris appeared a lot of provincials with no
family to cook for them.

Vocabulary

3. What types of eating out establishments can you name? Read the list given below and
find each one in the pictures. Try to explain why you think so and describe the pictures
using the model.
a) coffee bar b) bar/ pub c) fast food restaurant d) high class restaurant
e)take away café f) bakery

39
I think this is a high-class restaurant, because it looks very expensive. There is an elegantly
served table in the foreground and a waiter in the background. I also see a waiter in the
middle of the picture, an elderly couple on the right and a young couple on the left.

Reading and speaking

4. a) The most popular food in the world now is fast food. Do you enjoy eating fast
food? Discuss the following questions:

1. What fast food companies are there in your country? What food do they sell?
2. What are the good and bad things about fast food?
3. How often do you go to a fast food restaurant? What do you usually have to eat and drink?
4. When you're in a different town or city, how do you decide where to eat?

b) Read the article about the owner of one of the biggest fast food chains in the world,
Harland Sanders, and put these events in order.

a He travelled 250,000 miles a year.


b His father died.
c He became the manager of a service station.
d He sold the KFC company.
e He was born in 1890.
f He developed his secret recipe.
g He learned to cook.
h He moved to a restaurant across the street.

The man behind KFC


Harland Sanders was born in the USA in 1890,
but his childhood wasn't a happy one. His father
died when he was only six. His mother didn't have
much money so she needed to find a job. She went to work in a
shirt factory and Harland stayed at home to look after his younger
brother and sister. That was when he first learned to cook.
He left home when he was twelve and worked on a nearby farm.
After that he had a lot of different jobs and in 1930 he
became the manager of a service station in Corbin, Kentucky. He started
cooking meals for hungry travellers who stopped at the service station, and soon people came
only for the food. Harland couldn't serve everybody because the place was too small. So he
decided to move to a 142-seat restaurant across the street where he could serve all his
customers. Over the next nine years he developed the secret chicken recipe that made him
famous.
The first official Kentucky Fried Chicken restaurant didn't open until August 1952 and by
1964 there were more than 600 KFCs in North America. That year Sanders sold the company
for $2 million, but he continued to work as KFCs public spokesman and visited restaurants all
over the world. He travelled 250,000 miles every year until he died in 1980, aged 90. Six
years later, PepsiCo bought KFC for $840 million.

40
There are now KFC restaurants in more than 110 countries round the world and KFC has 12
million customers every day - but the recipe is still a secret!

c) Answer these questions.

1) Why did Harland Sanders learn to cook?


2) How long did it take him to develop his secret recipe?
3) When did the first official KFC restaurant open?
4) How old was Harland Sanders when he sold the company?
5) What happened in 1980? Who bought KFC in 1986?

Grammar

5. a) Here are some time phrases which are used in Past Simple. Put them in order.

in 1900 in the sixties yesterday evening last week the day before yesterday
eighty years ago in the nineteenth century in July last year

b) Have you ever heard about the Michelin guide? Read the history of this famous
brand and put the verbs given in brackets in Past Simple.

See Grammar reference p. 152


Use Irregular Verbs p. 160

In 1889 two brothers, Andre and Edouard Michelin,1 ___________ (start) the Michelin
company in France. They 2 _______________(develop) a new tyre for bicycles and then they
3
____________(make) and 4________ (sell) tyres for cars. In 1900 there 5 ____________(be)
about 3,000 cars in France and people 6 __________ (want) to travel around the country. But
travelling by car in those days7 ____________(not be) easy. People 8 ___________ (not have)
road maps so they9 ___________(can not) plan their journeys and they 10 ______________
(not know) where they 11_________________(can) find service stations or restaurants. Of
course, the Michelin brothers12 ______________(want) people to travel more because they 13
_________ (need) to sell more tyres. They 14__________________ (write) the first Michelin guide in
1900, but the famous star system 15 ___________________ (not start) until 1926. Michelin
now sells over 20 million guide books and maps in more than 70 countries. There are only 81
three-star restaurants in the world and 26 of them are in France.

6. a) Think about the last time you had a special meal. Make notes on the meal. Use
these ideas.

• reason for the meal


• where and when you had the meal
• the people at the meal
• what time it started and finished
• what you wore
• the food and drink
• any other interesting information

41
b) Find out what special meal your group mates had last. Share the information with the
class.

Where did you have your special meal last?


In a café called “Fresh” in Kursk.
When did you have it?
Last Friday.

Listening and speaking

7. a) Look at the menu of The New Moon restaurant. Which dishes would you order?

I`d prefer… I`d like… I`d order…

The New Moon


MENU
Main courses

Chicken salad £3.25


Tuna and egg salad £4.00
Vegetarian lasagna £6.25
Burger and chips £5.95
Fish and chips £6.00
Mushroom pizza £6.75

Desserts

Apple pie and cream £3.25


Fruit salad £2.80
Chocolate, strawberry or vanilla ice cream
£2.90
Chocolate cheesecake £3.00

Drinks

Bottle of mineral water (still or sparkling)


£2.10
Coke £1.40
Orange juice £2.00
Coffee with milk £1.95
Cappuccino £2.00
Espresso £1.20
Tea £1.60

42
b) TS 2.2 Listen to the waiter`s conversation with two customers. Tick the food and
drink they order on the menu. How much is the bill?

8. Have a talk with your partner. One of you is a waiter and the other one is a customer.

WAITER CUSTOMER

Are you ready to order? Yes. Can I have a (chicken salad), please?
And a (mushroom pizza) for me, please.

Certainly.

What would you like to drink? I`d like a (Coke), please.


And can I have a (bottle of mineral water)?

Would you like a dessert?


Not for me, thanks.
I`d have an (apple pie), please.

Of course. Sorry, can we have a bill, please?


Thanks a lot.

And can we pay by credit card?


No, sorry. Only cash is accepted.
The nearest ATM is just round the corner. Oh, ok, no problem. Thank you!

You`re welcome!

Writing

See Writing Bank p. 141

43
Lesson 3. Keeping fit

Warm up

1. Do you lead a healthy lifestyle? Read some ideas about diet and exercise. Do you think
they`re true or false? Discuss it with your partner.

___ Cleaning floors burns the same calories as playing volleyball.


___ Heavy exercise, such as jogging or aerobics, is better than light exercise, like walking.
___ Special ―sport drinks‖ can help you exercise.
___ Orange juice contains more vitamin C than apple juice.
___ Exercises that make you sweat a lot help you lose fat more.

Reading

2. a) Do you know these words? Translate them.

clean floors dance do exercises jog/run tidy your room


walk work in the garden

b) Read the magazine article and match the headings (a-d) with the paragraphs (1-4).

a. Dance to the Music!


b. Jump for Joy!
c. Tidy Your Room!
d. Easy as ABC!

Keep fit – the easy way!


I'm not really a sports fan. But that doesn't
mean I'm weak, unhealthy or unfit. Here are
some fun exercises you can do alone or with
others.
1_________________________________
Sit on a chair and put one leg out in front of
you. Point your toes and 'write' each letter of the
alphabet in the air with your big toe. Then
repeat the exercise with the other foot. This is
great for people who like skiing, snowboarding
or ice skating.
2_____________________________________
You don't need a partner for this. Dancing is an
aerobic exercise -this means it brings a lot of
new oxygen to your muscles. This is really
important because it makes your heart strong
and keeps you healthy. Dance two or three
times a week - at home or a discotheque!

44
3______________________________________________
Put a tape measure on a wall outside your house and see how high you can reach with one
hand. Then, jump off one foot and see how high you can get. Then jump off both feet. Try to
jump higher each day. This is useful basketball practice, by the way!
4_______________________________________________
Do you think helping at home is useless and boring? You're wrong. Housework can make
your muscles and bones strong. Cleaning floors or windows are also great exercises for your
elbows and knees. And thirty minutes of digging the garden can burn 200 calories!

c) Answer the questions:

- What exercise is good for snowboarders?


- What sport is jumping good for?
- Why is dancing good for your body?
- In what way can housework keep you fit?
- How can digging in the garden be good for your health?

Listening and speaking

3. TS 2.3 Now let`s listen to a piece of a radio program about healthy lifestyle. Put these
things in the order the radio presenter talks about them. Do you follow these steps?
a. don`t smoke
b. eat a balanced diet
c. have a good breakfast
d. eat lots of fruit and vegetables
e. do exercises

4. a) Of course our health is strongly depends on what we eat. Do you prefer eating
healthy food? Why is fast food unhealthy?

b) Do you know the words given below?

(French) fries lettuce mustard ketchup pickles mayonnaise a bite to eat to


drop by shake to pick up salads chili to order fat

c) TS 2.4 Listen to Josh talking about his usual snack and fill in the gaps.

When I need a (1)______________, I often (2)_______________ a local fast food restaurant


and buy a quick meal. I usually (3)____________ a cheeseburger, a large order of fries, and a
medium-size drink. On the cheeseburger, I ask them to put everything on it: (4)_________,
(5)_____________, (6)___________, (7)_____________,(8) _____________, and
(9)______________, but I ask them to hold the (10)________________. I also order some
(11)_____________ to wash everything down. If I'm really famished, I might order a
chocolate (12)____________. I sometimes (13)___________ something for my roommate
who eats like a horse, so I have to order at least three (14)_________________. I usually pay
with cash, but I sometimes pay for the meal using my debit card. I don't eat fast food too often
because it contains a lot of (15)_________, but more and more restaurants

45
are offering healthier choices like (16)___________ and (17)____________, so there's
usually something for everyone.

d) Are the statements given below are true (T) or false (F)?
1. Josh goes to many different restaurants___
2. He usually orders much French fries___
3. Josh asks for a little mayonnaise on his cheeseburger____
4. But he doesn`t like a few pickles on it______
5. Josh`s roommate eats little, so he never buys fast food for him___
6. There are few fast food restaurants nowadays offering healthy food___
7. Fast food doesn`t contain a lot of fat _____

Grammar

5. What quantities can suit here? Translate the sentences into Russian.

See Grammar Reference p.154

1. I know ___________ people, who enjoy fast food.


2. I have ______________money, let`s go to the cinema!
3. I have___________ money, sorry, we can`t go to the cinema.
4. Shall we have ____________ cheeseburgers to take away?
5. I don`t like spending time with her, she always talks too ___________.
6. There are too __________ tickets left for this show, I`m afraid we can`t go.

6. Now let`s see how healthy your diet is. Here are two fridges, one of them is yours and
the other one is your partner`s. Check what your partner has in his fridge and find out if
his diet is healthy.

You have few vegetables and little fruit, but you have much ketchup and mustard, it`s not
healthy!

A B

46
7. Here is a survey that will help you check whether you lead a healthy lifestyle. Make
up questions. Find a partner and ask him/her the questions in the survey. Write A for
always, U for usually, S for sometimes, O for often, R for rarely and N for never in the left
column. Give him/her a score for their answers.

They score 3 for always or usually.


They score 2 for sometimes or often.
They score 1 for rarely or never.

1. you/ enjoy your university studies?

2. you/ think you have got good friends?

3. you/ relaxed?

4. you/ happy?

5. your life/ interesting?

6. you/ like the way you look?

7. you/ think people like you?

8 you/ eat five portions of fruit and vegetables a day?

9 you/ drink two litres of water a day?

10 you/ sleep between six and nine hours a night?

11 you/ exercise for half an hour three times a week?

47
Lesson 4. Food around the world

Warm up

1. Discuss the following:

a) Which food and drink comes from your country?


b) Which foreign food and drink is popular in your country?

Reading

2. a) Read the text. Write the correct question heading for each paragraph.

Where does our food come from?


What do we eat?
How do we eat?

Food around the world

For 99% of human history, people took their food from the world around them. They ate all
that they could find, and then moved on. Then about 10,000 years ago, or for 1 % of human
history, people learned to farm the land and control their environment.
1. ___________________________________________________
The kind of food we eat depends on which part of the world we live in, or which part of our
country we live in. For example, in the south of China they eat rice, but in the north they eat
noodles. In Scandinavia, they eat a lot of herrings, and the Portuguese love sardines. But in
central Europe, away from the sea, people don't eat so much fish, they eat more meat and
sausages. In Austria, Germany, and Poland there are hundreds of different kinds of sausages.
2.___________________________________________________
In North America, Australia, and Europe there are two or more courses to every meal and
people eat with knives and forks. In China there is only one course, all the food is together on
the table, and they eat with chopsticks. In parts of India and the Middle East people use their
fingers and bread to pick up the food.
3.___________________________________________________
Nowadays it is possible to transport food easily from one part of the world to the other We
can eat what we like, when we like, at any time of the year Bananas come from the Caribbean
or Africa; rice comes from India or the USA; strawberries come from Chile or Spain. Food is
very big business. But people in poor countries are still hungry, and people in rich countries
eat too much.

b) Answer the questions.

1 When did human history start? Was it about 10,000 years ago or was it about 1 million
years ago?
2 Do they eat much rice in the north of China?
3 Why do the Scandinavians and the Portuguese eat a lot of fish?
4 Where don't people eat much fish?
5 Which countries have many kinds of sausages?

48
6 How many courses are there in China?
7 Flow do people eat in the Middle East?
8 Why can we now eat most things at any time of the year?

Listening and speaking

3. a) Look at the photos of four national dishes. Which do you like? Match them with the
countries.

Italy Argentina England Austria

Full English Breakfast


Sachertorte

Bruschetta Beef de Chorizo

b) TS 2.5 Listen to four people talking about their favourite national food. What
nationality are they? Match their names – Anke, Graham, Sergio, Madalena – with their
favourite dish. What do they say about it?

Graham
Anke Sergio
Madalena

4. Now let`s talk about Russian cuisine. Make a list of the traditional dishes of Russian
cuisine. Try to describe one of them and explain why you like it.

49
5. Here`s Diane`s favourite dish recipe from her national cuisine. Read it and share your
own favourite recipe using the vocabulary in bold.

This evening, I'm going to make some delicious spaghetti and a healthy salad for dinner
following an old Italian recipe my grandmother used to make all the time. First of all, I put a
pot of water on the stove to heat up until it boils. I add about a teaspoon of olive oil to the
pot. In the meantime, I brown up some ground beef in a skillet on medium heat with a little
olive oil, add some finely chopped fresh onions and garlic, and finally sprinkle in a little salt
and pepper. Once the mixture is brown, I drain off the excess fat, add some chopped
tomatoes and tomato paste, add a pinch of oregano and basil, and add some sliced
mushrooms. I let the entire mixture simmer on the burner until the spaghetti noodles are
ready. Now, once the water is boiling in the pot, I turn down the heat a little, add the
spaghetti noodles, and let it cook until the noodles are nice and tender, but I don't want
to overcook them. Once the noodles are done, I serve the sauce on top of a plate of noodles.
For the salad, I mix a variety of leafy vegetables including spinach in a bowl, along with
some beets, sliced carrots, and tomatoes, topped with bacon bits and croutons. I prepare my
own vinegar and olive oil dressing. Sometimes, I prepare garlic bread to complement the
meal.

50
Lesson 5. One full English breakfast, please!

Warm up

1. Read the following quotes about English cuisine. Are they funny?

a) ―On the Continent people have good food, in


England they have good table manners.‖ – George
Mikes

b) ―To eat well in England you should eat full English


breakfast three times a day.‖ – W. Somerset Maugham

c) "If the English can survive their food, they can


survive anything!" - George Bernard Shaw

Watching a video

1. Do you know these words?

Yorkshire pudding porridge tikka masala cereals gravy fusion


B&B (Bed and Breakfast) prawn to increase pickle greengrocer
latte supermarket chain to dominate grocery to deliver
butcher to compete curry demand (for) readymade takeaway

2. Watch the 1st part of the video and answer the questions:

1) What are the widely known traditional English dishes?


2) What does a full English breakfast consist of? Is it still popular in England?
3) What are the most common breakfast products in Britain now?
4) What is more popular – tea or coffee?

3. Watch the 2d part of the video and correct the factual mistakes.

Supermarkets dominate British food shopping. The seven largest supermarket chains sell fifty
percent of all British groceries. They offer food from all over the Europe and fresh fruit and
vegetables all year. Supermarkets are often open half a day and provide everything you want
under one roof. They even offer at home shopping and home deliveries, so you don't have to
go out at all. You can still find traditional grocers, greengrocers, butchers and bakers` shops
and closed markets. But they find it difficult to cooperate with supermarkets and their
numbers have risen. However, in recent years, farmers and specialist food markets have
become less popular. Here you can find local, traditional and seasonal food.

4. Watch the 3d part of the video and fill in the gaps.

The __________was invented during the _____________century by the Earl of Sandwich. He


wanted a quick and easy meal to eat while he was playing___________. Today it's Britain's
most popular________. There's an incredible variety, from the traditional _________and
pickle to _________and mayonnaise and curried chicken.

51
The British eat a lot of ready meals. The __________for convenience food is growing all over
Europe, but the British buy more ________________meals than any other European country.
Indian and Chinese meals are the most popular, followed by Mexican, Thai, Japanese and
Italian pizzas.
5. Watch the final part of the video and say whether these statements are true or false.

1) There is still a tradition of eating together at home every evening.


2) Takeaways are very popular.
3) Takeaways are never delivered to people`s homes.
4) Fast food is not that popular in Britain.
5) The first Indian restaurant was opened in 1907.
6) There are about 5 hundred Indian restaurants in Britain now.
7) The original English dish chicken tikka masala consists of gravy, prawn, pickle and
masala.

6. Answer the questions.

1) What is typical English breakfast? Did it change?


3) What kinds of shops can be found in Britain?
4) How was sandwich invented?
5) What are the traditions of eating at home?
6) What are the traditions of eating out in Britain?

Project

7. What can you tell about Russian cuisine? What are its specific characteristics? Find
two or three partners and prepare a presentation on this topic.

Grammar

8. a) 100 years ago the situation with food in Britain was completely different. What
exactly do you think was different? Read a short text about how everything changed in a
century and check your ideas.

At the start of the twentieth century, a lot of poor families in Britain used to eat badly. They
used to do a lot of physical work but they only had meat once or twice a week. The basic
British diet was not healthy. People used to have bread and tea and there were potatoes every
day. There was fresh fruit only in the summer. Oranges and bananas used to be luxuries and
there weren't any kiwis or avocados. Because of their diet, a lot of people died young and they
were small - the average height for men in the army used to be only 1.5 metres.
A hundred years later we have very different problems. In Britain, there is a lot of food and
people live a long time. But a lot of us eat the wrong food. In our diet there are a lot of crisps,
sweets, hamburgers, pizzas and fizzy drinks like cola. We also consume a lot of meat and
dairy products - on average we drink two litres of milk and eat two eggs a week. But we still
do not eat enough fruit or vegetables.

b) Answer the questions below.

1. Why did British people use to be unhealthy?


2. What products used to be luxurious?

52
3. Read the text again and list the food mentioned. What food did the British use to eat?
A hundred years ago
Now
4. What did you use to eat in childhood and don`t like eating now?

9. Distribute the following roles:

- mother of 5 children (the children have grown up and live separate now);
- retired fashion model;
- ex-millionaire, who has just turned bankrupt;
- retired rock-star;
- professional traveler in his/her 70s.

What did your life use to be? What did you use to do every day? And what is your life
like now?

53
Lesson 6. Shopping list

Warm up

1. Answer the questions:

a) Do you often go shopping?


b) What food do you buy every day? Seldom? Never? What did you buy yesterday?
c) Where do you prefer buying food – in a supermarket or at a market? Why?

Listening and speaking

2. TS 2.6 Read and listen to Jane talking about usual shopping. Fill in the gaps with the
following words and word combinations.

groceries shopping cart deli counter produce section dairy section


microwaveable meals frozen food section checkout counter

I usually go to the supermarket about once or twice a week to buy ____________. Since I do
a lot of shopping, I usually need a _______________to carry everything. I first stop by
the _____________________ to pick up some sliced cheese. Then, I look for some fruits and
vegetables in the ___________________ , but I make sure they are fresh. My kids like milk,
so I swing by the _________________ and grab a few gallons of milk. Also, there are times
when I don't have much time to cook, so I usually pick up some ____________________ in
the _________________ . If the store is out of stock of any of the items I need, then I drop by
a different supermarket on my way home. I generally pay with cash at the_____________.

3. a) Look at the Jane`s shopping list for yesterday. Take turns describing her shopping
in a supermarket, using the expressions given below. Use the containers expressions.

First she took a shopping cart…

bread Containers:
butter
biscuits - a packet of (crisps,
sweets…)
potatoes
- a bottle of (lemonade,
cabbage milk…)
sweets - a tin of (tuna, beans… )
oranges - a carton of (yoghurt,
milk juice…)
- a bar of (chocolate)
juice
- a can of (cola)
bananas
pizza

54
b) When did you last go to a supermarket? Try to remember what you bought and
make up a shopping list. Describe your shopping to your partner.

4. TS 2.7 Listen to the song and fill in the gaps.

I. I like food, I like eating lots and lots of food. (2 times)


________ and jam, and meat, and _______,
Cakes and _________ too.
Beans and mustard, _______ and chips,
Mutton steaks, potatoes, _______,
And salted _________________too.

II. I like food, I like eating lots and lots of food. (2 times)
Cabbage, _____________, lettuce leaves,
Chocolate and ___________,
Toast and butter, _________ and spices,
Onions, cereal, _______________ slices,
Marrows, ___________, beets
Don‘t forget I also like drinking, when I eat:
Coffee, _______ and water soda,
Fruity lemonade, ____________,
__________ makes them sweet.

I like food, I like eating lots and lots of food. (2 times)


__________ more, please.

Jazz chants

5. a) TS
TS 2.8
2.8 TS 2.9 TS 2.10 Listen to the jazz chants and repeat them with the singer.

I. What Are You Going to Have? II. I'd Like a Sandwich


(getting ready to order in a restaurant) I'd like a sandwich.
What are you going to have? I'd like a sandwich.
Chicken soup. I'd like a tuna salad sandwich.
Mm mm. That sounds good. Tuna salad.
What are you going to have? Tuna salad.
Chicken soup. Tuna salad sandwich.
I think I'll have the same. Whole wheat toast.
What are you going to have? Whole wheat toast.
Chicken soup. I'd like a tuna salad sandwich on whole wheat
What are you going to have? Chicken soup. toast.
What are you going to have? Whole wheat toast.
Chicken soup. Whole wheat toast.
I think I'll have the same. I'd like a tuna salad sandwich on whole wheat
Mm mm. That sounds good. toast.
That sounds good. That sounds good. I'd like a large bowl of chicken soup. I'd like
Chicken soup! That sounds good. a large bowl of chicken soup.
I think I'll have the same. I'd like a large bowl of chicken soup and a
tuna salad sandwich on whole wheat toast.

55
III. I Haven't Decided Yet
What are you going to have for lunch?
I haven't decided yet.
What are you going to have? I haven't decided vet.
What are you going to drink?
I haven't decided yet.
What are you going to have? I haven't decided yet.
What are you going to have for dessert?
I haven't decided yet.
What are you going to have?
I haven't decided yet.
I haven't decided yet.

b) You are a restaurateur who has just started his business. Make up a menu for your
restaurant, following the scheme:
- Starters;
- Main courses;
- Desserts;
- Drinks.

c) Now exchange the menus with your two partners. Take turns to be waiters and
customers (don`t forget to discuss what you are going to have).

56
Module 3. Ready Steady Go

Lesson 1. My sports weekends

Warm-up

1. Read the quotes and share with your partner what quote do you find the most
reasonable one?

I think the first one is good because…


I like the second quote because
I find the third one clever because…
―An athlete cannot run with money in his pockets. He must run with hope in his heart and
dreams in his head.‖
―Persistence can change failure into extraordinary achievement.‖
―Set your goals high, and don‘t stop till you get there.‖

Vocabulary

2. a) Do you like any of these sports?

athletics basketball diving golf hang gliding hockey horse riding ice skating
judo parachuting rock climbing skiing water skiing

3 a) TS 3.1 Listen to the conversation. What sports does the girl do often?
- like watching?
- think is boring?
- think is dangerous?

d) Do you find any of these sports boring or dangerous?

4. a) TS 3.2 TS 3.3 TS 3.4. Listen to the jazz chants. Repeat them with the singer.

I. I Like It a Lot II. Do You Like It?


I like it. Do you like it?
I like it a lot. I like it a lot.
I love it. I‘m glad.
I like it. Do you like it?
I like it a lot. I like it a lot.
I love it. I‘m glad.
I like it very much. Do you like it?
I like it very much. Do you really like it?
I like it. Do you like it?
I like it a lot. Do you really like it?
I love it. Do you like it?
I really like it very much. Do you really like it?

57
I really like it very much. I like it a lot.
I like it. I‘m glad.
I like it a lot.
I love it.
III. I Don’t Like It At All
I don‘t like it.
I don‘t like it at all.
I hate it.
I can‘t stand it.
I don‘t like it.
I don‘t like it at all.
I hate it.
I can‘t stand it.
I don‘t like it a bit.
I don‘t like it at all.
I hate it.
I can‘t stand it.
Not a bit.
Not a bit.
I don‘t like it a bit.
Not at all.
Not at all.
I don‘t like it at all.
I hate it.
I can‘t stand it
I hate it. I hate it
I can‘t stand it
I hate it. I hate it
I can‘t stand it
I hate it. I hate it
I can‘t stand it
I hate it. I hate it
I can‘t stand it
I don‘t like it at all

b) Have a talk with your group mates. Find out which sports they like.

Do you like athletics?


Do you like watching judo?
What kind of sport are you keen on?
Do you do sport all year round or you prefer summer kind of sports?

Reading

3. a) Do you know these words? Read and translate them.

flippers glove mask puck snorkel stick swimming cap

58
b) Have you ever heard about underwater hockey? Read these statements. Do you think
they are true (T) or false (F)?

1 It is similar to normal hockey but underwater.


2 Flippers are good for swimming quickly.
3 Players use very long sticks.
4 Only good swimmers play it.

c) Read the fact file and check your ideas.

FACTFILE: UNDERWATER HOCKEY

Is it similar to normal hockey?


Yes, it is. You have to score goals
to win and you can't touch the puck
with your hands. The difference is
you play underwater!

What equipment do you need?


A mask - to cover your eyes and
nose.
A snorkel - to help you breathe
when you are under the
surface looking for the puck.
Flippers. You don't have to wear
these but they help you to swim quickly.
Stick. This is only about 30cm long.
Glove. It doesn't have to be a special glove - you can wear a gardening glove!
Swimming cap. You have to wear this because flippers often hit you.

Who plays it?


People of all ages and sizes play underwater hockey. You don't have to be a great swimmer.
It's a great topic of conversation at parties!

Grammar

4. Complete these sentences about underwater hockey with have to, don't have to, can
and can't.
See Grammar Reference p. 154
You ________touch the puck with your hands
You ___________wear flippers.
You ______________wear a gardening glove.
You ______________score goals.

5. Complete the description of table tennis. Use the correct form of have to, don't have to,
can or can't.

You (1)___________use a bat. You (2)___________ hold it in your right or left hand. When
you serve, the ball (3) ____________ go over the net - but it (4) ____________touch the net.

59
You (5) score 21 points to win. Usually, you (6) ____________ wear special clothes but in
tournaments, players (7) ____________wear shorts and T-shirts.

6. Write the descriptions of these sports. Use the clues and have to, don't have to, can
and can't.

• ice hockey - wear skates, hit other players


• football - score goals, use your hands, touch the ball with your head, wear a helmet
• tennis - serve over the net, wear white clothes, touch the net with the racket

7. Complete the sentences with these words. Then guess the sports.

in, into (x 2), on, over (x 2), to, with (x 3)

1. You play _________a pool and you have to hit a puck_________a stick.
2. You use your feet to pass the ball ________ another player or try to get it_________the
goal.
3. You play__________a court and you have to hit a ball___________the net.
4. You run__________the ball and try to get________a line to score.
5. You hit the ball 300 or 400 metres _____ a stick and try to get it ________a small hole.

Reading and Speaking

8. a) London's new Wembley Stadium is the home for 21st century sport in the UK but
there are a lot of other places to visit. There are five popular kinds of sports in UK. Can
you guess what kinds of sports are popular? Read about one of the sports.

Football
The UK has four teams in international competitions - England, Scotland, Wales and
Northern Ireland. The only problem is that the four teams do not usually play very well!
However, the English Premier League is one of the best in the world and has some world-
famous clubs like Arsenal, Liverpool and Manchester United. A lot of football clubs welcome
visitors. Why not go to Old Trafford (Tel: 0161 868 8631), the home of Manchester United?
Further north, in Scotland, is Hampden Park in Glasgow. It is the oldest international stadium
and has the Scottish National Museum of Football (Tel: 0141 620 4000).

Cricket
The rules are very complicated but if you are in England in the summer, a day at a cricket
game is an interesting experience. The players wear white and the game goes very slowly -
international games can last for five days! Edgbaston in Birmingham is a good place to visit;
it has got a fascinating collection of photos, bats, balls and autographs from a hundred years
of cricket matches. It is open on match days from April -September (Tel: 0121 446 4422).

Rugby
Twickenham is the home of England's rugby team. The stadium tour and Museum of Rugby
(Tel: 0208 8928877) include a visit to the dressing room plus audio-visual presentations. Back
in Scotland, Murrayfield stadium holds the world record rugby crowd of 104,000 (in 1975)
and the stadium now has its own tour (Tel: 0131 3465000).

60
Tennis
Wimbledon in London is more than just the two-week summer tournament in June. There is a
museum (Tel: 0208 946 6131) which has the championship trophies on display and there are
guided tours of the famous 'centre court'.

Horse Racing
Lovers of this sport must visit Aintree near Liverpool. It is the home of the world's most
spectacular race, the Grand National. Between May and October (Tel: 0151 5222921) you can
enjoy a 'virtual reality' ride and walk around the course.

b) Share the facts you read about with four other friends. How many facts can you
remember about all kinds of sports mentioned in exercise a).

Listening and Speaking

9. TS 3.5 Listen to three sports commentaries. Which sports are they describing?

10. TS 3.6 Listen to people talking about last sport events they watched on TV and
complete the dialogues with the words given below.

athletics badly beat brilliantly match score scored sets well win

1. A Did you see the (1) ______________ last night?


B No, what was the (2) ___________?
A Liverpool won three-one.
B How did they play?
A They played (3)____________in the first half but then Gerrard (4)___________ two goals.

2. A Did you watch the (5) ________ at the weekend?


B I saw Radzka in the long jump.
A Yes, she jumped really (6) __________.
B Did Miller (7)___________the 400 metres?
A No, she didn't.

3. Did Sharapova (8)____________ Serena Williams last night?


B Yes. She won two (9) ___________ to one.
A How did she play?
B (10)______________!

c) What tense are all the sentences used in these conversations? How do we make
questions in the Past Simple? Find examples of regular and irregular verbs.

10. Do you like watching sports on TV? Think about a game or sporting event you saw
on TV recently. Have a conversation with your friend about this sport event?

• what happened
• who was in it
• who won
• who played well/badly
• your opinions about it

61
Lesson 2. Swim or not to swim

Warm-up

1. Answer the following questions.

a. Can you swim and do the basic strokes?


b. Do you like swimming?
c. How old were you when you learned to swim?
d. How long can you hold the breath under the water?
e. Have you ever taken swimming lessons and received a certificate of completion?
f. How long did it take you to learn to swim?

2. What can be learned at swimming lessons? Write down your ideas and compare them
with your partner.

You can learn to swim, do different strokes…

Reading

3. Read the text then compare your ideas in exercise 2. Were they similar or different?
Can you add anything to the list?

My kids are taking swimming lessons now at a local swimming pool. The lessons first teach
kids how not to be afraid of the water by learning how to put their face under the water and
holding their breath for a few seconds. Next, the lessons teach children how to float on
their backs. Later on, kids learn how to do some of the basic strokes including freestyle,
breast stroke, and backstroke. Learning how to do these takes time, practice, and
patience. Kids also need to learn how to tread water, and in some water safety classes,
instructors teach people how to tie up the legs of their pants to make a flotation device. Kids
can also learn how to dive of the side of the pool or from the diving board. If kids pass off the
requirements for their class, they receive a certificate of completion.

I‟ve mentioned all things you can learn to do at the swimming lesson.
I haven‟t mentioned that the lessons teach kids how to not be afraid of the water

4. TS 3.7 The unlucky reporter preparing short description of swimming lessons at the
local school missed some essential information. Help him to complete the description.
Then listen to the original version and check.

My kids are _________________ now at a local swimming pool. The lessons first teach kids
how to not be afraid of the water by learning how to put their face under the water and
________ for a few seconds. Next, the lessons teach children how to _____________. Later
on, kids learn how to ________ some of _________ including freestyle, ________, and
___________. Learning how to do these _______________________________. Kids also
need to learn how to tread water, and in some water safety classes, instructors teach people
how to tie up the legs of their pants to make a flotation device. Kids can also learn how to
dive of the side of the pool or from the diving board. If kids pass off the requirements for their
class, they ____________________________.

62
5. You are a parent with two kids who are attending swimming lessons at the local
swimming club. Tell your friend who wants to send his kids to the same club what your
children do there.

Project

6. Think and discuss the following questions with your group mate.

Why is swimming an important life skill and at what age can children start learning how to
swim?
Do you watch swimming competition?
Talk about your own experiences in learning how to swim.

7. a) You are concerned that less and less people learn to swim in the childhood. Make a
sociological survey on popularity of swimming among young people. Interview your
friends using the question from exercise 5 and any others from this unit.

b) Share the results of your survey with the group. How many people can swim, when
they learned to do it, is swimming important etc.

63
Lesson 3. Citius, Altius, Fortius

Warm-up

1. Look at these cartoons. Do you find them funny? Why/ Why not?

2. Do you prefer Winter or Summer Olympic Games?

I prefer Summer Olympic Games because I‟m keen on swimming

Vocabulary

3. Find Russian equivalents of these sports:

Winter: alpine skiing, biathlon, bobsleigh, cross-country, skiing, curling, figure skating,
freestyle skiing, ice hockey, luge, nordic combined, short track, speed skating, skeleton, ski
jumping, snowboarding, speed skating

Summer: archery, athletics, badminton, baseball, basketball, basque pelota, boxing, canoeing
and kayaking, cricket, croquet, cycling, diving, equestrian, fencing, football (soccer), golf,
gymnastics, handball, hockey (field), jeu de paume, judo

4. Watch the video and name the sports you recognize.

5. a) How much do you know about the Olympic Games? Do the quiz then use Google to
check your answers.

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1. Who is the founder of ancient Olympic games? 2. Where were the first Olympic games held?
• Zues • Athens
• Coroebus • Antwerp
• Hercales • Barcelona
• Apollo • Olympia

3. Who was the founder of the Modern 4. The Ancient Olympic Games were made a part
Olympics? of the religious festival in the honour of which
• Phidias mythological deity?
• Pierre de Coubertin • Heracles
• Alexander • Eros
• L. Aemilius Cato • Zues
• Perseus

5. Who, among the following, could neither 6. In which year was the Olympic flag raised for
watch nor participate in the Olympics? the first time?
• Widowed women • 1916
• Men • 1920
• Married men • 1924
• Women • 1932

7. Which of the following was placed on the head 8. When and where did the first olympic torch
of a winner of the ancient Greek Olympics? relay take place?
• An olive branch wreath • 1940, Munich
• Gold medal • 1936, Berlin
• Silver medal • 1932, Stockholm
• Bronze medal • 1944, Finland

9. When and where was the Olympic torch first 10. At which Olympics was the Olympic flag first
lit? hoisted?
• 1936, Berlin • 1920, Antwerp Olympics
• 1932, Antwerp • 1920, London Olympics
• 1924, Paris • 1936, Berlin Olympics
• 1928, Amsterdam • 1948, Melbourne Olympics

11. Who was the writer of the Olympic oath? 12. What is the meaning of the Olympic motto:
• L. Aemilius Cato Citius, Altius, Fortius?
• Coroebus • Braver, Faster, Higher
• Apollo • Faster, Higher, Stronger
• Pierre de Coubertin • Higher, Stronger, Faster
• Stronger, Braver, Faster

13. Which ceremony marks the end of the 14. In which year were women allowed to
Olympic games? participate in the Olympic games?
• Lighting Fireworks • 1908
• Releasing pigeons into the sky • 1912
• Playing musical bands • 1900
• Extinguishing the Olympic flame • 1924
15. Who was the designer of the Olympic flag? 16. In which year were the Olympics games
• Heracles Palamas shown on television for the first time?
• Zues Brundage • 1948
• Pierre de Coubertin • 1952
• Spirou Samara • 1956
• 1936

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17. What is the total number of sports included in 18. Name the American who was forced to return
the Summer Olympics? the gold medal he won at the 1972 Olympics?
• 25 • Ben Jonhson
• 28 • Jim Thorpe
• 27 • David Bolen
• 30 • Rick DeMont

19. In which year were the formal drug tests 20. Name the first athlete to fail a gender test.
introduced in the Olympic Games? • Santhi Soundarajan
• 1956 • Ewa Kłobukowska
• 1960 • Jim Thorpe
• 1968 • Hermann Ratjen
• 1972

b) Did you learn anything new about the Olympics?

I never know that…


I‟ve learned that

Listening

6. Do you like video games? Do you think it’s a kind of sport too? Why?

I like… I enjoy… I am fond of…


I am keen on video games because they are amazing and interesting.
I hate video games because I find them boring.

7. TS 3.8 You belong to a party of politicians who share very conservative views on
Olympic Games. You’ve got some special tasks to do for your party. First you have to
listen to a piece of the news about video games from the BBC radio and understand:

o Who is Mr Pardo?
o Is he your associate?
o What‘s his opinion about including video games in Olympic Sports?

8. This time you’ve got a more complicated task. Listen again and do the phrase match.

PARAGRAPH ONE:

1. video games should be a. of people


2 also called e- b. watching
3. It would make the Olympics c. more modern
4. Millions d. decisions
5. love playing and e. "lightning quick"
6. professional f. in the Olympics
7. need to be g. gamers
8. make hundreds of sudden h. sports

66
PARAGRAPH TWO:
1. It is difficult to get e-sports a. of many sports
2 People do not think b. and skill
3. it uses c. many Olympic sports
4. Pardo says it is d. into the Olympics
5. it needs physical effort e. a sport
6. He thinks it is better than f. it is a real sport
7. an international competition g. technology
8. gaming would be one h. just for e-sports

9. This time you have to do some encryption. Read the same news and complete the gaps
with the missing words on the right.

(1) ____________ designer for one of the world's most popular part
computer games has said that video games should be an Olympics creative
sport. Rob Pardo, who was chief (2) ____________ designer for the known
World of Warcraft game, told the BBC his game and (3) top
____________ video games should be (4) ____________ of the decisions
Olympic Games. He said the competition needed to become more other
modern and up-to-(5) ____________. He added that millions of people gamers
around the world love playing and watching competitive gaming, date
which is also (6) ____________ as e-sports. Mr Pardo said: "I think the
way that you look at e-sports is that it's a very competitive
skillset….You look at these professional (7) ____________ and the
reflexes are lightning quick…. And they're having to make very quick
(8) ____________ on the fly." based
Pardo told the BBC that it would be (9) ____________ to get esports proper
into the Olympics. He said many people do not even see it as a real format
sport. He argues it is (10) ____________ sport because it takes a lot of difficult
(11) ____________ effort and skill and is very exciting to watch. He already
believes it is a better and more popular sport than many of those (12) among
____________ in the Olympics. Pardo said many people did not want physical
gaming to become an Olympic sport because it is (13) ____________ separate
on technology and not
athleticism. The PC Magazine website suggests there should be a (14)
____________ international competition just for e-sports, that could
follow a (15) ____________ like the Olympics. This would make
gaming the star of the show rather than just another event (16)
____________ many in the Olympics.

10. a) Look at the same piece of news with some words in bold. All of them are verbs.
What tenses should we use here? Open the brackets and put them into the correct form.
Then compare with the text in exercise 4.

A top designer for one of the world's most popular computer games has said that video games
should be an Olympics sport. Rob Pardo, who (be) chief creative designer for the World of
Warcraft game, (tell) the BBC his game and other video games should be part of the Olympic
Games. He (say) the competition (need) to become more modern and up-to-date. He (add)
that millions of people around the world love playing and watching competitive gaming,
which is also known as e-sports. Mr Pardo said: "I (think) the way that you look at e-sports is

67
that it's a very competitive skillset….You look at these professional gamers and the reflexes
are lightning quick…. and they (have) to make very quick decisions on the fly."
Pardo told the BBC that it would be difficult to get e-sports into the Olympics. He (say) many
people do not even see it as a real sport. He (argue) it is proper sport because it (take) a lot of
physical effort and skill and is very exciting to watch. He (believe) it is a better and more
popular sport than many of those already in the Olympics. Pardo said many people (not want)
gaming to become an Olympic sport because it is based on technology and not athleticism.
The PC Magazine website suggests there should be a separate international competition just
for e-sports, that could follow a format like the Olympics. This would make gaming the star
of the show rather than just another event among many in the Olympics.

b) What are the arguments for getting e-sports into the Olympics?

He thinks/ believes/ argues/ suggests…

11. What do you think?

1) What springs to mind when you hear the word 'gaming'?


2) What do you think of the Olympic Games?
3) Should gaming be in the Olympic Games?
4) Is gaming a sport?
5) Is gaming more exciting to watch than many Olympic sports?
6) What's your favourite Olympics sport and why?
7) Do the Olympic Games need to be more up-to-date?
8) What do you think of the idea of gaming as an "e-sport"?
9) How skillful are gamers?

12. Role-play

Role A
You think gaming should be the new Olympics sport. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell
them why their things aren't so good for the Olympics. Also, tell the others which is the worst
of these (and why): Formula 1, chess or sky diving.
Role B
You think Formula 1 should be the new Olympics sport. Tell the others three reasons why.
Tell them why their things aren't so good for the Olympics. Also, tell the others which is the
worst of these (and why): gaming, chess or sky diving.
Role C
You think sky diving should be the new Olympics sport. Tell the others three reasons why.
Tell them why their things aren't so good for the Olympics. Also, tell the others which is the
worst of these (and why): Formula 1, chess or gaming

68
Lesson 4. Extreme sports

Warm-up

1. Describe the photo. Who are the people and where are they? What are they doing?
How are they feeling? Who are having more fun?

2. Are you a daredevil and a thrill seeker? Would you like to have some real fun?
Complete the table. Share your ideas with your partner(s). Change partners and share
your ideas again. Who is the biggest daredevil?

Fun thing The dangers Why I (don’t) want to do it


Skydive over Everest
Dive with sharks
Fly to the moon
Race an F1 car
Bungee jumping
Sail around the world

Listening

3. Look at the article’s headline “Historic jumps made above Mt. Everest” and guess
whether these sentences are true (T) or false (F):

a. Three skydivers jumped off the top of Mount Everest. T / F


b. The decision to make the jumps was a sudden one taken recently. T/F
c. The parachutes used in the jumps were half the usual size. T/F
d. An onlooker said the skydivers flew with rare bluebirds in the sky. T/F
e. The skydivers were over the moon about their jump. T/F
f. The parachutists broke several skydiving records. T/F
g. Mount Everest is 3,761 metres high. T/F
h. There are nearly 30 jumpers waiting to make the jump above Everest. T / F

4. TS 3.9 Now listen and check your ideas. Compare your answers with your partner.

69
I‟ve made one mistake they didn‟t jump…

Reading and grammar

5. This text describes some events in the past. Read the first passage, open the brackets
and put the verb into the past. Read the second passage and translate the words in bold
from Russian into English. Don’t forget about the past.

Three skydivers (make) history over Mount Everest on October 5th by being the first people
to parachute above the world‘s highest mountain. The parachutists, from New Zealand,
Britain and Canada, (train) for many years to make their jumps. Their plane (flow) about 150
metres above Everest‘s peak when they (leap) out. They (have) to wear oxygen masks and
parachutes that were larger than usual to help them in the thin air. The three were in freefall
for 30 seconds before their chutes (open) and they (glide) down to land. A member of the
jumpers‘ support team Krishna Aryal (explain) to the Reuters news agency what the jumps
(look) like from the ground: "They (look) like tiny birds flying in the blue sky as they (jump)
from the plane," he (say).
The skydivers were over the moon with their jump over Everest. New Zealander Wendy
Smith said: "It was stunning. I had never seen so many mountains before. To be on top of the
world was simply stunning.‖ Britain‘s Holly Budge (согласился), saying her jump was ―just
spectacular‖. Their jumps (побил рекорды) several skydiving records. They (вошли) the
record books for making the highest skydiving freefall at nearly 8,900 metres. They also
(приземлились) on the world‘s highest drop zone at 3,761 metres. Twenty-nine more
daredevils are waiting for favourable weather conditions to make the same jump. The thrill
seekers are part of the ‗Everest Skydive 2008‘ event organized by the British extreme sports
company High and Wild.

6. Now cover the story and try to remember 5 facts about these skydivers. Tell your
partner and compare with the facts your friend can remember.

Speaking

7. Role-play

A
You work for a newspaper writing about extreme sports. Today’s topic is skydiving.
Interview your friend about this type of extreme sport.

1. Would you like to skydive over Mount Everest?


2. What do you think of the tree skydivers in this story?
3. What do you think of skydiving as a hobby?
4. Why do you think skydivers like skydiving?
5. Would you like to be in freefall for 30 seconds?
6. What kind of training would the skydivers need to do this?
7. Would you like to fly like a bird?

B
You work for a newspaper writing about extreme sports. You want to know how
extreme your friend is. Interview your friend you can use the following questions.
1. When was the last time you were over the moon about something?

70
2. What would you do if you were on top of the world?
3. What is the most stunning or spectacular thing you‘ve ever seen?
4. Would you rather dive in the sky or sea?
5. Have you ever done any daredevil things in your life? Are you a thrill seeker?
6. Would you like to get into extreme sports?
7. What three adjectives describe skydiving or skydivers?

Project

8. Search the Internet and find out more about the record-breaking jump above Everest.
Share what you discover with your partner(s) in the next lesson.

71
Lesson 5. Football is a global passion

Warm-up

1. Football - do you love it or hate it? Why?

I can‟t stand it because my boyfriend watches it every day.


I love it very much…
2. Have a class vote. How many famous footballers can you name? What teams do they
play for?

Reading and speaking

3. Whether you love it or hate it, football is difficult to ignore. Read some statistics. Do
any of them surprise you?

Over the last hundred years the game of football has totally changed the worlds of sport,
media and leisure. Football is played worldwide by more than 1.5 m teams and 300,000 clubs.
An amazing eight out of ten people in the world watch the World Cup.
It is, as the great Brazilian footballer Pele described it, ‗the beautiful game‘.

4. What do you know about football around the world – Europe, South America, North
America, Asia, The Middle East, Africa? Discuss your ideas with the partner.

5. Read Football around the world and compare your ideas. Are you familiar with all the
facts?

Europe is home to the world‘s richest professional clubs: Manchester United, AC Milan, Real
Madrid, Bayern Munich. These clubs are famous in many countries far away from their home
grounds. Rickshaw pullers in Mumbai, tuk tuk drivers in Bangkok, on discovering they have
an English passenger respond with Ah, English, Manchester United. You know Manchester
United?‘
South America has produced some of the most exciting soccer on earth. Many of the world‘s
leading players have come from poverty to play on the world stage. They have been snapped
up by wealthy European teams after making their mark at home. Brazil has won the World
Cup five times, Uruguay three times, and Argentina twice.

72
North America is the only continent where football (or soccer as it is called there to
distinguish it from their homegrown game) has become more popular with females than
males. In 1991, the US won the first Women‘s World Cup. Interest amongst American men
has been growing since the World Cup in Los Angeles in 1994, and more recently since the
arrival of international stars such as David Beckham.
Asia: Over the past two decades heated rivalry among Japan, China, and South Korea has
increased the passion for soccer across the continent, especially after Japan and Korea co-
hosted the World Cup in 2002. However, not all Asian countries share the passion: India and
Pakistan prefer cricket.
The Middle East: Countries such as Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Qatar have lately been
investing huge sums of money in football. They have hired the best players and coaches that
money can buy.
Australia: Sport in Australia has long been dominated by cricket, rugby and surfing.
However, since they qualified for the 2006 World Cup, Australians have become much more
interested in the game.
Africa has produced a number of soccer superstars, but many of them have been lost to the
rich European Africa is poor in resources but rich in talent, with thousands of gifted young
players dreaming of big time football. South Africa‘s hosting of the 2010 World Cup
important for African football.
A global passion
The game of football is played in every nation on earth, not only by the 120 m regular team
players, but also by countless others on beaches, in playgrounds and streets. The world‘s love
of football is simple - it‘s because football is simple. All that is needed is a ball, a piece of
ground, and two posts. The world‘s greatest players, George Best, Diego Maradona, and Pele,
all learned their skills on waste grounds. These are the places where the sport is born and why
football has become a global passion.

6. Complete the sentences with the name of the continent.

a. ________ has become more enthusiastic about football


since the 2006 World Cup.
b. _________has the wealthiest football clubs in the world.
c. Not all countries in ________ have a passion for football.
d. _________and often lose their most talented players to rich European clubs.
e. In __________ football has become more popular with girls than boys.

7. Answer the following questions

1. Which continent has produced some of the most exciting soccer on earth?
2. How many times has Brazil won?
3. Where has football become more popular with females than males?
4. How and where has the World Cup increased interest in football?

8. Look at the words in bold in the text. What do these sentences express? Do you know
what tense is it and can you guess how we make this tense?

The Present Perfect looks back from the present into the past. The Present Perfect refers to an
action that happened at an indefinite time in the past.

Look at some more examples of the Present Perfect tense

73
They‟ve travelled a lot in Africa.
He has lived all over the world.
I have never been to Australia.
How long have you worked as a teacher?

See Grammar Reference p. 156

9. Now let’s check how good your memory is. Try to remember as many facts about
football on these continents. Work with two other friends and exchange everything you
can remember.

Speaking

10. What do you think?

• Football ‗has totally changed the worlds of sport, media, and leisure‘ What does this mean?
• Does football unite or divide the world? How?
• Why are some clubs so famous worldwide? Which players are superstars today?
• Do you agree with the conclusion about why football has become a global passion?

Writing

See Writing Bank p.142

74
Lesson 6. Sports and money

Warm up

1. a) Match these sportsmen and sportswomen to their sports:

t. Michael Schumacher a. athletics


2. Tiger Woods b. tennis
3. David Beckham c. Formula One
4. Venus Williams d. football
5. Marion Jones e. golf

b) All of these professionals are multi-millionaires as a result of salaries, prize money,


sponsorship and endorsements.

• Who do you think is paid the most? Why? Who is paid the least? Why?
• Are they paid too much, in your opinion?
• How much do the top sportsmen and women get paid in your country?
• Who is one of the highest paid? Do you think (s)he deserves that salary?

c) Discuss the following questions with you friend. You can use the expressions below to
help you
professional sport, to get a decent seat, total cost, parking, tickets, refreshments, souvenirs, it
is worth watching/going

2. Do you go to live sport events? What is the most expensive sports event you have been
to? How much did you pay? What did you pay for? Was it worth it?

Reading and speaking

3. Read this father’s view and decide which sport he is talking about. Can his criticism
be applied to sports in general?

I think/believe the father is talking about…

IMMORAL EARNINGS?

What in the world is happening to


professional sport? When I was a kid, it
cost $5 to get a decent seat at the
stadium, and my dad would buy me a
hot dog and himself a beer which would
bring the total cost to about $10.
Last Saturday I took my little boy to see
the Giants play. After the parking,
tickets, refreshments and souvenirs, I
walked out of there with $75 less in my

75
pocket. Just ask me how soon I'll be going back!
But it got me thinking: why am I paying so much to watch a group of men throw a ball
around? And then I realised: I was paying Billy Slater's salary: $350,000 a year. And Matt
Jerrold's salary: $500,000 a year. Oh, and how could I forget Sal Ibarra's new contract - $3
million over the next three years.
Where is the perspective here? What are our priorities as a society? There are 35,000
homeless in this city who don't have a roof over their heads, clothes to keep them warm or
food to fill their stomachs. And we are paying these men 6- and 7-figure salaries to keep
ourselves entertained! Something's gone wrong.

4. Look back at the article and have a talk with a partner:

1. What things did the man have to pay for at the baseball game?
2. Why does he say ―Just ask me how soon I‘ll be going back‖?
3. What does he mean when he says that he‘s paying the players‘ salaries? Do you agree?
4. Why does he start talking about homeless people?

5. Do you basically agree with the man or does he have an old-fashioned, nostalgic view
of sport?

Disagreeing Agreeing

I don‟t agree with the man… I (quite) agree with the man
I don‟t believe it I believe it‟s true
Nothing of the kind He is quite right
It‟s hard to say It‟s so true

Reading

6. Read this text and underline all the expressions with 'worth':

A UK FOOTBALL MATCH

Going to see my football team is not cheap - the cheapest seat is £20 - but I think it's
worth it. Usually you get your money's worth - especially with our new centre forward,
Rivaldo. Apparently, he's on f,4 million a year, but he's such a brilliant player, I think
he's worth every penny.
Recently, I took my whole family to see a game. There are some guys who sell tickets
illegally outside the stadium - they're called ticket touts - and you can get into trouble if you
buy from them. Normally, I would have said that it's more trouble than it's worth but
since I'd brought my whole family, which was going to be very expensive, I thought it
was worth a try. So, I went up to one of these guys and negotiated four fantastic seats for
£80 - quite a bargain for such an important game and such great seats. They were
actually worth around £120. When we tried to get into the stadium, we were told that our
tickets were forgeries! £80 down the drain! You can imagine how we felt! So, we went
back home to watch the game on TV. My advice is never buy from a ticket tout. It's not
worth the risk.

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7. Now complete the expressions with one word:

1. I_________ it‘s worth it.


2. You get your ______ worth.
3. He‘s worth every _________
4. It‘s more ______ than it‘s worth.
5. 1 thought it was worth a ________
6. They were actually worth ______ £120.
7. It‘s not worth the ___________

Speaking

8. The average professional footballer in the Premier League in England earns


£400,000 a year - around £7,600 a week. He trains, on average, for three hours a day
and plays one or two games a week for 10 months of the year. This means he earns
around £520 per hour. So, after one training session, he is £1500 richer. For the very
top players, multiply all these figures by 6 or 7. People argue that the following
reasons justify the salaries. Which do you think are good reasons?

l. It's rather short career - 18 years maximum - then you're finished as far as playing is
concerned.
2. Top players can‘t go out partying and eating and drinking whatever they want. They have
to look after themselves and be highly disciplined. They have a severely restricted social life
for maybe 20 years.
3. Your career could end at any time through injury.
4. It requires a very high level of skill, which only a very few people possess. They should
be rewarded for that.
5. Julia Roberts gets $4 million to make a film, so why shouldn't top footballers get
similar pay? They are just like film stars.
6. Top. Players are high profile superstars who can't leave home without the media
following them. The money they get is compensation for having no private life.

2. Express your opinion on the following issues

1. The men‘s Wimbledon tennis champion wins €477,500. The women‘s champion gets
f430,000. What is the reason for this? Women nearly always get less than men in sport.
Why is this?
2. Some people think that money has ruined sport. People used to play for the glory
of winning. Now they are open to bribery and corruption. What would you do about it?

77
Module 4. The best time of your life

Lesson 1. University connections

Warm Up

1. Discuss the following with your group mates:

a) How many good friends do you have?


b) Do you have the best friend? Why is he/she your best friend?
c) Do you have any friends at university?

Vocabulary

2. Here is a group of freshers of Louisiana State University. Describe them using the
vocabulary given below.

a. What does he/she look like?

He/She is (not very) tall short handsome beautiful/pretty skinny


slim overweight fat
He/She has blue/grey/brown/ green eyes short/long/blond/dark hair
He/She is wearing a suit a dress jeans trousers a jumper a T-shirt
a shirt sportswear glasses hat a scarf shorts a coat
boots shoes a tie

b. What is he/she like?

He/She is confident shy funny outgoing (un)friendly ambitious


charismatic creative talkative reliable sympathetic
affectionate bad-tempered hard-working polite tidy lazy
cheerful selfish generous kind

c. What does he/she like doing?

He/She likes studying reading books having fun communicating


dancing going to parties

78
Sasha Margaret
Jamie

Marianne

Ginger
Thomas

3. a) Work in pairs. Ask and answer questions about your best friend.

What does your best friend look like?


He is tall, slim and very handsome, he has got brown eyes and dark hair.
What is he like?
He is confident and outgoing.

b) Are your friends similar or different? Tell the class about your partner’s best friend.

4. Choose the right word from the box. Do you know all of the words?

1. I like giving people money and presents. I am… .


2. It‘s difficult for me to talk to new people. I am… .
3. He doesn‘t like working, and he watches TV all day. He is… .
4. I like doing things to help other people. I am… .
5. She makes people laugh a lot. She is… .
6. I usually think about myself, not other people. I am… .
7. He is friendly and he likes meeting new people. He is… .
8. When I promise to do something, I always do it. I am… .

79
Reading

5. a) Carol and Marianne are best friends.


They both come from the USA, but they
are taking short-term courses at
university in different countries. Read
Marianne`s letter to Carol and answer the
questions.

What is she doing in Brazil?


Who is she living with now?
What kind of apartment is she staying in?
What are the members of the host family
doing now?
Why isn`t she going to the beach today?

Hi, Carol!
Thanks for your email about your life in France!
Everything's fine here. I arrived in Rio de Janeiro a month ago
to start my course of Portuguese and now I`m staying with my
host family. So now I`m living in a big apartment near the
beach in Ipanema.
The family is very nice. Mr. and Mrs. Silva are middle-aged and
very friendly. They usually work in the afternoon, but now they
are having holidays in Argentina. They've got three children.
Tina's my age, she's got dark hair and she's pretty. She's tall, like
me. She studies at the same university, but today she isn`t having
any classes there. She`s going to the beach with her friend. João
is the middle one; he's fifteen. He's quite short and he's very
tanned from playing football in the sun! He belongs to a famous
local team and now he is training hard for competitions. Carlos
is the young one. He's lovely, and he laughs all the time. Now he
is having fun in Argentina with his parents.
Every morning I go to college. The classes are really interesting,
especially the literature ones. I usually go to the beach in the
afternoon, but today I`m staying home to read up for the exams.
I`m taking the first one in two days! Wish me good luck!
Write to me soon and tell me all your news.
Love, Marianne

b) Match the people with the adjectives.


1 Mr. and Mrs. Silva a tanned, short
2 Tina b friendly, middle-aged
3 João c tall, shy
4 Carlos d dark, pretty
6 Marianne f young, not very slim

80
Grammar

7. a) Carol is living in Paris now. Here are the members of her host family. How do
they look like? What are they doing now? What do they like doing?

See Grammar Reference p. 157

Catherine

Gilles

Pierre

Marie

b) Work with your partner. Write a letter to Marianne on behalf of Carol. Tell about
- where she is living now,
- her host family,
- what she is doing now.

8. Put the verbs into the right form. Use the Present Continuous.

1. The boys (to run) about in the garden.


2. I (to do) my homework.
3. John and his friends (to go) to the library.
4. Ann (to sit) at her desk. She (to study) English.
5. A young man (to stand) at the window. He (to smoke) a cigarette.
6. The old man (to walk) about the room.
7. The dog (to lie) on the floor.
8. You (to have) a break?
9. What language you (to study)?
10. Who (to lie) on the sofa?
11. What they (to talk) about?
12. It still (to rain).

81
Speaking

9. Work as a class. Take turns. Choose someone in the room but don’t say who it is.
Describe the person. The others guess who it is.

He/She is sitting near the window/door.


He/She is wearing…
He/She has got short/long/blond/dark hair.
He/She has got blue/grey/brown/ green eyes.

Writing

See Writing Bank p. 144

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Lesson 2. A Sleepless Night

Warm up

1. A British presenter is making a TV program about Russian students. He is at your


university. Answer his questions using the words and phrases above.

1. What year are you in at the university?


2. What department are you in?
3. At what age do young people usually enter
university in Russia?
4. How old were you when you entered the
university?
5. How often do you attend classes?
6. How often do you miss lectures?
7. What are your favourite subjects?
8. Do you always make notes of the lectures?
9. Are you afraid of exams?
10. Do you do anything special before them?
11. How long does it usually take you to prepare for an exam?

Vocabulary

2. a) Do you know anything about the examinations in the USA?


Read the text, complete it with the words from the box.

tests final examination professor term exams classes notes


"take home" exam objective types "quizzes"

Examinations
Nearly every class has a (1) ___________ at the end of the (2)___________. Most
(3)_____________ also have "mid-term" examinations and (4) _____________ (short tests).
The examinations and (5)______________ demonstrate how students are doing the
work.They also are a measure, for both student and (6)__________ , of how much and how
well the student is learning. Almost all examinations are "closed book" (7)____________-
students are not allowed to look at their books or their (8)____________ during the test.
Occasionally, a professor gives you a "take home" exam. You do it at home usually within a
few days. There are two main (11) __________ of examinations, (12) _____________
examinations and subjective examinations.

b) What are the main types of examinations in the USA? What types of exams do you
have in your department?

c) How did you take your Unified State Exams? Was it easy or difficult? What was the
most difficult subject or a part of an exam for you?

I took … exams. They were…


It was…((not)difficult/(not)easy, etc.)
The most difficult subject (part) was…

83
Listening

3. TS 4.1 Listen to the news about the changes in the education system of Taiwan twice.
Fill in the missing information.

Taiwan Changes Entrance Exams to Promote Innovation

Taiwan‘s annual university admissions __________ are taking place this week. Tens of
thousands of students are trying to give the right answers to math and language questions.
High scores permit ___________to enter the top schools. However, these tests will not be in
place for much longer. The current examinations require that students memorize facts in high
school classes. They do not best ______________ or creative problem solving abilities.
Officials in Taiwan plan to change the admissions test to also measure ____________ and the
ability to innovate. Taiwanese officials see the progress China and South Korea are making in
the information technology field. By comparison, Taiwan is losing technology ___________.
There is concern that younger people are afraid of the risk of starting a _________ or
inventing something. The Ministry of Education wants to encourage young Taiwanese to
innovate. So, it will begin a new selection _________ for university students. They hope the
best schools will start to accept people with new business ideas. The new admissions policy
will take effect in _________. It will include personal interviews with interested students. The
Ministry wants high school graduates to show they excelled outside of class.
4. Did you understand everything? Match the words with their meanings.

1. Annual a) to help (something) happen, develop, or increase


2. Innovate b) to be better than others
3. Encourage c) the act of choosing something or someone from a group
4. Selection d) make (something) more appealing or more likely to happen
5. Excel e) to do something in a new way; to have new ideas about how
something can be done
6. Promote f) happening once a year

Grammar

5. Complete the sentences with the following verbs in the Present Continuous:

get happen look lose make start stay try work

1. 'You __________ hard today."Yes, I have a lot to do.'


2. I_____________ for Christine. Do you know where she is?
3. It______________ dark. Shall I turn on the light?
4. They don't have anywhere to live at the moment. They_____________ with friends until
they find somewhere.
5. Things are not so good at work. The company________________ money.
6. Have you got an umbrella? It______________ to rain.
7. You_______________ a lot of noise. Can you be quieter? I_______________ to
concentrate.
8. Why are all these people here? What _____________?

84
6. Put the verb into the correct form. Sometimes you need the negative (I'm not doing).

1. Please don't make so much noise. I am trying (try) to work.


2. Let's go out now. It isn‟t raining(rain) any more.
3. You can turn off the radio. I____________ (listen) to it.
4. Kate phoned me last night. She's on holiday in France. She_____________(have) a great
time and doesn't want to come back.
5. I want to lose weight, so this week I____________ (eat) lunch.
6. Andrew started evening classes last week. He__________(learn) German.
7. Paul and Sally have had an argument. They_____________ (speak) to each other.
8. I____________ (get) tired. I need a rest.
9. Tim_______________ (work) this week. He's on holiday.

Speaking

7. Your friend is preparing for an exam. Phone to ask him/her questions about his/her
work. Make up a dialogue.

What are you doing/reading/writing…?


What exam are you preparing (getting ready)
for?
Are you afraid of the exam?
Did you attend all the lectures/classes?
Did you miss any lectures/classes?
What does the exam consist of?
I‟m trying to…
I‟m (not) afraid…
(Un)fortunately, I attended/didn‟t
attend/missed/didn‟t miss…
It consists of…parts. They are

85
Lesson 3. Somewhere to live
Warm up

1. Discuss the following with your group


mates:

a) Do you live with your parents or in a


dormitory?
b) Do you know anybody who lives in a
university dormitory?
c) What does he/she think about it? Is he/she
satisfied with the conditions?

Listening and vocabulary

2. Study the meanings of the following words

a dormitory (a dorm) - a college or university building where students can live


to house – to give somebody a home
a suite – a place which consists of several rooms where you can live
a campus – the territory of university buildings
single-sex – only for males or females
housing – a place where people can live
a hallway – a corridor
fraternities and sororities – students organizations

3. TS 4.2 a) Listen to the text about the USA university dormitories and fill in the gaps
with the following sentences.

A. Dorms can cost less than off-campus housing.


B. But single-sex housing is usually also available.
C. A suite has several bedrooms, a common area and a bathroom.
Dormitory buildings might house a small
number of students or many hundreds. Some
dorms have suites. (1) Other dorms have rooms
along a common hallway. Two, three or four
students might share a room.
Males and females often live on different
floors of the same building. Or they might live
on the same floor, or in some cases even share a
suite if permitted. (2)
Different groups and organizations such
as fraternities and sororities might have their own houses where their members live. And there
is often housing for married students.
Some dorms are nice, others are not so nice. But many students say they like the chance
to make friends and be near their classes. Cost is another consideration. (3) But school-owned
housing can also cost more, though the price may include meals.

86
b) Ask your friend questions. Check if he understands everything right.
1) Do dormitory buildings house a big number of students?
2) What are there in a suite?
3) Do boys and girls live in different buildings?
4) Who can get a separate suite?

Reading

5. a) Are there any disadvantages in living in dorms? Read the dialogue and try to make
a list of them.

Pete: I just can't concentrate here in the suite. You see, Arthur, I've got three essays to do ...
three essays! I mean ... how can I concentrate when everyone is talking ... playing records ...
playing the guitar? I just can't get pen to paper.
Arthur: Well Pete ... you can work in the university library.
Pete: I can ... yes ... that's perfectly true. But ... you know ... I not only need to sit down and
write ... I ... I ... need to think. And to think I need to be able to wander around ... be on my
own....Living here with — how many others? — six ... well I can‘t do that, you see. You're
OK ... you live in ...
Arthur:Well… Pete, ask them to be silent…
Pete: I can't just tell the others to shut up. They have a right.
Arthur: You know... Look for a small flat of your own. It costs a lot more than the ... the part
of rent you are paying at the moment.
Pete:Okay… Can you help me?
Arthur: Let's look at the paper. At the ads.

b) Are these sentences true or false? Correct the false ones:


1. Pete and Arthur are students.
2. Pete's problem is lack of free time.
3. Arthur advises his friend to borrow books in the university library.
4. Pete doesn't like to study in the library.
5. Pete has six roommates.
6. Arthur lives in a flat.
7. Arthur advices his friend to rent a small flat of his own.
8. Pete refuses to rent a flat because it will cost a lot.
9. The friends begin to looking at the ads in the newspaper.

Speaking

5. Think of some actions you can do at the dormitory and mime them to other students.
Can they guess what you are doing?

Project

6.Check these sites and make a presentation to advertise the best accommodations for
students either in Cambridge or Manchester.

1) http://www.accommodation.cam.ac.uk/VisitingCambridge/Listings.aspx
2)http://www.accommodation.manchester.ac.uk/search/?field_1=&field_2=&field_4=&field
_5=&field_6=

87
sson4. Join! Participate! Contribute!
Lesson 4. Join! Participate! Contribute!

Warm up

1. Look at the pictures. What can you see? How many people are there? What are the
students doing? Where are they? What are they feeling?

I can see a group of students. There are nine of them. The students are playing football.
They are in the football field. They look nervous. There are two teams. There are two girls
with the ball in the foreground…

Reading and Vocabulary

2. a) Do you think that studying is the main thing in students’ life? What else can
students do?

I think/suppose/believe studying is not the only thing…

Students can also participate in…

b) Read the information about the students’ life at Louisiana State University in the
USA and say what they can do there besides learning.

Attending class is just a part of students‘ life. College is the time for you to meet new
people, to explore your interests and, yes, to have fun. At Louisiana State University you have
endless opportunities to do what interests you. There's a lot happening on our campus -
events, excursions, meetings, performances, special programs, films - just about every day.

88
So…how do you want to get involved? Sharing your dramatic, singing or comedic
skills at one of our "open mic" nights? Serving as a student representative on one of LSU‘s
committees to obtain managerial skills? Playing on one of our athletic teams to keep fit and
get a lot of fun at the same time? Displaying your art in our gallery? Acting in a "Shakespeare
and Company" production in the theatre? There is never a shortage of things to do here at
LSU.
What do YOU want to do? Be an editor of the student newspaper to improve your
writing skills? Perform with the college choir, chorale, orchestra or jazz ensemble which will
surely help you develop team work skills? Or perhaps go on a bus excursion to the
Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City with the LSU Art Club to widen your
outlook?
We believe that all of these activities are an integral part of your total educational
experience at Louisiana State University. When transferring to a four-year college, the
activities in which you take part are almost as important as your grades. The key to a
successful university career is to get involved and to take advantage of all that LSU offers.
LSU has many diverse student clubs on campus. These include co-curricular clubs,
honor societies, special interest clubs, religious organizations, recreational clubs, service
organizations, and governance and planning organizations.
In the area of performing arts, you can become involved in musical theatre, drama
productions and our acclaimed LSU Dance Theatre troupe.
By getting actively involved in LSU's vibrant campus life program, you can make your
collegiate experience into anything you want it to be.
So, you haven‘t joined us? What are you waiting for?

c) Which of these sentences are true? Correct the false ones.

1. College is the time for you to study hard and not pay attention to fun.
2. There is never a shortage of things to do here at LSU.
3. Students can join the college choir, chorale, orchestra and jazz ensemble at the university.
4. The activities in which you take part are not as important as your grades.
5. The key to a successful college career is to attend as more lectures as you can and make
notes of all of them.

6. a) Find the English equivalents for the following words and word combinations in the
text above.

1. совмещающийся с учебной
деятельностью
2. университетский, студенческий
3. студенческий кружок
4. воспользоваться; извлечь выгоду
5. оценки
6. играть (на сцене); действовать
7. навыки
8. увлекаться
9. веселиться
10. представление
11. занятие

89
b) Fill in the gaps with the words given above.
1. – What did you do yesterday? – We went to Martin and just_____________.
2. Don‘t waste time and ______________ your studying at university.
3. Did he _________ in the performance yesterday?
4. What ________________do you want to join?
5. Swimming is my favourite summer ___________.
6. He ________________ in this dance troupe last year.

7. What students’ organizations and clubs at Louisiana State University are interesting
for you and why?
I am interested in acting in “Shakespeare and Company” because I can share my
dramatic skills.
I want to get involved in editing the university newspaper, because…

Watching a Video

12. You want to study abroad. You have found a video about the campus life at
Louisiana State University. Watch the video and say which sentences are true. Correct
the false ones.

1. There are not many organizations you can choose from.


2. There is a club for Harry Potter fans.
3. The students of LSU have built a stadium out of wood.
4. Leading Edge is a program for third year students.
5. Hundreds of first year students go out to serve the Baton
Rouge community.
6. Campus Life is Involvement, Help and Studying.

Speaking

13. Role-play. Work in groups of three. There are at least two groups of enthusiastic
students and one group of university authorities.

Role A (university authorities)


You are the head of the university. A group of enthusiastic students want to start a new
organization at the university. You have some spare budget money to spend on students‘
social life. But you are not sure if this project is worth a penny. Make up some questions to
the students about activities the organization will offer and skills it will develop and how this
organization will be different from the existing students‘ clubs. Listen to the students, ask the
questions and make a decision whether to spend the money on this students‘ project or keep
it.
Role B (enthusiastic students)
You are one of the students who think that existing students‘ clubs are boring and old-
fashioned. You have a great idea how to start a new organization at the university. Develop
this project with some other students and present it to the head of the university. Tell him/her
about activities the organization will offer and skills it will develop and how this organization
will be different from the existing students‘ clubs. You have to persuade the head of the
niversity to snd the money on your project.

90
Lesson 5. It’s
Lesson 5. It’s time time to relax!
to relax!

Warm up

1. Find out the following information about your partner:

a) How do you like to spend your weekends and holidays?


b) Do you like going to parties? Why?
c) Do you like night clubs? Why? How often do you go there?

Watching a Video and Vocabulary

2. a) Students’ life seems to be alike all


over the world. But not all students like
having fun more than studying. Let’s
watch the interview of two Chinese girls
who don’t like parties. Name the main
reason for it.

b) Here are some words and word


combinations from the interview. Match
a word with its definition. Translate
them into Russian.
1. a freshman year a) to cope with something
2. a sophomore year b) a person who likes to attend parties
3. a benefit c) people who live in a certain area
4. to loosen up oneself d) to go somewhere to relax and have
fun
5. kind of e) friendly
6. average f) say no to somebody/something
7. to see the point g) nervous in a company of people
8. turn down h) to act toward somebody
9. shy i) the 2nd year
10. to treat somebody j) to understand why you do something
11. sociable k) normal
12. outgoing l) to some extent
13. to go out m) to relax
14. a party-goer n) the 1st year
15. to handle o) communicative
16. locals p) a plus; an advantage

c) Translate the sentences into Russian.

1. At first Mary seemed to be a little shy, but then I understood that she was an outgoing and
sociable person.
2. She turned down my marriage proposal.
3. – Stop learning all the time! Let‘s go out! – Oh, I see you are a real party-goer!
4. The house was kind of lonely, when she left.
91
5. I don‘t see the point of your messages to him.
6. Please, don‘t treat me as a child!

Listening and Reading

5. a) A holiday is one more reason to relax and loosen up yourself, isn’t it? Are there any
special holidays for students? What are they? Do you celebrate them?

b) Read the text about the history of the International Students’ Day and put the correct
words given below the text.
International Students' Day is on November
the 17th every year. It has a (1) ____
beginning, at the start of WWII. Nazis
attacked the University of Prague in what was
(2) ____ Czechoslovakia. On November 17,
1939, nine students were executed and 1,200
sent (3) ____ concentration camps. The 17th
of November was first marked as International
Students' Day in London in 1941. The
International Students' Council (ISC) started it
and for (4) ____ years, asked the United
Nations to accept it (5) ____. The ISC developed into the International Union of Students
(IUS) and continued to remember what happened in Prague. It continues to fight against
discrimination. It also places education at the (6) ____ of the fight for democracy and human
rights. Students are among the (7) ____ important members of our society. They are the future
of the world. It is time many governments accepted this and took students and their education
more (8) ____. It seems as though few governments truly recognize the importance of a good
education for every child. Even in the USA, the ―No Child Left Behind‖ act has left children
(9) ____. In Britain, the government‘s promise of ―Education. Education. Education‖ has
been spent (10) ____ weapons. Students all over the world are desperate to go to any kind of
school. The news is (11) ____ of stories of kids in developing countries wanting an education.
This is sad, because many students in developed nations (12) ____ their time at school.

1. (a) tragedy (b) tragically (c) tragic (d) tragedies


2. (a) Then (b) when (c) there (d) near
3. (a) On (b) up (c) At (d) to
4. (a) much (b) many (c) more (d) most
5. (a) global (b) planet (c) worldwide (d) Earth
6. (a) mid (b) centre (c) focus (d) middling
7. (a) most (b) mast (c) must (d) mist
8. (a) serious (b) seriousness (c) seriously (d) series
9. (a) front (b) ahead (c) there (d) behind
10. (a) On (b) in (c) At (d) of
11. (a) Fill (b) full (c) filling (d) filled
12. (a) wasteful (b) waster (c) wasting (d) waste

c) TS 4.3 Now listen and check your ideas.

92
d) Answer the following questions:

1. When is the International Students‘ Day celebrated?


2. When did its history begin?
3. Where was the 17th of November first marked as International Students' Day?
4. What did the International Students' Council (ISC) develop into?

Jazz chants

6. a) TS 4.4 TS 4.5 TS 4.6 Listen to the jazz chants and repeat them with the singer.

1. Are You Coming with Us? 2. What's She Doing?


Are you coming with us? What's she doing?
I'm going with Gus. She's writing a book.
What about Lee? What's he doing?
He's coming with me. He's learning to cook.
What about Tim? What are you doing?
Who's going with him? I'm learning to drive.
Bob and Jim are going with him. What are they doing?
What about Mary? They're learning to dive.
Who's going with her? What's Dan doing?
I'm not sure who is going with her. He's writing a letter.
How about Lou? What's Fran doing?
He's going with you. She's knitting a sweater.
What about Bill?
He's going with Phil.
How about the Browns?
Who's going with them?
I think Clem is going with them.
3. Can You Come Over?
Can you come over for dinner tonight?
I'd like that very much.
Can you come over for dinner tonight?
I'd like that very much.
What time should I come? What time should I come?
Come around six if you can. Fine.
Come around six if you can. Fine.
Can you come over? Can you come over? Can you come over for a drink tonight?
I'd love to.
I'd love to. Can you come over for a drink tonight?
I'd love to.
Can you come over for lunch tomorrow?
I wish I could but I'm afraid I can't.
Oh, I'm sorry. That's too bad.
I really wish I could.

b) You`re arranging a party. Make a telephone call to ask your friend what he/she is
doing tonight and invite him to your party. Use the Jazz Chants to help you.

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Lesson 6. Studying abroad

Warm up

1. a) Discuss the following:

a) Have you seen any foreign students in your university?


b) What nationalities are most of them?
c) Are there any foreign students in your group?

Vocabulary

2. a) Name the countries which flags are given below. Do you know their capitals?

a b c d e

f g h i j

b) What countries are there students at your university from? What are their
nationalities? Complete the chart.

Country Nationality
Italian
Spain
Mexican
Japan
Egypt
Hungary
Russian
Switzerland
French
Chinese

Reading and listening

3. a) Au Pair is the French term which means “on equal terms” and describes the
concept of the Au Pair program. Both Au Pair and Host Family should agree and
support each other during the Au Pair stay. Try to answer these questions:
1. What opportunities does this program give?
2. What does the host family provide you with?
3. Do you receive any pocket money?
4. How much can you spend on your education there?

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b) Read and check your ideas.

Being an Au Pair

This is your opportunity to have the adventure of a lifetime, make new friends from
around the world, live with an American family, care for children, study something new,
improve your English skills and explore the USA!
Live: for a minimum of 12 months as an equal
member of your carefully selected host family in
one of 37 states across the US. Your host family will
provide your own room, all meals and access to
transport for your weekly classes. Remember, you
choose your own host family!
Childcare: Provide 45 hours of childcare per
week (no more than 10 hours per day). In return you
will receive weekly pocket money.
Travel: during your 2 weeks paid vacation,
weekends off or your additional travel month after completion of your stay. The US has so
much to explore – either on your own, with friends or on one of our organized tours!
Study: at a local college or university or through online courses with the University of
California, Los Angeles. You will receive up to US$500 per year towards the course of your
choice. What a great way to experience American College life and improve your resume!
Living with an American host family as an Au Pair in America not only introduces you
to American culture - you will get to know so many other cultures through the friends you
make during your stay. You will be one of over 4000 au pairs from more than 60 countries
who travel to America each year with Au Pair in America - a real cultural exchange
experience.

4. TS 4.7 Listen to the conversation between Tania, an au pair, and Mr. Palin, someone
looking for an au pair. Answer the following questions.

a) What day of the week is Tania going to see the Palin family?
b) What time is Tania going to see the Palin family?
c) What ages are the Palins' children?
d) What time do the kids need to be at school?
e) What time do the kids need to be collected from school?
f) Until what time does Tania need to look after the kids?
g) How many nights does Tania have to babysit?
h) Would Tania have her own room? Will it be big?
i) What is the Palin's address?
j) What is the nearest station to the Palins?

Reading

5 a) Read the following experiences of people who studied or worked abroad. Did they
enjoy it? Why? What are the benefits of short term studying or working abroad?

b) Have you ever heard about the student exchange programs mentioned in the texts?
Find the information about them and share with the class.

95
1. ―Hello! My name is Ariel and I`m originally from the USA,
but now I`m completing my bachelor`s course in the
Netherlands with the Erasmus program of the EU. Getting the
opportunity to interact with people from all over the world and
getting to understand the different cultures is a great experience.
I‘ve surrounded myself with people from all different
backgrounds and have already made some great friends. I‘m
looking forward to the rest of my time abroad and will conclude
by saying that I believe that it is crucial for every student to
study abroad at some point during their education, as it will
make you a better-rounded person and will also open so many
doors for your future.‖

2. ―Hello, I am Francis and I worked for three months in Cape


Town, the Republic of South Africa, with Work and Travel
program. After this I started to travel for one month. I have
been to Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe. I know this is my
best decision ever made; I learned a lot, met a lot of friendly
people and had a great time! If you have an opportunity to
study or work abroad I would highly recommend it. I learned a
lot, especially about different cultures, ways of living and of
course about myself. I have a great experience in my pocket
and a positive adding to my Curriculum Vitae. So if you have
the opportunity, get out of your comfort zone and step into
your next adventure!‖

3. ―My name is Inga and I am from Germany. During my


undergraduate program, I participated in CCUSA program in
Wisconsin, USA. These 4 months have been one of the best
times of my life. Staying in a foreign country for a longer
period of time does not only improve your language skills, but it
also provides you with the possibility to understand and
experience a new culture. During my stay in Wisconsin I
especially liked the friendliness of the people and that they
directly involved the foreign students in all the local activities.
Getting to know the American way of life is a very exciting
experience that will always accompany you and to some extend
become part of you.‖

Project

6. Check these sites and study the information


about different students’ grants and
organizations. Give an overview of some of them
to your group mates. Which of them do you find
interesting and useful for you studies and why?
1) http://www.ssrc.org/
2) http://foreign.fulbrightonline.org/
3) http://www.internationalscholarships.com/

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Module 5. Alma Mater

Lesson 1. Academic year

Warm up

1. Answer the questions:

1) What do you know about the British system of higher education?


2) What do you know about the American system of higher education?
3) Can you name the most famous British and American universities?

Vocabulary

2. a) Find the Russian equivalents for these words and word combinations. Use a
dictionary and the Internet to help?

1) a degree/ to receive a degree 2) student loans


3) to apply to 4) compulsory courses
5) to enter a university 6) optional courses (electives)
7) entrance exams 8) a department
9) to pass exams/ to fail (in) the 10) research staff
exams
11) finals 12) a lecturer
13) to cram for the exam 14) to attend
15) to skip classes 16) undergraduate
17) to resit 18) a first-year student (a fresher)
19) a grade 20) a graduate
21) Bachelor of Arts 22) to graduate
23) Bachelor of Science 24) a financial aid package
25) an associate‘s degree 26) a scholarship
27) a master‘s degree 28) curriculum
29) a doctorate 30) a major
31) tuition fees 32) a minor

b) Fill in the gaps with the words from exercise 2:


1) After leaving school pupils ____________several universities.
2) They ______ and become ________.
3) He is a bad student, he often _________ classes.
4) The students _________at the end of each ____ .
5) You should work hard _______ exams.
6) If they ___ their exams, they can ______them next year.
7) Most students have to get student ____ to pay their_______.
8) The academic year is divided into two ________.
9) Psychology –is her _________ at university.

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10) Students study a main subject throughout their degree course, which is usually a mix of
__________ and ____________.
11) Each university has its own ___________.
12) Optional courses, often called _____________.
13) Most university courses end with exams called _______.
14) The teachers of university are called _________.

Reading

3. a) British, American and Russian systems of higher education are so different. Let’s
compare them. Work in three groups.

Group A. Read about higher education in Britain.


Group B. Read about higher education in the USA.
Group C. Read about higher education in Russia.

HIGHER EDUCATION IN BRITAIN

In Britain, higher education refers to


degree courses at universities. British
students apply to several universities
through UCAS (Universities and Colleges
Admission Service) and receive offers of a
place on condition they receive certain
grades in their A levels.
So, the school-leavers pass entrance
exams. And finally, they turn from
applicants into first-year students (freshers).
Most university courses end with
exams called finals and results are given as
grades. The students cram for their exams at the end of each term to pass them. If
they fail their exams, they can resit them next year.
Graduates can add the letters BA (Bachelor of Arts) or BSc (Bachelor of Science)
after their name. Some graduates go on to study for a further degree, often a master‘s degree
(MA) or a doctorate (PhD). Most students have to get student loans to pay their tuition fees.
At most British universities the academic year starts in October and is divided into
three terms. Students study a main subject throughout their degree course, which is usually a
mix of compulsory courses and optional courses, often called electives. Most students go to
lectures and seminars (= discussion groups) and there are practical classes for those doing
science subjects. A professor is a person in charge of a department or a senior member of
staff, and other teaching and research staff are called lecturers.

HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE USA

In the US, people talk about ‗going to college‘ even if the institution they attend is a
university. Most colleges offer classes only for undergraduate students studying for a
bachelor‘s degree. Some colleges offer two-year courses leading to an associate‘s degree, and
afterwards students transfer to a different college or university to continue their studies.
It is not easy to enter a leading university in the United States.

98
Graduate study, conducted after getting
a bachelor‘s degree and sometimes after
several years of professional work, leads to a
master's degree.
After the completion of a master's
degree, students may earn a Doctor of
Philosophy (Ph.D.) or other doctoral degree.
They must do some years of postgraduate
study for that.
There are many private colleges and
universities but most students choose a
public institution because the costs are
lower. Students pay extra for room and board. Students whose families cannot afford the full
amount apply for financial aid receive a financial aid package which may be a combination of
grants from the government, a scholarship, a student loan and work-study (= a part-time job
at college).
The US academic year is divided into two terms. Each university has its own
curriculum. Attendance at classes at most Universities is compulsory. Students don‘t skip
classes. During one term a student must study 4 or 5 different courses. There are courses that
every student has to take in order to receive a degree. At the end of their second year students
choose a major (= main subject) and sometimes a minor (= additional subject or ‗electives‘)
which they study for the next two years.
Students take four or five courses each term from the course catalog which may
consist mainly of lectures or may include discussion sections or lab sessions. At the end of
each course they are given a grade which will be used to calculate a grade point average
(GPA) to check their overall progress.
Most people who teach at US colleges or universities and have a doctorate are
addressed as ‗professor‘. Full professors are senior to associate professors, assistant
professors and instructors.

RUSSIAN SYSTEM OF HIGHER EDUCATION

Graduates from secondary general schools


apply to a higher education institutions:
universities, academies or institutes. Since
2009 Russian secondary school graduates
are admitted to universities on the basis of
the results of the Unified State Exams.
Students must pass these exams during the
last year of secondary school.
Higher education in Russia is
provided by public (State) and non-public
(non-State) accredited institutions. In
public institutions students must pass
competitive exams to be admitted. Those few who achieve outstanding results are awarded
scholarships. Approximately 1/3rd of students pay tuition fees. In most non-public
establishments all students pay tuition fees without receiving any financial aid package.
The academic year usually lasts 9 months and is divided into two terms (semesters).
The first- and second-year students obtain thorough instructions in the fundamental sciences

99
of mathematics, physics, chemistry and drawing as well as computer engineering and a
number of others. The curricula are enriched and broadened by instructions in such subjects
as foreign languages, history and economics.
At the third year undergraduates get more advanced knowledge and begin to
concentrate on their special interests, so to say, their «majors». Specialized study and
compulsory courses help students to become specialists and prepare them for their future
work. Each term ends with one assessment week during which students pass course tests,
present assignment work, defend course projects.
Two or three week period is set aside each term for examinations and completion of
final assessments. Before each exam, students have to revise their notes. If they fail an exam,
they usually resit it another day.
After four years students will get a bachelor's degree.
Having obtained the Bachelor's degree, students may apply to enter the Master's
Degree program or continue their studies in the framework of the Specialist's Diploma
programs. The Bachelor's degree is awarded in all fields except Medicine after defending a
Diploma project prepared under the guidance of a supervisor and passing the final exams. In
Medicine, the first stage lasts for six years. After graduating from the university graduates
may go on with their study and research and may get a still higher degree. The highest degree
in Russia is Professor.

b) Have a conversation with your friends from other groups to compare higher
education in different countries.

4. Answer the following question

 Whom do we call a first-year student (a fresher)?


 Whom do we call graduates?
 What exams are called ―Finals‖?
 Why do students have to get loans?
 What is ―a financial aid package‖? Who is it for?
 How do students call their main and additional subjects in their curriculum?

5. In the text find all English equivalents for the following phrases:
1) учебный год
2) студент второкурсник
3) стипендия
4) лекции, семинары, практические занятия
5) лектор, преподаватель университета
6) итоговые экзамены
7) зубрить перед экзаменами
8) посещать занятия
9) курс обучения, учебный план
10) плата за обучение
11) сдать вступительные экзамены
12) профилирующая дисциплина (в колледже); дисциплина, выбранная в качестве
специализации
13) студент первокурсник
14) учебный план

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6. Give an alternative from the texts.

1) a university student who has not yet taken a first degree - ………
2) main subject - ……..
3) additional subject - …………
4) the subjects comprising a course of study at universities - ………..
5) make a formal application or request - ……………
6) be successful in an examination - ………..
7) university teacher, college teacher- …………………..
8) a person who has successfully completed a course of study or training, especially a
person who has been awarded a first academic degree- …….
9) an academic rank conferred by a college or university after examination or
after completion of a course- ……..
10) a period in the year, alternating with holidays or vacations, during which instruction is
given in a school, college, or university - ………
11) the period of the year during which students attend an educational institution, usually
from September to June- ……….
12) be unsuccessful in exams- ………..
13) study intensively over a short period of time just before an examination ……
14) grant, award, payment for university students……

Speaking

7. Have a conversation with your partner and discuss the following questions:
1) What does higher education in Great Britain refer to?
2) Where can you get higher education in the USA?
3) When do school-leavers become first year students in Russia?
4) When does the academic year in Britain start at most universities? What about our
country?
5) What subjects are called ―electives‖ ?
6) What degrees can students get at British, American, Russian universities?
7) Is the attendance at classes at most Universities in the USA compulsory? What about
universities in Russia?
8) Do the students usually skip their classes?
9) How do British and American students call their main subjects?
10) How many terms is academic year divided into in the countries mentioned above?
11) What classes do British, American, Russian students have?
12) When do they have exams?
13) What do they usually do to pass them successfully?
14) Do students have a chance to resit their exams if they fail them?

Project

8. Find some information about system of higher education in different countries and
share with the class.

101
Lesson 2. Learning can't be fun

Warm up

1. Answer the question:


a) Are you proud to be a student?
b) Is university life more about studying or having fun?

Vocabulary

2. a) Do you know these words? Match the words/words combinations with their
definitions:

1. undergraduate a. to act dishonestly or unfairly in order to gain an advantage;


2. a degree b. the action of assessing someone or something;
3. assessment c. when you successfully complete a course of study
or training;
4. a grade/a mark d. to be successful in (an examination, test, or course);
5. to revise e. a university student who has not yet taken a first degree;
6. to fail f. to reread work done previously
to improve one‘s knowledge of a subject (typically
to prepare for an examination);
7. to pass g. to take (an examination) again after failing it;
8. to resit h. an academic rank conferred by
a college or university after examination or after completion of
a course, or conferred as an honour on a distinguished person;
9. to cheat i. to be unsuccessful in achieving one‘s goal;
10. to graduate j. a particular level of rank, quality, proficiency, or value;

b) Read the text and fill in the gaps with the words given in exercise 2:

Studying at University

Most students at university are (1)____. They are


studying to get a (2)____. There is usually (3)
____________ of the students‘ coursework and
assignments. The tutor gives a (4)______ or (5)
______ for each piece of work. Students usually have
to take exams too. Before each exam, students have to
(6)__________ their notes. If you (7)_______ an
exam, you normally (8) ________ the exam another
day. Of course, you usually fail automatically if you
(9) ________. When you (10)________ your final
exams, you (11)___________.

c) Answer the following questions:


1) Whom do we call undergraduates?
2) What are they studying for?

102
3) What does the tutor give students for each piece of work?
4) When do the students usually revise their notes?
5) When do you usually fail automatically?
6) When do students graduate?

Listening

5. a) TS 5.1 Look at the photo of Marija. Guess the answers to the questions:

1) Where is she from?


2) How old is she?
3) Is she a student?
4) What is she studying?
5) What foreign language does she speak?

b) Listen to Marija. Fill in the gaps with the verbs


in the box.

„m enjoying; „m going to work; live; lasts; „m studying; come; speak;


spoke; went

Hello! My name‘s Marija Kuzma and I (1) _________from Zagreb, the capital city of
Croatia. I‘m 20 and I (2)________ medicine at the University of Zagreb. The course (3)
_____ six years and it‘s all in English! It‘s hard work, but I (4) ______
a lot. I (5) ________ at home with my mother, father and grandmother. I can speak three
foreign languages – English, French, and Italian. I (6) _____ Italian, because my
grandmother‘s from Italy, and she always (7) __________to me in Italian when I was very
young. I speak English because I (8) _________ to an English speaking high school.
After I graduate, I (9)______ for Médecins sans frontières. in West Africa, because I want to
travel and help people.

Reading and listening

6. a) What does it mean “The University of the Third Age”? Who is it for? Read the text
to answer these questions.

The University of the Third Age is


an international organization whose aims are the
education and stimulation of
mainly retired members of the community - those in
their third 'age' of life. It is commonly referred to
as U3A.
One British 'definition' of what "The Third Age" means for U3A participants is -
"U3A membership is not related to a specific age but to a period in one‘s life (the third age)
after the second age of full-time employment and parental responsibility. Anybody in their
third age can join U3A and this includes people who are working part-time. There is no lower
age for membership.

103
b) Look at the photo of Jim. Complete the questions about him.

1) ……………..he live alone?


2) ……………. …….retired?
3) ……………..enjoying life?
4) …………….student again?
5) Where …………………studying?
6) Who ……….. University of the Third Age
for?
7) What ……………..Jim studying there?

c) TS 5.2 Listen to Jim and answer these


questions.

Grammar

7. Complete the following questions:


1) ―Do ________________a job?‖
―No, I don‘t. I am a student now.‖
2) ―Which university ________ to?‖
―I don‘t go to university. I study at home.‖
3) ―_________ the course?‖
―Yes, I am. It‘s wonderful.‖
4) ―What _______ at the moment?‖
―I am writing an essay about Don Quixote.‖
5) ―Why _____ leave school at 15?‖
― Because my family was poor. We needed the money.‖

8. Choose the correct verb form:

1) She comes/is coming from Zagreb.


2) Jim speaks/is speaking Spanish and English.
3) She studies/is studying medicine.
4) He writes/is writing essays every week.
5) Marija goes/is going to the University every week.

Speaking

9. Talk to your friend about your studies at University. Is it similar or different to


Marija’s studies?

104
Lesson 3. Fresher's week

Warm up

1. What does a term “Fresher” mean? Choose the correct answer:


a) a first-year undergraduate;
b) a student who continues studies after graduation;
c) a student of college;
d) senior student of university.

2. Answer the following questions:


a) Do you remember your first week at university?
b) What was it like?
c) Was it easy for you to settle into university life?

Vocabulary

3. Match these words with their definitions:

1. well-respected a. putting you under a lot of pressure, very difficult


to cope with
2. overwhelming b. admired, considered to be very good
3. academic calendar c. become familiar with and start feeling
comfortable and happy about
4. newcomers d. causing great anxiety or distress
5. settle into e. in the same difficult or worrying situation
6. nerve-wracking f. here, first year students
7. in the same boat g. successfully
8. on the right foot h. understand and get used to the new environment

9. take it all in i. look or seem the same as people around you, fit
in with others
10. blend in j. a period from one October to the next October
when all the lectures, seminars, assignments, exams
and extra-curricular activities (i.e. activities which
are not part of the usual college course) that a
student's life is made up of take place
11. social etiquette k. ready to give out
12. handy l. help you make new friends more easily and
quickly
13. give you a head start in making m. explain and teach the rules of university life
friends
14. passing on your wisdom n. rules of behaviour that are accepted by a certain
group of people

105
Reading and Listening

4. a) TS 5.3 Read and listen to the story. Complete the gaps while listening.

FRESHER'S WEEK

The UK has a
_________________ higher education
system and some of the top universities
and research institutions in the world.
But to those who are new to it all, it can
be _____________ and sometimes
confusing.
October is usually the busiest
month in the __________________. It‘s
a great opportunity to make new friends,
join lots of clubs and ____________
university life. However, having just left the comfort of home and all your friends behind, the
prospect of meeting lots of strangers in big halls can be _________________.
Where do you start? Who should you make friends with? Which clubs should you
join?
Luckily, there will be thousands of others _________________ as you worrying about
starting their university social life ______________. So just __________ slowly. Don‘t rush
into anything that you‘ll regret for the next three years.
Here are some top tips from past students on how to survive Freshers‘ Week:
- ____________. Make sure you are aware of British __________. Have a few wine glasses
and snacks ________________ for your housemates and friends;
- be hospitable. Sometimes cups of tea or even slices of toast can
______________________________;
- be sociable. The more active you are, the more likely you‘ll be to meet new people than if
you‘re someone who never leaves their room;
- bring a doorstop. Keep your door open when you're in and that sends positive messages to
your neighbours that you‘re friendly.
So with a bit of clever planning and motivation, Freshers‘ Week can give you a great
start to your university life and soon you‘ll be ___________________ to next year‘s new
recruits.

b) Are these sentences true, false or there is no information about it?

1) Freshers' Week is for second year students at universities.


True / False / Not given
2) October is generally the busiest month for universities.
True / False / Not given
3) Having wine glasses in your room is a bad idea.
True / False / Not given
4) It's a good idea to pack a doorstop.
True / False / Not given
5) A bit of planning can make Freshers' Week easier.
True / False / Not given

106
5. a) Do you know these words? Find the Russian equivalents for them. Fill in the gaps
with these words to complete the sentences.
freshers' bachelor‟s well-respected terms lecture
Doctor of Philosophy newcomers social etiquette sandwich science
prestigious a head start in making friends
1) Universities in the UK usually have three _________ in a year.
2) The first degree most students study at university is also known as a __________degree.
3) What does PhD mean? __________.
4) If a degree course includes a one-year industry placement, it‘s also known as a
_________course.
5) The UK has a ________higher education system.
6) Imperial College in London is famous for its teaching and research in __________.
7) Universities arrange Freshers‘ Week for their __________.
8) Oxford and Cambridge universities are two of the most ________ universities in the
country.
9) Sometimes cups of tea or even slices of toast can give you ________.
10) The first week of your first year at university is called _______ Week.
11) A lesson at university which takes place in a big hall with lots of students and one teacher
is called a __________.
12) Make sure you are aware of British ______________,

b) Answer the following questions.


1. What month is usually the busiest month in the academic calendar?
2. Who is ―Freshers‘ Week‖ for?
3. Is ―Freshers‘ Week‖ a great opportunity to settle into university life?
4. What can you give a head start in making new friends?
5. Was your first week at university overwhelming ?

Grammar

7. Read the conversation between two university freshers. Choose the correct
alternative.
Noemi: Hi! Nice to meet you! Are you a fresher here?
Victor: Yes, I am. And you?
Naomi: Just the same about me. What (are you studying/do you study)?
Victor: Political Science.
Noemi: (I study/ I am studying) Social Anthropology. Where (do you come /are you
coming) from?
Victor: I'm from Coimbra, in Portugal.
Noemi: How many hours of classes (do you have/are you having) a day?
Victor: (it depends/it depended) on the day, but usually four. (will you go/ are you going)
to the party tonight?
Noemi: (do you mean/are you meaning) the one for new students? I can't, because I need
to get organized tonight. (I move/ I am moving) to a rented flat tomorrow.
Victor: Where (do you live/ are you living) at the moment?
Noemi: (I stay/I am staying) in a bed and breakfast.
Victor: What (do you do/ are you doing) on Sunday afternoon? If you want, we could meet
and look around the city.
Noemi: (I meet/ I am meeting) some friends in the afternoon. What about Sunday morning?
Victor: Fine. Where shall we meet?
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Speaking

9. Here are some tips for freshers. Read them and decide which are the most important
in your opinion? Prepare 5 top tips for University Freshers to help them.
a) Be polite and friendly!
b) Get involved in your students‘ societies in as much as possible.
c) Be aware of social etiquette.
d) Be hospitable.
e) Be sociable.
f) Don‘t rush into the decision to move in with a group of people.
g) Talk to as many random students as you can.
h) Try not to moan about things.
i) Go to your department and hall socials.
j) Smiling a lot will make you seem more approachable.
k) Try not to worry if everyone isn‘t as friendly as you are!
l) Don‘t say anything too controversial.
m) Explore your daily routine.
n) Keep your future in mind.

Your 5 top tips for University Freshers


1) ________________
2) ________________
3) ________________
4) ________________
5) ________________

b) You are representatives of University Students` Committee and you want to organize
a Welcome Week for freshers. Prepare a speech for the first meeting using your tips.

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Lesson 4. Experiences of learning

Warm up

1. a) Match the university subjects with their definitions:

a) Biology 1. the study of the past


b) Chemistry 2. the study of living things
с) Geography 3. the study of foreign human speech pattern, and the systems
that speaking and listening rely on
d) History 4. the study of places and the relationships between people and
their environments
e) Foreign Languages 5. the study of the composition, structure, and properties of
matter, as well as the changes it undergoes
during chemical reactions
f) Literature 6. the study of the natural world
g) Maths 7. the study of the way matter, force, motion, and energy relate
to each other
h) Physics 8. the study of numbers, shapes and patterns
j) Science 9. the study of common features in the literatures of more than
one culture or language

b) Can you name any more subjects?


c) Which subject was your favourite at school?
d) Which subject is your favourite at university?

Vocabulary and Listening

2. a) TS 5.3 Listen to the conversation. Tick the things the four people (Ross, Harumi,
Andreas, Sarah) are talking about.
a) Number of years at school
b) Name of secondary school
c) Friends at school
d) Favourite subjects
e) Age of leaving school

b) Match the school paths with the people from the conversation.
a) High school, teacher training college, sport
b) Primary school. secondary school, work
c) Gymnasium, university, law
d) Elementary school, high school, university

c) Listen again and answer the following questions.


a) How long was Harumi at school?
b) When can you leave school in New Zealand ?
c) What kind of school did Andreas go to?
d) What new technology did Ross use at school?

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d) Write the words and word combinations from the conversation in these groups. Can
you add any more words to the groups?
a) Types of school:
b) Types of higher education:
c) Subjects:

Grammar

3. a) Match the 1-5 to a-e to complete the questions:

1. Where a. was your favourite subject


2. What b. did you leave school
3. How long c. of new technology did you use
4. When d. did you go to school
5. Which kinds e. did you spend at school

4. Write these question words in the correct place in the table:

Who Which Where What When Why How


How long How much How many How often How old

Question word Meaning


1. a person
2. a time
3. a place
4. a reason (because …..)
5. a thing(a small number of possible answers)
6. a thing(many possible answers)
7. a number
8. a period of time(for a week, etc)
9. age
10. a way of doing something
11. an amount of money
12. the number of times you do something

5. Write 7 wh-questions to ask about a person’ s education. Ask and answer in groups.
Where did you go to primary school?

6. a) Complete each group of questions with a question word from the box:

How How many What When Where Who

1________college did you go to?


teacher do you like best?
subjects did you do?

2. ______ students are there in your class?


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languages can you speak?
subjects have you got on Monday?

3._______will you sit next to tomorrow?


is your favourite film star?
do you live with?

4._______ was the school?


is your house?
do you go in the evenings?

5._______time is it?
do you usually do at the weekend?
did you watch on TV yesterday?

6._______do you get to the school?


do you spend your holidays?
did you find this school?

7._______do you get up?


did you start learning English?
will you take exercise tomorrow?

b) Choose a question from above to match each answer.


1.___________________________
I went to Kingston High School.
2. __________________________________________
We often go to a bar or to the cinema.
3. __________________________________________
Two years ago.
4. __________________________________________
My parents and my younger brother.
5. ____________________________________________
I take the bus.
6. ____________________________________
A programme about the Sahara desert.
7.___________________________________
Three - physics, maths and English.

Reading

8. a) Read the interview quickly and match the people with their jobs.

1 Alana a Scottish hairdresser


2 Polly b English teacher
3 Neil c American scientist

In this month's Clapton College coffee morning we talk to three students on our Chinese
evening course.
CC: Alana is from the United States.

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Alana: That‘s right - Texas.
CC: Have you studied a language before?
Alana: No, I studied biology at university. I‘m a scientist.
CC: Did you go to university in Texas?
Alana: No, I went to school in Texas, but university in New York.
CC: Polly, have you studied a language before?
Polly: No. Well, only French at secondary school in Glasgow, Scotland, but I left school at
sixteen and went to technical college.
CC: What did you study at college?
Polly: Hairdressing, one day a week - I didn‘t want to spend any more time studying after
twelve years at school!
Alana: So, when did you start school?
Neil: It‘s usually about four here. I was nearly five when I started school.
Alana: Wow! We usually start elementary school at about six in the States. Four seems very
young!
Neil:. Mm, it is. I left at eighteen, so I spent fourteen years at school here in London.
CC: Have you studied a language before?
Neil: Yes, I studied Spanish at university, just for a year.
CC: Where did you go to university?
Neil: London, then teacher training college.
CC: What do you teach?
Neil: History and art. They were my favourite subjects at school.
CC: What was your favourite subject, Alana? Biology?
Alana: No, I found it really difficult. But I liked the other science subjects - you know,
physics and chemistry. And biology goes with them.
CC: How about you, Polly?
Polly: My favourite subject? Maybe English. I quite enjoyed that.
CC: Now, can we talk about your course here and your experiences...

b) Read the interview again. Who are these sentences about? Write A for Alana, P for
Polly or N for Neil.

1. liked history and art?


2. left school quite early?
3. didn‘t go to university?
4. enjoyed sciences at school?
5. went to college after university

c) Fill in the table with information from the interview.


Polly Alana Neil
1. age started school 4
2. location of school Texas
3. time spent at school 14
4. studied a language
5. favourite subject
6. went to university

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Lesson 5. What are you majoring in?

Warm up

1. Think and answer the following questions:


a) How do people go about selecting a university major?
b) Are there job fairs in high schools in your area to help students learn about different
careers?
c) Is it a common practice for children to ask parents for guidance in choosing a university
major?
d) What about you? Did you ask your parents for advice?
e) What‘s your major?/What are you majoring in?

Vocabulary

2. Here are some state expressions. Find the Russian equivalents for them. Use a
dictionary and the internet to help. How can you use them?
a) bat around
b) you can say that again
c) help out
d) see the light at the end of the tunnel
e) line up
f) realistic
g) bad-mouth
h) sermon

3. Check yourself and match these idioms and phrasal verbs with their definitions:

1. bat around a) something that gives you hope for the


future after a period of difficult problems
or challenges
2. You can say that again! b) actually possible
3. help out c) arrange
4. see the light at the end of the d) used when completely agreeing with
tunnel someone
5. line up e) criticize
6. realistic f) a talk with moral advice about life
7. bad-mouth g) consider different choices, including the
positive and negative points of each
option
8. sermon h) help someone who is in need, especially
when they have problems

Listening

4. TS 5.4 Listen to the conversation and choose the right answer:


1) Where does the conversation most likely take place?
A. in a college dormitory

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B. in a university classroom
C. at the school's library
2) What year is the woman in college?
A. second year
B. third year
C. fourth year
3) Which statement is NOT true about her paying for college?
A. She is currently repaying student loans.
B. She has worked to earn college tuition.
C. She received a scholarship.
4) What is her future job situation?
A. She will work in her father's business after she graduates.
B. She wants to go on to graduate school the following month.
C. She hopes to have interviews with different companies soon.
5) What surprising information do we find out at the end of the conversation?
A. The woman is dating the man's business teacher.
B. Paul Jones, a college teacher, is the woman's father.
C. The man and woman are actually long-lost relatives.

5. Choose the right word to complete the sentences:

a) Be sure to ______________ up an appointment to visit with your college advisor. He


should be able to help you choose classes for next semester.
A. talk
B. do
C. line
b) My parents helped me _________ a number of times by paying for my rent while I was a
college student.
A. out
B. over
C. in
с) You shouldn't _________________ the teacher for not accepting your homework. You
turned the assignment in late, so it was your own fault.
A. bad-mouth
B. run over
C. talk into
d) She is _________________ around the idea of attending college this fall.
A. hitting
B. running
C. batting
e) He has gone to school for five years, and it has been difficult, but he only has three more
months to finish, so he can now see the light at the end of the _____________.
A. river
B. tunnel
C. street

6. Match the items on the right with the items on the left:

1.You have to be ___________ about your a) at the end of the tunnel


chances of getting into that famous university.

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2. You shouldn't ____________ other people b) batting around
without knowing their situations
3. Having taken college classes for eight years, с) bad-mouth
she could finally see the light _____________.
4. Do you think you can __________ this d) realistic
weekend? Mom and Dad are moving.
5. He's _____________ the possibility of taking e) help out
summer classes so he can graduate early.

7. Use the cues to write sentences:


a) is, major, what, so, your?
b) have , decided, I, not, yet.
c) year, I, some, a, financial, and, received, scholarship, aid, last.
d) the light, at, you, tunnel, see, at the end, least, of, the.
e) teacher, have, I, about, heard, your.
f) next, I, to line up, a few, am, at the job fair, month, interviews, trying.
g) you, majoring, what, in, are?

Reading and Listening

8. a) What information do you expect to hear during the first day of a class besides the
ones listed below?

1. the name of the course


2. the teacher's name
3. the class grading system

b) TS 5.5 Listen to the lecture and answer the following questions choosing the right
option:
1) What is the name of the course?
A. Intercultural Commerce
B. Interaction in Communication
C. Intercultural Communication
D. International Cooperation
2) What time does the class meet?
A. 3:05 PM to 4:15 PM
B. 3:15 PM to 4:50 PM
C. 3:50 PM to 4:50 PM
D. 3:15 PM to 4:15 PM
3) On average, how often will the class meet in the research lab during the last part of the
course?
A. once a month
B. twice a month
C. three times a month
D. four times a month
4) If today is Tuesday, when should the textbook be available in the bookstore?
A. today after class
B. on Wednesday
C. on Thursday

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D. on Friday
5) Which item was NOT mentioned as part of determining a student's final grade in the class?
A. participation
B. quizzes
C. a research project
D. attendance

9. Listen to the mini lecture again. Fill in the gaps with the words from the box to
complete the text.

teacher 311 syllabus half during

Teacher: Okay, Okay, let's begin. Hello, everyone. My name's Karl Roberts, and I'll be your
(1) _____ for this class, Intercultural Communication (2) ________.
To begin with, uh, please take a look at the (3) ______ in front of you. As you all should
know by now, this class meets on Tuesdays and Thursdays from 3:15 to 4:50.
We will be meeting in this room for the first (4) _________ of the course, but we will be
using the research lab every other week on Thursday in room 405 (5) ________ the last two
months of the class.

Speaking

10. You are to choose one extra course for the next term. Here are some options:

a) New tendencies in your professional sphere


b) Professional communication in your sphere
c) Business communication in English

Discuss with your partner the opportunities and decide which one you choose and why.

116
Lesson 6. Getting an online university degree

Warm up

1. Do you agree with the following statements? Why? Why not?

a) The best thing about the distance education is you could learn it from anywhere and at
anytime. It does not matter in part of the country you are living you can join the course and
start learning
b) The worst thing about distance education is you cannot interact with your college professor
or teachers, your groupmates.
с) This is another great advantage of distance education. The total cost of your studies at
Distance University is very less compared to joining a regular one.
d) In distance education you lack a seriousness that is present in a classroom when lecture is
given by the professor.
e) Normally, distance education offers flexibility of time. It gives complete freedom to choose
your own time for taking up the course.

I agree with the first one because it is very convenient, especially if you a busy
person.
I think the second one is right because…
I find the third one is clever because…
I disagree with the following statement because…
I think the statement is wrong because…

Vocabulary

2. Do you know these words? What do they mean? Match the words with their
definitions.

1. to interact with a) made, done, seen etc. on the Internet


or on a computer, rather than in the
real world
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2. fellow students b) to tell other people about your ideas
in the written form or during chat
3. virtual c) the ability to change or be changed
easily to suit a different situation
4. to share ideas through text or voice d) people you study with
chat
5. flexibility e) to graduate from the online university
6. to get an online university degree f) to talk to each other, work together,
etc

Listening and reading

3. a) TS 5.6 Listen to the text. Fill in the gaps with the words you hear.

Getting an Online University Degree


I've decided (1)…………..through distance
education instead of attending a traditional
university. In such a program, students don't have
to attend classes in a regular classroom. Instead,
they go online and (2)…….. (3)………and the
teacher in a (4)……… classroom using bulletin
boards or other Internet tools. Also, students
sometimes (5)………. . Students still have to do
assignments, write papers, and take tests, but
everything is done online at a student's own
convenience. The students sometimes work at their own pace depending on the class
schedule, but getting an online university degree can provide more (6) ……….. and study
options than before.

b) Answer the following questions:


1. Why has the student decided to get an online university degree through distance
education?
2. Do students have to attend classes in a regular classroom?
3. How their work is organized?
4. Would you like to get an online university degree through distance education? Why?

4. a) Find the Russian equivalents for the following words and word combinations. How
can you use them?
1. skip class
2. drag
3. ace a test
4. goof off
5. flunk

b) Check yourself and match these words with their definitions:


1) skip class a) get a perfect score
2) drag b) wasting time instead of studying or working
3) ace a test с) fail
4) goof off d) something that is boring
5) flunk e) purposely not attend class

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5. a) TS 5.7 Listen to the short interview and fill in the blanks with the missing words.

Distance Education and Online Degrees


I think distance education is one option for people,
who like myself don't like traditional schooling. To
be honest, I used to (1)…….. class in high school
because the regular classes were such a (2)…….. I
mean, I would (3)…….. most of the tests, but I just
didn't feel challenged. I didn't even have to cram
for tests; everything came so easily, but then, my
high school counselor told me that I was going
to (4)……. of school if I continued to (5)……. and
skip school so much. Anyway, after high school, I
decided to enroll in an online class to receive
college credit, and I enjoyed life and education a
lot more.
b) Make up sentences:
1) She used a. to enroll in an online class
2) She didn‘t feel b. to skip classes
3) The regular classes were such c. have to cram for tests
4) She didn't even d. a drag
5) She decided e. challenged
c) Answer the questions:
1) Did you use to skip classes in high school?
2) Did you attend all the classes in high school?
3) Were the most classes in high school boring for you?
4) Did you ace most of the tests?
5) Did you have to cram for them?

Speaking

8. Retell the story above (ex.7) using the vocabulary you have learned.

9. What about you? Would you like to get an online university degree through distance
education instead of attending a traditional university? Discuss your ideas with a
partner.
As for me, I would like to get an online university degree through distance education,
because I don‟t like to go to university every day.

I don‟t like the idea of getting an online university degree through distance
education, because I prefer to attend classes in a regular class room and to
communicate with “real” not “virtual” fellow students.

10. Check this site and study the information about different online courses. Choose one
you like the most. Would you like to do this course and why? Do you know about any
other opportunities to study online? Share with the class.
www.coursera.org

119
Module 6. Choose life before it's too late

Lesson 1. Weather and climate

Lesson
Warm up1. Weather and Climat

1. Look at the picture and say what the weather is like?

Vocabulary

2. a) Work in pairs and put the words from the box into one of the groups. Some of them
may go in more than one group.

damp freezing humid breeze drizzle snow pour boiling hail gale shower warm
chilly cool frost gust sunny mild

Heat Cold Wet Rain Wind

b) What can you see in the pictures? What’s the weather like? How do people feel? Do
you like any kind of this weather?

120
A B

Reading and Grammar

3. Match the descriptions with the following countries. There is one extra country in the
list.

Countries: Spain Germany Britain Greece

Text A: This country enjoys a Mediterranean climate for most of the year, with warm to hot
days and mild nights. However, in the middle of summer, it can be unbearably hot and stuffy
and winter can be chilly. December and January can be very cold and in February it is often
rainy. April can be changeable with sunny days interrupted by windy showery weather.

Text B: Most of this country is always warm from April to October though it can occasionally
be cold and rainy in the north, especially in the mountains. The south is amazingly mild
throughout the year-it hardly has a winter. Although the Atlantic lies only a few miles away,
the climate is more like the Mediterranean.

Text C: The country has a very changeable climate, both from day to day and from place to
place. Although long periods of fine weather occur each year, it is not easy to forecast the
weather accurately and you can be soaked during any season. The north of the country is

121
much colder and windy in winter, often with quite heavy snowfalls. The southwest has a
milder climate.

4. Read the forecast abstracts for Spain, Greece and Great Britain and pay attention to
the phrases in bold.

… it‘s December in Spain and it is going to be cold the whole month. But you can enjoy
skiing in the mountains in the north…

… it is a wonderful spring in Greece! We are going to have warm days and mild nights and
the season is going to start just in a few weeks! ...

… this year April is gorgeous and everyone is going to enjoy fine weather! But be careful
and take an umbrella! In Britain you can be soaked during any season! …

See Grammar reference p. 158

5. Make questions with going to.

a) It's unexpectedly hot today. (what / you / wear?) _______________________


b) David has given me his latest painting. (where / you / hang it?) _____________
с) I've decided to sell this house. (what / you / buy / instead?) _______________
d) I`ve found a little puppy in the park. (what/ you/ do/ with/ it?)__________________

6. Say what you think is going to happen in these situations.

1. You are my best friend. We've been friends for many years. Now you are going away.
(miss)___________________________________________________________
2. The children went to the woods all by themselves. They don't know the area well. (get lost)
_______________________________________________________________
3. There is a hole in Tom's jacket pocket. He's put some small change in it. (lose)
________________________________________________________________
4. Your friend decided against going to the concert. (regret)
_____________________________________________________________________

7. Now you can predict weather yourselves! Use: sunny, nice, clear, misty, rainy, foggy,
stormy, chilly, etc.
It is sunny now so the weather is going to be fine the whole day!

8. You are going to visit Spain, Greece and Great Britain. Say what you are going to
take with you if you go to:

a) Spain in April
b) Greece in the middle of summer
c) Greece in January and February
d) the north of Spain
e) the southwest of Great Britain
I am going to take my heavy jacket if I go to the north of Britain.

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Listening

9. a) TS 6.1 Listen to the text and say why Mr. Jenkins had to drink his soup.

b) Order the events.

1. Renato moved to England and bought a restaurant in London.


2. Mr Jenkins had lunch in Renato‘s restaurant.
3. Renato was born in Italy and lived there for thirty-two years.
4. Mr Jenkins told his wife about his lunch at Renato‘s restaurant.
5. Renato decided to put some of the tables out into the street.
6. Renato couldn‘t forget Italy and his home town.

Speaking

10. Think and say why it is important to know the climate of the place you are going to
visit.

I think it is important to know the climate because you need to plan your time in a better way

I think it is important to know the climate because you need to know what clothes to take

Jazz chants

11. a) TS 6.2 TS 6.3 TS 6.4 Listen to the jazz chants and repeat them with the singer.

1. It`s a Nice Day Today, Isn't It? 2. Hot and Humid


It's a nice day today, isn't it? It's hot today
It certainly is. Hot and humid.
It's a beautiful day. It's hot today, isn't it?
It's a nice day today, isn't it? It's hot today
It certainly is. Hot and humid.
It's a beautiful day. It's hot today, isn't it?
Nice day today. It sure is.
Nice day today. Day today. Day today. It sure is.
Nice day today. Hot and humid.
Nice day today, isn't it? Hot and humid.
It certainly is. It's a beautiful day Too hot. Much too hot.
Too hot.
Much to hot. It's too hot to work.
Too hot to play.
Too hot to walk to work today. It's too hot.
Hot and humid.
Too hot.
Hot and humid. Too hot to work.
Too hot to play.
Too hot to work today.

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3. Do You Think It's Going to Rain?
Do you think it's going to rain?
I hope not.
Do you think it's going to rain?
I hope not.
It looks like rain.
It looks like rain.
Do you think it's going to rain?
I hope not.
Do you think it's going to snow?
I hope so. Do you think it's going to snow?
I hope so.
It looks like snow. It looks like snow.
Do you think it's going to snow?
I hope so.

b) Choose one city and check the weather in it for today: Amsterdam, London, Buenos
Aires, Sidney, Moscow, Vladovostok, Reykjavik, New York, Lisbon, Cairo. Make phone
calls to your friends in their cities and find out about the weather.

124
Lesson 2. A serious
Serious problem
Problem

Warm up

1. Read the statements and say what statements you agree or disagree with.

a) The problem of pollution became serious long time ago.


b) Air, water and land pollution threaten human life.
c) The problems of peace and nature protection are everybody‘s concern.
d) People ought to take measures to fight against any threat to our environment.
e) We need to beautify the land instead of destroying it.

I agree with the first one because…


I think the second one is right
because…
I find the third one is clever because…
I disagree with the following statement
because…
I think the statement is wrong
because…
Vocabulary

2. a) Do you know these words and word combinations?

environment environmental pollution destroy destructive force purify threat


threaten acid contaminate awful harm exhaust toxic wastes nuclear tests poisoning
chemical fertilizer cause damage habitat litter extinct resource

b) Look at these two columns and match the words with their definitions.
a) environment 1) the process of making air, water, soil etc. dangerously dirty and not
suitable for people
b) to threaten 2) rain which contains large amounts of harmful chemicals as a result of
burning substances such as coal and oil
c) pollution 3) the air, water, land on Earth which can be harmed by man‘s activities
d) to destroy 4) to make something happen, especially something bad
e) habitat 5) something such as land, water, or minerals, such as oil or coal that a
country has and can use
f) litter 6) not existing/ living any longer
g) to recycle 7) to damage something badly
h) extinct 8) to be likely to harm and destroy something
i) resource 9) to produce something from used objects or materials
k) to cause 10) waste paper, cans etc. thrown away and left on the ground
l) acid rain 11) the natural home of a plant or animal

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3. Fill in the gaps with the correct forms of the words from the box above.

There are a lot of problems which __1__ (threat) our natural environment. Acid rain, global
warming and air and water __2__ (pollute) are the most serious ones. There are some ways to
help improve the situation. Firstly, we should __3_ (recycle) to __4_ (produce) of new
materials causes the most damage. We must learn to reuse things like plastic bags and glass
jars. Secondly, driving an environmentally-friendly car also __5__ (help). Furthermore, if you
are really concerned about the environment, you can join an organization which plants trees or
cleans up beaches. Finally, supporting groups such as Greenpeace, which try to prevent many
__6_ (environment) disasters, would help to ensure that our planet will be clean and safe for
future generations. Some of the ultraviolet light from the Sun can bring __7_ (danger) to
people because it can cause skin cancer.

Reading and Speaking

4. a) Do you think air pollution is a serious problem? Give your opinion why.
Read the text and say if your opinions were the same or different.

The air around us becomes polluted as a result of our


own activities. For instance, when coal is burnt gases and
smoke are produced. These can make the air we breathe
dirty and unpleasant. Sometimes the air becomes
poisonous. In 1952 many people died in London as a result
of air pollution. This pollution came from coal fires in
people‘s homes and from power stations. It combined with
the winter fog to form a poisonous smog: SMOKE + FOG
= SMOG
Sulphur dioxide from power stations also pollutes
city air. So do fumes from motor vehicles. The most
dangerous pollutant from cars is lead. Tiny particles of this
very poisonous metal come from car exhausts. Even small
amounts affect the brain and nervous system of people. Children are particularly vulnerable
because their brains and nervous systems are still developing.
Factories also pollute the air. Some factories produce pollution all the time as a way of
removing wastes from the factory. Other factories may usually give out little or no pollution,
but can cause huge pollution problems when there is an accident.

b) Correct the mistakes in the following sentences.


1) The air around us become polluted as a result of our own activities
2) In 1952 much people die in London as a result of air pollution.
3) The most dangerous pollutant from cars are lead.
4) Even small amounts affects the brain and nervous system of people.
5) Childs are particularly vulnerable because their brains and nervous systems are still
developing.

c) Now look through the text again and answer the questions.
- What is the air pollution?
- What contaminates the atmosphere?
- What is smoke?
- What do the industrial facilities do to the atmosphere?

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Listening and speaking

5. a) TS 6.5 Smog has become a real disaster for megacities. Listen to a piece of news
from China and say what they decided to do to draw people`s attention to this problem.

b) Listen again and say whether the statements given below are true (T) or false (F).

1) The leaders of Beijing projected sunrises on the


sky.
2) Digital sunrises are very popular.
3) The screens also show adverts.
4) The air in China`s cities is often bad in winter,
because people burn more coal.
5) The mayor of Beijing will use over 3 billion
dollars to make air better.
6) The air has become worse in the last 10 years.
7) People say they feel bad because of the air pollution.

6. Think of some other environmental problems typical for big cities. Discuss the ways
of improving the ecological situation in megacities.

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Lesson 3. A chance for the planet

Warm up

1. a) Do you know that our planet has its special day which is called EARTH DAY?

b) How much do you know about the Earth Day? Take the quiz!

1. Earth Day is on … of April. 2. The first Earth Day was held in ….


A 22nd A 1950
B 23rd B 1960
C 24th C 1970
3. Gaylord … created Earth Day. 4. Earth Day is celebrated … .
A Pearson A in the USA
B Nelson B in the UK
C Johnson C all over the world

c) TS 6.6 Listen and check your answers. Were all your answers right?

Reading and speaking

2. a) Read the text and complete the sentences in your own words.

a) The Senator got the idea about Earth Day because …


b) The first thing Senator Nelson did was …
c) Some of the problems that the Earth faces are …
d) On Earth Day people…

Did you know that our planet has a special day? Every year,
on the 22nd of April, we celebrate Earth Day. On this day,
we remind ourselves and others how precious the Earth is
and how important it is to look after it.
Earth Day was the idea of American Senator,
Gaylord Nelson. The Senator was a sensitive man
who couldn‘t bear watching our planet suffer.
Rivers and seas were getting dirty, many of our
plants and animals were becoming extinct and not
many people knew about it. Therefore, he decided
to take action and create a special day to remind
everyone that we need to take care of the earth.
The Senator started by writing letters to colleges,
to inform students and teachers about his campaign.
He also wrote an article for Scholastic Magazines presenting
his idea about the special day he was planning. He hoped
that young people around the country would react positively. Fortunately, they did!
As a result, on April 22, 1970, 20 million people across America celebrated the first Earth
Day. People all over the country made promises to respect and look after the environment.
Since then, Earth Day has been celebrated all over the planet.

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Today, on Earth Day people organize fund-raising events, such as concerts, contests,
parades, festivals, tree-planting excursions and clean-up campaigns. Children design and
make objects at school such as bird feeders and earth day wreaths and all of us promise to try
to turn every day into Earth Day!

b) Answer the following questions.

1. Why is Earth Day so important?


2. What do people remind themselves on this day?
3. What did American Senator, Gaylord Nelson do to make young people take care of the
Earth?
4. What are the main activities now associated with Earth Day?

Listening and grammar

3. a) Each year Earth Day is aimed to draw people`s attention to the most serious
environmental problems of our planet. Last year, for example, it was devoted to the
problem of global warming. Have you ever heard about it? Read the statements and try
to guess whether they are true (T) or false (F).

a) The world will be five degrees warmer by the end of this century.
b) 1996 was the hottest year on record.
c) By 2080, 25% of all coastal towns will be flooded and cars.
d) Most carbon dioxide comes from factories, homes and cars.
e) Trees absorb oxygen.

b) TS 6.7 Listen to the interview with a researcher from the Climate Research Centre in
London and check your ideas.

c) Make up questions. Listen to the interview one more time and answer them.

See Grammar Reference p. 159

1. change/ will/ global warming/ climate?


2. what effect/ rising of temperature/ have/ on/ will/ the environment?
3. will/ sea level/ rise/ why?
4. it/ lead/ what/ to/ will?
5. people/ what/ do/ will/ it/ to prevent?

d) Complete the sentences with the right form of the verb.

1. If we (not stop) global warming, the temperate (rise).


2. Unless we (do) something, we (lose) lots of important towns and cities.
3. We (stop) global warming, when we (stop) polluting the air.
4. If each of us (plant) a tree, he (help) our planet a lot.
5. Polar ice caps (continue) melting, until every human (start) doing something for our planet.

e) Make one sentence out of two using if, when, until, till, etc.
The sea level is rising. We need to do anything about global warming.
The sea level will rise if we don`t do anything about global warming.

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1) The animals are getting extinct. We need to protect them.
2) We need to save fuel. We`re going to run out of it in future.
3) We need to protect our lakes and rivers. They are becoming polluted.
4) We need to stop cutting down rainforests. The hole in the ozone layer is getting bigger.
5) We need to stop global warming. Temperatures are going to rise further.

Speaking

4. a) Do you do anything about saving our planet? Here`s a survey to find out how green
you and your group mates are. Interview your partner and write down his answers.

Have you ever…


1. taken your paper, bottles and cans for recycling?
2. made a compost heap from organic waste?
3. left your computer on when you are not using it?
4. looked for information on eco-issues on the web?
5. asked your parents to drive you less than a kilometer to university or to a friend's house?
6. used your bicycle or walked instead of going by car?
7. dropped litter in the street?
8. used a tumble dryer when it's not raining?
9. left the tap on when you are brushing your teeth?
10. given your old clothes to a charity shop?
11. planted a tree?
12. cleaned up an area in your neighbourhood?

Now count his/her score according to the following scheme. Who is the greenest member
of the class?
You give 1 point if he/she said YES to questions 1, 2, 4, 6, 10, 11, 12.
You give 1 point if he/ she said NO to questions 3, 5, 7, 8, 9.

b) Give some recommendations to the class.

If we take our paper and bottles for


recycling, we will help to keep our
planet clean. So use recycling bins!

When we stop leaving our


computers on, we`ll save
energy. Don`t forget to switch
them off!

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Lesson 4. A quiet place

Warm up

1. Complete the mind – map using the words from Lessons 1, 2, 3.

2. Work in teams and make as many sentences as you can, using this mind- map. Which
team is the winner?

Reading

3. a) Do you know these words? Find the Russian equivalents for them.

noise chemical broken down comfort heavy lorry motorway expose deaf
ear plugs nervous charity

b) Have you ever heard of noise pollution? What causes noise pollution in cities? How
does it influence people’s life? Read the text and check your ideas.

Although noise is not a chemical and cannot


be seen like a broken down car, it is a kind
of pollution. Noise is all around us,
wherever we live, and we do not notice it
most of the time. Sometimes though, it gets
too loud for comfort. The noise of heavy
lorries in cities, of motorways through the
country, and of airplanes flying low
overhead make life less pleasant for
thousands of people. Loud noise is not just
unpleasant — it can make people ill. People
who are exposed to loud noises all the time
run the risk of going deaf if they do not use
ear plugs. Some people become very

131
nervous and upset because of the noise from traffic and aeroplanes. They may have to take
drugs to keep calm and to get to sleep at night. If you care for a better life for your children
you may join ―Friends of the Earth Trust‖. It is an educational charity set up to help people of
all ages become aware of the threats to our environment. Don‘t be a nobody, do something
about it.

b) Are these statements true (T) or false (F)?

1. Although noise is not a chemical and cannot be seen like a broken down car, it is a kind of
pollution.
2. Noise is all around us, wherever we live, and we notice it most of the time.
3. Loud noise is not just unpleasant — it can make people ill.
4. People who are exposed to loud noises all the time run the risk of going deaf
5. Some people become very nervous and upset because of the noise from traffic and
aeroplanes.
6. If you care for a better life you may join ―Friends of the Earth Trust‖, a governmental
organization set up to help people of all ages become aware of the threats to our environment.

Listening and Speaking

6.a) TS 6.8 Listen to the speech of the biologist in the Nature Protection Centre. Put
these things in the order the speaker talks about them. One thing has not been
mentioned.

a) powerful monopolies and their destructive force


b) a desert of concrete and stone
c) testing bombs and the threat of nuclear war
d) maddening noise pollution
e) polluted rivers
f) poisoned soil

b) You are journalists interviewing the members of international scientific team who are
discussing the problem of air and noise pollution.

What can you say about testing nuclear bombs?


I do think it is a real threat to the environment and I raise my voice
against it!

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Lesson 5. Drop by drop

Warm up

1. Discuss the following:

a) Why do you think water pollution is dangerous?


b) What are the most destructive consequences of this kind of pollution?

Reading and speaking

2. Look at the following headings. Which one will draw your attention the most in the
newspaper? Read the article and choose the most suitable heading for it.

a) Water pollution reasons


b) Dangerous water
c) Chemistry versus clear water
d) Chemical inventions endanger the planet

Air pollution can become water pollution as we have seen


with acid rain. Other sources of water pollution can pollute
our streams, rivers and lakes directly. Many towns still pour
their sewage straight into rivers with little treatment
beforehand. This can kill the rivers‘ life by removing all the
oxygen from the water. Without oxygen none of the fish in
the river can live.
Factories often cause water pollution by pouring poisonous
wastes into streams and rivers. Sometimes these wastes turn
the river into a smelly, poisonous drain in which nothing can
live.
Farming can also cause water pollution. The chemicals used by the farmer to protect crops
against pests, weeds and disease sometimes get into rivers and kill fish. Some of these
chemicals can be stored in the bodies of small animals and passed onto the creatures which
eat them, even to humans. Although these chemicals are carefully controlled, this still
sometimes happens. The fertilizers which the farmer uses to make crops grow sometimes
cause pollution when the rain washes them into rivers. They make the water plants grow too
quickly, so that they choke the river and die. When they rot, they take all the oxygen out of
the water, so that fish cannot live in it.

3. Find the English equivalents for the following Russian words in the article:
a) мусороперерабатывающий завод
b) вредный для здоровья
c) кислород
d) канализационная система
e) удобрения
f) стекать
g) гнить, разрушать

133
4. Complete the sentences using the words from the box:
1) The pollutants that affect water come from….
2) Wastes from farms include…
3) Nearly all cities have waste treatment plants that…
4) Aerobic bacteria use oxygen to break down…

5. Translate from Russian into English:


a. Загрязнѐнная вода уменьшает количество чистой воды, необходимой для питья,
мытья, для плавания и рыбной ловли.
b. Промышленные предприятия скидывают в воду отходы, включающие химикаты и
сотни других веществ.
c. Если слишком много отходов сбрасывается в воду, естественный цикл нарушается и
вода становится грязнее.

6. Have a talk with a partner and name the main causes and results of water pollution.

7. Work in teams. Discuss various kinds of pollution and say what should be done to:
1) lower harmful substances in the air?
2) stop the danger of environmental disaster?
3) attract more public attention to environmental problems?
4) keep the streets of towns tidy and clean?
5) solve the problem of communal waste in towns?

What are going to: We need to:

1) lower harmful substances in 1) invent new types of cars, find out ways to
the air make coal burn more clearly

2) stop the danger of 2) attract more public attention to environmental problems


environmental disaster

3) attract more public attention 3) take part in the environmental actions, there are many
to environmental problems organizations which have worked out hundreds of projects
to protect nature, for example. ―Greenpeace ,‖Friends of
Earth‖, etc.

4) keep the streets of towns 4) put litter in the containers, plant trees and flowers
tidy and clean

5) solve the problem of 5) clean streets and yards regularly, use less packaging,
communal waste in towns? build recycling factories and recycle wastes

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Lesson 6. The Land needs a friend!

Warm up

1. Which things you can say “YES” or “NO” to:

a) different wars
b) battles against wildlife
c) ignorant using of natural resources
d) everything that threatens the Earth biosphere
e) threatens people
f) threatens each person
g) peaceful life
h) love and responsibility for wildlife
i) new biological ways of agricultural development
j) science and wisdom
k) ecological culture

I raise my voice against…


I say No to…\ I say YES to…

2. Say what recommendations you can give to governments and local authorities using
the phrases from the list above.

I believe attention must be paid to ecological culture because it gives the opportunity
for everyone to stop pollution.

3. Read a poem written by a British girl Marriam Mackley. Do you find it nice? Why or
why not?
The world needs a friend
To love and depend on
In times of trouble…
The world has hope yet
If the children let it
And if we do it right
Together we can make the world
A better place
Because the world‘s best friend
Is you!

4. Can you say that people are really environment-friendly? Give your arguments.

I can say that people are environment-friendly because they invent new biological ways of
agricultural development.

135
5. Complete the sentences using your own words:
a) We live in …….
b) We should keep our planet …..
с) We should fight against ….
d) If we want to help animals we should ….
e) If we want to help fish we shouldn‘t ….
f) Our environment is …..
g) We mustn‘t drop …..

Reading

6. a) What are the reasons of land pollution? Why is it dangerous? Read the text and
check your ideas.
Land pollution covers many things which can
happen to the land, in towns and the country,
because of our activities. Rubbish tips, dumped
poisonous chemicals, broken cars, thrown away
bottles and dropped sweet papers are all types of
land pollution. Some types of land pollution are just
unpleasant to look at. Others can be dangerous to
people and to animals. Farm animals injure
themselves on old tins and bottles. Young children
are sometimes hurt while playing in broken-down
cars. Small animals crawl into bottles and die
because they cannot get out. Poisoned soil can
make animals and people very ill. Land pollution is
something that we can all help to prevent, by not
leaving rubbish in the streets, or the country and
also by telling other people not to do so.

b) Match the words and their meanings:

1. 1) rubbish tips a) скопления


ядовитых химических веществ

2. 2) poisonous chemicals b) консервные банки

3. 3) to injure с) мусорная свалка


4. 4) tins d) почва
5. 5) to hurt e) причинять увечья
6. 6) soil f) получать увечья

c) Translate the words in brackets into English.

Land pollution (1)_(касается)______ many things which can happen to the land, in towns
and the country, because of our activities. Rubbish tips, dumped poisonous chemicals, broken
cars, thrown away bottles and dropped sweet papers are (2)_(все виды)____of land pollution.
(3)_(Некоторые)____ types of land pollution are (4)_(просто)____ unpleasant to look at.
Others can be (5)(опасные)_______to people and to animals. Farm animals
(6)__(поранить)___ themselves on old tins and bottles. Young children are sometimes

136
_(7)_(пострадать)____ while playing in broken-down cars. Small animals
(8)__(заползать)_____ into bottles and die because they cannot get out. Poisoned
_(9)_(почва)___ can make animals and people very ill. Land pollution is something that we
can all help to __(10)_(предотвратить)___, by not leaving _(11)_(мусор)____ in the streets,
or the country and also by _(12) (рассказывая)_____ other people not to do so.

7. Are these statements true (T) or false (F)?

a) Land pollution covers many things which can happen to the land, in towns and the country,
because of our activities.
b) Rubbish tips, dumped poisonous chemicals, broken cars, thrown away bottles and dropped
sweet papers are all types of land pollution.
с) Some types of land pollution are just unpleasant to look at.
d) Farm animals injure themselves on old tins and bottles.
e) Young children are never hurt while playing in broken-down cars.
f) Poisoned soil can not make animals and people very ill.
g) Land pollution is something that we can all help to prevent, by not leaving rubbish in the
streets, or the country and also by telling other people not to do so.

8. Translate the sentences into English.

1. Загрязнение почвы в большинстве случаев происходит в результате деятельности


человека.
2. Мусорные свалки и ядовитые химикаты являются самыми распространенными
причинами загрязнения почвы.
3. Загрязненная почва – это угроза жизни и здоровью людей.
4. Животные могут пораниться о старые консервные банки и бутылки.
5. Часто дети страдают от несчастных случаев на свалках старых автомобилей.
6. Люди должны содержать города, в которых они живут в чистоте.
7. Люди могут предотвратить серьезную проблему загрязнения почвы.

Listening

9. a) Match the words that rhyme.

try giving
tomorrow tear
space die
why grace
face lie
soul race
high place
sorrow

b) TS 6.9 Listen to the song. Fill in the gaps with the words from task 10. Work in
pairs. Compare answers.

137
There's A Place In Then It Feels That Always Heal the world we live in,
Your Heart Love's Enough For save it for our children
And I Know That It Is Love Us Growing Heal the world we live in,
And This Place Could So Make A Better World save it for our children
Be Much Make A Better World... Heal the world we live in,
Brighter Than …….. save it for our children
And If You Really …….. And The Dream We Were Heal the world we live in,
You'll Find There's No Need Conceived In save it for our children
To ……… Will Reveal A Joyful ……..
In This Place You'll Feel And The World We
There's No Hurt Or ……. Once Believed In
Will Shine Again In ……….
There Are Ways Then Why Do We Keep
To Get There Strangling Life
If You Care Enough Wound This Earth
For The Living Crucify Its ……….
Make A Little ……… Though It's Plain To See
Make A Better ………… This World Is Heavenly
Be God's ……….
Heal The World
Make It A Better Place We Could Fly So High
For You And For Me Let Our Spirits Never Die
And The Entire Human In My Heart
……… I Feel You Are All
There Are People Dying My Brothers
If You Care Enough Create A World With
For The Living No Fear
Make A Better Place Together We'll Cry
For You And For Me Happy Tears
See The Nations Turn
If You Want To Know Their Swords
……… Into Plowshares
There's A Love That
Cannot ……….. We Could Really Get There
Love Is Strong If You Cared Enough
It Only Cares For For The Living
Joyful Giving Make A Little Space
If We Try To Make A Better Place...
We Shall See
In This Bliss
We Cannot Feel
Fear Or Dread
We Stop Existing And
Start Living

Writing

See Writing bank p.147

138
Writing bank
Writing 1. A blog
1. What is a blog? Are you a blogger?
2. Complete the blog about you.

3. Talk about your blog to a partner.


4. Choose a topic and think of a title. Write your blog entry for Day 4. Read it aloud to
the class.

139
Writing 2. Describing a flat
1. Match A, B, and C to make four sentences.

A B C
I love my new flat and I like your flat too.
so it's very beautiful.
but please come and see it soon.
because unfortunately there isn't a garden.

2. Make similar sentences about where you live using and, so, but, or because.

3. Complete the sentences with and, so, but, or because.


1) I don‘t have a TV in my bedroom because I don‘t want one.
2) Our flat‘s really small, _______________it‘s comfortable.
3) The rent is cheap ________________ it‘s above a busy restaurant.
4) My wife and I like sailing ___________________we live near the sea.
5) We like living here _____________________ it‘s opposite the park.
6) We don‘t have a garden, ____________________ we have a small balcony.
7) There‘s a lot to do ____________________ a lot to see in our town.
8) Our best friends live in the next street _________________ we often see them.

3. Read about Megan’s new flat. Choose the correct linking words.
My new flat
My new flat is near the centre of town, (1)
but /so 1 often walk to work. It‘s not very big,
(2) but I because it‘s very comfortable! There‘s
just one bedroom, a living room, (3) because I
and quite a big kitchen with a table in the centre.
This is good (4) because /so I love cooking, (5)
because I and I can invite my friends to dinner.
The living room has one big window. It faces
south, (6) but / so it‘s always very sunny. I have
two comfortable, old armchairs, (7) but / so I
don‘t have a sofa (8) because / and the room is
quite small.
There isn‘t a garden, (9) because / but there‘s a small balcony in my bedroom. I want to
put a chair there (10) and /so I can sit in the sun on summer evenings.
I love my new flat for many reasons: the big kitchen, the sunny living room, (11) but /
so most of all I love it (12) and / because it‘s my first home!

4. Write some notes about where you live.


• Where is it?
• Is it old or new?
• How many rooms are there?
• Is there a garden?
• Who do you live with?
• Do you like it? Why? What is the best thing?
5. Write a description of your home. Use linking words to join ideas. Read it aloud to the
class.

140
Writing 3. Two emails
1. Duncan is a student in Manchester and Sally is a student in Edinburgh. Read the
email Sally wrote after visiting Duncan. Answer the questions.

1) Did Sally enjoy the


weekend?
2) Is Duncan a good cook?
3) Why does Sally want the
recipe?
4) How did Sally travel back to
Edinburgh?
5) Why did she sleep on the
journey?
6) Why is Duncan a star‘?
7) When would she like to see
Duncan again?
8) Is the email formal or
informal?
9) Did she visit Duncan before
or after their exams?

2. Sally also stayed with


Duncans parents for a
weekend. Read her thank-you
email. Answer the questions.

1) When did she visit his parents?


2) Was it the first time?
3) What did she do there?
4) Did she wait until after the
exams to see Duncan?

3. The email to Duncan's


parents is more formal than the
email to Duncan. Compare the
beginnings and endings, then
compare line by line. What
other differences can you find?

4. Write an informal thank-you


email after a visit to a friend.
Show it to a partner. Discuss
ways you could change it to a
more formal style.

141
Writing 4. Biography

1. a) Work with a partner. Join the lines in A and C about Ben Way with a linking word
from B.
The multi-millionaire Ben Way
A B C
Ben Way is 35 years old because he runs a company called
so ‗Rainmakers‘.
Ben‘s a computer millionaire. and he wasn't always so successful.
As a child, he was dyslexic however he didn‘t do well at school.
He didn‘t learn to read or write but he was nine and his father gave him
when a computer.
He wrote his first software program until he was only 11.
He didn‘t go to university at 15 he started his own company.
He first became a millionaire he was just 17.
He continued to be very successful he was 21.

He won a business award in 2000, then in 2001 he lost everything.


One year later he started 'Rainmakers‘ now he‘s a millionaire again.

b) Take turns to read the sentences about Ben aloud.

2. Complete the text about Lionel Messi with linking words from exercise 1.

Maradona's successor

Lionel Messi is 28 years old


(1)________________ he is already a
very successful football player. He plays
for FC Barcelona and the Argentina
national team. He has won FIFA world
player of the year four times. He is often
described as Diego Maradona‘s successor
(2) ____________ of his prolific goal
scoring record and ability to dribble past
opponents. Lionel Messi was born on the
24th June, 1987 in Rosario, Argentina in a working family. His father was a factory steel
worker, (3) _________ his mother was a cleaner. He started to play from an early age, and
his talent was soon appreciated. (4)__________ , at the age of 11, Messi was diagnosed with
growth hormone deficiency (GHD), (5)____________ this disease didn't prevent him from
playing football. (6)________ in 2004 he was offered the chance to play for Spain‘s Under 20
side, Messi refused, (7)_______ he decided to play for Argentina, the country of his birth.
Messi is the target of many football clubs with big budgets, (8)_____ he remains loyal to
Barcelona FC. He is one of the highest paid footballers in the world. His base salary is
estimated at €16 million net a year, (9)______ 2018. (10)________ Messi is widely regarded
as one of the most high-paid players of the modern age. He has a family and acts as an
ambassador for Unicef. He also runs his own charitable foundation – supporting access to
education and sport for children. (11)______ of his own expensive medical treatment, he has
also helped Argentinian hospitals with paying for similar treatment to his own.

142
2. Write some notes about someone you know who is successful. Talk to your partner
about him or her.

1) What‘s his/her name? How old is he/she?


2) What does he/she do?
3) How do you know him/her?
4) Was he/she clever at school?
5) How did he/she become successful?
6) Did he/she have any ups and downs?
7) When and where do you see him/her?

4. Write about a successful person that you know. Use your notes.

143
Writing 5. Describing friends

1. But, however, and although have similar meanings. Notice how they join these
sentences. Which two sentences are the most formal?
1) I love travel, but I don‘t like flying - I prefer the train.
2) I love travel. However, I don‘t like flying - 1 prefer the train.
3) Although I love travel, I don‘t like flying - I prefer the train.

2. Join each sentence in three different ways, with but, however, and although.
1) I like Peter. I don‘t love him.
2) My flat has a balcony. It doesn‘t have a garden.
3) My brother‘s older than me. He‘s smaller than me.

3. Complete the text with these linking words: but, so, because, however, although, when.

My friends

I have two friends, Nick and Chris. They are


twins. They‘re 20 years old and
(1)_______________ they‘re twins, they are not
identical twins (2) __________ they are different in
many ways.
For a start they don‘t look alike. Nick‘s got
blonde hair and blue eyes, and he‘s quite tall.
(3)_______________ , Chris isn‘t very tall and he‘s
got red hair and brown eyes. Also, they never wear
the same clothes. This is (4)___________ their
mother always dressed them alike
(5)_______________ they were children and they
hated it.
Something else that they don‘t like is
(6)_________________ people talk about ‗the
twins‘, not ‗Nick‘ and ‗Chris'. They want to be
individuals. (7)_______ , they do have some
interests in common. For example, they love being
outdoors (8)________________ they often go
for long walks together in the countryside. Also,
they both have great computer skills. In fact,
they're both studying IT at university,
(9)_____________ in different towns. Another
thing is that they both hate football, which is very
unusual for boys of their age.
Finally, I must say that I love my friends very much. (10)_________ they have
different personalities, they are both lovely. Nick is quiet and quite shy, (11)__________
Chris loves going to parties and telling jokes. (12)________ , both of them are always
very kind to me. I can tell them all my problems.

4. Compare two of your friends. Try to use some of the highlighted expressions. Include:
• an introduction • their personalities
• what they look like • what they like doing
144
Writing 6. Form filling: an application form

1. Work with a partner. Read Lena's application form for Canterbury college. Use the
information to talk about Lena.

Her name's ... She ... married. She's ... years old. She's ... She ...
Her (email) address/phone numbers ...

145
2. Fill in the same form for you. Compare your form with your partner's.
My date of birth is on the 27/03/1995, but Bob's
is on the 24/01/1994.
We both are from Russia.

3. Discuss as a class which subjects are popular.

146
Writing 7. An essay: discussing pros and cons
1. Do you like your city? Write down three things you like and three things you don’t like
about it. Compare your ideas with the class.

2. Read these notes. How many of your ideas are here?


Advantages of your city Disadvantages of your city
●cozy ●bad ecological situation
●many beautiful places ●everybody knows each other
●rich history ●lack of career opportunities
You can... You must...
●have a nice walk in the park ●not drink tap water
●get to a necessary place very quickly ●be very careful on the streets
●find a lot of interesting events ●take into account the possibility of traffic
jams

3. Now read the text. What is the purpose of each paragraph?

Cycling has many advantages. There are no stressful traffic jams for first of all,
you, and sometimes your bike lets you reach the place more quickly. also,
Cycling is a great form of exercise and access to plenty of fresh air. It moreover
can be cost effective, because you don't have to pay for a ride. You help
to reduce fossil fuel use.
Cycling also has some disadvantages. Bicycle accidents happen very on the other
often, because there are no bike roads in our city and cyclers have to use hand,
either roads or sidewalk. That causes anger of drivers and pedestrians. however,
So cycling is also stressful. The bike is easy to steal despite the special firstly,
bicycle cables. You can leave your bike near your house and not find it secondly,
later. You must know how to maintain your bike, otherwise you will for example,
stuck somewhere.

I like cycling. I feel very proud and fit when I reach my destination. despite the
disadvantages,
because
4. Put the linking words on the right into the correct place in each paragraph.
Sometimes you will need to change the punctuation.

5. Make notes about the advantages and disadvantages of one of these topics. Then write
a text similar to the one above, giving your own opinions. Write about 150 words.
• Waste sorting • Environmental campaigns • Development of industry
147
Grammar Reference

1.1 Verb to be

Positive
I am I'm=I am
He He's=he is
She is She's=she is
It from Bristol. It's=it is
We We're=we are
You are You're=you are
They They're=they are

Negative
I 'm not from Italy. I'm not=I am not (NOT I amn't)
He He isn't=He is not
She isn't She isn't=She is not
It married. It isn't=it is not
We We aren't=we are not
You aren't You aren't=you are not
They They aren't=they are not

Questions with question words Answers


's your name? Alicia. What's=What is
What 's her surname? Johnson. Where's=Where is
's his phone number? 07773 321456 Who's=Who is
Where are you from? London.
's she from?
Who 's Lara? She's my sister.
's she?
How are you? Fine, thanks.
How old I'm 22. (NOT I have 22 years.)

Yes/No questions Short answers


Is He Yes, he is. NOT Yes, he's.
She Nice? No, he isn't.
it Yes, it is. NOT Yes, it's.
Are you Married? Yes, I am./No, I'm not.
they Yes, we are./No, we aren't.
Yes, they are./No, they aren't

1.2. Possessive adjectives 1.3. Possessive 's


my my wife's name = her name = the name of my wife
your Andy's dictionary = his dictionary
What's his name? my parents' house = their house
her
its
our
This is your house.
their

148
1.4 Demonstrative pronounces
This is my book. These are my books.
That is his book. Those are his books.
Mind! We can use this/these/that/those to talk about people/things that are near or not near us.
I like this picture.
How much are these mugs?
Can you see that man?
Who are those children outside?

1.5 Objective forms of pronounces


I me
he him
she her
it it
they them
we us
you you

1.6. Plurals
1. Most singular nouns form the plural by adding -s. boat-boats, house-houses
2. A singular noun ending in s, ss, x, z, ch, sh, o makes the plural by adding-es. bus-buses, wish-
wishes (but! pianos, videos, photos, zoos)
3. A singular noun ending in a consonant and then y makes the plural by dropping the y and adding -
ies. hobby – hobbies, baby – babies (but! key – keys)
4. Nouns ending with -f or -fe in plural forms change it into -ves. wife – wives, leaf-leaves
5. There are some irregular noun plurals. The most common ones are listed below.
a) plurals are formed by changing man-men, woman – women, foot - feet, tooth – teeth, goose –
root vowels geese, mouse – mice, louse – lice
b) plurals are formed by adding -en ox – oxen, child - children
c) for some nouns plural forms do deer, sheep, swine, fish, trout, dozen, score, aircraft, salmon
not differ from singular
d) some words keep their Latin or phenomenon-phenomena, datum – data, crisis – crises,
Greek plural forms stimulus – stimuli, formula – formulae, index – indices

1.7 Present Simple


The Present Simple expresses:
a) a fact which is always true, or true for a long time:
He comes from New Zealand. She works with her husband.
b) a habit or a routine:
He often goes to the gym. She walks her dog every day.
с) a certain fact:
The Earth goes round the Sun.
d) a scheduled action:
The lesson starts at 7. The train leaves at 6.
Positive Negative Special Yes/No Short
Question Question answers
I I/we/you/they live I/we/you/they Where do Do Yes,
we in New York. don't live in I/you/we/they you/they I/we/you/they
you New York. live? like do.
they playing No,

149
cards? I/we/you/they
don't.
he He/She/It lives in He/She/It Where does Does Yes, he/she/it
she Hungary. doesn't live in he/she/it live? he/she/it does.
it Belgium. live in No, he/she/it
France? doesn't.

1.8 Have got and have


Have got means the same as have to talk about possession, but the form is different. We often
use have got in spoken English.
Have got Have
Positive I/we/you/they I/we/you/they have got a cat. I/we/you/they have a cat.
he/she/it He/She/It has got a garden. He/she/it has a garden.
Negative I/we/you/they I/we/you/they haven't got a I/we/you/they don't have a
car. car.
he/she/it He/She/It hasn't got a cat. He/she/it doesn't have a cat.
Questions I/we/you/they Have I/we/you/they got any Do I/we/you/they have any
money? money?
he/she/it Has he/she/it got a sister? Does he/she/it have a sister?
Short I/we/you/they Yes, I/we/you/they have. Yes, I/we/you/they do.
answers No, I/we/you/they haven't. No, I/we/you/they don't.
he/she/it Yes, he/she/it has. Yes, he/she/it does.
No, he/she/it hasn't. No, He/she/it doesn't.

1.9 Spelling of the third person singular


1. Most verbs add -s in the third person singular.
wear → wears
speak → speaks
live → lives
But go and do are different. They add -es.
go →goes
do → does
2. If the verb ends in -s, -sh, or -ch, add -es.
finish → finishes
watch → watches
3. If the verb ends in a consonant + -y, the -y changes to -ies.
fly → flies
study → studies
But if the verb ends in a vowel + -y, the -y does not change
play → plays
4. Have is irregular
have →has

1.10 Adverbs of Time


0% never
sometimes They come after the verb to be.
50% often
usually She‟s always late.
100% always I‟m never hungry in the morning.

150
These adverbs usually come before the I sometimes work late.
main verb. 1 often eat in a restaurant.
I usually go to bed at about 11.00.
She never goes out on Sundays. We always stop work at 6.00.

1.11 like/love + verb + -ing


When like and love are followed by another verb, it is usually the -ing form.
I like cooking.
She loves listening to music.
I don‘t like studying.

1.12 There is/are...


Positive Negative Yes/No Short answers
questions
Singular There is a sofa. There isn't a Is there a table? Yes, there is.
(ср.: У стены shower. No, there isn't.
стоит диван.)
Plural There are two There aren't any Are there any Yes, there are.
bedrooms. pictures. photos? No, there aren't.
(ср.: В доме две
спальни.)

MODULE 2

2.1 can and could


Can and can't have the same form in all Could is the past of can.
persons. Could and couldn‟t have the same form in
There is no do or does. all persons.
Can is followed by the infinitive (without
to).
Positive Negative Question Yes/No Short
question answers
can I/he/she/it/w I/he/she/it/we/you/th What can Can Yes,
e/you/they ey can't dance. (NOT I/he/she/it/we/ you/she/they I/she/they
can swim. He doesn't can you/they do? drive? can.
dance.) No,
I/she/they
can't.
coul I/he/she/it/w I/he/she/it/we/you/th What could Could Yes,
d e/you/they ey couldn't dance. I/he/she/it/we/ you/she/they I/she/they
could swim. (NOT He didn‟t you/they do? cook? (NOT could.
could dance.) Do you can No,
drive.) I/she/they
couldn't.

2.2 was/were
Was/Were is the past of am/is/are.
Positive Negative Question Yes/No Short answers
Questions

151
was I/he/she/it I/he/she/it Where was Was he/she Yes, she was.
was in Paris wasn't at I/he/she/it? at work? No, he wasn't.
yesterday. school
yesterday.
were We/You/They We/You/They Where were Were Yes, we were.
were in weren't at the we/you/they? you/they at No, they weren't.
England last party last home?
year. night.
was born
I was born in 1980. NOT I am born...
She was born in Manchester.
2.3.1 Past Simple
The Past Simple expresses a past action that is finished.
I lived in Rome when I was six.
She started school when she was four.
The form of the Past Simple is the same in all persons.
Positive Negative Question Yes/No Questions Short answers
I/he/she/it/w I/he/she/it/we When did Did you/she/they Yes, she did.
e/you/they /you/they I/he/she/it/we like the film? No, they didn't.
lived in didn't live in /you/they go?
London in Madrid.
1985.

He published his theory of relativity in Questions


1905. When did it happen?
Man landed on the moon in 1969. How long ago did it sell?
The Berlin Wall came down in 1989. How much pocket money did you get?
But:
How many people died in the war?
How many programmes were there?

2.3.2 Irregular verbs


To be is irregular and has two forms in the past
be → was/were
Other irregular verbs have only one form in the past
go → went
can → could

2.3.3 Past Simple ‒ spelling of regular verbs


1. The normal rule is to add -ed.
work → worked 2. If the verb has only one syllable and one
start → started vowel and one consonant, double the
If the verb ends in -e, add -d. consonant, and add -ed.
live → lived stop → stopped
love → loved plan → planned

3. Verbs that end in a consonant + -y, change to -ied.


study →studied
carry → carried

152
2.4 Time expressions
last night the twentieth century / 1924 / the 1990s
month in winter / summer / the evening / the
week morning / September
year 10 October / Christmas Day / Saturday /
Saturday on Sunday evening
yesterday morning at seven o‘clock / weekends / night
afternoon
ago
evening
I went there ten years/two ago.
weeks/a month
in/at/on
2.5 Count and uncount nouns
There are countable nouns. These can be singular or plural.
a book → two books
an egg → six eggs
There are uncountable nouns.
bread rice
Some nouns are both.
We‟d like three ice-creams, please. Do you like ice-cream?

2.6 would like


Would is the same in all persons.
We use would like in offers and requests.
Positive Negative Yes/No Short answers
Questions
I/he/she/we/you/they'd I/he/she/we/you/they Would Yes, please.
like a cup of coffee. wouldn't like a cup you/he/she/they No, thank you.
‘d = would of coffee. like a biscuit?

2.7 some/any/no
Positive Negative Question
There are some There aren‘t any glasses. Are there any books?
pictures. some + plural any + plural noun any + plural noun
noun
1. We use some in positive sentences with 2. We use some in questions when we ask
uncount nouns and plural nouns. for things and offer things.
There is bread on the coffee,
There are some oranges table. Can I have some please?
Would you like grapes?
3. We use any in questions and negative sentences with uncount nouns and plural nouns.
Is there water?
Does she have children?
any
We haven‘t got rice.
There aren‘t people.
I don‘t know if there is any water.
I don‘t know if she has any children.

153
2.8 something/nothing/anything
The rules are the same as for some and any
Thing something/anything/everything/nothing
Body somebody/anybody/everybody/nobody
Where somewhere/anywhere/everywhere/nowhere
1. The forms nobody/nothing/nowhere can Nothing is cheap these days.
be stronger than
not anybody/anything/anywhere. 3. We use them in one word answers.
I didn‘t buy anything. ‗Where did you go?‘ ‗Nowhere.‘
I bought nothing. (= stronger, more 4. We don‘t use two negatives.
emphatic) I didn’t see anybody.
2. We use these forms as the subject of a NOT 1 didn‘t see nobody.
sentence. Nothing is easy.
Nobody loves me. NOT Nothing isn‘t easy

Positive Negative Question


I‘d like something to eat. I didn‘t go anywhere. Does anybody know the
Somebody phoned you. I don‘t know anybody. answer?
Would you like something to
drink? (= an offer)

2.9 much/many, a few/a little, a lot/lots of


1. We use much with uncount nouns in 4. We use a little with uncount nouns.
questions and negatives. Can you give me a little help?
How much money have you got? 5. We use a lot/lots of with both count and
There isn't much milk left. uncount nouns.
2. We use many with count nouns in There's a lot of butter.
questions and negatives. I've got lots of friends.
How many people were at the party? 6. A lot/lots of can be used in questions
I didn't take many photos on holiday. and negatives.
3. We use a few with count nouns. Are there lots of tourists in your country?
There are a few cigarettes left, but not There isn't a lot of butter, but there's
many. enough.

2.10 How much... ?/ How many...?


We use How much ... ? with uncount nouns.
How much rice is there? There isn‟t much rice.
We use How many ... ? with plural count nouns.
How many apples are there? There aren‟t many apples.

MODULE 3

3. have to
1. Have to expresses strong obligation. The obligation comes from "outside" - perhaps a law,
a rule at school or work, or someone in authority.
You have to have a driving licence if you want to drive a car (That's the law.)
I have to start work at 8.00. (My company says I must.)
The doctor says I have to do more exercise.
2. Don't/doesn't have to expresses absence of obligation (it isn't necessary).

154
You don't have to do the washing-up. I've got a dishwasher.
She doesn't have to work on Monday. It's her day off.

Note
Have got to expresses an obligation on one particular occasion.
I'm going to bed. I've got to get up early tomorrow.
She's got to work hard. Her exams start next week.
To express obligation as a habit, we use have to, not have got to.
I have to write two essays a week.
Do you have to wear a uniform?

Positive Negative Question Short answer


I I/we/you/they I/we/you/they Do you have to Yes, I do.
we/you/they have to work don't have to work hard? No, I don't.
hard. work hard.
he/she/it He/She/It has to He/She/It Does he have to Yes, he does.
work hard. doesn't have to work hard? No, he doesn't.
work hard.

Note
The past tense of have to is had to, with did and didn't in the question and the negative.
I had to get up early this morning.
Why did you have to work last weekend?
They liked the hotel because they didn't have to do any cooking.

3.2 should
1. Should is used to express what the speaker thinks is right or the best thing to do. It
expresses mild obligation, or advice.
I should do more work. (This is my opinion.)
You should do more work. (I'm telling you what I think.)
Do you think we should stop? (I'm asking for your opinion.)
2. Shouldn't expresses negative advice.
You shouldn't sit so close to the TV. It's bad for your eyes.
3. Should expresses the opinion of the speaker, and it's often introduced by I think or I don't
think.
I think politicians should listen more.
I don't think people should get married until they're 21.

The forms of should are the same for all persons.


Positive Negative Question Short answers
I/he/she/we/you/they I/he/she/we/you/they Should I see a Yes, you should.
should do more shouldn't tell lies. doctor? No, you shouldn't.
exercises.

3.3 must
1. Must expresses strong obligation. Generally, this obligation comes from "inside" the
speaker.
I must get my hair cut. (I think this is necessary.)
2. Because must expresses the authority of the speaker, you should be careful of using You
must... It sounds bossy!

155
You must help me. (I'm giving you an order.)
Could you help me? is much better.
3. You must... can express a strong suggestion.
You must see the Monet exhibition. It's wonderful.
You must give me a call when you're next in town.

The forms of must are the same for all persons.


Positive Negative Question
I/he/she/we/you/they I/he/she/we/you/they Questions with must are
must try harder. mustn't steal. possible, but have to is
more common.
What time do I have to
start?
3.4 Present Perfect
1. The Present Perfect is formed with have/has + past participle.
2. The Present Perfect refers to an action or experience that happened at some time before
now.
She’s travelled to most parts of the world.
Have you ever been in a car accident?
Positive Negative Question Yes/No Short
Questions answers
I/we/you/they I/we/you/they I/we/you/they Where have Have you Yes, I have.
have been to haven't been I/we/you/they been to No, I
Spain. to Spain. been? Russia? haven't.
he/she/it He/She/It has He/She/It Where has Has he been Yes, he has.
been to Paris. hasn't been to he/she/it to Italy? No, he
Paris. been? hasn't.
I‘ve been = I have been
We‘ve been = We have been
They‘ve been = They have been

been and gone


She‘s gone to Portugal. ( = she‘s there now)
She‘s been to Portugal. ( = now she has returned)

3.5 Past Simple and Present Perfect


1. If we want to say when an action happened, we use the Past Simple not the Present Perfect.
She went to Russia two years ago.
I was in a crash when I was 10.
2. Notice the time expressions used with the Past Simple.
last night / yesterday / in 1990 / at three o‟clock / on Monday

3.6 Indefinite time


Ever, never, yet, and just refer to indefinite time.

ever and never


We use ever in questions.
Have you ever been to Russia?
We use never in negative sentences. yet and just
I‟ve never been to Russia. We use just in positive sentences.

156
I have just done it. (= a short time before Have you done your homework yet?
now) I haven‟t done it yet. (= but I‘m going to)
We use yet in negative sentences and
questions.

MODULE 4

4.1 Present Continuous


1. The Present Continuous describes an activity that is happening now.
She’s wearing jeans.
I’m studying English.

Positive Negative Questions Yes/No Short


Questions answers
I I am watching I'm not What am I Am I doing Yes, you
TV. watching TV. thinking? well? are.
No, you
aren't.
he/she/it He/She/It is
He/She/It isn't What is Is my English Yes, it is.
watching TV.
watching TV. he/she/it getting better? No, it isn't.
thinking?
we/you/they We/You/They We/You/They What are Are they Yes, they
are watching aren't we/you/they having a are.
TV. watching TV. thinking? party? No, they
aren't.

4.2 Spelling of verb + -ing


1. Most verbs add -ing.
wear → wearing 3. When a one-syllable verb has one vowel
go → going and ends in a consonant, double the
cook → cooking consonant and add -ing.
2. If the infinitive ends in -e, drop the -e sit → sitting
and add -ing. get → getting
write → writing run → running
smile → smiling

4.3 Present Simple and Present Continuous


1. The Present Simple describes things that 2. The Present Continuous describes
are always true, or true for a long time. activities happening now, and temporary
I come from Switzerland. activities.
He works in a bank. Dave’s coming to see us now.
He wears a suit to work. I’m working very hard this week.
Do you watch much TV? Why are you wearing yellow trousers?
Shh! I’m watching TV!
MODULE 5

5.1 Comparative and superlative adjectives


London is bigger than Paris.
Paris is more romantic.
It‟s the most exciting place!

157
This is the best restaurant in the world.

Adjective Comparative Superlative


old older the oldest
One-syllable safe safer the safest
adjectives big bigger* the biggest*
hot hotter* the hottest*
Adjectives noisy noisier the noisiest
ending in dirty dirtier the dirtiest
the most
Two or more boring more boring** boring**
syllable beautiful more beautiful the most
adjectives beautiful
good better the best
Irregular
bad worse the worst
adjectives
far further the furthest
* Adjectives which end in one vowel and
one consonant double the consonant.
fit → fitter 1. We can make a comparison stronger
thin → thinner using much and a lot.
** Most two-syllable adjectives use more London is much more beautiful than
and most, but some two syllable adjectives Paris.
use -er/-est. Dave‘s a lot more handsome than Pete.
modern → more modern —* most modern 2. Adverbs also have comparatives.
polite → more polite —* most polite He works harder than you.
quiet → quieter/quietest Can you come earlier than 8.30?
clever → cleverer/cleverest

MODULE 6

6.1 going to
1. Going to expresses a person's plans and intentions.
She’s going to be a ballet dancer when she grows up.
We’re going to stay in a villa in France this summer.
2. We also use going to when we can see now that something is sure to happen in the future.
Look at those clouds. It’s going to rain. (= I‘m sure.)
Positive Negative Questions
I I'm going to have a I'm not going to have When am I going to
break. a break. have a break?
he/she/it He/She/It's going to He/She/It isn't going When is he/she/it
be late. to be late. going to stay at
home?
we/you/they We/You/They are We/You/They aren't When are
going to stay at going to stay at we/you/they going to
home. home. stay at home?

6.2 going to and Present Continuous


1. The Present Continuous can also Jane’s seeing her boyfriend tonight.
describe a future intention.
I’m playing tennis this afternoon.
158
2. Often there is little difference between 3. With the verbs to go and to come, we
going to and the Present Continuous to usually use the Present Continuous.
refer to future time. We’re going to Paris next week.
I’m seeing Peter tonight. Joe and Tim are coming for lunch
I’m going to see Peter tonight. tomorrow.
NOT We‘re going to go ....
They‘re going to come ...

6.3 Infinitive of purpose


The infinitive can express why a person does something.
I‟m saving my money to buy a CD player.
(= I want to buy a CD player.)
We‟re going to Paris to have a holiday.
(= We want to have a holiday.)
NOT I‘m saving my money for to buy a CD player.
I‘m saving my money for buy a CD player.

6.4 will
Will is used:
1. to express a future intention made at the moment of speaking.
"It's Jane's birthday." "Is it? I'll buy her some flowers."
I'll give you my phone number.
"Do you want the blue or the red pen?" "I'll take the red one."
2. to express a future fact. The speaker thinks "This action is sure to happen in the future."
Manchester will win the cup.
Tomorrow's weather will be warm and sunny.
This use is like a neutral future tense. The speaker is predicting the future, without expressing
an intention, plan, or personal judgement.
3. to express an offer.
I'll carry your suitcase.
We'll do the washing-up.

The forms of will are the same in all persons.


Positive Negative Question
I/He/She/It/We/Yo I/He/She/It/We/You/ What time will you be
u/They'll (will) They won't come. back?
come.

6.5 Time clauses


1. Look at this sentence.
I'll give her a call when I get home.
It consists of two clauses: a main clause I'll give her a call, and a secondary clause when I get
home.
2. These conjunctions of time introduce secondary clauses.
when while as soon as after before until till unless
They refer to future time, but we use a present tense.

When I get home, I'll... NOT When I'll get ...


While we're away, ... NOT While we'll be away ...

159
Irregular verbs

№ Base form Past Simple Past Participle


1 be was/were been
2 become became become
3 begin began begun
4 break broke Broken
5 bring brought brought
6 build built built
7 buy bought bought
8 can could
9 catch caught caught
10 choose chose chosen
11 come came come
12 cost cost cost
13 cut cut cut
14 do did done
15 drink drank drunk
16 drive drove driven
17 eat ate eaten
18 fall fell fallen
19 feel felt felt
20 fight fought fought
21 find found found
22 fly flew flown
23 forget forgot forgotten
24 get got got
25 give gave given
26 go went gone
27 grow grew grown
28 have had had
29 hear heard heard
30 hit hit hit
31 keep kept kept
32 know knew known
33 learn learnt learnt
34 leave left left
35 lose lost lost
36 make made made
37 meet met met
38 pay paid paid
39 put put put
40 read read read
41 ride rode ridden
42 run ran run
43 say said said
44 see saw seen
45 sell sold sold

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46 send sent sent
47 shut shut shut
48 sing sang sung
49 sit sat sat
50 sleep slept slept
51 speak spoke spoken
52 spend spent spent
53 stand stood stood
54 steal stole stolen
55 swim swam swum
56 take took taken
57 tell told told
58 think thought thought
59 understand understood understood
60 wake woke woken
61 wear wore worn
62 win won won
63 write wrote written

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Список использованной литературы

1. Дроздова Т., Берестова А., Маилова В. English Grammar. Reference and Practice.
Издательство: Антология. - 2013. - 464 с.
2. Дроздова Т. Everyday English (Повседневный английский) Издательство:
Антология, 2013. - 656 с.
3. Игнатова Т.Н. Английский язык для общения. Интенсивный курс. Учебное
пособие. - 2е изд. - М.: Издат. дом "РТ - пресс", Высшая школа, 1997. - 416 с.
4. Carolyn Graham. Small Talk. More jazz chants. Oxford University Press, 1986
5. Carolyn Graham. Grammar chants. Oxford University Press, 1993
6. Chris Redston, Gillie Cunningham. Face2Face. Elementary. Cambridge University Press,
2005
7. Chris Redston, Gillie Cunningham. Face2Face. Pre-intermediate. Cambridge University
Press, 2012
8. Mark Foley and Diane Hall. New Total English Elementary.
9. John and Liz Soars. New headway. Pre-Intermediate. The third edition. Oxford
University Press, 2006
10. John and Liz Soars. New Headway. Elementary. The third edition. Oxford University
Press, 2006
11. John and Liz Soars. New Headway. Elementary. The forth edition. Oxford University
Press, 2011
12. Mick Gammidge. Speaking Extra. Cambridge University Press, 2004
13. Timesaver. Elementary Listening. Edited by Judith Greet
14. Timesaver. Pre-intermediate Listening. Edited by Judith Greet
15. Michael Harris, David Mower, Anna Sikorzynska. New opportunities (Elementary).
Pearson Longman, 2005
16. Michael Harris, David Mower, Anna Sikorzynska, Irina Larionova, Irina Sokolova,
Oksana Melchina. New Opportunities (Pre-intermediate). Russian edition. Pearson
Longman, 2007
17. Richard MacAndrew, Ron Martinez. Taboos and Issues. Thomas Heinle Press.
18. Tim Falla, Paul A Davies. Solutions (Elementary). Oxford University Press, 2010

Электронные источники

www.eng.1september.ru
http://www.bbc.co.uk/
http://www.esl-lab.com/
http://www.ezslang.com/
http://www.dailyesl.com/
http://www.breakingnewsenglish.com

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