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И.А. Гаджиев, М.А. Лещенко, Ю.А.

Манжосова

ENGLISH FOR
LAWYERS

Курск 2019
Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации

Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение


высшего образования
«Курский государственный университет»

Кафедра иностранных языков и профессиональной коммуникации

English for lawyers

Иностранный язык в сфере юриспруденции

Курск 2019

2
УДК 811.111-26
ББК 81.2 Англ
П 84
Печатается по решению
редакционно-издательского совета
ФГБОУ ВО «Курский государственный университет»

П 84
English for lawyers: Учебное пособие по английскому языку для аудиторной работы по
освоению дисциплины «Иностранный язык в сфере юриспруденции» для студентов
юридического факультета/ авт.-сост. И.А. Гаджиев, М.А. Лещенко, Ю.А. Манжосова.
– Курск: Изд-во Курск. гос. ун-та, 2019 – 60 с.

Учебное пособие состоит из 15 уроков, включающих в себя основные темы рабочей


программы «Иностранный язык в сфере юриспруденции». Тексты и здания к ним
направлены на развитие иноязычной коммуникативной компетенции в рамках
профессиональной коммуникации.
Пособие предназначено для студентов 3 курса очного отделения юридического
факультета для всех образовательных программ направления «Юриспруденция».

Рецензент – д. п. н. Тарасюк Н.А.

© Гаджиев И.А., Манжосова Ю.А., Лещенко М.А, 2019


© ФГБОУ ВО «Курский государственный университет», 2019

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CONTENTS

UNIT 1. AN INTRODUCTION TO LAW……………………………………………………….5


UNIT 2.THE BIRTH OF LAW…………………………………………………………….........7
UNIT 3. THE HISTORY OF LAW. GREAT BRITAIN………………………………………..10
UNIT 4. LEGAL PROFESSION………………………………………………………………...13
UNIT 5. BRANCHES OF LAW. CRIMINAL LAW…………………………………………...16
UNIT 6. CAPITAL PUNISHMENT…………………………………………………………….22
UNIT 7. CRIMINAL PROCEDURE……………………………………………………………24
UNIT 8. CIVIL LAW…………………………………………………………………………....27
UNIT 9. BRANCHES OF CIVIL LAW………………………………………………..………..30
UNIT 10. INTERNATIONAL LAW…………………………………………………………....33
UNIT 11. THE HISTORY OF THE UN……………………………………………………..…36
UNIT 12. HUMAN RIGHTS………………………………………………………………..…..40
UNIT 13. THE COURT SYSTEM IN THE UK…………………………………………….…..46
UNIT 14. THE COURT SYSTEM IN THE USA……………………………………………….49
UNIT 15. APPLYING FOR A JOB……………………………………………………………..53

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UNIT 1
AN INTRODUCTION TO LAW

1. Read the text and do the tasks to it bellow.


The question 'What is law?' has troubled people for many years.
Scientists devote an entire field of study known as jurisprudence to
answering this question. Many definitions of law exist, but for our purposes,
we can define law as the set of rules and regulations by which a government
regulates, the conduct of people within a society. Law is a body of official
rules and regulations, generally found in constitutions, legislation, judicial
opinions, and the like, that is used to govern a society and to control the
behavior of the members. The nature and functions of law have varied throughout history. In
modern societies, some authorized body such as a legislature or a court makes the law. It is
backed up by the power of the state, which enforces the law by means of appropriate penalties or
remedies. Even with this explanation, many questions arise. Where do laws come from? Do we
need laws? Are all laws written? Can laws change? If so, how? What is the difference between
laws and morals?
Formal legal rules and actions are usually distinguished from other means of social
control and guides for behavior such as mores, morality, public opinion, and custom or tradition.
Of course, a lawmaker may respond to public opinion or other pressures, and a formal law may
prohibit what is morally unacceptable.
To understand the law, we must consider the relationship of law to morals. Traditional
ideas of right and wrong influence our legal system. Thus, most people condemn murder,
regardless of what the law says. However, everything that they consider immoral, is not
necessarily illegal. For example, lying to a friend may be immoral but not really illegal.
One thing is certain: every society has recognized the need for law. These laws may have
been written, but even primitive people had rules to regulate the conduct of the group. For a very
long time now, members of every community have made laws for themselves in self-protection.
Without laws, there would be confusion, fear, and disorder. This does not mean that all laws are
fair or even good, but imagine how people might take advantage of one another without some set
of rules. We are far better off with the imperfect laws, which we have, than if we had none at all.
Most people think of the law as prohibitive or punitive - the police officer arresting a suspect or a
judge imposing the sentence on a defendant. That can be true of criminal law, at least up to a
point, but it overlooks the role of law in regulating disputes and providing for a rational and
civilized way of ordering society.
Law serves a variety of functions:
- to maintain a peaceful, orderly, relatively stable society,
- to contribute to social stability by resolving disputes in civilized fashion,
- to facilitate business activities and private planning;
- to provide some degree of freedom that would not otherwise be possible,
- to inhibit social discrimination and
- to improve the quality of individual life in matters of health, education and welfare.
In many ways, law is the cornerstone of our culture. The rule of law provides society with
the rules by which all of us live. Conversely, citizens have the right to rely on the law and be
confident of the protection provided by the courts.
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2. Answer the questions to the text.
1. How does the author of the article define law?
2. By what means does a government back up and enforce the laws?
3. What are other means of social control alongside with legal rules?
4. Why can’t a society live without a set of rules?
5. What are the main functions of law?

3. Translate the following key words from the text into English.
Свод правил, нормативные акты, поведение людей, законодательство, уполномоченный
орган, стоять на страже закона, поддерживать/подкреплять, карательная мера, средства
правовой защиты, моральные нормы/ моральные устои, общественное мнение, этические
принципы, незаконный, безнравственный, волнения и беспорядки, карательный,
запретительный, арестовывать подозреваемого, выносить приговор, обеспечивать
стабильность в обществе, способствовать, препятствовать.

4. Match the word combinations.


1) the purpose of law a) уважать права отдельного человека

2) to live in a society b) отражать изменяющиеся


потребности общества
3) to arrest and punish people without c) иметь разногласия и конфликты
a trial

4) to safeguard our personal property and our d) верить в верховенство закона


lives

5) to have disagreements and conflicts e) защищать основные права и свободы

6) to resolve dispute peacefully f) назначение (цель) права

7) to turn to the law g) иметь право открыто высказать свое


мнение

8) to respect individual rights h) жить в обществе

9) to believe in the Rule of Law j) стремиться изменить закон законными


средствами

10) in accordance with the law k) арестовывать и наказывать людей без суда
и следствия

11) to protect basic individual rights and l) охранять нашу собственность и жизнь
freedoms

12) to reflect the changing needs of society m) в соответствии с законом

13) to have the right to speak out publicly n) обращаться к закону

14) to seek to change the law by lawful means o) решать споры миром

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5. Give a short summary of the text according to the plan. Work in pairs.
- the definition of law
- legal rules and other means of social control
- the functions of law

UNIT 2
THE BIRTH OF LAW

1. Read the text and do the tasks to it below.


Rules and laws and the convention or customs from which they are descended have been
a part of human life ever since our ancestors first began to live in large and settled groups.
The history of law links closely to the development of civilization. Ancient Egyptian law, dating
as far back as 3000 BC, contained a civil code that was probably broken into twelve books. It
was based on the concepts of tradition, rhetorical speech, social equality and impartiality.
But our knowledge is vague of laws that were in effect before the invention of writing in
about 3500 B.C. The earliest known legal text was written by Ur-Nammu, a king of the
Mesopotamian city of Ur, in about 2100 B.C. It dealt largely with compensation for bodily
injuries and with the penalties for witchcraft and runaway slaves. The Old Testament dates back
to 1280 BC and takes the form of moral imperatives as recommendations for a good society. The
small Greek city-state, ancient Athens, from about the 8th century BC was the first society to be
based on broad inclusion of its citizenry, excluding women and the slave class. Ancient Greek
law contained major constitutional innovations in the development of democracy.
Roman law was heavily influenced by Greek philosophy, but its detailed rules were
developed by professional jurists and were highly sophisticated. Over the centuries between the
rise and decline of the Roman Empire, law was adapted to cope with the changing social
situations and underwent major codification. Although codes were replaced by custom and case
law during the Dark Ages, Roman law was rediscovered around the 11th century when medieval
legal scholars began to research Roman codes and adapt their concepts. Latin legal maxims
(called brocards) were compiled for guidance. In medieval England, royal courts developed a
body of precedent which later became the common law. A Europe-wide Law Merchant was
formed so that merchants could trade with common standards of practice and it lay foundation to
modern commercial law.

2. Find the words from the text that mean the following:
1) the use of magic power, especially with the aid of evil spirits
2) a punishment imposed for a violation of law or rule
3) an accepted social custom or practice
4) payment for damage or loss restitution
5) one from whom a person is descended
6) harm or damage done or suffered
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3. Answer the following questions:
1. Why is it difficult to judge about the earliest laws?
2. Where and why did the first laws appear?
3. What issues did the early laws emphasize? Why?

4. The word LEGAL has the following meanings in Russian:


1) юридический – legal person – юридическое лицо
2) правовой – legal text – правовой текст
3) судебный – legal action - судебный иск
4) законный, дозволенный законом – legal owner- законный владелец
5) легальный – legal activities - правомерная, законная деятельность

Match the following English expressions with their Russian equivalents.

1. legal activities a) законные права


2. legal address b) законный владелец
3. legal advice c) имеющий законную силу
4. legal age d) использовать свое законное право
5. legal costs e) история права
6. legal decision f) консультация юриста
7. legal document g) правовая защита
8. legal entity h) правовой документ
9. legal ethics i) правовой статус
10. legal expert j) законная деятельность
11. legal history k) профессиональная этика юриста
12. legal language l) решение суда
13. legal owner m) совершеннолетие
14. legal procedure n) стать юристом
15. legal protection o) судебные издержки
16. legal rights p) судопроизводство
17. legal status q) юридическая терминология
18. of legal force r) юридический адрес
19. to enjoy one’s legal right s) юридическое лицо
20. the enter the legal profession t) юрисконсульт, советник

Work in groups. What associations does the word “Babylon” call to mind? Make a list of
ideas and compare your notes.

5. Read the text and write down the Russian equivalents for the words and expressions in
bold.
Laws of Babylon
One of the most detailed ancient legal codes was drawn up in about 1758 B.C. by
Hammurabi, a king of Babylon. The entire code consisting of 282 paragraphs was carved into a

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great stone pillar which was set up in a temple to the Babylonian god Marduk so that it could be
read by citizen.
The pillar, lost for centuries after the fall of Babylon in the 16th century B.C., was
rediscovered by a French archeologist in 1901 amid the ruins of the Persian city of Susa.
Hammurabi’s words were still legible. The pillar is now in the Louvre museum in Paris.
The laws laid down by Hammurabi were more extensive than any that gone before. They
covered crime, divorce and marriage, the rights of slaves owners and slaves, the settlement of
debts, inheritance and property contracts; there were even regulations about taxes and prices of
goods.
Punishments under the code were often harsh. The cruel principle of revenge was
observed: an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth, which meant that criminals had to receive
those injures and damages they had inflicted upon their victims as punishments. Not only
murderers but also thieves and false accusers faced the death penalty. And a child who hit his
father could expect to lose the hand that struck the blow. The code outlawed private blood
feuds and banned the tradition by which a man could kidnap and keep a woman he wanted for
his bride. In addition the laws took account of the circumstances of the offender as well as the
offence. So a low-ranking citizen who lost a civil case would be fined less than an aristocrat in
the same position – though he would be awarded less if he won.
Nevertheless Hammurabi’s laws represented an advanced on earlier tribal customs,
because the penalty could not be harder than the crime.

6. Translate these words and expressions into English. What concepts do these groups of
words bring together?

вор смертная казнь брак


клеветник наказание развод
правонарушитель штрафовать налоги
правонарушение получать компенсацию наследство
преступление долги
кровная месть цены на товары
наносить ущерб гражданское дело
наносить увечья права рабов
похищать имущественные контракты

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7. Answer the following questions.
1. Why do you think Hammurabi decided to have his law carved into a pillar?
2. Why was the pillar set up in a temple?
3. What spheres of human life were covered by Hammurabi’s code? Explain your choice.
4. How do you understand the principle “an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth”?
5. In your opinion, were punishments always fair?
6. Why do you think people of different ranks were treated differently by Hammurabi’s code?

UNIT 3
THE HISTORY OF LAW. GREAT BRITAIN

1. Read the text and write down the Russian equivalents for the words in bold.

The Magna Carta


At the heart of the English system there are two principles of government – limited
government and representative government. The idea that government was not all-powerful
first appeared in the Magna Carta or Great Charter that King John signed in 1215 under the
threat of civil war. Earlier kings of England had issued charters making promises to their
barons. But these were granted by not exacted from the king and were very generally phrased.
Later the tension between the kings and the nobility increased. Since 1199 John’s barons had to
be promised their rights. It is therefore not surprising that Stephen Langton archbishop of
Canterbury directed baronial unrest into a demand for a solemn grant of liberties by the king.
The document known as the Articles of the Barons was at last agreed upon and became the text
from which the final version of the charter was drafted and sealed by John on June 15, 1215.
The Magna Carta established the principle of limited government in which the power
of the monarch or government was limited not absolute. This document provided for the
protection against unjust punishment and the loss of life, liberty and property except
according to law. It stipulated that no citizen could be punished or kept in prison without a fair

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trial. Under the Magna Carta the king agreed that certain taxes could not be levied without
popular consent.
Although the Magna Carta was originally intended to protect aristocracy and not the
ordinary citizens it came in time to be regarded as a cornerstone of British liberties. It is one
of the oldest written constitutional papers.

2. Answer the following questions.


1. What were the two basic principles of the English system of government at the beginning of
the 13th century? How do you understand these principles?
2. What political situation necessitated the granting of the Magna Carta?
3. What provisions did the Magna Carta contain?
4. Who enjoyed the rights granted by the Magna Carta?

3. The word GOVERNMENT has the following meanings in Russian:

1) государственная власть
executive government – исполнительная власть
judicial government – судебная власть
legislative government – законодательная власть

2) управление, руководство
to carry out the government of a state – осуществлять управление государством

3) форма правления, государственное устройство, политический строй


Democratic/republican/federal / демократическая/республиканская/
parliamentary government федеральная/парламентская форма правления
constitutional government конституционная форма правления
a system of government система правления

4) правительство, правительственный аппарат


Liberal/Labour/Conservative Government – либеральное, лейбористское, консервативное
правительство
to form the government – сформировать правительство

Match the following English expressions with their English equivalents.


1. arbitrary government a. действующее правительство
2.authoritarian government b. местное самоуправление
3. colonial form of government c.военная администрация
4. government investigation d. смешанная форма правления
5. government of the day e. парламентское правление
6. government offices f. правительство Ее Величества
7. government official g. правящая партия
8. government party h. правительственные учреждения
9. government department i. представительная форма правления
10 government’s term of office j. временное правительство
11. government regulation k. распустить \ расформировать правительство
12. Her Majesty’s Government l. органы государственного управления
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13. local government m. автократия
14. military government n. президентская власть
15. mixed government o.авторитарная форма правления
16. organs of government p. правительственное ведомство
17. parliamentary government q. правительственное расследование
18. presidential government r. колониальная форма государственного устройства
19. provisional government s. постановление правительства
20. representative government t. правительственный чиновник
21. to dissolve the government u. срок полномочий правительства

Use the expressions above to make sentences of your own.

4. Read and translate the text about one of the basic instruments of the British
constitution.
The Bill of Rights
The Bill of Rights (1689) is one of the basic instruments of the British constitution the
result of the long 17th century struggle between the Stuart kings and the English people and
Parliament. The Bill of Rights provided the foundation on which the government rested after the
Revolution of 1688. The Revolution settlement made monarchy clearly conditional on the will of
Parliament and provided a freedom from arbitrary government of which most Englishmen were
notably proud during the 18th century.
The main purpose of the act was unequivocally to declare illegal various practices of
James II. Among such practices proscribed were the royal prerogative of dispensing with the law
in certain cases, the complete suspension of laws without the consent of Parliament and the
levying of taxes and the maintenance of a standing army in peacetime without specific
parliamentary authorization. A number of clauses sought to eliminate royal interference in
parliamentary matters, stressing that elections must be free and that members of Parliament must
have complete freedom of speech. Certain forms of interference in the course of justice were also
proscribed. The act also dealt with the proximate succession to the throne provided the heirs
were Protestants. It is the constitutional paper of great importance which prevented the sovereign
from abuse of his authority.

5. What are the most essential issues concerning the Bill of Rights? Discuss them with your
partners using the information from the text.

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UNIT 4
LEGAL PROFESSION

1. Discuss the following questions with your partners.


a) What is a legal profession? Give a few examples of the people who work with law.
What are their responsibilities?
b) Explain what the term “legal language” means. Is this language difficult to understand
if you are not a lawyer?
c) When do people require legal aid? Give a few examples from criminal and civil law.

2. Read the text and do the tasks below.


A lawyer is a person learned in law. A lawyer, also known as an attorney, a counselor, a
solicitor, a barrister or an advocate, is an individual licensed by the state to engage in the practice
of law and advise clients on legal matters. Lawyers act as both advocates and advisors on behalf
of their clients.
The role of the lawyer varies significantly across legal jurisdictions, and therefore can be
treated in only the most general terms. Lawyers’ roles vary greatly, depending upon their
practice environment and field of specialization.
In most countries there is only one legal profession. This means that all the lawyers have
roughly the same professional education leading to the same legal qualifications, and they are
permitted to do all the legal work.
In England the system is different. Here the profession is divided into two types of
lawyers, called solicitors and barristers. Solicitors and barristers are both qualified lawyers, but
they have different legal training; they take different examinations to qualify; and once they have
qualified, they usually do different types of legal work.
Many solicitors deal with a range of legal work: preparing cases to be tried in the civil or
criminal courts; giving legal advice in the field of business and drawing up contracts; making all
the legal arrangements for the buying and selling of land or houses; assisting employees and
employers; making wills.
Barristers are mainly “courtroom lawyers” who actually conduct cases in court. Unlike
solicitors, they have rights of audience (rights to appear) in any court of the land, and so
barristers are those lawyers who appear in the more difficult cases in the higher courts.
The educational requirements to becoming a lawyer vary greatly from country to country.
In some countries, law is taught by a faculty of law, which is a department of a university's
general undergraduate college. Law students in those countries pursue a Bachelor (LLB) or a
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Master (LLM) of Laws degree. In some countries it is common or even required for students to
earn another bachelor's degree at the same time. Besides it is often followed by a series of
advanced examinations, apprenticeships, and additional coursework at special government
institutes. In other countries, particularly the United States, law is primarily taught at law
schools. Most law schools are part of universities but a few are independent institutions. Law
schools in the United States (and some in Canada and elsewhere) award graduating students a
J.D. (Juris Doctor/Doctor of Jurisprudence) as the practitioner's law degree (a professional
degree). However, like other professional doctorates, the J.D. is not the exact equivalent of the
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), a university degree of the highest level, since it does not require
the submission of a full dissertation based on original research.
The methods and quality of legal education vary widely. Some countries require
extensive clinical training in the form of apprenticeships or special clinical courses. Many others
have only lectures on highly abstract legal doctrines, which force young lawyers to figure out
how to actually think and write like a lawyer at their first apprenticeship (or job).
In most common law countries lawyers have many options over the course of their
careers. Besides private practice, they can always aspire to becoming a prosecutor, government
counsel, corporate in-house counsel, judge, arbitrator, law professor, or politician.
In most civil law countries, lawyers generally structure their legal education around their
chosen specialty; the boundaries between different types of lawyers are carefully defined and
hard to cross. After one earns a law degree, career mobility may be severely constrained.

3. Answer the questions to the text.


1) What is a lawyer licensed to do by the state?
2) What types of lawyers are there? Enumerate them.
3) In what way is the legal system of England different from other countries?
4) What are the differences between solicitors and barristers?
5) Why are barristers also called “courtroom lawyers”?
6) What are the educational requirements for the law students in the United States of America?
7) Is apprenticeship obligatory for law students in all countries?
8) What career opportunities do law students have in most common law countries?

4. Translate into English.


Консультировать клиентов по вопросам права; выполнять все виды юридической работы;
солиситоры и барристеры; сдавать квалификационные экзамены; право преподается на
юридическом факультете; университетский колледж, готовящий бакалавров; степень
магистра; добиваться получения степени бакалавра; присвоить ученую степень доктора
юриспруденции (США); защита диссертации; научно- исследовательская работа; учебная
практика; ученичество, место начального практического обучения; штатный
юрисконсульт компании; страны общего права (англо-саксонской системы права); страны
романо-германской (континентальной) системы права.

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5. Look at this list of legal occupations. All of these people work in law. We call all of the
people who work in these jobs “the legal profession”. Match the job with one of the
descriptions.
Solicitor Attorney Barrister Lawyer

а) This person is a lawyer who gives legal advice and


opinions to solicitors. He or she passed the exams of the
Bar Council of England &Wales at the end of his or her
studies.
___________________________

b) This person is a lawyer who gives legal advice to


individuals and companies. He or she passed his or her
exams in the USA at the end of his or her studies and is
usually a member of the American Bar Association.
___________________________

c) This person is a lawyer who gives legal advice to


individuals and companies. He or she passed the exams of
the Law Society of England &Wales at the end of his or
her studies.
___________________________

d) This is the general job title that we use for people who
work as a solicitor, barrister or attorney.
___________________________

6. Translate the text from Russian into English.

В Англии есть два типа юристов – солиситоры и барристеры. Барристер - это


юрист, который ведет судебные дела, выступает в суде, готовит документы для суда и т.д.
Солиситоры после 1990 года тоже получили право выступать в суде, если у них есть
специальный сертификат.
В Англии (не в Великобритании) в 2008 году было 112,2 тысяч солиситоров и
около 16,5 тысяч барристеров. С 1997 по 2008 год количество юристов в Англии
увеличилось более чем на 50%.
Для того чтобы стать солиситором нужно иметь юридическое образование. Это
либо бакалавр права в Англии (3 года) (LLB), либо бакалавр в какой-либо другой области
15
плюс годичный интенсивный курс профильного образования (называется GDL – Graduate
Diplomain Law).
Кроме юридического образования нужно получить контракт на прохождение практики в
юридической фирме (training contract). В течение двух лет надо проработать в 4 разных
департаментах по 6 месяцев в каждом. Получить образование в Англии относительно
легко. Что действительно сложно, так это получение контракта на прохождение практики
– в хорошие фирмы конкуренция составляет около 20-40 человек на место.

UNIT 5
BRANCHES OF LAW. CRIMINAL LAW

Part 1
1. Answer the questions.
1. Do you think that the problem of criminality is urgent in our country?
2. What can be a cause of crime? What leads people on the path of crime?
a) family surroundings (parents’ aggressive and tough behavior, especially in early ears).
b) the low income level of the family.
c) the moral atmosphere of the time: unemployment, commodity shortages, poverty.
d) disillusionment and loss of faith in the surrounding world.
e) the impact of the media and the Internet.
f) the ineffectiveness of the police.
3. What kinds of crimes do you know?

2. Read the text and do the tasks to it below.

Criminal Law
Criminal law is to provide protection for the social and state system, the universal
freedoms and personal rights of citizens against corrupt activities and criminal offences. In
general, criminal law classifies crimes on different grounds. According to the object of a
criminal activity, we may speak about:
- crimes of violence: vandalism, assault, battery, mugging, robbery, kidnapping, homicide,
16
- crimes committed for political reasons: hijacking, terrorism, assassination, treason,
- crimes connected with drugs: possession of drugs, drug traffic,
- crimes involving stealing or theft crimes;
- crimes committed by people in business or by office holders (so called "white-collar crimes"):
bribery, money laundering, perjury, computer crimes,
- car crimes: joy riding, drink driving, etc.
Criminal law also classifies a crime with respect to its gravity, such as treason, felony,
and misdemeanor and fixes punishments for them. Also included in criminal law are rules and
procedures for preventing and investigating crimes and prosecuting criminals, as well as the
regulations governing the constitution of courts, the conduct of trials, the organization of police
forces, and the administration of penal institutions.
As a matter of fact, criminal law is based on a number of universal principles. Here are some of
them:
- a person may be charged with criminal responsibility only if he has committed an act provided
for in the criminal legislation;
- there is a presumption that the accused is innocent and the prosecution must prove his guilt
beyond reasonable doubt;
- responsibility can exist only in the presence of guilt;
- a person may not be considered guilty unless all elements of an alleged crime have been
established in his acts;
- criminal punishment shall be applied only by a sentence of the court;
- persons committing crimes in a state of intoxication are not released from criminal
responsibility.
The following general defenses may excuse the accused from criminal responsibility:
- lack of age (if an offender is under 14 he is not criminally liable);
- self-defense (when people have good reason to believe they are in danger of serious injury or
death, they can use force to protect them-selves);
- defense of family members (courts will not punish someone for using force to rescue a family
member from attack if there was good reason to believe the victim was in danger of severe injury
or death);
- insanity (but everyone is presumed sane until the contrary is proved);
- duress by threats or duress of circumstances;
- entrapment (if a law enforcement officer induces a law-abiding citizen to commit a crime,
which would not have been committed without the involvement of the officer).

3. Answer the questions to the text.


1. What is criminal law supposed to provide?
2. On what basis does criminal law classify crimes?
3. What else is taken into consideration while classifying a crime?
4. What are the other aspects of criminal law?
5. What is the presumption of innocence?
6. Under what circumstances is a person considered guilty?

17
4. Translate the words and word combinations from the text into English.
Обеспечивать защиту, коррупционная деятельность, уголовные преступления, совершать
преступление, убийство, ограбление, хранение наркотиков, отмывание денег, дача
ложных показаний в суде, расследовать преступления, проводить судебный процесс,
исправительные учреждения, предъявлять обвинения, презумпция невиновности,
приговор суда, обвинять, самозащита.

5. Match a word in column A to a word in column B and write the names of the crimes.
A B
1 joy dealing
2 armed lifting
3 drunk riding
4 drug hacking
5 computer robbery
6 shop driving

6. Read these definitions and write the names of the crimes. Choose from Exercise 5 and
the following list.
Arson burglary forgery manslaughter slander
1. a false spoken statement about someone, intended to damage the good opinion that people
have of that person:_______________
2. deliberately making something burn, especially a building:_______________
3. getting into a building to steal things:__________________
4. stealing from the shop:______________
5. killing someone illegally but not deliberately:________________
6. stealing a car and driving it in a fast and dangerous way for fun:_____________
7.secretly using or changing the information in other people’s computer
systems:_________________
8. copying official documents, money, etc. illegally______________

7. Complete the table.


Verb Noun Person
mug 1 2
3 burglary 4
murder 5 6
- arson 7
steal 8 9
10 forgery 11
rob 12 13
14 joyriding 15

18
8. Read the text and do the following tasks:

a) Complete the text with the words from the list.


Amnesty anonymity arrest clamp down come forward penalty schemes tackle

b) Give your arguments for or against having a weapon.


One of the controversial subjects nowadays is the idea of offering the public a weapon
______________. At such times, people can take any illegally held weapons to a local police
station and no questions will be asked about them.
Such______________ have resulted in thousands of weapons being removed from the
streets, and the police see it as a useful way to __________crime in general, and gang crime in
particular.
However, as the_____________of the people handing in the weapons is maintained, the
police cannot___________anyone for having them.
Some people argue that the people who___________ and hand in weapons are unlikely to
be real criminals. But if this policy is used, and the_________________for possessing an illegal
weapon is increased at the same time, the police can give a clear message that they mean
to_____________ on people who carry weapons.

9. Listen to two lawyers discussing a criminal’s sentence. Mark the following statements as
True or False (T/F).
1. The woman believes that the client deserves probation.
2. This is the first time the woman’s client has committed a crime.
3. The man will seek a jail sentence for the woman’s client.

Listen again and complete the conversation.

Defense Lawyer: Let’s talk about the sentencing. My client does not deserve to get to jail. Will
you recommend_____________?
Prosecutor: Why do I do that?
Defense Lawyer: His crime wasn’t violent. He was only___________.
Prosecutor: But hewas_________of assault and battery two years ago.
Defense Lawyer: Yes, but he was punished for that.
Prosecutor: I’m still recommending that he go to jail.
Defense Lawyer: That seems unnecessary for such a small ___________.
Prosecutor: I just don’t want him to___________ again and hurt an innocent person.

10. Study more words expressing different kinds of offences and complete the table using
these words.
Embezzlement, perjury, forgery, fraud, speeding, kidnapping, rape, swindling, blackmail,
manslaughter.

Punishment Examples of crimes


Light punishment
Heavy punishment
Capital punishment

19
Part 2
Criminal Law in the United Kingdom

1. Before you read the text study the active vocabulary.


1. indictable offences – преступления, подлежащие рассмотрению по обвинительному акту
(тяжкие уголовные преступления)
2. summary offences – преступления, преследуемые в порядке суммарного (т.е.
упрощенного, без участия присяжных) производства
3. either-way offences – преступления двойной подсудности (которые могут быть
рассмотрены в магистратском суде или в суде Короны)
4. intent – преступный умысел
5. liability – ответственность

2. Read the text and do the tasks to it below.


The categories of crimes in the UK
There are three categories of crimes in the UK: indictable, summary, and either-way
crimes. Indictable offences are the most serious ones and are punishable by the longest prison
terms. They include murder, rape and robbery and can only be tried in the Crown Court.
Summary offences are the least serious ones, such as speeding and drunk-driving. Summary
trials are heard in magistrates’ courts.
Either-way offences can be heard either in the Crown Court or by magistrates. Examples
of either way offences include theft, drug offences and less serious physical violence. A
magistrate can decide that an either-way offence is serious enough to be heard in the Crown
Court where the penalties prescribed can be more severe. If, however, a magistrate decides that
an either-way offence can be heard as a summary trial, the defendant can choose to move the
trial to the Crown Court. An important aspect of criminal law is that in most crimes the
prosecution has to prove two elements. The first, actus reus, refers to the criminal act itself. The
second, mens rea, refers to the intent to commit a crime – ‘guilty mind’.
However, in some cases, such as drunk driving or speeding, the prosecution does not
have to prove intent. Such offences are said to be of ‘strict liability’. Types of serious crimes in
most jurisdictions are: arson, theft, sexual offences, terrorism. In common law arson is setting
fire to the dwelling of another person. Theft sometimes is still known by the traditional name of
20
larceny which probably is the most common crime involving criminal intent. The traditional
definition of theft is the physical removal of an object without the consent of the owner. Burglary
is entering a building, inhabited vehicle or vessel to steal, to inflict bodily harm or to do unlawful
damage.
In English law, any entry by an individual into a building with intent to commit theft is
burglary. Robbery is the commission of theft in circumstances of violence. Robbery takes many
forms – from the mugging of a stranger in the street to robberies of banks, involving numerous
participants and careful planning.

3. Answer the questions.


1. What are the three categories of crimes?
2. In what way are indictable offences punished?
3. What offences are heard in the magistrates’ courts?
4. Can an either-way offence be heard in different courts?
5. What is known as a ‘strict liability’ offence?
6. What is the most violent crime in your opinion?

4. Are these statements True or False?


1. Summary offences are punished by the longest prison terms.
2. Such offences as ‘theft’ and ‘drug offences’ can only be heard in Magistrates’ Courts.
3. Summary offences are the least serious offences.
4. Actus reus refers to the intent to commit a crime.
5. Men’s rea refers to the criminal act itself.

5. Match the words and word combinations.


1) indictable offence a) рассматривать (дело, случай)
2) summaryoffence b) суд Kороны
3) either – way offence c) насилие, принуждение, применение силы
4) to try d) преступление, подлежащее
5) the Сrown Court преследованию по обвинительному акту
6) magistrates’ court e) суд, судебное разбирательство
7) violence f) преступное намерение
8) trial g) виновное действие
9) men’s rea h) ответственность
10) actus reus i) преступление двойной подсудности
11) intent j) магистратский суд
k) преступление, преследуемое в порядке
12) liability суммарного производства
l) намерение, умысел

21
6. Study the following information and do the task below.
These are some of the punishments available to judges in the UK:
- prison;
- suspended sentences (the offender does not go to prison unless he or she commits another
crime);
- probation (normal life at home, but under supervision);
- youth custody in special centres for young adults;
- short disciplinary training at a detention centre;
- community service (decorating old people’s houses, etc);
- compensation (paying or working for one’s victim);
- fines (the punishment in 80 per cent civil cases);
- disqualification from driving;
- fixed penalty fines (especially for parking offences)
There has been no death penalty in Britain since 1965.

Which punishment do you think is suitable for each of the following crimes?
-a murder of a policeman;
- vandalizing a telephone box;
- drinking and driving without causing an accident;
- robbing a supermarket with a gun;
- shoplifting;
- parking a car illegally.
- a five to ten years in prison;
- a small fixed penalty fine;
- life imprisonment;
- a 400 pound fine;
- a 200 pound fine and disqualification from driving;
- 100 hours of community service.

UNIT 6
CAPITAL PUNISHMENT

1. Read the text and do the tasks to it below.


Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice
whereby a person is killed by the state as a punishment for a crime. The sentence that someone
be punished in such a manner is referred to as a death sentence, whereas the act of carrying out
the sentence is known as an execution. Crimes that are punishable by death are known as capital
crimes or capital offences, and they commonly include offences such
as murder, treason, espionage, war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide.
Etymologically, the term capital (lit. "of the head", derived via the Latin capitalis from caput,
"head") in this context alluded to execution by beheading.
22
Fifty-six countries retain capital punishment, 103 countries have completely abolished
it de jure for all crimes, six have abolished it for ordinary crimes (while maintaining it for special
circumstances such as war crimes), and 30 are abolitionist in practice.
Capital punishment is a matter of active controversy in several countries and states, and
positions can vary within a single political ideology or cultural region. In the European Union,
Article 2 of the Charter of the Fundamental Rights of the European Union prohibits the use of
capital punishment. The Counsel of Europe, which has 47 member states, has sought to abolish
the use of the death penalty by its members absolutely, through Protocol 13 of the European
Convention on Human Rights. However, this only affects those member states, which have
signed and ratified it, and they do not include Armenia, Russia and Azerbaijan. The United
Nations General Assembly has adopted, in 2007, 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014, non-binding
resolutions calling for a global moratorium on executions, with a view to eventual abolition.
Although most nations have abolished capital punishment, over 60% of the world's
population live in countries where the death penalty is retained, such as China, India ,theUnited
States of America, Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Japan and Sri Lanka.

2. Answer the questions to the text.


1. How are crimes punishable by death called?
2. What offences do capital crimes include?
3. What is the etymology of the term capital?
4. How many countries have abolished capital punishment in practice?
5. What document prohibits the use of capital punishment in Europe?
6. What countries retain death penalty?

3. Translate the words and word combinations into English.


Особо тяжкие преступления, шпионаж, геноцид, преступления против человечества,
отменить смертную казнь, противоречивый вопрос, запрещать, ратифицировать,
принимать резолюцию, мораторий.

4. Read the letter. Which of the two approaches to prison sentences do you support?
Discuss it with your partner.

Dear Editor,
Polly Fisher’ article last week made consider the pros and cons of harder prison sentences
in this country. The issue has never been easy to resolve and I am very much in two minds about
it myself. I’d like to share some of my views with other readers.
On the one hand, it is really scandalous, that some rapists and murderers are left out of
prison after three or five years. That is why many people in Britain are losing faith in the British
system of justice. According to them, we should bring back harder sentences for criminals and

23
they must pay for what they have done. Many people strongly support the American idea of
“three strikes and you are out” – the idea that after committing three crimes criminals are locked
up for life. It is also somehow wrong that much money is spent on prisons, so that some have
become like luxury hotels with televisions and gyms. Finally, I must admit that understand those
who believe we should restore capital punishment in this country as in the USA. It is important
to think about the wishes of the families and friends of murder victims who demand that justice
be done.
One the other hand, punishment shouldn’t be seen as an opportunity for revenge. We
need to help and reform convicted criminals and make them into useful members of the
community. Despite what other people say, capital punishment is judicial murder and no better
than any other murder. It is a savage form of punishment, which is against human dignity.
Besides, it is highly unfair, as there may be some judicial mistakes.
All in all, I’m sure, we need to do whatever it takes to consider the positive and negative
effects of harder sentencing before any final decisions are made.
Yours faithfully,
Hannah Sutter

UNIT 7
CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

1. Study the active vocabulary before you read the text.


1. reasonable grounds – достаточные основания
2. preponderance of evidence – наличие более веских доказательств
3. to plead innocent – заявить о своей невиновности
4. to take an oath – принять присягу
5. to overturn a court decision – отменить решение суда

2. Read the text and do the tasks to it below.


PRETRIAL STAGE. A criminal case passes through several phases before trial. At the
first stage, the crime is reported and investigated. Then, if there is “probable cause”, i.e.
reasonable grounds (something more than mere suspicion to believe that a particular person
committed the crime) the person can be arrested. An arrest warrant is necessary unless the
pressure of time requires immediate action before the suspect flees.
Finally, criminal charges must be lodged against the defendant. Depending on the state,
the charges are called either an indictment (by a grand jury) or information (by a magistrate or
police officer).They must be based on probable cause, preponderance of evidence, or
24
prosecutor’s evidence that supports a belief in the defendant’s guilt. In the USA most cases are
resolved without a trial. Attorneys for the defence and prosecution usually reach a plea bargain.
The judge must decide whether the guilty plea was freely given and whether there was some
factual basis for the plea, but judicial disapproval of an agreed upon plea is rare.
BURDEN OF PROOF. At the trial there is crucial difference between criminal and civil
cases in the level of proof required. A civil plaintiff merely needs a preponderance of the
evidence; the judge only needs to find that the evidence favours the plaintiff over the defendant.
A successful criminal prosecution requires proof of guilt beyond a reasonable doubt. The
prosecuting counsel opens the case with a short description of the events of the crime and calls
his witnesses. After taking an oath by the witness the prosecuting counsel begins his examination
by asking the witness his/her name, profession, place of domicile. In English law, witnesses are
not allowed to make lengthy statements to the court. It is the duty of the attorneys for both
parties to examine and cross-examine witnesses.
THE ORDER OF PROCEEDINGS. The session is opened by the court called to order
by the Clerk of the Court. The judge enters. The clerk says: “All rise”. Everyone stands up and
waits for the judge to take his seat. The accused is brought into the dock and the clerk asks for
his or her name.
The accused answers with the appropriate plea. In English law a person is innocent until
proven guilty. This means that in a trial the burden of proof is on the prosecution and if the
prosecution cannot establish a reasonable cause for conviction the court must acquit the accused.
Both the defence and prosecution give their closing arguments, the prosecution going first. The
judge sums up the evidence and instructs the jury on their duties.
He reminds the jury that if there is any doubt at all in their minds they must acquit the
defendant. The jury retires to the jury room to consider the verdict. The verdict “not guilty” does
not necessarily mean that the judge or jury believe the defendant to be innocent. It is simply a
finding that there was insufficient evidence to prove guilt beyond a reasonable doubt.
EVIDENCE. Criminal trial courts have numerous complex rules about what evidence is
admissible, and how it may be introduced. The rules are supposed to exclude irrelevant,
unreliable, or unfairly prejudicial matters, especially in jury cases (the system presupposes that a
judge is less likely to be swayed by improper evidence). The jury’s verdict is to be based solely
on the evidence properly brought out at the trial. Otherwise, proper highly relevant evidence may
be excluded because it was obtained in violation of a defendant’s constitutional rights. Criminal
appeals are often decided on such so-called technical issues.
APPEALS. The appeal is a petition for review of a case that has been decided by a court
of law. The petition is made to a higher court for the purpose of overturning the lower court’s
decision. The specific procedures for appealing can vary greatly depending on the type of case
and jurisdiction where the case was prosecuted. Appeals tend to focus on problems in the trial,
judge’s legal ruling, the instructions to the jury, and the trial procedures, not simply in the
judge’s factual interpretations.

3. Answer the questions to the text.


1. How many stages does a criminal case pass?
2. Why is the arrest warrant necessary?
3. What do criminal charges depend on?
4. Can a case be resolved without a trial?
5. How does the prosecuting counsel manage to produce the appropriate evidence in court?
6. What kind of evidence can be excluded?
7. What is the purpose of appeals?

25
4. Match the words and word combinations with the translation.
1) guilty plea a) заявление о признании вины
2) probable cause b) сделка о признании вины
3) preponderance of evidence c) разумное, обоснованное
4) burden of proof сомнение
5) plea bargain d) обвинительный акт
6) reasonable doubt e) перевес доказательств
7) information f) заявление об обвинении по делу
8) indictment g) бремя доказательств
h) вероятная причина

5. Choose the right answer according to the text.


1. At the first stage of a criminal case before trial …
a) the police collect evidence.
b) the crime is reported and investigated.
c) the suspected person must be interviewed by the police.

2. A person may be arrested if there …


a) is a suspicion of the police officer.
b) is testimony of witnesses.
c) are reasonable grounds.

3. At the final stage


a) the suspected person must be arrested by the police.
b) criminal charges must be brought against somebody.
c) the suspected person must be taken into custody.
4. A successful criminal prosecution requires …
a) proof of guilt beyond a reasonable doubt.
b) that evidence favours the prosecution over the defendant.

5. There is a special order of proceedings and the session starts with …


a) the prosecutor’s statement.
b) the defence opening speech.
c) the appropriate plea of the accused.

6. The verdict “not guilty” means that … .


a) the defendant is acquitted.
b) there was insufficient evidence to prove the guilt beyond reasonable doubt.
c) the jury considers the defendant to be innocent.

7. Appellate courts exist to …


a) find the defendant guilty.
b) impose a more severe punishment.
c) correct errors in the application of the law.

6. Are these statements True or False?


1. When opening the session the Clerk of the Court is called.
2. One of the main principles of the English law is that a person is innocent until proven guilty.
3. Only the prosecution attorneys give their closing arguments.
26
4. There are no special rules about what evidence is admissible in criminal proceedings.
5. In jury cases the judge is responsible for the legal ruling of trial procedures.
6. The procedures for appealing are the same in every court of law.

7. Match the words with its definitions.


1) defendant a) a person who suffers injury, loss, or death as
a result of criminal activity or other
circumstances.
2) victim b) the person who leads a trial and decides on
the sentence.
3) jury c) someone who appears in a court of law to
say what they know about a crime or other
event.
4) prosecution d) the party against which a legal action or suit
is brought in a court of law.
5) judge e) a specific number of lay people, selected as
prescribed by law to render a verdict in a trial.
6) witness f) the party that initiates a criminal case.

UNIT 8
CIVIL LAW

1. Read the text and do the tasks to it below.


Civil law is a body of rules that defines and protects the private rights of citizens, offers
legal remedies that may be sought in a dispute, and covers areas of law such as contracts, torts,
property and family law. Civil law is derived from the laws of ancient Rome, which used
doctrines to develop a code that determined how legal issues would be decided.
The differences between common law and civil law systems
The terms common law system and civil law system are used to distinguish two distinct
legal systems and approaches to law. The use of the term “common law” in this context refers to
all those legal systems which have adopted the historic English legal
system. Foremost amongst these is, of course, the United States, but
many other Commonwealth and former Commonwealth countries
retain a common law system. The term “civil law” refers to those
other jurisdictions which have adopted the European continental
system of law derived essentially from ancient Roman law, but
owing much to the Germanic tradition.

The usual distinction to be made between the two systems is that the common law system
tends to be case-centred and hence judge-centred, allowing scope for a discretionary pragmatic
approach to the particular problems that appear before the courts. The law can be developed on a
27
case-by-case basis. On the other hand, the civil law system tends to be a codified body of general
abstract principles, which control the exercise of judicial discretion.
Civil law is used in most nations in Europe and Latin America, as well as in some
countries in Asia and Africa. From its origins in continental Europe, the civil law gradually
spread to all of the areas in Africa, Asia, and Latin America that were colonies of France, the
Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, or Portugal.
When they gained independence, most of the former colonies continued the civil-law
orientation of their legal systems. Civil-law systems were also voluntarily adopted in Japan,
South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, and Turkey.
In a number of countries, moreover, the civil law constitutes an important component of a
mixed legal system.
For example, in Scotland, South Africa, and Sri Lanka, the legal system combines civil-
and common-law elements.
In North America the same phenomenon can be observed in the State of Louisiana and in
the province of Quebec.
The legal systems of many North African and Middle Eastern nations are strongly
influenced by the French civil-law codes, even though in some areas of law — especially those
relating to the family and to family property — these countries tend to follow Islamic tradition.
Thus, the law of Great Britain, the United States, Canada, and a number of other nations, is
based on English Common law, which differs from civil law in origin and other important
respects.

2. Answer the questions to the text.


1. What legal systems does the term “common law” refer to?
2. What countries adopted the English legal system? Give some examples.
3. What countries keep the system of law derived mainly from ancient Rome Law? Give some
examples.
4. What are the main differences between the two law systems?

3. Are these statements True or False?


1. Legal systems around the world vary greatly.
2. In most countries legal systems follow Civil Law and a combination of Common and Civil
law.
3. In Common Law, past legal precedents or judicial rulings are used to decide the cases.
4. Under Civil Law, codified statutes rule the case.
5. The difference between Common and Civil legal systems doesn’t lie in the actual source of
law.

4. Translate the following words and word combinations into English.


Предлагать средства правовой защиты, определять правовые вопросы, различные подходы
к законодательству, принимать правовую систему, сохранять правовую систему,
основываться на прецеденте, сохранять подход, предусматривающий собственное мнение,
распространяться по всему миру, получить независимость, добровольно принять, быть
под сильным влиянием.

5. Read the text about the key differences between Civil Law and Criminal law.

1. Before you read study the active vocabulary.


первостепенная цель – primary purpose
28
неподобающее поведение – undesirable behaviour
инициировать правовой спор/судебное дело – bring the law suit
обвинение в преступлении – criminal charges
подать жалобу – file a complaint
наказать нарушителя – punish the wrongdoer
главное различие – the key difference
доказательство -proof
наличие более веских доказательств- preponderance of evidence
обвинения/подозрения - allegations
вне всякого сомнения – beyond reasonable doubt

2. Discuss the text with your partner according to the plan:


- primary purposes;
- the way the lawsuit is brought;
- the standards of proof.
Civil law and criminal law serve different purposes in legal system. The primary purpose
of civil law is to resolve disputes and provide compensation for someone injured by someone
else’s acts or behavior. The primary purpose of criminal law is to prevent undesirable behavior
and punish those who commit an act deemed undesirable by society.
In civil law, it is the injured person who brings the lawsuit. By contrast, in criminal law, it
is the government that files charges. The injured person may file a complaint, but it is the
government that decides whether criminal charges should be filed. A violation of criminal law is
considered a crime against the state or federal government and is a violation of public law rather
than private law. Civil law cases are concerned only with private law. In some instances, a
person may be entitled to file a complaint, trusting the legal system to punish the wrongdoer with
prosecution, while bringing a civil lawsuit to receive compensation for the damages done by the
wrongdoer.
Another key difference between civil and criminal law is the standards of proof required
to reach a verdict. A plaintiff needs only to prove his civil law case by a “preponderance of
evidence.” This standard requires that the plaintiff should convince the court that, based on the
evidence presented at trial, it is “more likely than not” that the plaintiff’s allegation is true.
In contrast, the standard of proof is higher in criminal law proceedings. The state must prove
their case “beyond a reasonable doubt.”
The reason for this higher standard is because a person’s freedom is at stake, and the
fundamental belief that convicting an innocent person is worse than allowing a guilty person to
go free.

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UNIT 9
BRANCHES OF CIVIL LAW

1. Read the text and do the tasks to it below.

Civil law cases are divided into four main categories, each covering a range of issues.
Contract Law
Contract law deals with agreements between two or more parties, each of which is obligated to
hold up their portion of the agreement. If one party violates any of the provisions of the contract,
they have committed a civil wrong known as “breach of contract.” Generally speaking, contracts
may be oral or written, however there are certain types of contracts that must be put in writing.
Tort Law
Tort law is a branch of civil law that is concerned with personal injury and civil wrongdoing. A
tort is a civil wrong, done by one person or entity to another which results in injury or property
damage, and frequently involves monetary compensation to the injured party. There are three
categories of torts: negligence, intentional tort, and strict liability.
Negligence is an unintentional tort, to which there are some elements, that must be
satisfied. For example, breach of duty means that the defendant failed to act reasonably or
causation, which means that the defendant’s breach of duty must be the cause of plaintiff’s injury
or loss.
An intentional tort is a deliberate wrongdoing in which the defendant acted with intent
to cause harm or injury. Some examples of intentional torts include:assault and battery, false
imprisonment, fraud, invasion of privacy, and intentional infliction of emotional distress.
Strict liability is a tort that does not require actual negligence or intent to injure. It is
based on an absolute or “strict” duty to ensure something is safe. Strict liability frequently comes
into play with hazardous activities, such as bungee jumping. The company that owns the bungee
cords, or offers the activity to consumers, has an absolute duty to make sure the bungee cords are
intact, hooked up correctly, and are ready to operate safely. If a consumer is injured because the
cord breaks or comes undone, the company is liable for the injury under strict liability.

Property Law
Property law covers both personal property and real property. Personal property can be tangible,
such as jewelry, animals, and merchandise, or intangible such as patents, copyrights, stocks and
bonds. Real property refers to land and anything built on it, that cannot be easily removed, as
well as anything under the surface of the land, such as oil and minerals. There are two types of
property law torts: trespass and conversion.
 Trespass to chattels refers to a defendant intentionally and physically interfering with
the plaintiff’s right to possession and use of their personal property.
 Trespass to land occurs when a defendant enters plaintiff’s private property without
consent of the plaintiff.
 Conversion refers to a defendant depriving a plaintiff of their personal property without
the plaintiff’s consent, and then using the plaintiff’s property as his own.

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Family Law
Family law is the branch of civil law that deals with marriage, divorce, annulment, child custody,
adoption, birth, child support, and any other issues affecting families. This branch of civil law is
unique in that there is not necessarily a person who committed a civil wrong. This is particularly
true in states that have no-fault divorces. The family court gets involved with dividing up
property and finances after a divorce, establishing child custody, child support, and spousal
support among other things. Some newer areas that fall under the family law umbrella are same-
sex marriage, artificial conception, surrogate motherhood, in vitro fertilization, and palimony.

2. Answer the questions to the text.

1. What are the main branches of Civil Law?


2. What is Contract law concerned with?
3. What does Tort law deal with?
4. What are the categories of torts?
5. What does Property law refer to?
6. What is there unique about family law as a branch of Civil Law?

3. Translate the following words and word combinations into English.

Соглашение между сторонами, нарушать условия контракта, гражданское


правонарушение, небрежность, безусловная ответственность, невыполнение
обязанностей, намеренное правонарушение, причинить вред, нанести увечья,
материальные ценности, нематериальные ценности, проникновение на территорию
частной собственности, опека над ребенком, алименты, алименты в незарегистрированном
браке, искусственное оплодотворение.

4. Read the job advertisement for an attorney and choose the correct answer.

Civil Law Attorney


$65. 000 per year
This medium –sized city law firm is seeking an attorney with civil law experience. Primary
responsibility is handling tort law cases. Most cases involve clients suing for monetary damages
because of personal injuries. The attorney assists clients in filling for injunctions when needed.
They will also be required to prove liability and establish the negligence of the defendants. Our
clients generally require compensation for medical costs, loss of earnings and punitive damages.
The attorney may also be involved in other cases, including probate and divorce cases.
Please, send your resume to the address below.
Benson and Cutler law Firm

1. What is attorney’ s primary responsibility?


A divorce cases B tort cases C probate cases D medical cases

2.Which of the following is not part of the job?


A claiming damages B suing defendants C proving negligence D compensating witnesses

3.What can be inferred about most of the clients at Benson and Cutler?
A They were found to be negligent B They need a last will to be written
C They are being sued for medical bills D They have been injured in an accident

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5. Fill in the gaps with the following words.

Penal, employment, custody, illegal, damages, trials, civil, divorce, public, unions, criminal
1. Family law relates to family matters and domestic relations. It deals with areas such as
marriage and _______________ (1), child ________________ (2), child/spousal abuse, adoption
and alimony. 2. Tort law deals with ________________ (3) wrongs, such as negligence,
defective products and libel. It deals with liability (i.e. who has committed the wrong) and the
_________________ (4) that are paid to the person or people who have suffered as a result. 3.
Criminal law is a branch of law also known as ________________ (5) law; this branch is
distinguished from civil law. It relates to _____________ (6) acts committed against individuals
and punishable by the state. 4. This branch of law is distinguished from________________ (7)
law. It refers to the area of law that deals with relations between private individuals (for example
wills, contractual disputes and torts such as negligence and libel). 5. Labour law is the area of
law which relates to the ________________ (8) of workers. It encompasses issues such as
contracts, conditions of work, trade________________ (9), discrimination, redundancy and
wrongful dismissal. 6. Criminal procedure is the area of law which regulates the way in which
legal proceedings are conducted in _____________ (10) cases. It deals with issues such as police
powers (interrogation of suspects, decision to prosecute, etc), confessions, criminal rights,
criminal ______________ (11), the functions of judges and jury, witnesses, verdicts and appeals.

6. Read the text and discuss it with your partner. Why was the case called controversial
and frivolous by the media? Find other examples of world wide famous companies being
sued by ordinary people.
Civil Case Example
While the lawsuit against McDonald’s made national headlines, the facts of the case regarding
negligence, defective product, and breach of implied warranty make a fascinating civil case.
Liebeck v. McDonald’s Restaurants CV-93-02419, 1995 (N.M. Dist., Aug. 18, 1994)
This case began when 79-year-old Stella Liebeck, who was a passenger in her grandson’s
car, purchased a cup of coffee at McDonald’s drive-through. While the car was still parked,
Liebeck removed the lid from the cup to add some creamer to her coffee, inadvertently dropping
the cup and spilling the scalding hot coffee on her lap. Liebeck suffered third-degree, deep tissue
burns on her legs that required multiple surgeries and skin grafts.
Liebeck filed a civil lawsuit against McDonald’s for her injuries under the torts of strict
liability and negligence. This case was controversial in that the media portrayed Liebeck’s civil
lawsuit as frivolous because she was suing over coffee being too hot. However, the damages to
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her body, her pain and suffering, loss of income, and loss of enjoyment in life due to pain were
real and she did prevail in court. The jury found that the defendant’s product (the coffee) was
defective (too hot to drink) and this constituted a breach of implied warranty (the assumption that
the coffee was safe to drink). The jury also found that Liebeck was twenty percent at fault for her
injuries.

UNIT 10
INTERNATIONAL LAW

1. Study the active vocabulary before you read the text.


1. public international law – международное публичное право
2. private international law – международное частное право
3. supranational law – наднациональное право
4. conflict of laws – коллизия правовых норм, коллизионное право
5. body of rules – совокупность норм
6. to govern rights and duties – регулировать права и обязанности
7. source of law – источник права, binding source of law – обязательный источник права
8. custom – обычай, customary law – обычное право
9. customs – таможня, customs union – таможенный союз
10. charter – устав, хартия
11. to be derived from – происходить из
12. to refer to – относиться, иметь отношение к , to be referred to as – называться
13. intergovernmental organization – межправительственная организация
14. principal vehicle – основной инструмент
15. to implement law – вводить законы в действие
16. to enforce law – обеспечивать соблюдение законов
17. recommendatory – рекомендательный
18. to develop standards – разработать стандарты
19. the World Intellectual Property Organization – Всемирная организация по вопросам
интеллектуальной собственности
20. (private) individual – физическое лицо
21. business entity – юридическое лицо
22. to be concerned with – иметь дело с
23. to apply law – применять закон
24. to be distinguished from – отличаться от
25. legal framework – правовая система
26. to unite authority – объединять власть

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2. Read the text and do the tasks to it below.
In its widest sense, international law can include public international law, private
international law and, more recently, supranational law. In its narrowest meaning, the term
international law is used to refer to what is commonly known as public international law. Private
international law is sometimes referred to as conflict of laws. Conflict of laws can also refer to
conflicts between states in a federal system, such as the USA.
Public international law is the body of rules, laws or legal principles that govern the
rights and duties of nation states in relation to each other. It is derived from a number of sources,
including custom, legislation and treaties. Article 2 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of
Treaties (1969) defines a treaty as ‘an international agreement concluded between States in
written form and governed by international law …’. These treaties may be in the form of
conventions, agreements and charters. Custom, also referred to as customary international law, is
another binding source of law, and originates from a pattern of state practice motivated by a
sense of legal right or obligation. Laws of war were a matter of customary law before being
codified in the Geneva Conventions and other treaties.
International institutions and intergovernmental organizations whose members are states
have become a principal vehicle for making, applying, implementing and enforcing public
international law, especially since the end of World War II. The best-known intergovernmental
organization is the United Nations, which develops new recommendatory standards, e.g. the
Declaration of Human Rights. Other international norms and laws have been established through
international agreements such as Geneva Conventions on the conduct of war or armed conflict,
as well as by other international organizations, such as the World Health Organization, the
World Intellectual Property Organization, the World Trade Organization and the International
Monetary Fund.
Private international law refers to the body of rights and duties of private individuals and
business entities of different states. It is concerned with two main questions: 1) the jurisdiction in
which a case may be heard, and 2) which laws from which jurisdiction(s) apply. It is
distinguished from public international law because it governs conflicts between private
individuals or business entities, rather than conflicts between states or other international bodies.
Supranational law, or the law of supranational organizations, refers to regional agreements where
the laws of a nation state are not applicable if in conflict with a supranational legal framework.
At present, the only example of this is the European Union, which constitutes a new legal order
in international law where sovereign nations have united their authority through a system of
courts and political institutions.

3. Translate the following words and word combinations into Russian.


Member-states, to become a principal vehicle for making and applying law, the body of laws or
principles, nation states, to include custom, legislation and treaties; to define a treaty as, to
conclude an agreement, to codify laws, to establish norms, conduct of war or armed conflict, the
International Monetary Fund, to constitute a legal order, a system of courts and political
institutions.

4. Translate the following words and word combinations into English.


Всемирная торговая организация, создавать законы посредством международных
соглашений, обычное международное право, обеспечивать соблюдение законов,
34
межправительственная организация, источники международного публичного права,
коллизионное право, Декларация прав человека, заключать региональные соглашения,
находиться в противоречии с наднациональным правом.
5. Answer the questions to the text.
1. What is international law in its widest sense? And its narrowest?
2. What does public international law govern?
3. What are the three main sources of public international law?
4. How is an international treaty defined?
5. What forms may it take?
6. What is the role of international institutions and international organizations today?
7. What international organizations do you know?
8. What does private international law deal with?
9. Why is it distinguished from public international law?
10. What is a supranational legal framework?

6. Fill in the gaps with the following words and word combinations.
supranational, non-governmental, inter-state,
bilateral, customs-union, charter, legal framework, conflict of laws
1. A … organization is a legally constituted organization created by private persons or
organizations with no participation or representation of any government.
2. The EU is a ... organization that creates, implements and enforces policies for its members.
3. The International Court of Justice has been criticized for its failure to resolve … disputes.
4. Russia and Armenia have concluded a … agreement on trade and economic cooperation.
5. A … is a group of nations who wish to remove customs barriers between them.
6. …refers to the body of law dealing with disputes between private persons who live in different
jurisdictions.
7. A ... is, in essence, a broad system of rules.
8. A ... is an agreement by which rights are granted to an international body by the signatory
nations to the agreement.

7. Translate these sentences into English.


1. В самом широком смысле термин «международное право» может означать публичное
международное право, частное международное право, а с недавних пор и
наднациональное право.
2. Частное международное право иногда называют коллизионным правом.
3. Публичное международное право это совокупность норм и правовых принципов,
которые регулируют права и обязанности национальных государств в их отношениях друг
с другом.
4. Источниками международного публичного права являются договоры, обычай и общие
принципы права.
5. Международные институты и межправительственные организации являются основным
инструментом создания и обеспечения международного публичного права.

35
6. Частное международное право отличается от публичного международного права тем,
что регулирует отношения между физическими и юридическими лицами, а не отношения
между государствами или международными организациями.
7. В настоящее время единственным примером транснациональных отношений является
Европейский Союз, в котором суверенные государства объединили свою власть через
систему судов и политических институтов.

UNIT 11
THE HISTORY OF THE UN

1. Answer the questions using the speech models given below.

In my view (in my opinion) По-моему


Personally, I think Я считаю
As far as I’m concerned Что касается меня …
According to smb. Как считает …
I agree (with you) Я с Вами согласен
I doubt Я сомневаюсь
I have my doubts about Я не уверен (в чем-либо)
Yes, you could be right but I’m not sure Возможно, Вы правы, но Я не уверен (что)
(that) … …
I partly agree Я согласен (в какой-то мере) …
I agree to some extent but В некотором плане я согласен, но ...
I’m afraid I totally disagree Боюсь, что я совсем не согласен ...

1. What do you know about the United Nations?


2. Do you think the UN is a governmental organization?
3. What city is associated with the United Nations?
4. Do you believe the UN should protect human rights?
5. Does the UN fight against terrorism?
2. Do you know these words and word combinations? Read and translate them.
1. to facilitate cooperation 14. Economic and Social Council
2. to maintain peace 15. International Court of Justice
16. public figure
3. to provide a platform for dialogue
17. to attain a post
4. human rights
18. successor
5. to promote respect for human rights
19. aim
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6. international security 20. to fight against
7. to achieve world peace 21. to settle disputes by peaceful means
8. UN member-states (peacefully)
9. UN headquarters 22. to settle disputes through negotiations
10. The UN Charter 23. non-interference in the internal affairs
11. The UN General Assembly 24. the use of force
12. The UN Secretary General 25. to espouse the idea
13. The UN Security Council

3. Read and translate the text about the UN.


The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate
cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress,
human rights, and achieving world peace. The UN was founded in 1945 after World War II to
replace the League of Nations, to stop wars between countries, and to provide a platform for
dialogue.
There are currently nearly 200 member states, including nearly every recognized independent
state in the world. From its headquarters on international territory in New York City, the UN
and its specialized agencies decide on substantive and administrative issues in regular meetings
held throughout the year. The organization is divided into administrative bodies, primarily:
- The General Assembly (the main deliberative assembly);
- The Security Council (decides certain resolutions for peace and security);
- The Economic and Social Council (assists in promoting international economic and social
cooperation and development);
- The Secretariat (provides studies, information, and facilities needed by the UN);
- The International Court of Justice (the primary judicial organ).
Additional bodies deal with the governance of all other UN System agencies, such as the World
Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children`s Fund (UNICEF).
The UN`s most visible public figure is the Secretary-General, currently Ban Ki-moon of South
Korea, who attained the post in 2007. The organization is financed from assessed and voluntary
contributions from its member states, and has six official languages: Arabic, Chinese, English,
French, Russian and Spanish.
The UN was founded as a successor to the League of Nations, which was widely considered to
have been ineffective in its role as an international governing body, as it had been unable to
prevent World War II. The term “United Nations” was first used by Winston Churchill and

37
Franklin D. Roosevelt, in the 1942 Declaration by United Nations, which united the Allied
countries of WWII under the Atlantic Charter, and soon became a term widely used to refer to
them. Declarations signed at wartime Allied conferences in 1943 espoused the idea of the UN.
Those and later talks outlined the organization`s proposed purposes, membership, organs, and
ideals in regard to peace, security, and cooperation.
On 25 April 1945, the UN Conference on International Organization began in San-Francisco,
attended by 50 governments and a number of non-governmental organizations involved in
drafting the Charter of the UN. The UN officially came into existence on 24 October 1945 upon
ratification of the Charter by the five permanent members of the Security Council – France, the
Republic of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States – and by a
majority of the other 46 signatories. The first meetings of the General Assembly, with 51
nations represented, and the Security Council, took place in Westminster Central Hall in
London in January 1946. According to the Charter, the UN is to maintain international peace
and security, to develop friendly relations among nations, to cooperate in solving international
problems and in promoting respect for human rights 2007. The organization is financed from
assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states, and has six official languages:
Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish.

4. Find the English equivalents to the following combinations in the text.


Международная безопасность, содействовать сотрудничеству, уважать права человека,
обеспечить платформу для диалога, важные вопросы, сохранять мир во всем мире,
согласно Уставу, Генеральный Секретарь ООН, вступить в должность, предотвратить
войну, преемник Лиги Наций, прекратить войны, штаб-квартира, Генеральная Ассамблея
ООН, Совет Безопасности.

5. Complete the following sentences using the active vocabulary.


1. The United Nations is an international organization whose stated aims are … .
2. The UN was founded in … .to … .
3. The UN’s most visible public figure is …. .
4. The UN was founded as a successor to … .
5. The organization is divided into administrative bodies, primarily … .
6. The UN officially came into existence … .
7. According to the Charter, the UN is … .

6. Answer the questions about the UN.


1. When was the UN founded and for what purpose?
2. When was the term “United Nations” first used and by whom?
3. What countries ratified the UN Charter?
4. What did the UN Charter set out?
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5. What are the main organs of the UN?
6. When did the UN officially come into existence?
7. When and where did the first meetings of the General Assembly and the Security Council
take place?

7. Translate the sentences into Russian.


1. When states become members of the UN, they agree to accept the obligations of the UN
Charter, an international treaty, which sets out basic principles of international relations.

2. According to the Charter, the UN has four purposes: to maintain international peace and
security, to develop friendly relations among nations, to cooperate in solving international
problems and promoting respect for human rights, and to be a centre for harmonizing the
actions of nations.

3. The UN is not a world government, and it does not make laws. It does, however, provide the
means to help resolve international conflicts and formulate policies on matters affecting all of
us.

4. The United Nations is much more than a peacekeeper and forum for conflict resolution.
Often without attracting attention, the UN is engaged in a vast array of work that touches on
every aspect of people’s lives around the world.

5. The UN recognizes the sovereign equality of all its members who will refrain from use or
threat of force in inter-state relations. It does not interfere in matters that are within the
domestic jurisdiction of any state.

8. Translate the sentences into English using the active vocabulary of the unit.
1. Целью ООН является поддержание международного мира между народами и
безопасности, разрешение всех спорных вопросов путем переговоров.
2. Основными органами ООН являются: Генеральная Ассамблея, Совет Безопасности,
Экономический и Социальный Совет, Международный Суд, Секретариат, каждый из
которых включает в себя большое количество комитетов и подкомитетов
3. Устав ООН был подписан 50 странами в 1945 году в Сан-Франциско, Калифорния.
4. ООН всегда руководствовалась принципом невмешательства во внутренние дела
независимых государств и пыталась удержать конфликтующие стороны при разрешении
спорных вопросов.

39
5. ООН выступает за осуществление международного сотрудничества в экономической,
социальной, культурной и гуманитарной областях.

UNIT 12
HUMAN RIGHTS

1. Do you know these words and word combinations? Read and translate them.
1. the pursuit of human rights
2. atrocities
3. human rights violations
4. to that end
5. to take up human rights issues
6. high-profile positions
7. indigenous peoples
8. populace
9. to be afflicted by

2. Read the text and do the tasks to it below.


The pursuit of human rights was the central reason for creating the UN, World War II atrocities
and genocide led to a ready consensus that the new organization must work to prevent any
similar tragedies in the future. An early objective was creating a legal framework for
considering and acting on complaints about human rights violations. The UN Charter obliges all
member nations to promote “universal respect for, and observance of, “human rights” and to
take “joint and separate action” to that end. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights,
though not legally binding, was adopted by the General Assembly in 1948. The Assembly
regularly takes up human rights issues.
The UN and its agencies are implementing the principles enshrined in the Universal Declaration
of Human Rights. A case in point is support by the UN for countries in transition to democracy,
technical assistance in providing free and fair elections, improving judicial structures, drafting
constitutions, training human rights officials. The UN has helped run elections in countries with
little democratic history, including recently in Afghanistan and East Timor. The UN is also a
forum to support the right of women to participate fully in the political, economic, and social
life of their countries. The UN contributes to raising consciousness of the concept of human
rights through its covenants and its attention to specific abuses through its General Assembly,
Security Council resolutions, or International Court of Justice rulings.
The purpose of the United Nations Human Rights Council, established in 2006, is to address
human rights violations. The Council is the successor to the United Nations Commission on
40
Human Rights, which was often criticised for the high-profile positions it gave to member states
that did not guarantee the human rights of their own citizens. The council has 47 members
distributed by region, each serve a three year term, and may not serve three consecutive terms.
A candidate to the body must be approved by a majority of the General Assembly.
The rights of some 370 million indigenous peoples around the world is also a focus for the UN,
with the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples being approved by the General
Assembly in 2007. The declaration outlines the individual and collective rights to culture,
language, education, identity, employment and health, thereby addressing post-colonial issues
which have confronted indigenous peoples for centuries. The declaration aims to maintain,
strengthen and encourage the growth of indigenous institutions, cultures and traditions. It also
prohibits discrimination against indigenous peoples and promotes their active participation in
matters which concern their past, present and future.
In conjunction with other organizations such as the Red Cross, the UN provides food, drinking
water, shelter and other humanitarian services to populaces suffering from famine, displaced by
war, or afflicted by other disasters. Major humanitarian branches of the UN are World Food
Programme (which helps feed more than 100 million people a year in 80 countries), the office
of the High Commissioner for Refugees with projects in over 116 countries, as well as
peacekeeping projects in over 24 countries.

3. Answer the questions to the text.


1. What was the central reason for creating the UN?
2. When was the Universal Declaration of Human rights adopted?
3. What principles enshrined in the Declaration are being implemented by the UN and its
agencies?
4. What is the purpose of the United Nations Human Rights Council?
5. What does the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples outline?
6. What does the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples prohibit

4. Are these statements true (T) or false (F)?.


1. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted by the Security Council in 1945.
2. The UN Charter obliges all member nations to promote respect for and observance of human
rights.
3. The UN does not support the rights of women.
4. The UN Human Rights Council was established in 2000.
5. The UN Commission on Human Rights was criticized for not taking up human rights issues
regularly.
6. The Declaration of Human Rights of Indigenous Peoples does not promote the active
participation in matters which concern their life

5. Read the first 10 articles of the Declaration and fill in the gaps using the words from the
list.
сharge, detention, discrimination, exile, freedoms, law, liberty, punishment, race, remedy,
rights, slavery, tribunal, free
Model: Article 1 All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.

41
Article 2 Everyone is entitled to all the rights and _________________ set forth in this
Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as _________________, colour, sex,
language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other
status.
Article 3
Everyone has the right to life, ________________ and security of person.
Article 4 No one shall be held in __________ or servitude; slavery and the slave and the slave
trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.
Article 5
No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or
____________ .
Article 6
Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the ________________ .
Article 7
All are equal before the law and are entitled without any ________________ to equal
protection of the law.
Article 8
Everyone has the right to an effective ______________ by the competent national tribunals for
acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.
Article 9
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, __________________ or ____________ .
Article 10
Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial
_______________, in the determination of his ______________ and obligations and of any
criminal ____________ against him.

6. Read the following 11-20 Articles of the Declaration and formulate the key phrase of
each article.
Article 11
(1) Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved
guilty according to law in a public trial at which he/she has had all the guarantees necessary for
his/her defence.
(2) No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which
did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was
committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time
the penal offence was committed.
Article 12
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his/her privacy, family home or
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correspondence, nor to attacks upon his/her honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the
protection of the law against such interference or attacks.
Article 13
(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each
state.
(2) Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his/her own, and to return to his/her
country.
Article 14
(1) Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.
(2) This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-
political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.
Article 15
(1) Everyone has the right to a nationality.
(2) No one shall be arbitrary deprived of his/her nationality nor denied the right to charge
his/her nationality.
Article 16
(1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have
the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, and at
its dissolution.
(2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.
(3) The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection
by society and state.
Article 17
(1) Everyone has the right to own property alone, as well as in association with others.
(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his/her property.
Article 18
Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion: this right includes
freedom to change his/her religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with
others and in public or private, to manifest his/her religion or belief in teaching, practice,
worship and observance.
Article 19
Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression, this right includes freedom to
hold opinions interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any
media and regardless of frontiers.
Article 20
(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.
(2) No one shall be compelled to belong to an association

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7. Read the following 21-30 articles of the Declaration and match each article with its gist.
Gists:
1. Freedom from interference in all of the above rights.
2. Right to desirable work and to join trade unions.
3. Right to rest and leisure.
4. Right to adequate living standards.
5. Right to social security.
6. Duty to preserve other people’s rights and freedoms.
7. Right to education.
8. Free elections and the right to participate in government.
9. Right to participate in the cultural life of the community.
10. Right to peace and other.

Article 21
Everyone has the right to take part in their country’s political affairs either by belonging to the
government themselves or by choosing politicians who have the same ideas as them. Elections
should take place regularly and voting should be a secret. Every adult should have the right to
vote and all votes should be equal.

Article 22
The society in which you live should help you to develop and to make the most of all the
advantages (culture, work, social welfare) which are offered to you.

Article 23
Every adult has the right to a job, and to receive a salary that can support him/her and his/her
family. Men and women should get paid the same amount of money for doing the same job.
Anyone can join a trade union.

Article 24
Everyone should have the right to rest from work and to take regular paid holidays.

Article 25
Everyone has the right to a good life, with enough food, clothing, housing and healthcare. You
should be helped if you are out of work, if you are ill, if you are old or if your husband or wife
is dead. Women who are going to have a baby should receive special help. All children should
have the same rights, whether their mother is married or unmarried.

Article 26
Everyone has the right to go to school and should go to school. Primary schooling should be
free. Everyone should be able to learn a profession or continue their studies as far as people.
Every-one others from different races and backgrounds. Parents should have the right to choose
how and what their children lean.

Article 27
Everyone should have the right to share in their community`s arts and sciences. Works by
artists, writers or scientists, should be protected benefit from them.

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Article 28
There should be an order to protect your rights. It should be both local and worldwide.
Article 29
Everyone should have duties to other people. Human rights should be observed and protected
by everyone in a spirit of mutual respect.
Article 30
Nobody should take away these rights and freedoms from us.

8. Read the following situations. What Articles of the Declaration were infringed in each
of the situation. Discuss it with your partner.
1. Children between the age of 5 and 11 have to go to school, but their parents must pay for it.
2. A man has his house broken into and his television stolen. He goes to the police but they tell
him to go away because they have more important things to do.

3. John Doe is arrested because the police think he has killed someone. Before his trial has
begun, a popular newspaper publishes an article about him (complete with photographs of his
arrest) with the headline “Vicious murderer John Doe caught!”

4. Two friends, one white and one black, have been threatened with violence. They go to the
police to ask for protection. The police agree to help the white man, but not the black man.

5. A journalist writes a newspaper article explaining why he opposes his country foreign policy.
He is told by the government that he has become persona non-grata, he must leave the country
immediately and never return.

6. A poor man murders someone and is sent to prison. A rich man commits a murder in similar
circumstances but is allowed to go free.

7. The Republic of Istanata has never given women the right to vote.

8. A newspaper editor dislikes a famous popular actress, he publishes an article about her. The
article describes the actress as ‘ugly, stupid and unable to act.’

9. A husband and wife get divorced. The law in their country says that in any divorce case the
man automatically gets custody of the children.

10. A man loses his job and cannot find work. His country does not offer financial support for
people who are out of work.

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UNIT 13
THE COURT SYSTEM IN THE UK

1. Examine the chart.

2. Read the text and do the tasks below.

Courts in the United Kingdom


The court system in England and Wales consists of 5 levels:
·Supreme Court (formerly the House of Lords) and the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council

46
· Court of Appeal
·High Court
·Crown Court and County Courts
·Magistrates’ Courts and the Tribunals Service
Supreme Court (formerly the House of Lords)
In 2009 the Supreme Court replaced the House of Lords as the highest court in England,
Wales and Northern Ireland. As with the House of Lords, the Supreme Court hears appeals
from the Court of Appeal and the High Court (only in exceptional circumstances). Appeals are
normally heard by 5 Justices, but there can be as many as 9.
High Court
The High Court consists of 3 divisions, the Chancery Division, the Family Division, and
the Queen’s Bench Division. Decisions of the High Court may be appealed to the Civil Division
of the Court of Appeal.
Chancery Division
The Companies Court of the Chancery Division deals with cases concerning commercial
fraud, business disputes, insolvency, company management, and disqualification of directors.
The Divisional Court of the Chancery Division deals with cases concerning equity,
trusts, contentious probate, tax partnerships, bankruptcy and land.
The Patents Court of the Chancery Division deals with cases concerning intellectual
property, copyright, patents and trademarks, including passing off.
Family Division
The Divisional Court of the Family Division deals with all matrimonial matters,
including custody of children, parentage, adoption, family homes, domestic violence,
separation, annulment, divorce and medical treatment declarations, and with uncontested
probate matters.
Queen’s Bench Division
The Administrative Court of the Queen’s Bench Division hears judicial reviews,
statutory appeals and application, application for habeas corpus, and applications under the
Drug Trafficking Act 1984 and the Criminal Justice Act 1988. It also oversees the legality of
decisions and actions of inferior courts and tribunals, local authorities, Ministers of the Crown,
and other public bodies and officials.
The Admiralty Court of the Queen’s Bench Division deals with shipping and maritime
disputes.
The Commercial Court of the Queen’s Bench Division deals with cases arising from
national and international business disputes, including international trade, banking,
commodities, and arbitration disputes.
The Mercantile Court of the Queen’s Bench Division deals with national and
international business disputes.
The Technology and Construction Court of the Queen’s Bench Division is a specialist
court that deals principally with technology and construction disputes.
Crown Court
The Crown Court deals with indictable offences, i.e. serious criminal offences (such as
murder, rape and robbery) that have been committed from the Magistrates’ Court for trial, cases
committed for sentencing, and appeals from Magistrates’ Courts. Cases are heard by a judge
and a jury. Decisions of the Crown Court may be appealed to the Criminal Division of the
Court of Appeal.

47
Judges are appointed by the Crown, on the advice of the Prime Minister, Lord
Chancellor, or the appropriate cabinet ministries.

Magistrates’ Courts
The Magistrates’ Courts deal with summary offences and committals to the Crown
Court, with simple civil cases including family matters. It can sit as a Juvenile Court to consider
offences committed by children or young persons, too.

3. Translate into English.


Высокий суд; Суд Короны, суд по рассмотрению уголовных дел; магистратский суд;
канцлерское отделение (Высокого суда); отделение по семейным делам (Высокого суда);
отделение королевской скамьи (Высокого суда); преступления, преследуемые по
обвинительному акту (тяжкие уголовные преступления); суммарные преступления
(преследуемые в порядке суммарного, т.е. упрощенного производства без участия
присяжных), незначительные преступления.

4. Answer the questions.


1) How many levels does the court system in England and Wales have? Enumerate them.
2) What organization did the Supreme Court replace in 2009?
3) What divisions does the High Court consist of?
4) What sort of cases does the Divisional Court of the Chancery Division deal with?
5) What is the name of the court that belongs to the Queen’s Bench Division and deals with
shipping and maritime disputes?
6) Who appoints the judges of the Crown Court? Who serves as an advisor in this matter?
7) What court considers offences committed by children?

5. Study the following cases. Which type of British court deals with them?

1. Mr Johnson and Mrs Johnson are getting divorced. Mrs Johnson demands to have the house,
the car, 75% of Mr Johnson's life savings and their pet cat, Tigger. "No way!" says an angry Mr
Johnson.

2. Two separate companies, English International Telecommunications and Britphone, both


bring out a new mobile phone which they call the 'Smell-O-Phone'. Both companies claim that
the name was their own idea.

3. Five workers have been sacked from the computer manufacturing company 'Compucrash' for
incompetence. They believe that they have been unfairly dismissed.

4. Mr and Mrs Waugh had a new window installed in their house. The window company now
wants the Waughs to pay, but Mr Waugh is refusing because he thinks the quality of
workmanship is poor.

5. Newspaper editor MrHislop publishes an article describing the Prime Minister as a 'useless,
incompetent fool who can barely tie his own shoelaces, let alone run the country'. The PM
decides to take immediate legal action against the paper.

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UNIT 14.
THE COURT SYSTEM IN THE USA

1.Read the text and find the following information:


a) Six names of federal courts.
b) Three names of state courts.
c) The number of federal circuits.
d) The number of federal districts.
e) The name of the person who appoints federal judges. f) All abbreviations and give their
meanings.
THE USA COURT SYSTEM
Being the federal republic, the USA has both a federal and a state court system. The
federal court system is responsible for interpreting and applying the laws created by the federal
government under the authority of the US Constitution. Article III of the US Constitution
requires the establishment of a Supreme Court and permits the US Congress to create other
federal courts, and place limitations on their jurisdiction.
The Supreme Court is the highest judicial body, the court of last resort and leads the
federal judiciary. It meets in Washington, D.C. It is mainly an appellate court and hears only
federal appeals which it has chosen. Most of the cases involve the interpretation of the
Constitution. It also has the «power of judicial review», i.e. the right to declare laws and actions
of the federal, state, and local governments unconstitutional. Besides, the Court has limited
original jurisdiction in cases involving foreign diplomats and in those, in which a state is a
party. In practice, the only original jurisdiction cases heard by the Court are disputes between
two or more states. It consists of the Chief Justice and eight Associate Justices, who serve
«during good behaviour», that is while they obey the law. Cases are decided by majority vote of
the Justices.
The federal Courts of Appeals (or circuit courts) are the intermediate appellate courts,
and must hear all appeals from the district courts within their federal judicial circuits, and in
some cases from other designated federal courts and administrative agencies. Now there are
thirteen judicial circuits with one court of appeals. They review decisions of trial courts for
errors of law and their decisions are binding precedents. An appeal is almost always heard by a
panel of three judges who are selected from the available judges but in some cases all judges
decide an appeal.
The District Courts are the federal trial courts. They hear both civil and criminal cases,
and often decide claims based on state law. There are 94 federal judicial districts with at least
one district court for each state, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico. There is a US
bankruptcy court as a unit of the district court.
Besides, some federal courts of special jurisdiction, such as the Tax Court, the Court of
International Trade, Courts of Federal Claims and others administer justice in the country.
All federal judges are appointed for life by the President with the approval of the Senate.
Each state has an independent system of courts operating under the constitution and laws of the
state. The names and jurisdiction of the courts differ from state to state but as a rule they have

49
general jurisdiction. The highest court is the state supreme court (known by various names in
various states), which hears appeals of legal disputes. In most states the lowest courts are the
magistrates’ courts or police courts.
The relationship between state courts and federal courts is quite complicated. Although
the United States Constitution and federal laws override state laws where there is a conflict
between federal and state law, state courts are not subordinate to federal ones. Rather they are
two parallel sets of courts with different often overlapping jurisdiction.

2. Answer the following questions:

1. What are the tasks of the federal court system?


2. What types of courts have been created according to the US Constitution?
3. What body created other federal courts?
4. What types of cases does the US Supreme Court hear?
5. What do the federal Courts of Appeals do?
6. What is the jurisdiction of the federal District Courts?
7. What is the term of office for federal court judges?
8. Are state courts inferior to federal courts or not?

3. Translate from Russian into English.


Суд штата; верховный суд; налагать ограничения; судебный орган; апелляционный суд;
судебный надзор; голосование большинством голосов; судебный округ; ошибка в праве;
прецедент, имеющий обязательную силу; коллегия судей; суд по делам о банкротстве;
федеральный судья; частично совпадающая юрисдикция.

4. Choose the meaning of the following words in which they are used in the text.
1 state
a) the physical or mental condition that someone or something is in;
b) a country considered as a political organization;
с) one of the areas with limited law-making powers that together make up a country controlled
by a central government.
2 justice
a) the system by which people are judged in courts of law and criminals are punished;
b) the fair treatment of people;
c) a judge in a law court.
3 case
a) a question or problem that will be dealt with by a law court;
b) a special box used as a container for holding or protecting something;
c) all the reasons that one side in a legal argument can give against the other side.
4 party
a) a social event when a lot of people meet together to enjoy themselves;
b) a political organization with particular beliefs and aims, which you can vote for in elections;
c) one of the people or a group of people involved in a legal argument.
5 precedent
a) an official action or decision that can be used to give support to later actions or decisions;
b) something of the same type that has happened or existed before;
c) the way that things have always been done.

50
5. To check your understanding the text, complete each sentence below by choosing the
correct answer:

1. The highest court in the country is


a) the Supreme Court;
b) the State Supreme Court;
c) the US Supreme Court.

2) The US President appoints


a) all judges in the country;
b) all federal judges;
c) all judges in the supreme courts.

3) The US Supreme Court has


a) appellate jurisdiction;
b) appellate and limited original jurisdiction;
c) appellate and original jurisdiction.

4) The federal Courts of Appeals hear


a) all kinds of appeals;
b) appeals on points of law;
c) appeals on points of fact.

5) The District Courts decide


a) civil and administrative cases;
b) civil and criminal cases;
c) criminal cases and appeals.

6) A state court may hear any case if it is connected to its


a) criminal law;
b) constitution and laws;
c) civil or criminal law

6. Complete the text with the following words:

Justice, superior, law, court, appeals, administer,


trial, appellate, civil, military, jurisdiction, criminal.
Courts are established to 1)… civil law and criminal 2)…. The term 3) … is also applied
to international tribunals created to resolve controversies among governments, e.g. the
International Court of 4)…, established by the UNO.
Among the general classifications are courts of 5)… and inferior jurisdiction, trial
courts, appellate courts, civil and criminal courts and some others. Courts of superior 6)…,
often called higher courts or 7)… courts, are generally those to which 8) … are made from

51
decisions of courts of inferior jurisdiction, referred to as lower courts or 9)… courts. Civil and
criminal courts deal with breaches of the 10)… law and 11)… law respectively. Courts with
special limited jurisdictions – such as 12)… courts – are known by the names of these
jurisdictions.
7. Mrs George is a witness to the robbery. The judge is questioning her. Complete the
dialogue with the answers given below.

Model:
Judge: Now, Mrs George, you saw the shop robbery, didn’t you?
Mrs George: Yes, I did.

The Judge’s questions:


– Did you see a man?
– Can you see that man in the courtroom?
– Was he alone when he went into the shop?
– Look around the court. Can you see that woman?
– Now look at the man and woman again. This is very important. Are you absolutely sure about
them?
– Mrs George, what was the man wearing when he went into the shop?
– Look at the bags on the table. Can you see it?
– Do you remember anything about the woman?
– How do you know that it was a wig?
– Which of the wigs on the table?
– Thank you, Mrs George.

Mrs George’s answers:


– Yes. A red coat and a blonde wig.
– Yes, that’s the man I saw.
– Absolutely.
– I don’t remember everything… but I remember his grey coat and a large black bag.
– That’s right. I saw him when he came into the shop and when he came out.
– On the left, with short blond curly hair.
– Yes, that woman over there.
– It fell off when she was running to the car.
– No, he was with a woman.
52
– The large black bag with the golden inscription.

Why does the judge ask such detailed questions?


Now speak about the case as 1) a judge; 2) Mrs George 3) one of the robbers.

UNIT 15
APPLYING FOR A JOB
You are about to complete your university course and receive your degree. What’s next?
Before you start looking for the perfect job, write CV or apply for a job, you need to do
some research. Researching yourself is the key to finding the job that is right for you.
1. Let’s see whether this test works for you.
CAN YOU BE A LAWYER?
1. Do you love to argue? 5. How good are you at convincing people?
a) Yes. a) Very good.
b) Not really. b) Barely ok.
2. Can you manipulate things for your 6. Can you twist the truth in your favour?
benefit? a) Maybe.
a) Yes, why not? b) Not sure.
b) Not sure.
7. What genres of movies/novels do you
3. Is your mind sharp like a knife? like most?
a) Yes, it can cut even iron! a) Detective and crime thrillers.
b) It is more like a butter knife. b) Romantic and comic stories.
4. How good are your lying abilities?
a) Well honed.
b) Not worth mentioning.

Answers: Score:
1. a) 10; b) 0
2. a) 10; b) 0 1. 0-30. You can’t become a lawyer. You
don’t have the qualities of becoming a
3) a) 10; b) 0
lawyer. Forget it!
4. a) 10; b) 0
2. 40-70. You can become a lawyer. Why
5. a); 10; b) 0 not try to be one?
6. a) 10; b) 0

53
7. a) 10; b) 0

2. Finding a dream job takes time and effort. What are the most essential steps to make
while you are looking for a job?
Write a resume. Even if the particular job you’re looking for has an application process where
a resume isn't necessary, the process of writing a resume can help sort your thoughts and
prepare you for an interview. Having a written record of your work history makes filling out an
application much easier, too. Tailor the resume to the type of job for which you are applying,
emphasizing related skills and coursework.
Call the employer. Ask about the application process: “Good morning. My name is John Doe.
I was wondering if you had any positions open and, if so, how I could apply.” You will usually
have your call routed to the hiring or human resources manager. If they have any openings,
they'll either ask you to come in and fill out an application form, or they'll ask you to send a
resume and cover letter by mail or e-mail, in which case you should inquire "To whom should
the letter be addressed?" They will give you their full name - write it down and ask them to
spell it out if necessary.
Write a cover letter if it’s a part of the application process. Make sure it is specific to the
job, with the company name and address and, if possible, the name of the person who will be
receiving it.
Ask two or three friends or family members to read over your resume and cover letter for typos.
It's often difficult to see our own mistakes.
Apply.
Visit the employer to fill out your application form. It’s usually best to go in the mid-morning,
when they're not too busy, but before the day has worn them out. Ask to speak to the hiring
manager and try to hand the form to him personally: "Hi, we spoke on the phone yesterday
about the (job title) position. Here’s my application form. Let me know if you need anything
else!" This will give the employer a chance to see you (so present yourself well) and put a face
to a name.
Send your cover letter and resume as instructed.
Follow up.
 If you filled out an application form but the hiring manager wasn't there at the time, call
three days later, ask to speak to the manager, and confirm that the application form was
received: "Hello, this is (your name). I filled out an application form on (day you came
in) and I just wanted to confirm that it was received."
 If you sent a cover letter and resume by mail, call a week later to confirm their receipt.
If you sent them by e-mail, call the day after.
Tips
Always thank the employers for their time and consideration.
Thank the manager.
 Follow up with a phone call.
 Always be honest when filling out a job application form online.

54
3. Study the example of an application form.
Many employers require all applicants, regardless of the job they apply for, to complete a job
application form. This way the employer will have consistent data on file for all prospective
applicants.
Answer all questions. Sign and date the form.
PERSONAL INFORMATION:
First Name _____________________________
Middle Name ___________________________
Last Name _____________________________
Street Address _______________________________________________________
City, State, Zip Code _______________________________________________________
Phone Number (___)___________________________________
Are you eligible to work in the United States?
Yes _______ No_______
If you are under age 18, do you have an employment/age certificate?
Yes ___ No ___
Have you been convicted of or pleaded no contest to a felony within the last five years?
Yes_______ No_______
If yes, please explain: _________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
POSITION/AVAILABILITY:
Position Applied For
________________________________________
EDUCATION:
Name and Address of School - Degree/Diploma - Graduation Date
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
Skills and Qualifications: Licenses, Skills, Training, Awards
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
EMPLOYMENT HISTORY:
Present or Last Position:
Employer: _____________________________________________________
55
Address: ______________________________________________________
Supervisor: ____________________________________________________
Phone: _______________________________
Email: ________________________________
Position Title: _________________________
From: ______________ To: ______________
Responsibilities:
_____________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
Salary: _______________
Reason for Leaving: ____________________________________________
May We Contact Your Present Employer?
Yes _____ No _____
References:
Name/Title Address Phone
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
I certify that information contained in this application is true and complete. I understand that
false information may be grounds for not hiring me or for immediate termination of
employment at any point in the future if I am hired. I authorize the verification of any or all
information listed above.
Signature______________________________
Date__________________________________

4. Your job interview is one of the crucial aspects while looking for a job. What should
you consider when getting ready for your interview which might be rather complicated?
POTENTIAL INTERVIEW QUESTIONS
Technically, not every item is a question; some are statements; but all are intended to prompt
you for a response.
Better questions are not those that can be answered with a "yes" or "no," but are open-ended
questions that invite thoughtful response. Even if you are asked a question that can be answered
with a "yes" or "no," (e.g. "Are you comfortable with the amount of travel this job involves?"),
you can certainly add a word of explanation to back up your answer (e.g., "Yes. I actually look
forward to the opportunity to travel and to work with the staff members in some of the other
offices).
Best questions are those that ask you how you behaved in the past, because past behaviour is
the best predictor of future behavior.
56
Not every interviewer will ask you every one of these questions. However, if you are prepared
to address these questions, you will leave the impression that you were prepared for your job
interview, even if additional questions take you by surprise.
• What are your long-range goals and objectives for the next seven to ten years?
• What are your short-range goals and objectives for the next one to three years?
• How do you plan to achieve your career goals?
• What are the most important rewards you expect in your career?
• Why did you choose the career for which you are preparing?
• What are your strengths, weaknesses, and interests?
• How do you think a friend or professor who knows you well would describe you?
• Describe a situation in which you had to work with a difficult person (another student, co-
worker, customer, supervisor, etc.) How did you handle the situation?
• How do you determine or evaluate success?
• In what ways do you think you can make a contribution to our organization?
• Describe a contribution you have made to a project on which you worked.
• What qualities should a successful lawyer possess?
• What two or three accomplishments have given you the most satisfaction? Why?
• Describe your most rewarding college experience.
• Why did you select your college or university?
• What college subjects did you like best? Why?
• What college subjects did you like least? Why?
• Do you think your grades are a good indication of your academic achievement?
• What have you learned from participation in extracurricular activities?
• In what kind of work environment are you most comfortable?
• Describe a situation in which you worked as part of a team. What role did you take on?
What went well and what didn’t?
• In what part-time or summer jobs have you been most interested? Why?
• How would you describe the ideal job for you following graduation?
• Why did you decide to seek a position with our organization?
• What two or three things would be most important to you in your job?
• What criteria are you using to evaluate the organization for which you hope to work?
• Are you comfortable with the amount of travel this job requires?
• Are you willing to spend at least six months as a trainee?

What is the interviewer is looking for?


Interviewer says: Tell me about yourself.
Remember, this is a job interview, not a psychological or personal interview. The interviewer is
interested in the information about you that relates to your qualifications for employment, such
as education, work experiences and extracurricular activities.
Interviewer says: What do you expect to be doing five years from now? Ten years from
now?
The interviewer is looking for evidence of career goals and ambitions rather than minutely
specific descriptions. The interviewer wants to see your thought process and the criteria that are
important to you. The interviewer is not looking for information about your personal life.
Interviewer says: Why should I hire you?
Stress what you have to offer the employer as relates to the position for which you are

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interviewing, not how nice it would be to work there or what you want from the employer.
Remember that you are being compared to other candidates, and in fact more than one
candidate might be a very good employee. Deliver to the employer reasons to see that you are a
good fit (show you know yourself, know the field/industry, know the organization, and know
the position).
Interviewer says: What are your ideas about salary?
Research salaries in your field before your interviews so that you know the current salary range
for the type of position you are seeking.
Interviewer says: Why do you want to work for our company/organization?
Not having an answer is a good way to get crossed off the candidate list, and is a common pet
peeve of interviewers. Research the employer before your interview; attempt to find out about
the organization's products, locations, clients, philosophy, goals, previous growth record and
growth plans, how they value employees and customers, etc. Unfortunately it's very common
for job-seekers to directly state, "I really want to work for your
company/agency/organization/firm," but then to be unable to answer the question "why?"
Without the answer to "why?" the initial statement becomes meaningless.

5. Surf the Internet to find a job which you would like to apply. Explain your choices and
get all the necessary papers to apply.

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Библиографический список/References
1. Catherine Mason, Rosemary Atkins. The Lawyer’s English Language Coursebook.
Cambridge, 2007. 452 p.
2. Gillian D. Brown, Sally Rice. Professional English in Use. Law. Cambridge University Press,
2007. 128 p.
3. Helen Callanan, Lynda Edwards. Absolute Legal English. Delta Publishing, 2010. 112 p.
4. Virginia Evans, Jenny Doodley, David J. Smith. Career Paths. Law. Book 1. Express
Publishing. 2011, 39 p.
5. Virginia Evans, Jenny Doodley, David J. Smith. Career Paths. Law. Book 2. Express
Publishing. 2011, 40 p.

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Иностранный язык в сфере юриспруденции

Учебное пособие

Печатается в авторской редакции

Подписано в печать . .2019 г.


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Тираж 50 экз. Заказ №


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