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Welding and Joining Technology

EDPT 701

Lecture 3
Arc Welding:
Shielded Metal Arc Welding

Dr. Mohamed Harraz


5 Oct 2010 1
Arc Welding
• Arc welding is a process that uses an electric arc to join the metals being welded. A
distinct advantage of arc welding over gas welding is the concentration of heat. In gas
welding the flame spreads over a large area, sometimes causing heat distortion. The
concentration of heat, characteristic of arc welding, is an advantage because less heat
spread reduces buckling and warping. This heat concentration also increases the depth
of penetration and speeds up the welding operation; therefore, you will find that arc
welding is often more practical and economical than gas welding.

• All arc-welding processes have three things in common: a heat source, filler metal, and
shielding. The source of heat in arc welding is produced by the arcing of an electrical
current between two contacts.

• There are several types of arc-welding processes with which you should become
familiar. They are:

– Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW)


– Flux-cored arc welding (FCAW)
– Gas Shielded Arc Welding (GSAW)
– Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)

Dr. Mohamed Harraz


Shielded Metal Arc Welding
5 Oct 2010 2
Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)
• Shielded metal arc welding is performed by striking an arc
between a coated-metal electrode and the base metal.
Once the arc has been established, the molten metal from
the tip of the electrode flows together with the molten
metal from the edges of the base metal to forma sound
joint. This process is known as fusion. The coating from the
electrode forms a covering over the weld deposit, shielding
it from contamination; therefore the process is called
shielded metal arc welding. The main advantages of
shielded metal arc welding are that high-quality welds are
made rapidly at a low cost.

• Shielded Metal Arc Welding is sometimes referred to as


Manual Metal Arc (MMA) welding or Stick Welding.

Dr. Mohamed Harraz


Shielded Metal Arc Welding
5 Oct 2010 3
Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)
Equipment required to perform the SMAW welding process includes a
constant current power source that supplies the power to the consumable
rod electrode.

Dr. Mohamed Harraz


Shielded Metal Arc Welding
5 Oct 2010 4
SMAW Characteristics and Features
Shielded Metal Arc Welding:
• Uses a electrode rod that is quickly consumed,
• Uses equipment that is simple, inexpensive, and highly portable,
• Uses an electrode that provides and regulates its own flux,
• Provides all position flexibility,
• Is less sensitive to wind or drafts,
• Yields a weld with a variable quality and appearance based on operator
skill.

During the SMAW welding process the arc is established, the flux coating
on the rod disintegrates and then forms a gas that shields the weld from
the atmosphere. The slag that is produced by the flux coating prevents the
weld metal from oxidizing. The slag must be chipped off the weld bead
after welding. The flux also provides a method of adding scavengers,
deoxidizers, and alloying elements to the weld metal.

Dr. Mohamed Harraz


Shielded Metal Arc Welding
5 Oct 2010 5
SMAW Process
Electrode Wire

Base Metal

Dr. Mohamed Harraz


Shielded Metal Arc Welding
5 Oct 2010 6
Welding Electrode
• Flux-coated electrodes are available in many core wire
diameters and lengths. Matching the electrode properties to
the base materials as a general rule for choosing the type of
electrode. Available electrodes types include aluminum
bronze, bronze, mild steel, nickel, and stainless steel.
• Electrodes are made in lengths varying from 200mm to
450mm and range in diameters from 1.5mm to 8mm.
• The core wire is selected to match the chemical composition
of the metal being welded as closely as possible.
• Materials commonly welded using the SMAW process include
mild steel, cast iron, and stainless steel. The flux covering on
the electrode melts during welding. This forms the gas and
slag to shield the arc and molten weld pool.
Dr. Mohamed Harraz
Shielded Metal Arc Welding
5 Oct 2010 7
Types of Joints for SMAW
The SMAW welding process typically is capable of producing four types of
welded joints. They are:

- Butt joint,
- Lap joint,
- T-joint ,
- Fillet Joint.

Dr. Mohamed Harraz


Shielded Metal Arc Welding
5 Oct 2010 8
Welding Current
• In arc welding, the heat required is obtained from electrical arc
energy. Electric arc is generated by touching the tip of the electrode
against the wp then withdrawing it quickly to a distance sufficient
to maintain the arc.
• Arc is produced between the tip of the electrode and the work
piece to be welded by the use of an arc of an AC or DC power
supply
• Welding Current ranges from 50Amp to 300Amp . Current is
generally 40Amp per millimeter of electrode diameter. power
required is less than 10 kW AC or DC. For most small applications
DC is preferred due to arc stability and shallow penetration.
• AC is used for welding thicker sections using larger diameter
electrodes
• Voltages generally ranges from 20 to 50 volts.
Dr. Mohamed Harraz
Shielded Metal Arc Welding
5 Oct 2010 9
Electrode Coating
A variety of electrode coatings have been developed. For
example cellulose and titania coatings contain SiO2, TiO2, small
amounts of FeO, MgO and Na2O and volatile matter.

• Under decomposition the volatile matter may release


hydrogen which can dissolve in weld metal and cause
embrittlement or cracking in the joint.

• Low hydrogen electrodes are available which provide


shielding without hydrogen emission.

• Since many electrode coatings may absorb hydrogen, coated


electrodes are baked just before use.

Dr. Mohamed Harraz


Shielded Metal Arc Welding
5 Oct 2010 10
Functions of Wire Coating
The wire is surrounded by a coating containing chemical components to:
1. Vaporize to provide a protective atmosphere ( shield around the arc
and molten pool)
2. Provide ionizing elements to help stabilizing the arc, reduce weld
metal spatter and increase efficiency of deposition
3. Act as a flux to deoxidize and remove impurities from molten metal
4. Provide protective slag coating to accumulate impurities, prevent
oxidation and slow down the cooling of the weld metal
5. Add alloying elements
6. Add additional filler metal
7. Affect arc penetration ( depth of melting in wp)
8. Influence the shape of weld bead
9. Iron powder and alloying elements can be incorporated to the coat
to adjust the chemistry of the weld

Dr. Mohamed Harraz


Shielded Metal Arc Welding
5 Oct 2010 11
Process capabilities
• SMAW has the advantages of being relatively simple
and versatile and requiring a smaller variety of
electrodes
• Is used in general construction, ship building, on pipe
lines, and maintenance work
• Is useful for work in remote areas where portable
fuel powered generator can be used for power
supply
• Is suitable for work piece thicknesses of 3 to 19 mm.
For thicker sections multiple-pass technique is used.
• Suitable for all welding positions.

Dr. Mohamed Harraz


Shielded Metal Arc Welding
5 Oct 2010 12
Designation of Welding Electrode
• Coated electrodes are classified by the tensile strength of the deposited
metal, the welding position , preferred type of current and polarity, type
of coating
• A 4 or 5 digit system of designation has been adopted by AWS( American
Welding Society)

Dr. Mohamed Harraz


Shielded Metal Arc Welding
5 Oct 2010 13
Fluxed-cored arc welding (FCAW)
• Is similar to SMAW except that the electrode is tubular and
the powdered flux is inside (cored)
• Can be made continuous and less bulky as no binders are
required to hold the flux in place- more flexible- can be
provided in long coiled lengths as Continuous electrode is fed
automatically through a welding gun.
• Higher weld deposition rate compared to GMAW has led to its
use in welding sections of all thicknesses
• Cored electrodes produce more stable arc, improve weld
contour, and produce better mechanical properties of weld
• Electrodes are usually 0.5mm to 4mm – power required about
20 kW
• Smaller diameter electrodes allow welding of thinner
materials and to weld parts in different positions.
• The flux has the same functions of the coating of the
electrodes in the SMAW.
Dr. Mohamed Harraz
Shielded Metal Arc Welding
5 Oct 2010 14
Submerged Arc Welding
Submerged arc welding (SAW) is a common
arc welding process. It requires a continuously
fed consumable solid or tubular (flux cored)
electrode. The molten weld and the arc zone
are protected from atmospheric contamination
by being “submerged” under a blanket of
granular fusible flux consisting of lime, silica,
manganese oxide, calcium fluoride, and other
compounds. When molten, the flux becomes
conductive, and provides a current path
between the electrode and the work. This thick
layer of flux completely covers the molten metal
thus preventing spatter and sparks as well as
suppressing the intense ultraviolet radiation and
fumes that are a part of the shielded metal arc
welding (SMAW) process.
SAW is normally operated in the automatic or
mechanized mode, however, semi-automatic
(hand-held) SAW guns with pressurized or
gravity flux feed delivery are available. The
process is normally limited to the flat or
horizontal-fillet welding positions

Dr. Mohamed Harraz


Shielded Metal Arc Welding
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Metal Transfer Techniques

Multipath welding
Dr. Mohamed Harraz
Shielded Metal Arc Welding
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Welding Techniques

Dr. Mohamed Harraz


Shielded Metal Arc Welding
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Welding Techniques

Dr. Mohamed Harraz


Shielded Metal Arc Welding
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Welding Techniques

Dr. Mohamed Harraz


Shielded Metal Arc Welding
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Welding Techniques

(A) (B)

Dr. Mohamed Harraz


Shielded Metal Arc Welding
5 Oct 2010 20