Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 203

# Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 1

## By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions

______________________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 1
Problem Solutions

1.1 Then
 
2 4 r
3
(a) fcc: 8 corner atoms  1 / 8  1 atom 

6 face atoms 1 / 2  3 atoms  3 
Ratio  3
100%  68%
Total of 4 atoms per unit cell  4r 
(b) bcc: 8 corner atoms  1 / 8  1 atom  
 
 3
1 enclosed atom =1 atom
(d) Diamond lattice
Total of 2 atoms per unit cell
(c) Diamond: 8 corner atoms  1 / 8  1 atom 8
Body diagonal  d  8r  a 3  a  r
6 face atoms 1 / 2  3 atoms 3
3
4 enclosed atoms = 4 atoms  8r 
Unit cell vol  a 3   

Total of 8 atoms per unit cell
 3
_______________________________________
 4 r 3 
8 atoms per cell, so atom vol  8 

1.2  3 
(a) Simple cubic lattice: a  2r Then
Unit cell vol  a 3  2r   8r 3
3
 
8 4 r 
3

 4 r 3 
1 atom per cell, so atom vol  1 Ratio  
 3 
  100%  34%
 3   8r 
3

 
Then  
 4 r 3   3
  _______________________________________
 3 
 
Ratio  100%  52.4%
8r 3 1.3
o
(b) Face-centered cubic lattice
(a) a  5.43 A ; From Problem 1.2d,
d
d  4r  a 2  a   2 2 r 8
2 a r
3

Unit cell vol  a 3  2 2  r 
3
 16 2  r 3 a 3 5.43 3 o
Then r    1.176 A
 4 r 3

4 atoms per cell, so atom vol  4
8 8

 Center of one silicon atom to center of
 3  o
Then nearest neighbor  2r  2.35 A
 
4 4 r 
3 (b) Number density
8
 3    5 10 22 cm 3
Ratio 
16 2  r 3
100%  74%

5.43 10 8
3

(c) Body-centered cubic lattice (c) Mass density

d  4r  a 3  a 
4
r  

N  At.Wt . 5 10 22 28.09 
3 NA 6.02 10 23
 4 
3
   2.33 grams/cm 3
Unit cell vol  a  
3
 r  _______________________________________
 3 
 4 r 3 
2 atoms per cell, so atom vol  2 

 3 
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 1
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

1.4 o

## (a) 4 Ga atoms per unit cell

4 1
Number density  (c) A-atoms: # of atoms  8  1

5.65 10 8 3 8
1
 Density of Ga atoms  2.22 10 22 cm 3 Density 
4 As atoms per unit cell 2.07 10  8 3

##  Density of As atoms  2.22 10 22 cm 3  1.13 10 23 cm 3

(b) 8 Ge atoms per unit cell 1
B-atoms: # of atoms  6   3
8 2
Number density 

5.65 10 8
3
 Density 
3
 Density of Ge atoms  4.44 10 22 cm 3 
2.07  10 8
3

_______________________________________  3.38 10 cm 3 23

_______________________________________
1.5
From Figure 1.15 1.9
 a  3 
 0.4330 a
o
(a) d    (a) a  2r  4.5 A
 2  2 
1
# of atoms  8  1
 0.43305.65  d  2.447 A
o
8
1
a Number density 
(b) d    2  0.7071a
2 4.5 10  8 3

 1.097 10 22 cm 3
 0.70715.65  d  3.995 A
o

N  At.Wt .
_______________________________________ Mass density   
NA
1.6

1.0974 10 12.5 22

a
2 6.02 10 23
  2 2 
 0.228 gm/cm 3
sin       54.74
 
2 a
3
3 2 4r o
2 (b) a   5.196 A
   109.5 3
_______________________________________ 1
# of atoms 8   1  2
8
1.7 2
Number density 
5.196 10 
o
(a) Simple cubic: a  2r  3.9 A 8 3

(b) fcc: a 
4r
 5.515 A
o
 1.4257 10 22 cm 3
2
Mass density   

1.4257 10 22 12.5 
4r o
6.02 10 23
(c) bcc: a   4.503 A
3  0.296 gm/cm 3
24r  o _______________________________________
(d) diamond: a   9.007 A
3
1.10
_______________________________________ From Problem 1.2, percent volume of fcc
atoms is 74%; Therefore after coffee is
1.8 ground,
(a) 21.035 2  21.035  2rB Volume = 0.74 cm 3
o _______________________________________
rB  0.4287 A
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 1
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

1.11 o
o (b) For 1.12(a), A-atoms; a  4.619 A
(b) a  1.8  1.0  2.8 A Surface density
(c) Na: Density 
1 / 2 1
  3.315 1014 cm 2
2.8 10  8 3 2
a 2
 2.28 10 22 cm 3 B-atoms;
Surface density
Cl: Density  2.28 10 22 cm 3
1
(d) Na: At. Wt. = 22.99   3.315  10 14 cm 2
2
Cl: At. Wt. = 35.45 a 2
So, mass per unit cell o
For 1.12(b), A-atoms; a  4.619 A
1 1
 22.99   35.45 Surface density
 
2 2
  4.85 10  23 1
6.02 10 23 
2
 3.315 1014 cm 2
Then mass density a 2
B-atoms;
4.85 10 23
  2.21 grams/cm 3 Surface density

2.8 10 8 3
 
1
 3.315  10 14 cm 2
_______________________________________ 2
a 2
For 1.12(a) and (b), Same material
1.12 _______________________________________
(a) a 3  22.2  21.8  8 A
o

o 1.14
Then a  4.62 A 1
Density of A: (a) Vol. Density 
a o3
1
  1.0110 22 cm 3
 
1
4.62 10 8
3
Surface Density 
2
a o 2
Density of B:
(b) Same as (a)
1
  1.0110 22 cm 3 _______________________________________

4.62 10 8 3

(b) Same as (a) 1.15
(c) Same material (i) (110) plane
_______________________________________ (see Figure 1.10(b))

## 1.13 (ii) (111) plane

22.2  21.8 o (see Figure 1.10(c))
a  4.619 A
3
1 1 
(a) For 1.12(a), A-atoms (iii) (220) plane   , ,    1, 1, 0
1 1 2 2 
Surface density  2 
a 
4.619 10 8 
2 Same as (110) plane and [110] direction
 1 1 1
 4.687 1014 cm 2 (iv) (321) plane   , ,   2, 3, 6
o
 3 2 1
For 1.12(b), B-atoms: a  4.619 A Intercepts of plane at
1 p  2, q  3, s  6
Surface density   4.687  10 14 cm 2 [321] direction is perpendicular to
a2
(321) plane
For 1.12(a) and (b), Same material
_______________________________________
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 1
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

## 1.16 Area of plane

(a)
1 1 1
1
 
 6.68923 10 8 5.79304 10 8 
 , ,   313
2
1 3 1  19.3755 10 16 cm 2
(b) 1
3
1 1 1
 , ,   121 Surface density  6
4 2 4 19.3755  10 16
_______________________________________  2.58 10 14 cm 2
(b) bcc
1.17 (i) (100) plane:
1 1 1 1
Intercepts: 2, 4, 3   , ,   Surface density  2  4.47  10 14 cm 2
 2 4 3 a
(634) plane (ii) (110) plane:
_______________________________________ 2
Surface density  2
a 2
1.18
o  6.32 10 14 cm 2
(a) d  a  5.28 A (iii) (111) plane:
a 2 o 1
(b) d   3.734 A 3
2 Surface density  6
a 3 o 19.3755  10 16
(c) d   3.048 A  2.58 10 14 cm 2
3
_______________________________________ (c) fcc
(i) (100) plane:
1.19 2
Surface density  2  8.94  10 14 cm 2
(a) Simple cubic a
(i) (100) plane: (ii) (110) plane:
1 1 2
Surface density   Surface density  2
a 2

4.73 10 8 
2
a 2
 4.47 1014 cm 2  6.32 10 14 cm 2
(ii) (110) plane: (iii) (111) plane:
1 1 1
Surface density  3  3
a 2
2 Surface density  6 2
19.3755  10 16
 3.16 1014 cm 2
(iii) (111) plane:  1.03 1015 cm 2
1 _______________________________________
Area of plane  bh
2
o
1.20
where b  a 2  6.689 A (a) (100) plane: - similar to a fcc:
Now 2
Surface density 

5.43 10 8
2

   
2
a 2
  3 a 2
2 2
h2  a 2
 2  4  6.78 10 cm 214
 
(b) (110) plane:
4.73  5.793 A
6 o
So h  Surface density 
4
2

2 5.43  10 8 
2

 9.59 1014 cm 2
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 1
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

## (c) (111) plane: 1.23

2 Density of GaAs atoms
Surface density 
 3 25.43 10  8 2

8
 4.44  10 22 cm 3
 7.83 1014 cm 2
5.65 10 8 3

_______________________________________ An average of 4 valence electrons per atom,
So
1.21 Density of valence electrons
4r 42.37  o  1.77 10 23 cm 3
a   6.703 A _______________________________________
2 2
1 1
8  6 1.24
8 2  4 5 1017
(a) #/cm 
3

a3 6.703 10 8  
3 (a)
5 10 22
100%  10 3 %
3
 1.328 10 cm 22
2 1015
(b) 100%  4 10 6 %
1
4  2
1 5 10 22
4 2 _______________________________________
(b) #/cm 2 
a2 2
1.25
2
 (a) Fraction by weight

6.703  10 8
2
2   
2 1016 10.82
  1.542 10 7
 3.148 10 cm 2
14
 22

5 10 28.06
a 2 6.703 2 o (b) Fraction by weight
(c) d    4.74 A
2 2

 
1018 30.98
 2.208 10 5
1 1
(d) # of atoms  3   3   2
 
5 10 22 28.06
6 2 _______________________________________
Area of plane: (see Problem 1.19)
o 1.26
b  a 2  9.4786 A
1
o Volume density   2  10 16 cm 3
6a d3
h  8.2099 A
2 o

## Area So d  3.684 10 6 cm  d  368.4 A

  
o
1 1 We have ao  5.43 A
 bh  9.4786 10 8 8.2099 10 8
2 2
d 368.4
 3.8909 10 15 cm 2 Then   67.85
ao 5.43
_______________________________________
2
#/cm 2  1.27
3.8909  10 15 1
= 5.14 1014 cm 2 Volume density   4  10 15 cm 3
d3
a 3 6.703 3 o o
d   3.87 A So d  6.30 10 6 cm  d  630 A
3 3
o
_______________________________________ We have ao  5.43 A
d 630
1.22 Then   116
a o 5.43
Density of silicon atoms  510 22 cm 3 and
4 valence electrons per atom, so _______________________________________
Density of valence electrons  2 10 23 cm 3
_______________________________________
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 2
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 2

2.1 2.6
Sketch h 6.625 10 34
_______________________________________ (a) p  
 550 10 9
2.2  1.205 10 27 kg-m/s
Sketch p 1.2045 10 27
_______________________________________    31
 1.32 10 3 m/s
m 9.1110
2.3 or   1.32 10 5 cm/s
Sketch h 6.625 10 34
(b) p  
_______________________________________  440 10 9
 1.506 10 27 kg-m/s
2.4
2 x p 1.5057 10 27
From Problem 2.2, phase   t    31
 1.65 10 3 m/s
 m 9.1110
= constant or   1.65 10 5 cm/s
Then (c) Yes
2 dx dx    _______________________________________
    0,    p   
 dt dt  2  2.7
2 x (a) (i)
From Problem 2.3, phase   t
 
p  2mE  2 9.1110 31 1.2 1.6 10 19  
= constant 25
Then  5.915 10 kg-m/s
2 dx dx    h 6.625 10 34
    0,    p       1.12 10 9 m
 dt dt  2  p 5.915 10  25
o
_______________________________________ or   11.2 A
2.5   
(ii) p  2 9.1110 31 12 1.6 10 19 
hc hc 24
E  h     1.87 10 kg-m/s
 E
6.625 10 34

Gold: E  4.90 eV  4.90 1.6 10 19 J  
1.8704 10  24
 3.54 10 10 m
So, o


 
6.625 10 34 3 1010 
 2.54 10 5 cm
or   3.54 A
 
4.90 1.6 10 19  
(iii) p  2 9.1110 31 120  1.6 10 19  
or  5.915 10 kg-m/s 24
  0.254  m
6.625 10 34

Cesium: E  1.90 eV  1.90 1.6 10 19 J  
5.915 10  24
 1.12 10 10 m
So, o


 
6.625 10 34 3 1010 
 6.54 10 5 cm
or   1.12 A

1.90 1.6 10 19 
or
  0.654  m
_______________________________________
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 2
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

(b) 2.10

p  2 1.67 10 27
1.21.6 10  19
(a) p
h6.625 10 34

 85 10 10
 2.532 10 23 kg-m/s
 7.794 10 26 kg-m/s
6.625 10 34
  23
 2.62 10 11 m p 7.794 10 26
2.532 10    8.56 10 4 m/s
o m 9.1110 31
or   0.262 A
or   8.56 10 6 cm/s
_______________________________________ 1 1

E  m 2  9.1110 31 8.56 10 4
2 2
 
2

2.8
21
3  3.33 10 J
kT   0.0259  0.03885 eV
3
E avg  3.334 10 21
2 2 or E   2.08 10  2 eV
Now 1.6 10 19
p avg  2mE avg
1

(b) E  9.1110 31 8 10 3
2
2
 
 
 2 9.1110 31 0.03885 1.6 10 19    2.915 10 23 J
or 2.915 10 23
or E   1.82 10  4 eV
p avg  1.064  10 25 kg-m/s 1.6 10 19
Now 
p  m  9.1110 31 8 10 3  
h 6.625 10 34  7.288 10 kg-m/s 27
   6.225 10 9 m
p 1.064 10  25 h 6.625 10 35
or    9.09 10 8 m
o
p 7.288 10  27
  62.25 A o

_______________________________________ or   909 A
_______________________________________
2.9
hc 2.11
E p  h p 
p (a) E  h 
hc

6.625 10 3 10 
34 8

## Now  110 10

15
2  1.99  10 J
p2 h 1  h 
E e  e and p e   Ee    Now
2m e 2m   e 
 E 1.99 10 15
Set E p  Ee and  p  10e E  e V  V  
e 1.6 10 19
Then V  1.24 10 V  12.4 kV
4

  
2
1  10h 
2
hc 1  h  (b) p  2mE  2 9.1110 31 1.99 10 15
   
 p 2m   e 
 2m   p  23
 6.02 10 kg-m/s
which yields Then
p 
100h h 6.625 10 34
2mc    1.10 10 11 m
p 6.02 10  23
hc hc 2mc 2 or
Ep  E    2mc 
p 100h 100 o
  0.11 A

2 9.1110 31 3 10 8

 2
_______________________________________
100
15
 1.64  10 J  10.25 keV
_______________________________________
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 2
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

2.12 2.15
 1.054 10 34 (a) Et  
p  
x 10  6 1.054 10 34
t   8.23 10 16 s
 1.054 10 28 kg-m/s 
0.8 1.6 10 19 
_______________________________________  1.054 10 34
(b) p  
x 1.5 10 10
2.13
(a) (i) px    7.03 10 25 kg-m/s
_______________________________________
1.054 10 34
p   8.783 10  26 kg-m/s
12 10 10 2.16
dE d  p2  (a) If 1 x, t  and 2 x, t  are solutions to
(ii) E   p     p
dp dp  2m  Schrodinger's wave equation, then
pp
  2  2 1 x, t   x, t 
2p
  p 
2m m   V x 1 x, t   j 1
2m x 2
t
Now p  2mE and
  
 2 9  10 31 16  1.6  10 19    2  2  2  x, t  2 x, t 
  V x 2 x, t   j
24 2m x 2
t
 2.147 10 kg-m/s
  
Adding the two equations, we obtain
2.1466 10 24 8.783 10 26 2 2
so E  1 x, t   2 x, t 
9 10 31 
2m x 2
 V x 1 x, t   2 x, t 
19
 2.095 10 J
2.095 10 19 
or E 
1.6 10 19
 1.31 eV  j 1 x, t   2 x, t 
t
(b) (i) p  8.783 10 26 kg-m/s which is Schrodinger's wave equation. So
1 x, t   2 x, t  is also a solution.
  
(ii) p  2 5 10 28 16 1.6 10 19 
 5.06 10 23 kg-m/s (b) If 1 x, t   2 x, t  were a solution to
E 
 
5.06 10 23 8.783 10 26  Schrodinger's wave equation, then we
5 10  28 could write
 8.888 10 21 J  2 2
 1  2   V x 1  2 
8.888 10 21 2m x 2
or E   5.55 10  2 eV

1.6 10 19  j 1  2 
_______________________________________ t
which can be written as
2.14   2   2 2  2 1   
 1.054 10 34 1  2 2 1  2 
p    1.054 10 32 kg-m/s 2m  x 2
x 2
x x 
x 10  2
 2 1 
p 1.054 10 32  V x 1  2   j 1  2
p  m      t t 
m 1500
Dividing by 1  2 , we find
  7 10 m/s
36

## _______________________________________  2  1  2 2 1  2 1 2 1 2 

     
 2 x 1 x 1 2 x x 
2 2
2m
 1 2 1 1 
 V x   j   

 2 t  1 t 
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 2
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

## Since 1 is a solution, then 2.19

 2
1  1 2
1 1
 V x   j      dx  1
*
   Note that
2m 1 x 2
1 t 0
Subtracting these last two equations, we have Function has been normalized.
  2  1  2 2 2 1 2  (a) Now
    2
2m  2 x 1 2 x x 
2 ao
4
 2   x 
 j 
1 2

P  
 a o
exp  dx

 a o 
2 t
0
ao
Since 2 is also a solution, we have
4
  2x 
 exp
2
  dx
 2
1  2 2
1 2 ao a o 
   V x   j   0
2m 2 x 2
2 t 2   ao    2 x  ao 4
Subtracting these last two equations, we obtain    exp 

ao  2   ao  0
 2  
 1  2  V x   0
2
 or
2m 1 2 x x    2a o   1
P   1exp   1  1  exp 
This equation is not necessarily valid, which   2 
means that 1 2 is, in general, not a solution   4a o  
to Schrodinger's wave equation. which yields
_______________________________________ P  0.393
(b)
2
2.17 ao
2
 2   x 

3
 x  P  exp  dx
A cos 2  dx  1 
2

 2  ao  a o  a o 
1 4

 x sin x   3
ao

A2   1
2
  2x 
 exp
2
2 2  1   dx
ao ao
a o 
 3   1  4
A      1
2
2   ao    2 x  ao 2
 2  2     exp 

1 ao  2   a o  ao 4
so A 2  or
2
   1 
P   1exp 1  exp 
1
or A 
2   2 
_______________________________________ which yields
P  0.239
2.18 (c)
1 / 2 2
 2   x 
ao

##  A 2 cos 2 nx dx  1

1 / 2
P 
 ao
0 

exp  dx

 a o 
 x sin 2nx   1 / 2 ao
A2   1   2x 
 exp
2
2 4n  1 / 2   dx
ao 0
a o 
 1  1  1
A       1  A 2  
2
  ao 
2   2 x  ao
 4  4  2   exp 

 2  ao  ao  0
or A  2
  1exp 2  1
_______________________________________ which yields
P  0.865
_______________________________________
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 2
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

2.20 2.21
P   x  dx

2 a/4
2  2x 
(a) P    a  sin  dx
2

 a 
2 x 
a/4 0
2
(a)    cos 
 
a  2 
dx 

 4x   a / 4
sin  
0
2 x  a 
  2x   a / 4    
 sin    a  2  2  
2 x  4   0
 a 
      a  
 a  2   
 4   0  
 a   
 2  a sin   
 a       
   sin     a   8  8  
2 4  2    
      a 
 a  2  4   or P  0.25
   
  a   a/2
2  2x 
 2  a 1a  (b) P    a  sin  dx
2

     a 
4 
a/4
 a  8
  4x   a / 2
or P  0.409  sin  
 2  x  a 
  
a/2
2  x 
(b) P    a  cos  a dx  a  2  2  
2

 4   a/4
a/4
  a  
  2x   a / 2  
 sin  
 2  x  a   
    2  a sin 2   a  sin   
 a  2         
 4   a / 4  a   4  8   8   8  
 a      
  a   a 
   or P  0.25
 sin   
 2  a sin   a  2  a / 2
 2  2  2x 
     
 a   4  4  8  4  
     
(c) P  
a / 2
  sin 
a  a 
dx
  a   a  
  4x    a / 2
1 1 1   sin  
 2  0    2  x  a 
 4 8 4    
 a  2  2  
or P  0.0908  4   a / 2
a / 2   a  
2 2  x 
(c) P     cos  dx
a  a 

a / 2
 
2
   
a sin 2  

 a  sin  2  

  2x    a / 2  a   4  8   4   8  
 sin       
 2  x  a  
     a   a  
 a  2  4   or P  1
    a / 2
  a   _______________________________________
 
  2.22
 2   a sin     a  sin      8 1012
    
 a   4  4   4   4   (a) (i)  p    10 4 m/s
      k 8 10 8
  a   a   or  p  10 6 cm/s
or P  1
2 2
_______________________________________    7.854  10 9 m
k 8  10 8
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 2
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

o
2 2
or   78.54 A k   4.32  10 8 m 1
 1.454  10 8

(ii) p  m  9.1110 31 10 4     k  4.32 10 8 5 10 4 
 9.1110 27 kg-m/s
1
2
1
E  m 2  9.1110 31 10 4
2
 2
  
(b) p  9.1110 31 10 6  
25
 4.555 10 23 J  9.11 10 kg-m/s
4.555 10 23 6.625 10 34
or E   2.85 10  4 eV   7.27 10 10 m
1.6 10 19 9.1110  25
 1.5 1013 2
(b) (i)  p    10 4 m/s k  8.64  10 9 m 1
k  1.5 10 9 7.272  10 10
or  p  10 6 cm/s   
  8.64 10 9 10 6  8.64 1015 rad/s
_______________________________________
2 2
   4.19 10 9 m
k 1.5 10 9
2.25
or   41.9 A
o
En 
 2 n 2 2

n 2 1.054  10 34  2 
2

## (ii) p  9.1110 27 kg-m/s

2ma 2

2 9.11 10 31 75  10 10 
2

E  2.85 10 4 eV 
E n  n 2 1.0698 10 21 J 
_______________________________________ or

n 2 1.0698 10 21
En 

2.23 1.6 10 19
(a) x, t   Ae  j kx t  
or E n  n 2 6.686 10 3 eV 
(b) E  0.025 1.6 10  19
 1
 m 2 Then
2 E1  6.69 10 3 eV
1
2
9.11 10 31  2
   E 2  2.67 10 2 eV
E3  6.02 10 2 eV
so   9.37  10 4 m/s  9.37  10 6 cm/s
_______________________________________
For electron traveling in  x direction,
  9.37 10 6 cm/s 2.26

p  m  9.1110 31  9.37 10 4    2 n 2 2 
n 2 1.054  10 34  2 
2

(a) E n  
 8.537 10 26 kg-m/s 2ma 2 
2 9.11 10 31 10  10 10 
2


h 6.625  10 34
  7.76  10 9 m  
 n 2 6.018 10 20 J
n 6.018 10 
p 8.537  10  26 2 20

2 2 or En   n 0.3761 eV 2

## k   8.097  10 8 m 1 1.6 10 19

 7.76  10 9 Then
  k    8.097 10 8 9.37  10 4  E1  0.376 eV
or   7.586 10 rad/s 13 E 2  1.504 eV
_______________________________________ E 3  3.385 eV
hc
2.24 (b)  
E
(a) 
p  m  9.1110 31 5 10 4   E  3.385  1.504 1.6 10 19  
26
 4.555 10 kg-m/s 19
 3.0110 J
h 6.625 10 34
   1.454 10 8 m
p 4.555 10  26
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 2
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________


6.625 10 3 10 34 8 so in this region
 2 x  2mE
 2  x   0
19
3.0110
 6.604 10 7 m x 2 
or   660.4 nm The solution is of the form
_______________________________________  x   A cos kx  B sin kx
where
2.27 2mE
 2 n 2 2 k
(a) E n  2
2ma 2 Boundary conditions:

15  10 3 

n 2 1.054  10 34  2 
2
 x   0 at x 
a
, x
a

2 15  10 3 1.2  10  2  2 2 2

 
First mode solution:
15 10 3  n 2 2.538 10 62  1 x   A1 cos k1 x
or n  7.688 10 29
where
(b) E n 1  15 mJ   2 2
k1   E1 
(c) No a 2ma 2
_______________________________________ Second mode solution:
 2 x   B2 sin k 2 x
2.28 where
For a neutron and n  1 :
2 4 2  2
E1 
 2 2

1.054  10 34  2 
2
k2 
a
 E2 
2ma 2
2ma 2

2 1.66  10  27 10 14  
2
Third mode solution:
 3.3025 10 13 J  3 x   A3 cos k 3 x
or where
3.3025 10 13 3 9 2  2
E1   2.06 10 6 eV k3   E3 
1.6 10 19 a 2ma 2
For an electron in the same potential well: Fourth mode solution:
1.054 10   34 2 2  4 x   B4 sin k 4 x
E1 
29.11 10 10 
 31 14 2
where
4 16 2  2
 6.0177 10 10 J k4   E4 
a 2ma 2
or _______________________________________
6.0177 10 10
E1   3.76 10 9 eV
1.6 10 19 2.30
_______________________________________ The 3-D time-independent wave equation in
cartesian coordinates for V x, y, z   0 is:
2.29  2 x, y, z   2 x, y, z   2 x, y, z 
Schrodinger's time-independent wave  
equation x 2 y 2 z 2
 2 x  2m  2   x, y , z   0
2mE
 2 E  V x  x   0 
x 2 
We know that Use separation of variables, so let
a  x, y, z   X x Y  y Z z 
 x   0 for x  and x 
a
2 2 Substituting into the wave equation, we
We have obtain
a a
V x   0 for x
2 2
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 2
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

2 X  2Y 2Z  x, y 
YZ  XZ  XY  Ak y sin k x x  cos k y y
x 2 y 2 z 2 y
2mE  2 x, y 
 2 XYZ  0   Ak y2 sin k x x  sin k y y
 y 2

## 2mE Substituting into the original equation, we

Dividing by XYZ and letting k 2  2 , we
 find:
find 2mE
(1)  k x2  k y2  2  0
1  2 X 1  2Y 1  2 Z 
(1)      k2 0 From the boundary conditions,
X x 2 Y y 2 Z z 2
o
We may set A sin k x a  0 , where a  40 A
1 2 X 2 X n 
 2  k x2   k x2 X  0 So k x  x , n x  1, 2, 3, ...
X x x 2 a
Solution is of the form o
X x   A sin k x x   B cosk x x  Also A sin k y b  0 , where b  20 A
Boundary conditions: X 0  0  B  0 n y
So k y  , n y  1, 2, 3, ...
n  b
and X x  a   0  k x  x Substituting into Eq. (1) above
a
where n x  1, 2, 3....  2  n x  n 2y  2 
2 2
E nx n y   
Similarly, let 2m  a 2 b 2 
1  2Y 1 2Z
 2  k y2 and   k z2 (b)Energy is quantized - similar to 1-D result.
Y y Z z 2 There can be more than one quantum state
Applying the boundary conditions, we find per given energy - different than 1-D result.
n y _______________________________________
ky  , n y  1, 2, 3....
a 2.32
n (a) Derivation of energy levels exactly the
k z  z , n z  1, 2, 3...
a same as in the text
 2 2 2
From Equation (1) above, we have
 k x2  k y2  k z2  k 2  0
(b) E  
n 2  n12 
2ma 2
or For n 2  2, n1  1
2mE Then
k x2  k y2  k z2  k 2 
2 3 2  2
E 
so that 2ma 2
 2 2 2
 
o
E  E nx n y nz n x  n 2y  n z2 (i) For a  4 A
2ma 2
_______________________________________ E 
 
2
3 1.054  10 34  2
 
2 1.67  10  27 4  10 10 
2

2.31
 6.155 10 22 J
 2 x, y   2 x, y  2mE
(a)   2  x, y   0 6.155 10 22
x 2 y 2  or E   3.85 10 3 eV
1.6 10 19
Solution is of the form:
 x, y   A sin k x x  sin k y y
We find
 x, y 
 Ak x cos k x x  sin k y y
x
 2 x, y 
  Ak x2 sin k x x  sin k y y
x 2
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 2
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

## (ii) For a  0.5 cm Combining these two equations, we find

E 

3 1.054  10  34

2 2  k  k1 
A2   2   B2

2 1.67  10  27
0.5  10  2 2  k 2  k1 
 3.939 10 36 J  2k 2 
B1     B2
or  k 2  k1 
3.939 10 36 The reflection coefficient is
E   2.46 10 17 eV
1.6 10 19
2
A2 A2* k  k1 
R   2 
_______________________________________ B 2 B 2  k 2  k 1 
*

## 2.33 The transmission coefficient is

(a) For region II, x  0 T  1 R  T 
4k 1 k 2
 2 2 x  2m k1  k 2 2
 2 E  VO  2 x   0
x 2  _______________________________________
General form of the solution is
 2 x   A2 exp jk 2 x   B2 exp jk 2 x  2.34
 2 x   A2 exp k 2 x 
where
 x 
2

E  VO   exp 2k 2 x 
2m
k2  P
2 A2 A2*
Term with B 2 represents incident wave and 2mVo  E 
term with A2 represents reflected wave. where k 2 
2
Region I, x  0
 2 1 x  2mE 
 
2 9.1110 31 3.5  2.8 1.6 10 19  
 2  1 x   0 1.054 10 34
x 2 
General form of the solution is k 2  4.286 10 9 m 1
 1 x   A1 exp jk1 x   B1 exp jk1 x  o
(a) For x  5 A  5 10 10 m
P  exp 2k 2 x 
where

k1 
2mE
2
 
 exp  2 4.2859 10 9 5 10 10  
 0.0138
Term involving B1 represents the o
transmitted wave and the term involving A1 (b) For x  15 A  15 10 10 m
represents reflected wave: but if a particle is  
P  exp  2 4.2859 10 9 15 10 10  
transmitted into region I, it will not be 6
 2.6110
reflected so that A1  0 . o
Then (c) For x  40 A  40 10 10 m
 1 x   B1 exp jk1 x   
P  exp  2 4.2859 10 9 40 10 10  
 2 x   A2 exp jk 2 x   B2 exp jk 2 x  15
 1.29  10
(b) _______________________________________
Boundary conditions:
(1)  1 x  0   2 x  0 2.35
 1  2 E  
 exp 2k 2 a 
 E
(2) T  16 1 
 V 
x x 0 x x 0
 Vo  o 
Applying the boundary conditions to the
solutions, we find 2mVo  E 
where k 2 
B1  A2  B 2 2
k 2 A2  k 2 B2  k1 B1

 
2 9.1110 31 1.0  0.1 1.6 10 19  
34
1.054 10
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 2
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

or k 2  4.860  10 9 m 1 k2 =

   
1/ 2
 21.08 9.1110 0.8  0.2 1.6 10
10
(a) For a  4 10 m   31 19

T  16
 0.1  0.1 
1   
 exp  2 4.85976 10 4 10
9 10
  
 
1.054 10 34
2
 

 1.0  1.0  or
 0.0295 k 2  4.124 10 9 m 1
(b) For a  12 10 10 m Then
T  16
 0.1  0.1 
1   
 exp  2 4.85976 10 12 10
9 10
  T  16
 0.2  0.2 
1  
 1.0  1.0   0.8  0.8 
 1.24 10 5  
 exp  2 4.124 10 9 15 10 10  
(c) J  N t e , where N t is the density of or
transmitted electrons. T  1.27 10 5
E  0.1 eV  1.6 10 20 J _______________________________________
1 1
 m 2  9.1110 31  2
2 2
  2.37
   1.874 10 m/s 1.874 10 7 cm/s
 E  
 exp 2k 2 a 
5 E
T  16 1 
1.2 10 3

 N t 1.6 10 19
1.874 10 
7
 Vo
 V
 o

N t  4.002 10 electrons/cm 3
8
2mVo  E 
where k 2 
Density of incident electrons, 2
Ni 
4.002 10 8
 1.357 1010 cm 3

 
2 1.67 10 27 12  110 6  1.6 10 19  
0.0295 34
1.054 10
_______________________________________
 7.274 1014 m 1
2.36 (a)
 E 
T  16 1 
 V
E 
 exp 2k 2 a 

 1  1
T  16 1   exp  2 7.274 1014 10 14    
 O 
V   12  12 
 1.222 exp 14.548
O

## (a) For m  0.067 mo

 5.875 10 7
2mVO  E 
k2  (b)
2

T  10 5.875 10 7 
      
1/ 2
 20.067  9.1110 0.8  0.2 1.6 10
 
 31 19
  1.222 exp  2 7.274 1014 a
 
 
1.054 10 34
2
 
 
  1.222
2 7.274 1014 a  ln  6

 5.875  10 
or
or a  0.842 10 14 m
k 2  1.027 10 9 m 1
_______________________________________
Then
 0.2  0.2  2.38
T  16 1  
 0.8  0.8  Region I x  0 , V  0 ;
 
 exp  2 1.027 10 9 15 10 10   Region II 0  x  a  , V  VO
or Region III x  a  , V  0
T  0.138 (a) Region I:
(b) For m  1.08m o  1 x   A1 exp jk1 x   B1 exp jk1 x 
(incident) (reflected)
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 2
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

k 
where A3 A3*
A1 A1*  2
 k12 expk 2 a 
k1 
2mE 4k1 k 2 2 2

2
 exp k 2 a 
2

Region II:
 2 x   A2 expk 2 x   B2 exp k 2 x   4k12 k 22 expk 2 a   exp k 2 a 
2

where We have
2mVO  E  2mVO  E 
k2  k2 
 2 2
Region III: If we assume that VO  E , then k 2 a will
 3 x   A3 exp jk1 x   B3 exp jk1 x  be large so that
(b) expk 2 a   exp k 2 a 
In Region III, the B3 term represents a We can then write
reflected wave. However, once a particle
A1 A1* 
A3 A3*

k 2  k 2 expk 2 a 
2

is transmitted into Region III, there will
not be a reflected wave so that B3  0 .
4k1 k 2 2 2 1
(c) Boundary conditions:  4k12 k 22 expk 2 a 
2

At x  0 :  1   2  which becomes
A1  B1  A2  B2 A1 A1* 
A3 A3*

k 22  k12 exp2k 2 a  
d  1 d 2 4k1 k 2  2

 
dx dx Substituting the expressions for k1 and
jk1 A1  jk1 B1  k 2 A2  k 2 B2 k 2 , we find
At x  a :  2   3  2mV O
k 12  k 22 
A2 expk 2 a   B2 exp k 2 a  2
 A3 exp jk1 a  and
d 2 d 3  2mVO  E   2mE 
  k12 k 22    2 
dx dx  2   
k 2 A2 expk 2 a   k 2 B2 exp k 2 a   2m 
2

  2  VO  E E 
 jk1 A3 exp jk1 a   
The transmission coefficient is defined as 2
 
 2m 
  2  VO 1  E 
E
A A*
  
T  3 3*   V O 
A1 A1 Then
so from the boundary conditions, we want 2
 2mV O 
A3 A   exp2k 2 a 
*
to solve for A3 in terms of A1 . Solving 3
  
2
for A1 in terms of A3 , we find A1 A1* 
 2m  2  E  
A1 
 jA3
 
k 22  k12 expk 2 a   exp k 2 a  16  2  VO 1  E 

4k 1 k 2     VO  
 2 jk1 k 2 expk 2 a   exp k 2 a   A3 A3*

 exp jk1 a   E  
 exp 2k 2 a 
E
16 1 
 V 
We then find
 VO  O 
Finally,
A A*  E  E 
T  3 3*  16 1   exp 2k 2 a 
 
A1 A1  VO  VO 
_____________________________________
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 2
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

2.39  2  3
Region I: V  0  
x x
 2 1 x  2mE k 2 A2 exp jk 2 a   k 2 B2 exp jk 2 a 
 2  1 x   0 
x 2   k 3 A3 exp jk 3 a 
 1 x   A1 exp jk1 x   B1 exp jk1 x  But k 2 a  2n 
exp jk 2 a   exp jk 2 a   1
incident reflected
where
Then, eliminating B1 , A2 , B 2 from the
2mE
k1  boundary condition equations, we find
2
k 4k12 4k 1 k 3
Region II: V  V1 T 3 
k1 k1  k 3 2 k1  k 3 2
 2 2 x  2mE  V1 
  2 x   0  _______________________________________
x 2
2
 2 x   A2 exp jk 2 x   B2 exp jk 2 x  2.40
transmitted reflected (a) Region I: Since VO  E , we can write
 2 1 x  2mVO  E 
where
2mE  V1    1 x   0
k2  x 2
2
2
 Region II: V  0 , so
Region III: V  V2  2 2 x  2mE
 2  2 x   0
 2 3 x  2 m E  V 2  x 2 
  3 x   0 
x 2
2 Region III: V     3  0
 3 x   A3 exp jk 3 x  The general solutions can be written,
transmitted keeping in mind that  1 must remain
where finite for x  0 , as
2 m E  V 2   1 x   B1 expk1 x 
k3 
2  2 x   A2 sin k 2 x   B2 cosk 2 x 
There is no reflected wave in Region III.  3 x   0
The transmission coefficient is defined as: where
2mVO  E  2mE
 3 A3 A3* k 3 A3 A3* k1  and k 2 
T     2
2
1 A1 A1* k1 A1 A1*
(b) Boundary conditions
From the boundary conditions, solve for A3 At x  0 :  1   2  B1  B2
in terms of A1 . The boundary conditions are:  1  2
  k 1 B1  k 2 A2
At x  0 :  1   2  x x
A1  B1  A2  B2 At x  a :  2   3 
 1  2 A2 sin k 2 a   B2 cosk 2 a   0
 
x x or
k1 A1  k1 B1  k 2 A2  k 2 B2 B2   A2 tan k 2 a 
At x  a :  2   3  (c)
A2 exp jk 2 a   B2 exp jk 2 a  k 
k1 B1  k 2 A2  A2   1  B1
 A3 exp jk 3 a   k2 
and since B1  B2 , then
k 
A2   1  B2
 k2 
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 2
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

## From B2   A2 tan k 2 a  , we can write 4   2r 

P  r 2 exp 

k 
B2   1  B2 tank 2 a 
a o  3
 ao 
 k2  To find the maximum probability
or dP r 
0
k  dr
1   1  tan k 2 a 
4   2  2   2r 
 k2   
3 
 r exp
  a   

This equation can be written as a o   o 
a  o 
V E  2mE    2r 
1  O  tan   a  2r exp 
E  
2
 
 a o 
or which gives
E  2mE  r
  tan   a 0  1  r  ao
VO  E  
2
 ao
This last equation is valid only for specific or r  a o is the radius that gives the greatest
values of the total energy E . The energy probability.
levels are quantized. _______________________________________
_______________________________________
2.43
2.41  100 is independent of  and  , so the wave
 mo e 4 equation in spherical coordinates reduces to
En  (J)
4 o 2 2 2 n 2 1   2   2mo
 r E  V r   0

 mo e 3 r 2 r  r   2
 (eV)
4 o 2 2 2 n 2 where
 e2  2

 
 9.11 10 31 1.6  10 19  3
V r   
4 o r mo a o r
4 8.85 10 12
 21.054 10  n
2  34 2 2
For
or 3/ 2
1  1  r 
13.58  100    
 exp 

En  (eV)   ao   ao 
n2
n  1  E1  13.58 eV Then
3/ 2
n  2  E 2  3.395 eV  100 1  1   1  r 
   

  exp
a  a 

n  3  E 3  1.51 eV r   ao   o  o 
n  4  E 4  0.849 eV so
5/2
_______________________________________  100 1  1  r 
r 2
   r 2 exp 
r   a o 

 ao 
2.42
We then obtain
We have 5/2
 1 
3/ 2
r    2  100   1  1 
1 r    
 100    
 exp 
 r  r    ao

  ao   ao 
and   r   r2    r 
 2r exp     exp
    a 

P  4 r 2 100 100
*
  ao   ao   o 
3
1  1    2r  Substituting into the wave equation, we have
 4 r   
2
 exp
  a 

  ao   o 
or
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 2
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

   r 
5/ 2
1  1   r  r2
  
2r exp 
 exp 

r2   ao   ao  ao  a o 
2m  2 
 2o  E  
  mo a o r 
3/ 2
 1   1  r 
  
 

 exp 0

    ao   ao 
where
 mo e 4
 2
E  E1  
4 o 2 2 2 2mo ao2
Then the above equation becomes
   r  
3/ 2
 1  1  r2 
 
1
  
exp
 
 r 2a  2 r  
  ao   a o  
  o 
ao 
2m    2  2 
 2o     0
  2m o a o m o a o r 
or
   r 
3/ 2
1  1 
  
 exp 

  ao    a o 
  2 1   1 2 
  2   2  0
 a o r a o  a o a o r 
which gives 0 = 0 and shows that  100 is
indeed a solution to the wave equation.
_______________________________________

2.44
All elements are from the Group I column of
the periodic table. All have one valence
electron in the outer shell.
_______________________________________
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 3
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 3
3.1 Setting u x   u1 x  for region I, the equation
If a o were to increase, the bandgap energy becomes:
d 2 u1  x  du x 
 
would decrease and the material would begin
to behave less like a semiconductor and more 2
 2 jk 1  k 2   2 u1 x   0
dx dx
like a metal. If a o were to decrease, the
where
bandgap energy would increase and the 2mE
material would begin to behave more like an 2  2 Q.E.D.
insulator. 
_______________________________________ In Region II, V x   VO . Assume the same
form of the solution:
3.2    E  
Schrodinger's wave equation is:  x, t   u x  exp  j  kx    t 
     
  2  2   x, t 
 V  x     x, t  Substituting into Schrodinger's wave
2m x 2
equation, we find:
 x, t 
 j 2     E  
t   jk  u x  exp  j  kx   t 
2

## Assume the solution is of the form: 2m       

   E   u x     E  
 x, t   u x  exp  j  kx    t   2 jk exp  j  kx   t 
      x      
Region I: V x   0 . Substituting the
 2 u x     E   
assumed solution into the wave equation, we  exp  j  kx   t  
x 2
      
obtain:
2      E      E  
 jkux  exp  j  kx   t   VO u x  exp  j  kx   t 
2m x             

u x     E       E  
 exp  j  kx   t    Eux  exp  j  kx   t 
x             
This equation can be written as:
  jE     E  
 j    u x  exp  j  kx   t  u x   2 u x 
          k 2 u x   2 jk 
x x 2
which becomes 2mV O
u x   2 u x   0
2mE
  
2   E  
  jk  u x  exp  j  kx   t 
2
2  
2m        Setting ux   u 2 x  for region II, this
u x     E   equation becomes
 2 jk
x
exp  j  kx   t  d 2 u 2 x  du x 
      2
 2 jk 2
dx dx
 2 u x     E     2 2mVO 
 exp  j  kx   t     k   2  u 2 x   0
x 2
        2 
  where again
 E  
  Eux  exp  j  kx   t  2mE
      2  2 Q.E.D.

This equation may be written as _______________________________________
u x   2 u x  2mE
 k 2 u x   2 jk   2 u x   0
x x 2 
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 3
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

## 3.3 which yields

We have A B C  D  0
d 2 u1  x  du1 x 
 
The second boundary condition is
 2 jk  k 2   2 u1  x   0
dx 2
dx du1 du
 2
Assume the solution is of the form: dx x  0 dx x  0
u1 x   A exp j   k x which yields
 B exp j   k x   k A    k B    k C
The first derivative is    k D  0
du1 x 
 j   k A exp j   k x 
The third boundary condition is
dx u1 a   u 2  b 
 j   k B exp j   k x which yields
and the second derivative becomes A exp j   k a  B exp j   k a
d 2 u1  x   C exp j   k  b 
  j   k  A exp j   k x
2

dx 2
 D exp j   k  b 
  j   k  B exp j   k x
2
and can be written as
Substituting these equations into the A exp j   k a  B exp j   k a
differential equation, we find  C exp j   k b
   k  A exp j   k x  D exp j   k b  0
2

   k  B exp j   k x
2
The fourth boundary condition is
 2 jk  j   k A exp j   k x du1 du
 2
 j   k B exp j   k x dx x  a dx x  b
 
 k 2   2 A exp j   k x
which yields
j   k A exp j   k a 
 B exp j   k x  0
 j   k B exp j   k a
Combining terms, we obtain
 j   k C exp j   k  b 
  
  2  2k  k 2  2k   k   k 2   2   j   k D exp j   k  b 
 A exp j   k x
   
and can be written as
   2  2k  k 2  2k   k   k 2   2   k A exp j  k a
 B exp j   k x  0    k B exp j   k a
We find that    k C exp j   k b
00
   k D exp j   k b  0
Q.E.D.
For the differential equation in u 2 x  and the
_______________________________________
proposed solution, the procedure is exactly
the same as above.
3.5
_______________________________________
(b) (i) First point: a  
Second point: By trial and error,
3.4
a  1.729
We have the solutions
(ii) First point: a  2
u1 x   A exp j   k x
Second point: By trial and error,
 B exp j   k x a  2.617
for 0  x  a and _______________________________________
u 2 x   C exp j   k x
 D exp j   k x
for b  x  0 .
The first boundary condition is
u1 0  u 2 0
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 3
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

3.6 3.8
(b) (i) First point: a   (a)  1 a  
Second point: By trial and error,
a  1.515 2 m o E1
a  
(ii) First point: a  2 2
Second point: By trial and error,
E1 
 2 2

 2 1.054 10 34 2
a  2.375
_______________________________________
2m o a 2  
2 9.11  10 31 4.2  10 10 
2

##  3.4114 10 19 J

3.7 From Problem 3.5
sin a  2 a  1.729
P  cos a  cos ka
a
2m o E 2
Let ka  y , a  x  a  1.729
2
Then
sin x E2 
1.729 2 1.054 10 34 2
P  cos x  cos y
x  
2 9.11 10 31 4.2  10 10  2

Consider
d
of this function.  1.0198 10 18 J
dy E  E 2  E1
d
dy
  
P   x  sin x  cos x   sin y
1  1.0198 10 18  3.4114 10 19
 6.7868 10 19 J
We find 6.7868 10 19
 dx  or E   4.24 eV
P  1x  sin x   x  cos x  
2 dx 1 1.6 10 19
 dy dy  (b)  3 a  2
dx
 sin x   sin y 2m o E 3
 a  2
dy 2
2 2 1.054 10 34 2
Then
dx    1 cos x   E3 
P  2 sin x 
dy   x x    sin x   sin y

 
2 9.11 10 31 4.2  10 10  2

## For y  ka  n , n  0, 1, 2, ...  sin y  0  1.3646 10 18 J

From Problem 3.5,
So that, in general,
 4 a  2.617
dx d a  d
0 
dy d ka dk 2m o E 4
 a  2.617
And 2


2mE
E4 
2.617 2 1.054 10 34 2
2  
2 9.11 10 31 4.2  10 10  2

So
1 / 2
 2.3364 10 18 J
d 1  2mE   2m  dE E  E 4  E 3
  2   2 
dk 2       dk  2.3364 10 18  1.3646 10 18
This implies that
 9.718 10 19 J
d dE n
0 for k  9.718 10 19
dk dk a or E   6.07 eV
_______________________________________ 1.6 10 19
_______________________________________
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 3
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

3.9 3.10
(a) At ka   ,  1 a   (a)  1 a  
2 m o E1 2 m o E1
2
a   a  
 2

E1 
 2 1.054 10 34 2 E1 
 2 1.054 10 34 2

2 9.11 10 31 4.2  10 10  2
 
2 9.11 10 31 4.2  10 10 
2

##  3.4114 10 19 J  3.4114 10 19 J

At ka  0 , By trial and error, From Problem 3.6,  2 a  1.515
 o a  0.859 2m o E 2
 a  1.515
Eo 
1.054 10 
0.859  2 34 2
2
29.11 10 4.2  10 
 31 10 2
1.515 2 1.054 10 34 2
E2 
 2.5172 10 19 J  
2 9.11 10 31 4.2  10 10 
2

E  E1  E o
 7.830 10 19 J
19 19
 3.4114 10  2.5172 10 E  E 2  E1
 8.942 10 20 J  7.830 10 19  3.4114 10 19
8.942 10 20  4.4186 10 19 J
or E   0.559 eV
1.6 10 19 4.4186 10 19
(b) At ka  2 ,  3 a  2 or E   2.76 eV
1.6 10 19
2m o E 3 (b)  3 a  2
 a  2
2 2m o E 3
 a  2
E3 
1.054 10 
2  2 34 2
2
29.11 10 4.2  10 
 31 10 2
2 2 1.054 10 34 2
E3 
 1.3646 10 18 J  
2 9.11 10 31 4.2  10 10  2

## At ka   . From Problem 3.5,

 1.3646 10 18 J
 2 a  1.729
From Problem 3.6,  4 a  2.375
2m o E 2
 a  1.729 2m o E 4
2  a  2.375
2
E2 
1.729 2 1.054 10 
34 2
2.375 2 1.054 10 34 2

2 9.11 10  31
4.2 10 
10 2 E4 
 
2 9.11 10 31 4.2  10 10 
2

18
 1.0198 10 J
 1.9242 10 18 J
E  E 3  E 2
E  E 4  E 3
 1.3646 10 18  1.0198 10 18
19
 1.9242 10 18  1.3646 10 18
 3.4474 10 J
 5.597 10 19 J
3.4474 10 19
or E   2.15 eV 5.597 10 19
1.6 10 19 or E   3.50 eV
1.6 10 19
_______________________________________
_____________________________________
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 3
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

3.11 3.12
(a) At ka   ,  1 a   For T  100 K,
2 m o E1 E g  1.170 
4.73 10 100
4 2

a   636  100
2
E g  1.164 eV
E1 
 2 1.054 10 34 2
T  200 K, E g  1.147 eV
 
2 9.11 10 31 4.2  10 10 
2

T  300 K, E g  1.125 eV
 3.4114 10 19 J
T  400 K, E g  1.097 eV
At ka  0 , By trial and error,
 o a  0.727 T  500 K, E g  1.066 eV
T  600 K, E g  1.032 eV
2m o E o
 a  0.727 _______________________________________
2

Eo 
0.727 2 1.054 10 34 2 3.13

2 9.11 10  31
4.2 10  10 2 The effective mass is given by
1
19  1 d 2E 
 1.8030 10 J m   2  2 
*

E  E1  E o   dk 
We have
 3.4114 10 19  1.8030 10 19
d 2E 2
 1.6084 10 19 J 2
curve A  d E2 curve B 
dk dk
1.6084 10 19
or E   1.005 eV so that m * curve A  m * curve B 
1.6 10 19
_______________________________________
(b) At ka  2 ,  3 a  2
2m o E 3 3.14
2
 a  2 The effective mass for a hole is given by

1

E3 
2 2 1.054 10 34 2  1 d 2E
m *p   2 

 
 
2 9.11 10 31 4.2  10 10  2
 dk 2 
We have that
 1.3646 10 18 J
d 2E d 2E
At ka   , From Problem 3.6, curve A  curve B
 2 a  1.515 dk 2 dk 2
2m o E 2 so that m *p curve A  m *p curve B 
 a  1.515
2 _______________________________________

E2 
1.515 2 1.054 10 
34 2
3.15

2 9.11 10  34
4.2 10  10 2
Points A,B:
dE
 0  velocity in -x direction
19 dk
 7.830 10 J
E  E 3  E 2 Points C,D:
dE
 0  velocity in +x direction
dk
 1.3646 10 18  7.830 10 19
d 2E
 5.816 10 19 J Points A,D: 0
dk 2
5.816 10 19
or E   3.635 eV negative effective mass
1.6 10 19
d 2E
_______________________________________ Points B,C: 0
dk 2
positive effective mass
_______________________________________
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 3
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

3.16
m 

  2  1.054 10 34

2

For A: E  C i k 2 2C 2 
2 7.5 10 38 
At k  0.08 10 10 m 1 , E  0.05 eV  7.406 10 32 kg
 
Or E  0.05 1.6 10 19  8 10 21 J  7.406 10 32
or m    mo
So 8 10 21  C 0.08 10 
1
10 2
9.1110 31
 C1  1.25 10 38 m   0.0813 mo

Now m 
2

1.054 10 34  
2 _______________________________________

## 2C1 2 1.25 10 38   3.18

 4.44 10 kg 31 (a) (i) E  h
4.4437 10 31 or   

E 1.42 1.6 10 19 
or m    mo
9.1110 31 h 6.625 10 34
m   0.488 mo  3.429 1014 Hz
hc c 3 1010
For B: E  C i k 2 (ii)    
E  3.429 1014
At k  0.08 10 10 m 1 , E  0.5 eV
 8.75 10 5 cm  875 nm

Or E  0.5 1.6 10 19  8 10 20 J  
E 1.12 1.6 10 19 

So 8 10 20  C1 0.08 1010 
2 (b) (i)   
h 6.625 10 34
 C1  1.25 10 37  2.705 1014 Hz

Now m  
2

1.054 10 34  2 c
(ii)   
3 1010
2C1 2 1.25 10 37    2.705 1014
32  1.109 10 4 cm  1109 nm
 4.44 10 kg
_______________________________________
4.4437 10 32
or m    mo
9.1110 31 3.19
m   0.0488 mo (c) Curve A: Effective mass is a constant
Curve B: Effective mass is positive
_______________________________________
around k  0 , and is negative

3.17 around k  
.
For A: E  E  C 2 k 2 2
_______________________________________

 0.025 1.6 10 19  C 2 0.08 1010   
2

##  C 2  6.25 10 39 3.20

E  E O  E1 cos k  k O 
m 
  2  1.054 10 34

  2
Then
2C 2 2 6.25 10 39   dE
  E1    sin  k  k O 
 8.8873 10 31 kg dk
 8.8873 10 31   E1 sin  k  k O 
or m    mo
9.1110 31 and
d 2E
m     0.976 mo
2
 E1 2 cos k  k O 
dk
For B: E  E  C 2 k 2

 0.3 1.6 10 19  C 2 0.08 1010  
2

##  C 2  7.5 10 38

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 3
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

Then 2 X  2Y 2Z
1 1 d E 2
E1 2 YZ  XZ  XY
 2 2  x 2 y 2 z 2
*
m  dk k  ko 2 2mE
or  2  XYZ  0

2 Dividing by XYZ , we obtain
m* 
E1 2 1  2 X 1  2 Y 1  2 Z 2mE
      2 0
_______________________________________ X x 2 Y y 2 Z z 2 
Let
3.21

(a) mdn 
 4 2 / 3 mt  ml  2 1/ 3 1 2 X
X x
 2  k x2 
2 X
x 2
 k x2 X  0
 42 / 30.082m  1.64m o
2
o
1/ 3
The solution is of the form:

m dn  0.56mo X x   A sin k x x  B cos k x x
3 2 1 2 1 Since  x, y, z   0 at x  0 , then X 0   0
(b) 
    so that B  0 .
mcn mt ml 0.082mo 1.64mo
Also,  x, y, z   0 at x  a , so that
X a   0 . Then k x a  n x  where
24.39 0.6098
 
mo mo
n x  1, 2, 3, ...

mcn  0.12mo Similarly, we have
_______________________________________ 1  2Y 1 2Z
 2  k y2 and   k z2
3.22 Y y Z z 2

(a) m dp 
 m hh   m  
3/ 2
lh
3/ 2 2/3 From the boundary conditions, we find
k y a  n y  and k z a  n z 
 0.45m   0.082m  
3/ 2 3/ 2 2/ 3
o o where
 0.30187  0.02348  mo n y  1, 2, 3, ... and n z  1, 2, 3, ...
2/3

##  From the wave equation, we can write

m dp  0.473m o
2mE
mhh 3 / 2  mlh 3 / 2  k x2  k y2  k z2  2  0

(b) mcp  
mhh 1 / 2  mlh 1 / 2 The energy can be written as
0.453 / 2  0.0823 / 2  m   

2
2 2
 E  E nx n y nz 
n x  n 2y  n z2  
0.451 / 2  0.0821 / 2 o 2m a
 _______________________________________
m cp  0.34m o
_______________________________________ 3.24
The total number of quantum states in the
3.23 3-dimensional potential well is given
For the 3-dimensional infinite potential well, (in k-space) by
V x   0 when 0  x  a , 0  y  a , and  k 2 dk 3
0  z  a . In this region, the wave equation g T k dk  a
 3
is: where
 2 x, y, z   2 x, y, z   2 x, y, z  2mE
  k2 
x 2 y 2 z 2 2
We can then write
  x, y , z   0
2mE

2 2mE
k
Use separation of variables technique, so let 
 x, y, z   X x Y  y Z z  Taking the differential, we obtain
Substituting into the wave equation, we have
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 3
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

1 1 1 1 m So
dk   2m    dE    dE
 2 E  2E
g E  
1

20.067  9.11 10 31  
Substituting these expressions into the density 1.054  10 34   E
of states function, we have
1.055 1018
 a 3  2mE  1 g E   m 3 J 1
g T E dE  3  2   
m
 dE E
     2E _______________________________________
Noting that
h 3.26

2 (a) Silicon, mn  1.08mo
this density of states function can be
simplified and written as g c E  

4 2m n  3/ 2

E  Ec
4 a 3 h3
g T E dE  2m3 / 2  E  dE
h3 
4 2m n  3 / 2 Ec  2 kT

## Dividing by a 3 will yield the density of

gc 
h3 
Ec
E  E c  dE

states so that
4 2m 
3/ 2

4 2m n 
3/ 2

  E  E c 
2 Ec  2 kT

g E  
3/ 2
 E h 3
3
h3 Ec

_______________________________________

4 2m  n 
 3/ 2
  2kT 
2 3/ 2
3
h 3
3.25
For a one-dimensional infinite potential well,

 
4 21.08 9.11 10 31  3/ 2

  2kT 
2 3/ 2

2m n E n 2  2
  k2 6.625 10   34 3 3
2 a2  7.953 10 2kT  55 3/ 2

## Distance between quantum states

(i) At T  300 K, kT  0.0259 eV
    
k n 1  k n  n  1   n   
 
a a a

 0.0259 1.6 10 19 
21
Now  4.144 10 J

g T k dk 
2  dk Then g c  7.953 10  55
24.144 10  21 3 / 2

   6.0  10 25 m 3
 
a or g c  6.0 1019 cm 3
Now
 400 
1 (ii) At T  400 K, kT  0.0259  
k   2m n E  300 

 0.034533 eV
dk 
1 1 2m n
 
 2 E
 dE  0.034533 1.6 10 19  
Then  5.5253 10 21 J
Then
2m n
g T E dE     
2a 1
   dE g c  7.953 10 55 2 5.5253 10 21
3/ 2

 2 E
Divide by the "volume" a, so  9.239 10 25 m 3
2m n or g c  9.24 1019 cm 3
g E  
1

 E (b) GaAs, m n  0.067 mo

gc 

4 20.067  9.11 10 31 
3/ 2

  2kT 
2 3/ 2

6.625 10   34 3 3
 1.2288 10 2kT  54 3/ 2
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 3
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

(i) At T  300 K, kT  4.144 10 21 J (i)At T  300 K, kT  4.144 10 21 J

g c  1.2288 10 54 2 4.144 10 21   
3/ 2

g   2.3564 10 55 3 4.144 10  21   
3/ 2

##  9.272 10 23 m 3  3.266 10 25 m 3

or g c  9.27 1017 cm 3 or g   3.27 1019 cm 3
(ii) At T  400 K, kT  5.5253 10 21 J (ii)At T  400 K, kT  5.5253 10 21 J

g c  1.2288 10 54 2 5.5253 10 21   
3/ 2

g  2.3564 10 55 3 5.5253 10 21   
3/ 2

##  1.427 10 24 m 3  5.029 10 25 m 3

g c  1.43 1018 cm 3 or g   5.03 1019 cm 3
_______________________________________ _______________________________________

3.27 3.28
(a) Silicon, m p  0.56m o
(a) g c E  
4 2m n 
3/ 2

E  Ec
g  E  
4 2m p  3/ 2
h3
h3
E  E

4 21.08 9.11 10 31  3/ 2

E  Ec
4 2m p 3/ 2 E
6.625 10   34 3

g 
h3 
E  3 kT
E  E  dE
 1.1929 10 56 E  E c
For E  E c ; gc  0
4 2m p  3/ 2
2 E
   E   E  E  E c  0.1 eV; g c  1.509 10 46 m 3 J 1
3/ 2

h3  3  E  3 kT
E  E c  0.2 eV;  2.134 10 46 m 3 J 1
4 2m   3/ 2
 2
 
   3kT  E  E c  0.3 eV;  2.614 10 46 m 3 J 1
p

3/ 2

 3 
3
h
E  E c  0.4 eV;  3.018 10 46 m 3 J 1

4 20.56  9.11 10 31   3/ 2
2

6.625 10   34 3
 3kT 
3
3/ 2

(b) g 
4 2m p  3/ 2

E  E
 2.969 10 3kT 
3/ 2 h3
 
55

21 
4 20.56  9.11 10 31  3/ 2

E  E
(i)At T  300 K, kT  4.144 10 J
6.625 10   34 3

g  2.969 10 55 3 4.144 10 21   
3/ 2

 4.454110 55 E  E
 4.116 10 25 m 3
For E  E ; g  0
or g  4.12 1019 cm 3
E  E  0.1 eV; g   5.634 10 45 m 3 J 1
(ii)At T  400 K, kT  5.5253 10 21 J
 7.968 10 45 m 3 J 1

g  2.969 10 55 3 5.5253 10 21    3/ 2 E  E  0.2 eV;
E  E  0.3 eV;  9.758 10 45 m 3 J 1
 6.337 10 25 m 3
E  E  0.4 eV;  1.127 10 46 m 3 J 1
or g   6.34 1019 cm 3
_______________________________________
(b) GaAs, m p  0.48m o

4 20.48 9.11 10 31   3/ 2
2
 3kT 
3.29
g 
 
3/ 2

6.625 10 
3/ 2
m
3/ 2
 34 3
 
3 gc  1.08 
(a)  n    2.68
 2.3564 10 3kT  55 3/ 2 g m p 3/ 2
 0.56 

(b)
gc

m n 
 3/ 2
 0.067 
 
3/ 2

 0.0521
g m 
 3/ 2
p
 0.48 
_______________________________________
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 3
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

3.30 3.34
Plot   E  E F  
_______________________________________ (a) f F  exp  
 kT 
3.31   0.30 
E  E c ; f F  exp    9.32 10 6
(a) Wi 
gi!

10!  0.0259 
N i ! g i  N i ! 7!10  7 ! kT   0.30  0.0259 2 
Ec  ; f F  exp 

10987!  1098  120 2  0.0259 

7!3! 321  5.66 10 6
(b) (i) Wi 
12!

121110!   0.30  0.0259
10!12  10! 10!21 E c  kT ; f F  exp  
 0.0259 
 66
 3.43 10 6
12! 12111098!
(ii) Wi  
8!12  8! 8!4321 3kT   0.30  30.0259 2
Ec  ; f F  exp  
 495 2  0.0259 
_______________________________________  2.08 10 6
  0.30  20.0259  
3.32 E c  2kT ; f F  exp  
 0.0259 
f E  
1
 E  EF   1.26 10 6
1  exp  1
 kT  (b) 1  f F  1 
 E  EF 
1  exp 
(a) E  E F  kT , f E  
1 
  kT 
1  exp1
f E   0.269   E F  E 
 exp  
 kT 
(b) E  E F  5kT , f E  
1

1  exp5   0.25  5
E  E ; 1  f F  exp    6.43 10
f E   6.69 10 3  0.0259 
kT   0.25  0.0259 2
(c) E  E F  10kT , f E  
1
 E  ; 1  f F  exp  
1  exp10  2  0.0259 
f E   4.54 10 5  3.90 10 5
  0.25  0.0259
_______________________________________ E  kT ; 1  f F  exp  
 0.0259 
3.33  2.36 10 5
1  f E   1 
1
 E  EF  3kT
1  exp  E  ;
 kT  2
or   0.25  30.0259 2 
1  f F  exp  
1  f E  
1  0.0259 
E E  1.43 10 5
1  exp F 
 kT  E  2kT ;
(a) E F  E  kT , 1  f E   0.269
  0.25  20.0259
1  f F  exp 
(b) E F  E  5kT , 1  f E   6.69 10 3  0.0259 

(c) E F  E  10kT , 1  f E   4.54 10 5  8.70 10 6
_______________________________________ _______________________________________
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 3
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

## 3.35 1.054 10    2  2  1 

34 2 2 2 2 2

  E  E F     E c  kT  E F   
f F  exp    exp   29.11 10 12  10 
 31 10 2

 kT   kT 
and  3.76110 19 J
  E F  E  3.76110 19
1  f F  exp  or E 5   2.35 eV
 1.6 10 19
 kT 
For the next quantum state, which is empty,
  E F  E  kT   the quantum state is n x  1, n y  2, n z  2 .
 exp  
 kT  This quantum state is at the same energy, so
  E c  kT  E F  E F  2.35 eV
So exp  
 kT  (b) For 13 electrons, the 13th electron
  E F  E  kT 
occupies the quantum state
 exp   n x  3, n y  2, n z  3 ; so
 kT 
Then E c  kT  E F  E F  E  kT E13 
1.054 10    3  2  3 
34 2 2 2 2 2

E  E 29.11 10 12  10 
 31 10 2

Or E F  c  E midgap
2  9.194 10 19 J
_______________________________________ 9.194 10 19
or E13   5.746 eV
3.36 1.6 10 19
The 14th electron would occupy the quantum
 2 n 2 2
En  state n x  2, n y  3, n z  3 . This state is at
2ma 2
the same energy, so
For n  6 , Filled state
E F  5.746 eV
E6 
1.054 10  6  
34 2 2 2
_______________________________________
29.11 10 12  10 
 31 10 2

3.38
 1.5044 10 18 J
The probability of a state at E1  E F  E
1.5044 10 18
or E 6   9.40 eV being occupied is
1.6 10 19
f 1  E1  
1 1
For n  7 , Empty state 
 E1  E F   E 
E7 
1.054 10  7  
34 2 2 2 1  exp
 kT
 1  exp

 kT 
29.11 10 12  10 
 31 10 2
The probability of a state at E 2  E F  E
 2.048 10 18 J being empty is
2.048 10 18
1  f 2 E 2   1 
1
or E 7   12.8 eV
1.6 10 19  E  EF 
1  exp 2 
Therefore 9.40  E F  12.8 eV  kT 
_______________________________________   E 
exp 
1  kT 
3.37  1 
(a) For a 3-D infinite potential well   E    E 
1  exp  1  exp 
   kT   kT 
 
2
2mE
 n x2  n 2y  n z2   or
2 a
1  f 2 E 2  
th 1
For 5 electrons, the 5 electron occupies
the quantum state n x  2, n y  2, n z  1 ; so  E 
1  exp 
 kT 
 
 
2
2 2
E5  n x  n 2y  n z2   so f 1 E1   1  f 2 E 2  Q.E.D.
2m a _______________________________________
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 3
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

3.39   0.25  1
(a) At energy E1 , we want or exp     50
 kT  0.02
1 1

 ln 50 
0.25
 E  EF   E  EF 
exp 1  1  exp 1  kT
 kT   kT  or
 0.01
1  T 
 0.063906  0.0259
0.25
kT  
 E  EF 
1  exp 1 
ln 50   300 

 kT  which yields T  740 K
This expression can be written as _______________________________________
 E  EF 
1  exp 1  3.41
 kT 
 1  0.01 (a)
 E1  E F 
exp  f E  
1
 0.00304
 kT   7.15  7.0 
or 1  exp 
 0.0259 
 E  EF 
1  0.01 exp 1  or 0.304%
 kT  (b) At T  1000 K, kT  0.08633 eV
Then Then
E1  E F  kT ln 100
f E  
1
 0.1496
or  7.15  7.0 
1  exp 
E1  E F  4.6kT  0.08633 
(b) or 14.96%
At E  E F  4.6kT ,
(c) f E  
1
 0.997
f  E1  
1

1  .85  7.0 
6
1  exp 
 E  E F  1  exp4.6   0.0259 
1  exp 1 
 kT  or 99.7%
which yields (d)
f E1   0.00990  0.01 At E  E F , f E   for all temperatures
1
_______________________________________ 2
_______________________________________
3.40
(a) 3.42
  E  E F     5.80  5.50 (a) For E  E1
f F  exp    exp 
  

   E1  E F  
f E  
kT 0.0259 1
 exp  
 9.32 10 6  E  EF   kT 
1  exp 1 
 700   kT 
(b) kT  0.0259   0.060433 eV Then
 300 
  0.30 
  0.30  3 f E1   exp   9.32 10
6
f F  exp    6.98 10  0.0259 
 0.060433 
For E  E 2 , E F  E 2  1.12  0.30  0.82 eV
  E F  E 
(c) 1  f F  exp   Then
 kT 
1  f E   1 
1
  0.25    0.82 
0.02  exp   1  exp 
 kT   0.0259 
or
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 3
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

   0.82    E F  E 2 
1  f E   1  1  exp  1  f E   exp  
  0.0259   kT 
  0.82    0.4 
 exp   1.78 10
14  exp 
 0.0259   0.0259 
(b) For E F  E 2  0.4 eV, or 1  f E   1.96 10 7
E1  E F  0.72 eV _______________________________________
At E  E1 ,
3.44
  E1  E F    0.72 
f E   exp 
1
  exp 0.0259    E  EF
f E   1  exp


 kT   
or   kT 
f E   8.45 10 13
so
df E 
2
  E  E F 
At E  E 2 ,   11  exp 
  E F  E 2 
dE   kT 
1  f E   exp  
 kT   1   E  EF 
   exp 
  0.4   kT   kT 
 exp  or
 0.0259 
 1   E  EF 
or   exp 
df E   kT   kT 
1  f E   1.96 10 7  2
_______________________________________ dE   E  E F 
1  exp 
  kT 
3.43
(a) At T  0 K, For
(a) At E  E1
E  E F  exp    0 
df
  E1  E F    0.30  0
f E   exp    exp  dE
 kT   0.0259 
E  E F  exp     
df
or 0
dE
f E   9.32 10 6 df
At E  E F   
At E  E 2 , E F  E 2  1.42  0.3  1.12 eV dE
So (b) At T  300 K, kT  0.0259 eV
  E F  E 2 
1  f E   exp 
df
 For E  E F , 0
 kT  dE
  1.12  For E  E F ,
df
0
 exp 
 0.0259  dE
or At E  E F ,
1  f E   1.66 10 19  1 
 1
(b) For E F  E 2  0.4 , df  0.0259 
  9.65 (eV) 1
E1  E F  1.02 eV dE 1  12
At E  E1 ,
  E1  E F    1.02 
f E   exp    exp 0.0259 
 kT   
or
f E   7.88 10 18
At E  E 2 ,
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 3
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

## (c) At T  500 K, kT  0.04317 eV 3.46

df   E  E F  
For E  E F , 0 (a) f F  exp  
dE  kT 
For E  E F ,
df
0   0.60 
dE 10 8  exp  
 kT 
At E  E F ,
 1 
or
0.60

 ln 10  8 
 1 kT
df  0.04317  0.60
  5.79 (eV) 1 kT   0.032572 eV
dE 1  1 2
 
ln 10 8
_______________________________________  T 
0.032572  0.0259 
3.45  300 
(a) At E  Emidgap, so T  377 K
  0.60 
f E  
1

1 (b) 10  6  exp  
 E  EF   Eg   kT 
1  exp  1  exp 
 kT  
 2kT 
0.60
kT

 ln 10  6 
Si: E g  1.12 eV,
0.60
kT   0.043429
f E  
1  
ln 10 6
 1.12 
1  exp   T 

 20.0259  0.043429  0.0259 
 300 
or or T  503 K
f E   4.07 10 10 _______________________________________

3.47
Ge: E g  0.66 eV (a) At T  200 K,
 200 
f E  
1 kT  0.0259   0.017267 eV
 0.66   300 
1  exp  
 20.0259  f F  0.05 
1
or  E  EF 
1  exp 
f E   2.93 10 6  kT 
GaAs: E g  1.42 eV  E  EF  1
exp    1  19
 kT  0.05
f E  
1
 1.42  E  E F  kT ln 19  0.017267  ln 19
1  exp  
 20.0259 
 0.05084 eV
By symmetry, for f F  0.95 ,
or
f E   1.24 10 12 E  E F  0.05084 eV
(b) Using the results of Problem 3.38, the Then E  20.05084  0.1017 eV
answers to part (b) are exactly the same as (b) T  400 K, kT  0.034533 eV
those given in part (a). For f F  0.05 , from part (a),
_______________________________________ E  E F  kT ln 19  0.034533 ln 19
 0.10168 eV
Then E  20.10168  0.2034 eV
_______________________________________
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 4
4.1 (b)
  Eg
ni2  N c N  exp

 
ni2  5 1012   2.5 10
2 25

 kT    1.12300 
 2.912 10 
3
 T 
 exp 
38

 T 
 N cO N O 
  Eg
3

 exp

  300  0.0259T  
 300   By trial and error, T  417.5 K
 kT 
_______________________________________
where N cO and N O are the values at 300 K.
4.4
 200 
(a) Silicon At T  200 K, kT  0.0259  
T (K) kT (eV) ni (cm 3 )  300 
 0.017267 eV
200 0.01727 7.68 10 4
 400 
400 0.03453 2.38 1012 At T  400 K, kT  0.0259  
 300 
600 0.0518 9.74 1014
 0.034533 eV
(b) Germanium (c) GaAs n i2 400 

7.70 10  10 2
 3.025  10 17
T (K) ni (cm 3 ) ni (cm 3 ) n 2
i 200  1.40 10  2 2

## 200 2.16 10 10

1.38  400 
3
  Eg 
  exp  
400 8.60 10 14
3.28 10 9
 300   0.034533 
 
600 3.82 10 16
5.72 1012  200 
3
  Eg 
  exp  
_______________________________________  300   0.017267 
 Eg Eg 
4.2  8 exp   
Plot  0.017267 0.034533 
_______________________________________ 
3.025  1017  8 exp E g 57.9139  28.9578 
or
4.3
 3.025 1017 
  Eg  E g 28.9561  ln    38.1714

(a) n  N c N  exp
2
i

  8 
 kT  or E g  1.318 eV
5 10   2.8 10 1.04 10  300
3
11 2 T 

19 19

  Now

7.70 10 
3
  1.12  10 2  400 
 exp    N co N o  
 0.0259T 300   300 
  1.318 
 
3
 T   exp 
2.5 10  2.912 10 
23

38
 0.034533 
 300 
  1.12300  5.929 10 21  N co N o 2.370 2.658 10 17  
 exp  
 0.0259T  
6
so N co N o  9.4110 cm 37

## By trial and error, T  367.5 K _______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

4.5 (b)
  1.10    E F  E  
exp  g  1  f F   E  E exp  
n i B   kT    0.20   kT 
  exp 
n i  A   0.90   kT    E  E 
exp   E  E exp 
 kT  
 kT 
For T  200 K, kT  0.017267 eV   E F  E  
For T  300 K, kT  0.0259 eV  exp  
For T  400 K, kT  0.034533 eV
 kT 
Let E  E  x
(a) For T  200 K, x
Then g  1  f F   x exp 
n i B    0.20  6  kT 
 exp   9.325 10
ni  A  0.017267  To find the maximum value
(b) For T  300 K, d g  1  f F  d    x 
  x exp   0
n i B    0.20  4 dx dx   kT 
 exp   4.43 10
ni  A  0.0259  Same as part (a). Maximum occurs at
(c) For T  400 K, kT
x
ni B    0.20  3 2
 exp   3.05 10
ni  A  0.034533  or
kT
_______________________________________ E  E 
2
4.6 _______________________________________
  E  E F 
(a) g c f F  E  E c exp   4.7
 kT     E1  E c  
  E  E c  n  E1 
E1  E c exp  
 E  E c exp    kT 

 kT  nE 2    E 2  E c  
  E c  E F   E 2  E c exp  
 exp    kT 
 kT  where
Let E  E c  x kT
E1  E c  4kT and E 2  E c 
x 2
Then g c f F  x exp  Then
 kT 
nE1  4kT   E1  E 2  
To find the maximum value:  exp  
d g c f F  1 1 / 2 x nE 2  kT  kT 
 x exp 
dx 2  kT  2
x   1 

1 1/ 2
 x exp 0  2 2 exp   4    2 2 exp 3.5
kT  kT    2 
which yields or
1 x1 / 2 kT n  E1 
 x  0.0854
2x 1/ 2
kT 2 n E 2 
The maximum value occurs at _______________________________________
kT
E  Ec  4.8
2
Plot
_______________________________________
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

4.9 4.13
Plot Let g c E   K  constant
_______________________________________ Then

4.10 no  g c E  f F E dE
3  m *p 
 kT ln  * 
Ec
E Fi  E midgap
4  mn  
 

1
K dE
Silicon: m  0.56m o , m  1.08mo
* * 
Ec 1  exp
E  EF 
p n
 kT 
E Fi  Emidgap  0.0128 eV  
  E  E F  

Germanium: m *p  0.37 m o , m n*  0.55mo
E Fi  Emidgap  0.0077 eV Ec

 K exp 
 kT dE

Let
Gallium Arsenide: m *p  0.48m o ,
E  Ec
m n*  0.067 mo  so that dE  kT  d
kT
E Fi  Emidgap  0.0382 eV We can write
_______________________________________ E  E F   E c  E F   E  E c 
so that
4.11   E  E F     E c  E F  
N  exp    exp    exp  
E Fi  E midgap 
1
kT  ln   

 kT   kT 
2  Nc  The integral can then be written as
  E c  E F  

 
kT  ln  1.04 1019   0.4952kT 
19

 exp  d 
1
 n o  K  kT  exp 
2  2.8 10   kT 0
which becomes
T (K) kT (eV) ( E Fi  E midgap)(eV)   E c  E F  
no  K  kT  exp  
200 0.01727  0.0086  kT 
400 0.03453  0.0171 _______________________________________
600 0.0518  0.0257
4.14
Let g c E   C1 E  E c  for E  E c
_______________________________________
Then

4.12
no  g E  f F E dE
3  m *p  c

(a) E Fi  E midgap  kT ln  *  Ec
 mn 
4   
E  E c 
 0.0259 ln 
3  0.70 
 C1   E  EF 
dE
 Ec 1  exp 
4  1.21   kT 
 10.63 meV
 E  E F  

 0.75   C1  E  E  exp   dE
(b) E Fi  E midgap  0.0259 ln 
3 C
  kT 
 0.080 
Ec
4
Let
 43.47 meV
E  Ec
_______________________________________  so that dE  kT  d
kT
We can write
E  E F  E  E c   E c  E F 
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

## Then The ionization energy is

  E c  E F    m*  o 
2

 13.6   13.6
n o  C1 exp  0.067
 E   
  
 kT   mo  s  13.12
  E  E c  

or
  E  E  exp
Ec
c
kT  dE
 E  0.0053 eV
_______________________________________
or
  E c  E F   4.17
n o  C1 exp  
 kT  N 
(a) E c  E F  kT ln  c 

 no 
  kT  exp kT d  2.8 1019 
0  0.0259 ln  15 

We find that  7 10 

  0.2148 eV
  exp  d  exp     1  1 (b) E F  E  E g  Ec  E F 
0
0
So  1.12  0.2148  0.90518 eV
  E c  E F     E F  E 
no  C1 kT  exp  (c) p o  N  exp  
2
  kT 
 kT 
_______________________________________

 1.04 1019 exp  
  0.90518 

 0.0259 
4.15
 6.90  10 3 cm 3
r m 
We have 1 r  o*  (d) Holes
ao m  n 
For germanium, r  16 , m *  0.55mo (e) E F  E Fi  kT ln  o 
 ni 
Then
 7 1015 
 1   0.0259 ln  
r1  16 a o  290.53 10 
 1.5 10 
 0.55 
or  0.338 eV
o _______________________________________
r1  15.4 A
The ionization energy can be written as 4.18
 m *  o 
2 N 
E     13.6  eV (a) E F  E  kT ln   

   po 
 m o  s 
 1.04 1019 

0.55
13.6  E  0.029 eV  0.0259 ln  
16 
162  2 10 
_______________________________________  0.162 eV
(b) Ec  E F  E g  E F  E 
4.16  1.12  0.162  0.958 eV
r1 m 
We have
ao
r  o* 
m 

(c) n o  2.8 1019 exp 
  0.958 

 0.0259 
For gallium arsenide, r  13.1 ,
 2.4110 3 cm 3
m  0.067 mo
*

Then
 1 
r1  13.1 0.53  104 A
o

 0.067 
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

p  4.21
(d) E Fi  E F  kT ln  o   375 
 ni  (a) kT  0.0259   0.032375 eV
 300 
 2 1016 
 0.0259 ln  
 
3/ 2
10   375    0.28 
 1.5 10  no  2.8 1019   exp  
 0.365 eV  300   0.032375 
_______________________________________  6.86 1015 cm 3
E F  E  E g  Ec  E F   1.12  0.28
4.19
 0.840 eV
N 
(a) E c  E F  kT ln  c 
 
3/ 2
  375    0.840 
 no  p o  1.04 1019   exp  
 300   0.032375 
 2.8 1019 
 0.0259 ln  5 
  7.84  10 7 cm 3
 2 10  N 
 0.8436 eV (b) E c  E F  kT ln  c 

E F  E  E g  Ec  E F   no 
 2.8 1019 
 1.12  0.8436  0.0259 ln  
15 
E F  E  0.2764 eV  6.862 10 
 0.2153 eV
   0.27637 
(b) p o  1.04 1019 exp   E F  E  1.12  0.2153  0.9047 eV
 0.0259 
 2.414 1014 cm 3 
p o  1.04 1019 exp  
  0.904668 

(c) p-type  0.0259 
_______________________________________  7.04  10 3 cm 3
_______________________________________
4.20
 375 
(a) kT  0.0259
4.22
  0.032375 eV (a) p-type
 300 
Eg 1.12
(b) E F  E    0.28 eV
 
3/ 2
 375    0.28 
no  4.7 10 17
  exp   4 4
 300   0.032375    E F  E 
 1.15 1014 cm 3 p o  N  exp  
 kT 
E F  E  E g  Ec  E F   1.42  0.28
 1.14 eV 
 1.04 1019 exp  
  0.28 

 0.0259 
 
3/ 2
 375    1.14 
p o  7 1018   exp    2.10 1014 cm 3
 300   0.032375  Ec  E F  E g  E F  E 
 4.99  10 3 cm 3  1.12  0.28  0.84 eV
 4.7 1017 
(b) E c  E F  0.0259 ln     E c  E F  
14  n o  N c exp  
 1.15 10   kT 
 0.2154 eV
E F  E  E g  Ec  E F   1.42  0.2154 
 2.8 1019 exp  
  0.84 

 0.0259 
 1.2046 eV
 2.30  10 5 cm 3

p o  7 1018    1.2046 
exp  
_______________________________________
 0.0259 
 4.42 10 2 cm 3
_______________________________________
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

4.23 4.25
 E  E Fi   400 
(a) n o  ni exp  F  kT  0.0259   0.034533 eV
 kT   300 

 
 0.22 
 
3/ 2
 1.5 1010 exp   400 
 N   1.04 1019  
 0.0259   300 
 7.33 1013 cm 3  1.6011019 cm 3
 E  EF 
 
3/ 2
p o  ni exp  Fi   400 
N c  2.8 1019  
 kT   300 
    0.22 
 1.5 1010 exp  
 4.3109 1019 cm 3
 0.0259 
3
 
ni2  4.3109 1019 1.6011019 
 3.07  10 cm
6
  1.12 
 E  E Fi   exp  
(b) n o  ni exp  F   0.034533 
 kT   5.6702 10 24
  0.22 
 1.8 10 6 exp    ni  2.3811012 cm 3
 0.0259 
N 
 8.80  10 9 cm 3 (a) E F  E  kT ln   
 po 
 E  EF 
p o  ni exp  Fi   1.6011019 
 kT   0.034533 ln  

 5 10
15

 
 1.8 10 6 exp 
  0.22 
  0.2787 eV
 0.0259 
(b) E c  E F  1.12  0.27873  0.84127 eV
 3.68  10 2 cm 3
_______________________________________ 
(c) no  4.3109 1019 exp  
  0.84127 

 0.034533 
4.24  1.134 10 9 cm 3
N  (d) Holes
(a) E F  E  kT ln   

 po  p 
(e) E Fi  E F  kT ln  o 
 1.04 1019   ni 
 0.0259 ln  15 

 5 10   5 1015 
 0.034533 ln  
12 
 0.1979 eV  2.38110 
(b) Ec  E F  E g  E F  E   0.2642 eV
 1.12  0.19788  0.92212 eV _______________________________________

 
(c) n o  2.8 1019 exp 
  0.92212 
 4.26
 0.0259 
 9.66  10 3 cm 3 (a)     0.25 
p o  7 1018 exp  
 0.0259 
(d) Holes
p
  4.50 1014 cm 3
(e) E Fi  E F  kT ln  o

 E c  E F  1.42  0.25  1.17 eV
 ni

 5 1015  
n o  4.7 1017 exp  
  1.17 

 0.0259 ln  
10 
 0.0259 
 1.5 10   1.13 10 2 cm 3
 0.3294 eV
_______________________________________
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

(b) kT  0.034533 eV
 
  0.77175 
no  4.3111019 exp  
 
3/ 2
 400   0.034533 
N   7 10  18

 300   8.49  10 9 cm 3
 1.078 1019 cm 3 _______________________________________

 
3/ 2
 400 
N c  4.7 1017   4.28
 300 
N c F1 / 2  F 
2
3
(a) n o 
 7.236 10 cm 17

N  For E F  E c  kT 2 ,
E F  E  kT ln   

 po  E F  E c kT 2
F    0 .5
 1.078 1019  kT kT
 0.034533 ln  
14  Then F1 / 2  F   1.0
 4.50 10 
 0.3482 eV no 
2
2.8 10 1.0
19

## E c  E F  1.42  0.3482  1.072 eV 

 3.16 1019 cm 3
 7.236 10 exp 
  1.07177 
17
no
0.034533    (b) n o 
2
N c F1 / 2  F 
3 
 2.40  10 cm 4

_____________________________________ 
2
4.7 10 1.0
17

4.27  5.30 1017 cm 3
(a) 
p o  1.04 10 19
   0.25 
exp  
_______________________________________
 0.0259 
4.29
 6.68 1014 cm 3
N  F1 / 2  F 
2
E c  E F  1.12  0.25  0.870 eV po 

 
  0.870 
n o  2.8 1019 exp   5  10 19 
2
1.04 10 F   
 0.0259 
19
1/ 2 F
3

no  7.23 10 cm 4
So F1 / 2  F   4.26
(b) kT  0.034533 eV
E  E F
We find  F  3.0 
 
3/ 2
 400 
N   1.04 1019   kT
 300  E  E F  3.00.0259  0.0777 eV
 1.6011019 cm 3 _______________________________________

 
3/ 2
 400 
N c  2.8 10 19
  4.30
 300  E F  E c 4kT
(a)  F   4
 4.3111019 cm 3 kT kT
N  Then F1 / 2  F   6.0
E F  E  kT ln   
 po  no 
2
N c F1 / 2  F 
 1.60110 19
 
 0.034533 ln  

 6.68 10
14
 
2
2.8 10 6.0
19

 0.3482 eV 
E c  E F  1.12  0.3482  0.7718 eV  1.90 10 20 cm 3
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

(b) n o 
2
4.7 10 6.0 17
p E  

4 2m *p  3/ 2
   E F  E  
exp 
 
 
3
h kT
 3.18 1018 cm 3
E  E   E  E 
_______________________________________  kT exp  
kT  kT 
4.31 Define
For the electron concentration E  E
nE   g c E  f F E  x 
kT
The Boltzmann approximation applies, so Then

n E  
4 2m n 
* 3/ 2
E  Ec
px   K  x  exp x 
h 3
To find maximum value of pE   px  , set
  E  E F   dp x 
 exp    0 Using the results from above,
 kT  dx 
or we find the maximum at

nE  

4 2m n* 
3/ 2
  E c  E F  
exp  E  E  kT
1
 2
 
3
h kT
_______________________________________
E  Ec   E  E c  
 kT exp   4.32
kT  kT 
(a) Silicon: We have
Define
E  Ec   E c  E F  
x n o  N c exp  
kT  kT 
Then We can write
E c  E F  E c  E d   E d  E F 
nE   nx   K x exp x 
For
To find maximum nE   nx  , set
E c  E d  0.045 eV and E d  E F  3kT eV
dnx  1
 0  K  x 1 / 2 exp x  we can write
2
    0.045 
dx
no  2.8 1019 exp   3
 x 1 / 2  1 exp x   0.0259 

 2.8 10 exp 4.737
19
or
or
1 
0  Kx 1 / 2 exp x   x n o  2.45 1017 cm 3
2 
We also have
  E F  E 
which yields
1 E  Ec 1 p o  N  exp  
x   E  E c  kT  kT 
2 kT 2
For the hole concentration Again, we can write
pE   g  E 1  f F E  E F  E  E F  E a   E a  E 
Using the Boltzmann approximation For
E F  E a  3kT and E a  E  0.045 eV
pE  

4 2m *p  3/ 2

E  E Then
h3
  E F  E     
p o  1.04 1019 exp  3 
0.045 
0.0259 
 exp   
   1.04 10 exp 4.737 
kT 19
or
or
p o  9.12 1016 cm 3
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

## (b) GaAs: assume E c  E d  0.0058 eV 2

 1014 
Then no 
1014
    1.722 1013
  
2

2  2 
    0.0058 
no  4.7 1017 exp   3
 1.029 1014 cm 3
 0.0259 
 4.7 10 exp 3.224
17
po 
1.722 10  13 2
 2.88 1012 cm 3
or 1.029 1014
no  1.87 1016 cm 3 _______________________________________
Assume E a  E  0.0345 eV 4.35
Then (a) p o  N a  N d  4 1015  1015
    0.0345 
p o  7 1018 exp   3  31015 cm 3
 0.0259 
 7 10 exp 4.332
18
no 
ni2

1.8 10 6 2

 1.08 10 3 cm 3
po 3 1015
or
p o  9.20 1016 cm 3 (b) no  N d  31016 cm 3
_______________________________________
po 
1.8 10  6 2
 1.08 10  4 cm 3
3 1016
4.33
Plot (c) no  p o  ni  1.8 10 6 cm 3

  
3
_______________________________________  375 
(d) ni2  4.7 1017 7.0 1018  
 300 
4.34
p o  4 15  1015  3 1015 cm 3   1.42300  
(a)  exp  
 0.0259 375 
no 
1.5 10  10 2
 7.5 10 4 cm 3  ni  7.580 10 8 cm 3
3 1015
(b) no  N d  31016 cm 3 p o  N a  41015 cm 3

## 1.5 10 10 2

3 no 
7.580 10  8 2
 1.44 10 2 cm 3
po   7.5 10 cm3
4 1015
3 10 16

  
3
(c) no  p o  ni  1.5 1010 cm 3  450 
(e) ni2  4.7 1017 7.0 1018  
 300 
  
3
 375 
(d) ni2  2.8 1019 1.04 1019     1.42300  
 300   exp  
  1.12300    0.0259 450  
 exp    ni  3.853 1010 cm 3
 0.0259 375 
 ni  7.334 1011 cm 3 no  N d  1014 cm 3

p o  N a  41015 cm 3 po 
3.853 10  10 2
 1.48 10 7 cm 3
7.334 10 
14
11 2 10
no   1.34 10 8 cm 3 _______________________________________
4 1015

  
3
 450  4.36
(e) n  2.8 10 1.04 10 
2 19

19
i
 300  (a) Ge: ni  2.4 1013 cm 3
  1.12300   Nd N 
2
 exp   (i) n o    d   ni2
 0.0259 450   2  2 
 ni  1.722 1013 cm 3 2
 2 1015 

2 1015
  
  2.4 1013
 
2

2  2 
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

or Then
n o  N d  21015 cm 3 f F E  
1
n2
po  i 

2.4 10 
13 2 
1  exp1 
0.245 

 0.0259 
no 2 1015
or
 2.88 1011 cm 3
f F E   2.87 10 5
(ii) p o  N a  N d  1016  7 1015 _______________________________________
 31015 cm 3
n2
no  i 
2.4 1013  2 4.38
(a) N a  N d  p-type
po 3 1015
(b) Silicon:
 1.92 1011 cm 3 p o  N a  N d  2.5 1013  11013
(b) GaAs: ni  1.8 10 6 cm 3 or
(i) n o  N d  21015 cm p o  1.5 1013 cm 3
1.8 10 
6 2 Then
po 
2 1015
 1.62 10 3 cm 3 ni2
no  

1.5 1010  2

 1.5 10 7 cm 3
(ii) p o  N a  N d  31015 cm 3 po 1.5 1013

no 
1.8 10  6 2
 1.08 10 3 cm 3
Germanium:
2
3 1015 N  Nd  N  Nd 
po  a   a   n i2
(c) The result implies that there is only one 2  2 
minority carrier in a volume of 10 3 cm 3 . 2
 1.5 1013   1.5 1013 
_______________________________________    
   
  2.4 1013 
2

 2   2 
4.37 or
(a) For the donor level
p o  3.26 1013 cm 3
nd 1
 Then
 Ed  EF 
 
Nd 1
1  exp  ni2 2.4 1013
2
2  kT  no    1.76 1013 cm 3
p o 3.264 1013
1
 Gallium Arsenide:
1  0.20 
1  exp  p o  N a  N d  1.5 1013 cm 3
2  0.0259 
and
 
or 2
ni2 1.8 10 6
nd
 8.85  10  4 no    0.216 cm 3
Nd po 1.5 1013
(b) We have _______________________________________

f F E  
1
4.39
 E  EF  (a) N d  N a  n-type
1  exp 
 kT  (b) no  N d  N a  2 1015  1.2 1015
Now
E  E F  E  E c   E c  E F   81014 cm 3
or
po 
ni2

1.5 1010 
2

 2.8110 5 cm 3
E  E F  kT  0.245 no 8 1014
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

(c) p o  N a  N a   N d 4.43
Plot
4 10 15
 N a  1.2 10  2 10 15 15
_______________________________________
 N a  4.8 1015 cm 3

no 
1.5 10  10 2
 5.625 10 cm 4 3
4.44
Plot
4 1015 _______________________________________
_______________________________________
4.45
4.40 2
Nd  Na  N  Na 
n2
no  i 
1.5 1010 
 1.125 1015 cm 3
2
no 
2
  d
 2
  ni2

po 2 10 5
2  10 14  1.2  10 14
n o  p o  n-type 1.1 10 14 
2
_______________________________________
2
 2  1014  1.2  1014 
4.41     n i2

 2 
  
3
 250 
ni2  1.04 1019 6.0 1018  
 300 
1.110 14
 4 1013   4 10 
2 13 2
 ni2

##   0.66  4.9 10 27  1.6 10 27  ni2

 exp  
 0.0259250 300 so ni  5.74 1013 cm 3
 1.8936 10 24 ni2 3.3  10 27
po   3  1013 cm 3
 ni  1.376 1012 cm 3 n o 1.1 1014
_______________________________________
ni2 n2 1
no   i  n o2  n i2
p o 4n o 4 4.46
1 (a) N a  N d  p-type
 no  ni
2 Majority carriers are holes
So no  6.88 1011 cm 3 , p o  N a  N d  3 1016  1.5 1016
Then p o  2.75 1012 cm 3  1.5 1016 cm 3
Minority carriers are electrons
 
2
Na N  2
po    a   ni2 n2 1.5 1010
2  2  no  i   1.5 10 4 cm 3
po 1.5 10 16
2
 N  (b) Boron atoms must be added
 2.752 1012  a 
 2  p o  N a  N a  N d

N 
2
5 1016  N a  3 1016  1.5 1016
  a   1.8936 10 24
 2  So N a  3.5 1016 cm 3

 N 
7.5735 10 24  2.752 1012 N a   a  
2

no 
1.5  10  10 2
 4.5  10 3 cm 3
 2  5  10 16

2 _______________________________________
N 
  a   1.8936 10 24
 2 
so that N a  2.064 1012 cm 3
_______________________________________

4.42
Plot
_______________________________________
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

4.47 N 
(a) p o  ni  n-type (b) E F  E Fi  kT ln  d 

 ni 
n i2 n2
(b) p o   no  i  Nd 
no po  0.0259 ln  
10 
 1.5  10 
no 
1.5 10  10 2
 1.125 1016 cm 3 For 10 14 cm 3 , E F  E Fi  0.2280 eV
2 10 4
10 15 cm 3 , E F  E Fi  0.2877 eV
 electrons are majority carriers
p o  210 4 cm 3 10 16 cm 3 , E F  E Fi  0.3473 eV
 holes are minority carriers 10 17 cm 3 , E F  E Fi  0.4070 eV
(c) n o  N d  N a _______________________________________
1.125 1016  N d  7 1015
4.50
so N d  1.825 1016 cm 3 2
N N 
_______________________________________ (a) n o  d   d   ni2
2  2 
4.48 no  1.05 N d  1.05 1015 cm 3
p 
E Fi  E F  kT ln  o  1.05 10 15
 0.5 1015 
2

 ni 
For Germanium 
 0.5 1015  2
 ni2
T (K) kT (eV) ni (cm 3 ) so ni2  5.25 10 28
200 0.01727 2.16 1010 Now

  
3
8.60 1014  T 
400 0.03453 ni2  2.8 1019 1.04 1019  
600 0.0518 3.82 1016  300 
  1.12 
 exp  
 0.0259T 300 
2
Na N 
po    a   ni2 and
 
3
2  2   T 
5.25 10 28  2.912 10 38  
N a  1015 cm 3  300 
T (K) p o (cm 3 ) E Fi  E F  (eV)   12972.973 
 exp  
200 1.0  10 15 0.1855  T 
By trial and error, T  536.5 K
400 1.49  10 15
0.01898
(b) At T  300 K,
600 3.87 1016 0.000674
N 
E c  E F  kT ln  c 
_______________________________________  no 
 2.8 1019 
4.49 E c  E F  0.0259 ln  15

N  10 
(a) E c  E F  kT ln  c

  0.2652 eV
 Nd
 At T  536.5 K,
 2.8 1019   536.5 
 0.0259 ln  
 kT  0.0259   0.046318 eV
 Nd   300 
3
For 10 cm , E c  E F  0.3249 eV
 
14 3/ 2
 536.5 
N c  2.8 1019  
10 15 cm 3 , E c  E F  0.2652 eV  300 
10 16 cm 3 , E c  E F  0.2056 eV  6.696 1019 cm 3
10 17 cm 3 , E c  E F  0.1459 eV
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

## N  Then, T  200 K, E Fi  E F  0.4212 eV

E c  E F  kT ln  c 

 no  T  400 K, E Fi  E F  0.2465 eV
 6.696 1019  T  600 K, E Fi  E F  0.0630 eV
E c  E F  0.046318 ln  15 
 _______________________________________
 1.05 10 
 0.5124 eV 4.52
then E c  E F   0.2472 eV (a)
(c) Closer to the intrinsic energy level. N   Na 
_______________________________________ E Fi  E F  kT ln  a   0.0259 ln  
6 
 ni   1.8 10 
4.51 For N a  1014 cm 3 , E Fi  E F  0.4619 eV
p  N a  1015 cm 3 , E Fi  E F  0.5215 eV
E Fi  E F  kT ln  o 
 ni 
16
N a  10 cm 3 , E Fi  E F  0.5811 eV
At T  200 K, kT  0.017267 eV
N a  1017 cm 3 , E Fi  E F  0.6408 eV
T  400 K, kT  0.034533 eV
(b)
T  600 K, kT  0.0518 eV
N   7.0 1018 
E F  E  kT ln     0.0259 ln  

At T  200 K,  Na   Na 

  
3 3
 200  For N a  10 cm , E F  E  0.2889 eV
14
ni2  2.8 1019 1.04 1019  
 300  N a  1015 cm 3 , E F  E  0.2293 eV
  1.12  16
N a  10 cm 3 , E F  E  0.1697 eV
 exp  
 0.017267 
N a  1017 cm 3 , E F  E  0.1100 eV
 ni  7.638 10 4 cm 3 _______________________________________
At T  400 K,

  
3 4.53
 400 
n  2.8 10
2
i
19
1.04 10  
19
 m *p 
 300  (a) E Fi  E midgap 
3
kT ln  * 
4  mn 
  1.12   
 exp  
 0.034533 

3
0.0259 ln 10
 ni  2.38110 cm 3 12 4
At T  600 K, or
E Fi  Emidgap  0.0447 eV
 1.04 10 
3
 600 
n  2.8 10
2
i
19 19
  (b) Impurity atoms to be added so
 300  Emidgap  E F  0.45 eV
  1.12  (i) p-type, so add acceptor atoms
 exp  
 0.0518  (ii) E Fi  E F  0.0447  0.45  0.4947 eV
 ni  9.740 1014 cm 3 Then
At T  200 K and T  400 K,  E  EF 
p o  ni exp Fi 
p o  N a  31015 cm 3  kT 
At T  600 K,
   0.4947 
 10 5 exp 
N N 
2  0.0259 
p o  a   a   ni2 or
2  2 
p o  N a  1.97 1013 cm 3
2
 3  1015 

3  1015
  
  9.740  1014
 
2 _______________________________________
2  2 
 3.288 1015 cm 3
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

4.54 N 
  E c  E F   (b) E F  E Fi  kT ln  c 
n o  N d  N a  N c exp    Nd 
 kT 
 2.8 1019 
so  0.0259 ln    0.1876 eV
16 
 2 10 

N d  5 1015  2.8 1019 exp 
  0.215 
 (c) For part (a);
 0.0259 
p o  21016 cm 3
 5 1015  6.95 1015
or
no 
ni2

1.5 1010 
2

## N d  1.2 1016 cm 3 po 2 1016

_______________________________________  1.125 10 4 cm 3
For part (b):
4.55
n o  21016 cm 3
(a) Silicon
N  po 
ni2

1.5 1010  2

(i) E c  E F  kT ln  c 
 Nd 
no 2 1016
 2.8 1019   1.125 10 4 cm 3
 0.0259 ln  15 
  0.2188 eV _______________________________________
 6 10 
(ii) E c  E F  0.2188  0.0259  0.1929 eV 4.57
  E c  E F    E  E Fi 
n o  ni exp  F
N d  N c exp   
 kT   kT 

 2.8 1019 exp  
  0.1929 

   0.55 
 1.8 10 6 exp  
 0.0259   0.0259 
N d  1.6311016 cm 3  N d  61015  3.0 1015 cm 3
 N d  1.0311016 cm 3 Additional
no  N d  N a
donor atoms
(b) GaAs 3 1015  7 1015  N a
 4.7 1017   N a  41015 cm 3
(i) E c  E F  0.0259  ln  

 10
15
 _______________________________________
 0.15936 eV
4.58
(ii) E c  E F  0.15936  0.0259  0.13346 eV
p 
(a) E Fi  E F  kT ln  o 

N d  4.7 10 exp 17

  0.13346 
  ni 
 0.0259 
 3 1015 
 2.718 1015 cm 3  N d  1015  0.0259 ln    0.3161 eV
10 
 1.5 10 
 N d  1.718 1015 cm 3 Additional
n 
donor atoms (b) E F  E Fi  kT ln  o 
_______________________________________  ni 
 3 1016 
4.56  0.0259  ln    0.3758 eV
10 
N   1.5 10 
(a) E Fi  E F  kT ln    (c) E F  E Fi
 Na 
 1.04  1019 
 0.0259 ln  16 
  0.1620 eV
 2  10 
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

p  4.60
(d) E Fi  E F  kT ln  o  n-type
 ni  n 
 375   4 10
15
 E F  E Fi  kT ln  o 
 0.0259  ln  
11 
 ni 
 300   7.334 10 
 1.125  10 16 
 0.2786 eV  0.0259  ln    0.3504 eV
 
 1.5  10 
10
n 
(e) E F  E Fi  kT ln  o  ______________________________________
 ni 
 450   1.029 10 
14
4.61
 0.0259  ln 
 300   1.722 10 
13 2
Na N 
po    a   ni2
 0.06945 eV 2  2 
_______________________________________
5  10 15
5.08  10 15 
4.59 2
N   5  1015 
2
(a) E F  E  kT ln        n i2
 po  
 2 
 7.0 1018 
 0.0259 ln  15 
  0.2009 eV 5.08 10 15
 2.5 1015  2

 3 10 
 2.5 10  15 2
 ni2
 7.0 1018 
(b) E F  E  0.0259  ln  
4  6.6564 10 30  6.25 10 30  ni2
 1.08 10 
 1.360 eV  ni2  4.064 10 29
 7.0 1018    Eg 
(c) E F  E  0.0259  ln  
6 
ni2  N c N  exp  
 1.8 10   kT 
 0.7508 eV  350 
kT  0.0259   0.030217 eV
 375   300 
(d) E F  E  0.0259 
 300 
 
2
 350 
  1.633 10 cm 3
  N c  1.2 1019  19
 7.0  10 375 300 
18 3/ 2
  300 
 ln  
 4  10 15 
 
2
 350 
N   1.8 1019    2.45 10 cm 3
19
 0.2526 eV  300 
 450 
(e) E F  E  0.0259  Now
 300  
4.064 10 29  1.633 1019 2.45 1019  
 ln 
 18

 7.0  10 450 300  

3/ 2
  Eg 
 exp  
 1.48  10 7   0.030217 
 1.068 eV So
_______________________________________ 
 1.633 1019 2.45 1019 
E g  0.030217  ln 
 

 4.064 10 29 
 E g  0.6257 eV
_______________________________________
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

4.62
(a) Replace Ga atoms  Silicon acts as a
donor
 
N d  0.05 7 1015  3.5 1014 cm 3
Replace As atoms  Silicon acts as an
acceptor
 
N a  0.95 7 1015  6.65 1015 cm 3
(b) N a  N d  p-type
(c) p o  N a  N d  6.65 1015  3.5 1014
 6.3 1015 cm 3

no 
ni2

1.8 10 6 
2

 5.14 10  4 cm 3
po 6.3 10 15

p 
(d) E Fi  E F  kT ln  o 
 ni 
 6.3 1015 
 0.0259 ln  6 
  0.5692 eV
 1.8 10 
_______________________________________
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 5
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 5
5.1 1

(a)  
1

1 
1.6  10 220  8  10 1619
  
e n N d 
1.6  10 19 1300  1015     0.355  -cm
 4.808  -cm (b)   e n N d

(b)  
11
 0.208 (  -cm) 1
 
120  1.6 10 19  n N d 
 4.8077
From Figure 5.3, for N d  21017 cm 3 ,
_______________________________________
then  n  3800 cm 2 /V-s which gives
5.2   1.6 10 19 38002 1017 
  e p N a
 121.6 (  -cm) 1
 1.80
or N a   _______________________________________
e p 1.6 10 19 380
5.5
 2.96 1016 cm 3
L L L
_______________________________________ R  
A A e n N d A
5.3 L
(a)   e n N d or  n 
eN d RA

10  1.6 10 19  n N d  2.5

From Figure 5.3, for N d  61016 cm 3 we 1.6 10 2 10 700.1
19 15

## find  n  1050 cm 2 /V-s which gives  1116 cm 2 /V-s

  1.6 10 19 10506 1016  _______________________________________

##  10.08 (  -cm) 1 5.6

(b)  
1 (a) no  N d  1016 cm 3
e p N a and

0.20 
1
po 
ni2

1.8 10 6  2

 3.24 10  4 cm 3
1.6 10  19
p Na no 1016
From Figure 5.3, for N a  1017 cm 3 we (b)
J  e n n o 
find  p  320 cm 2 /V-s which gives
For GaAs doped at N d  1016 cm 3 ,
1
  0.195  -cm
1.6 10 32010 
19 17  n  7500 cm 2 /V-s
Then
   
_______________________________________
J  1.6 10 19 7500 1016 10
5.4 or
1 J  120 A/cm 2
(a)  
e p N a (b) (i) p o  N a  1016 cm 3
1 ni2
0.35 
1.6 10  19
p Na
no 
po
 3.24  10  4 cm 3

From Figure 5.3, for N a  81016 cm 3 we (ii) For GaAs doped at N a  1016 cm 3 ,
find  p  220 cm 2 /V-s which gives  p  310 cm 2 /V-s
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 5
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

## J  e p po  (b) R  L  R  68.933  206.79 

 1.6 10 19
31010 10
16 V
I 
2
 0.00967 A
or R 206.79
J  4.96 A/cm 2 or I  9.67 mA
_______________________________________ (c) J  ep o d
29.0 10 3
5.7 For (a), J  4
 34.12 A/cm 2
8.5 10
(a) V  IR  10  0.1R
J 34.12
Then  d  
or
R  100 
ep o 
1.6  10 19 2  1016  
(b)  1.066 10 cm/s 4

L L 9.67 10 3
R   For (b), J   11.38 A/cm 2
A RA 8.5 10  4
or 11.38
d 

10 3
 0.01 (  -cm) 1 
1.6  10 19 2  10 16  
100 10 3    3.55 10 cm/s 3

(c)   e n N d _______________________________________
or

0.01  1.6 10 19 1350N d  5.9
Then (a) For N d  21015 cm 3 , then
N d  4.63 1013 cm 3  n  8000 cm 2 /V-s
(d)   e p po V 5
R   200 
or I 25  10 3

0.01  1.6 10 19 480 p o  R
L
Then e n N d A
p o  1.30 1014 cm 3  N a  N d or L  e n N d RA
So   
 1.6 10 19 8000 2 1015 200 5 10 5   
N a  1.30 1014  1015  1.13 1015 cm 3  0.0256 cm
Note: For the doping concentrations I
obtained, the assumed mobility values are (b) J   en o d
A
valid. I
_______________________________________ or  d 
Aen o 
5.8 25 10 3

(a) R 
L

L 5 10  5
1.6 10 19 2 1015  
A e p Na A  1.56 10 cm/s 6

## For N a  21016 cm 3 , then (c) I  en o d A

 p  400 cm 2 /V-s  
 1.6 10 19 2 1015 5 10 6 5 10 5   
R
0.075  0.080 A
1.6  10 19
4002 1016 8.5 10 4  or I  80 mA
_______________________________________
 68.93 
V 2
I   0.0290 A
R 68.93
or I  29.0 mA
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 5
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

## 5.10 (b) N a  N d  1016 cm 3

V 3
(a)     3 V/cm   n  1250 cm 2 /V-s
L 1
d 10 4  p  410 cm 2 /V-s
 d  n    n  
 3 
1
or 1.6 10 
19
1250  410 1.5 1010  
 n  3333 cm 2 /V-s  2.5110  -cm
5

(b)
(c) N a  N d  1018 cm 3
 d   n   8003
or   n  290 cm 2 /V-s
 d  2.4 10 3 cm/s  p  130 cm 2 /V-s
_______________________________________ 1

5.11
1.6 10 290  1301.5 10 
19 10

## (a) Silicon: For   1 kV/cm,  9.92 10 5  -cm

 d  1.2 10 6 cm/s _______________________________________
Then
5.13
d 10 4
tt    8.33 10 11 s (a) GaAs:
 d 1.2 10 6 
  e p p o  5  1.6  10 19  p p o 
For GaAs:  d  7.5 10 6 cm/s From Figure 5.3, and using trial and error, we
Then find
d 10 4 p o  1.3 1017 cm 3 and
tt    1.33 10 11 s
 d 7.5 10 6  p  240 cm 2 /V-s
(b) Silicon: For   50 kV/cm, Then
 d  9.5 10 6 cm/s
no 
ni2

1.8 10 6 2

 2.49 10 5 cm 3
Then
po 1.3 1017
10 4
tt   1.05 10 11 s (b) Silicon:
9.5 10 6 1
For GaAs:  d  7 10 6 cm/s    e n n o

Then or
10 4 1 1
tt   1.43 10 11 s no  
7 10 6

e n 8 1.6  10 19 1350  
_______________________________________ which gives
n o  5.79 1014 cm 3
5.12
1 1 and
 
 
e n no  e p p o e  n   p ni po 
ni2

1.5 1010  2

 3.89 10 5 cm 3
no 5.79 1014
(a) N a  N d  1014 cm 3
Note: For the doping concentrations obtained
  n  1350 cm 2 /V-s in part (b), the assumed mobility values are
 p  480 cm 2 /V-s valid.
_______________________________________
1

1.6 10 
19

1350  480 1.5 1010 
 2.28 10  -cm
5
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 5
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

5.14 L
 i  eni  n   p  (b) R 
A
Then (i) Si:
 
10 6  1.6 10 19 1000  600ni
R
200 10 4
 5.36 10 9 
or  
4.39 10 6 85 10 8 
ni (300 K)  3.9110 9 cm 3 (ii) Ge:
Now 200 10 4
R  1.06 10 6 
  Eg 
ni2  N c N  exp 
 2
2.23 10 85 10 8
 
 (iii) GaAs:
 kT 
or 200 10 4
R  9.19 1012 
N N  
2.56 10 9 85 10 8  
E g  kT ln  c 2   _______________________________________
 ni 
 1019 2
 0.0259  ln 
  

5.16
(a)   e n N d

 3.91 10 9  2

which gives 
0.25  1.6 10 19  n N d 
E g  1.122 eV From Figure 5.3, for N d  1.2 1015 cm 3 ,
Now then  n  1300 cm 2 /V-s
 
ni2 (500K)  1019
2 
exp 
 1.122 

 
So   1.6 10 19 1300 1.2 1015  
 0.0259500 300   0.2496 (  -cm) 1
 5.15 10 26 (b) Using Figure 5.2,
or (i) For T  250 K ( 23 C),
ni (500 K)  2.27 1013 cm 3   n  1800 cm 2 /V-s
Then   1.6 10 19 18001.2 1015 
 
 i  1.6 10 19 2.27 1013 1000  600   0.346 (  -cm) 1
which gives (ii) For T  400 K ( 127 C),
 i (500 K)  5.8110 3 (  -cm) 1   n  670 cm 2 /V-s
  1.6 10 19 6701.2 1015 
_______________________________________

## 5.15  0.129 (  -cm) 1

(a) (i) Silicon:  i  eni  n   p   _______________________________________
 i  1.6 10 19
1.5 10 1350  480
10
5.17
or t t
x
  x dx   o exp 
1 1
 i  4.39 10 6 (  -cm) 1  avg  dx
(ii) Ge:
t 0 t 0  d 
 
 i  1.6 10 19 2.4 1013 3900  1900  
o
 d  exp  x 
t

or t  d 0
 i  2.23 10 2 (  -cm) 1  od    t  
 exp   1
(iii) GaAs: t   d  
 
 i  1.6 10 19 1.8 10 6 8500  400  200.3 1  exp  1.5 
  
1.5 
or
 0.3 
 i  2.56 10 9 (  -cm) 1
 3.97 (  -cm) 1
_______________________________________
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 5
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

## 5.18 (b)   1 kV/cm

(a)   
V 2
 133.3 V/cm  d  13501000  1.35 10 6 cm/s
L 150  10  4 or
(b)  x   e n N d x   d  1.35 10 4 m/s
T

##  2 10 1  1.111T dx

1  x  Then
 avg  e n  16

T 0
1

T  1.08 9.1110 31 1.35 10 4
2
 

e n 2 10 x
16
  x  2 T
or
2
 
T  21.111T  0 T  8.97 10 23 J  5.60 10 4 eV

 n

e 2 1016  T2  _______________________________________
T  
T  21.111T  5.21

 e n 2 1016 0.55    Eg
(a) ni2  N c N  exp

 1.6 10 19
7502 10 0.55
16
 kT

 avg  1.32 (  -cm) 1
 
  1.10 
 2 1019 11019 exp  
(c) I 
 avg A
V 
1.327.5 10 4 10 4  2
 0.0259 
L 150 10  4  7.18 1019
5
 1.32 10 A or
or I  13.2  A ni  8.47 10 9 cm 3
(d) Top surface; For N d  1014 cm 3 >> ni  n o  1014 cm 3

  1.6 10 19 750 2 1016    Then
 2.4 (  -cm) 1 J    e n n o 
J    2.4133.3  320 A/cm 2  
 1.6 10 19 1000  1014 100  
Bottom surface: or

  1.6 10 19 750 2 1015    J  1.60 A/cm 2
(b) A 5% increase is due to a 5% increase in
 0.24 (  -cm) 1 electron concentration, so
J    0.24133.3  32 A/cm 2 2
N N 
_______________________________________ n o  1.05  10 14
 d   d   n i2
2  2 
5.19 which becomes
Plot
_______________________________________
1.05 10 14
 5 1013   5 10 
2 13 2
 ni2
and yields
5.20 ni2  5.25 10 26
(a)   10 V/cm
  Eg 
  
3
 T 
so  2 1019 11019   exp 

 d   n   135010  1.35 10 4 cm/s  300   kT 
or or
 
3
 d  1.35 10 2 m/s  T   1.10
2.625 10 12    exp  
Then  300   0.0259T 300 
1 By trial and error, we find
T  m n* d2
2 T  456 K

  
_______________________________________
 1.08 9.1110 31 1.35 10 2
1 2

2
or
T  8.97 10 27 J  5.60 10 8 eV
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 5
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

## 5.22 (b) From Figure 5.3,

n2 n-type:  n  1100 cm 2 /V-s
(a)   e n no  e p po and n o  i
po p-type:  p  400 cm 2 /V-s
Then
compensated:  n  1000 cm 2 /V-s
e n 2
  n i  e p p o (c) n-type:   e n no
   
po
 1.6 10 19 1100  5 1016
To find the minimum conductivity, set
 1e n ni2
1
d  8.8 (  -cm)
0  e p p-type:   e p po
dp o p o2
which yields  
 1.6 10 19 400 2 1016  
1
 1.28 (  -cm)
1/ 2
 
p o  n i  n  (Answer to part (b)) compensated:   e n no
 p 
 
Substituting into the conductivity expression  
 1.6 10 19 1000  3 1016  
1
e n ni2  4.8 (  -cm)
   min 
 
ni  n  p
1/ 2
  (d) J     
J

 
 e p n i  n  p  
1/ 2
120

## which simplifies to n-type:    13.6 V/cm

8 .8
 min  2en i  n  p 120
p-type:    93.75 V/cm
The intrinsic conductivity is defined as 1.28
i
 i  eni  n   p   eni  compensated:  
120
 25 V/cm
n   p 4 .8
The minimum conductivity can then be _______________________________________
written as
2 i  n  p 5.24
 min  1 1 1 1
n   p   
 1 2 3
_______________________________________
1 1 1
  
5.23 2000 1500 500
(a) n-type: no  N d  51016 cm 3  0.00050  0.000667  0.0020
or
n2
po  i 

1.5 1010 2
1
 0.003167
no 5 1016 
 4.5 10 3 cm 3 Then
p-type: p o  N a  210 cm 16 3   316 cm 2 /V-s

no 
1.5 10 10 2
 1.125 10 4 cm 3
_______________________________________

2 10 16
5.25
compensated: n o  N d  N a 3 / 2 3 / 2
 T   300 
 n  1300   1300 
 5 10  2 10
16 16
 300   T 
 31016 cm 3 (a) At T  200 K,

1.5 10 10 2
 7.5 10 3 cm 3  n  1300
 300 
3/ 2

 2388 cm 2 /V-s
po 
3 1016  200 
(b) At T  400 K,  n  844 cm 2 /V-s
_______________________________________
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 5
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

 1015  nx1  
 
5.26
1 1 1 1 1 (b)  2  1.6 10 19 230 4 
     0.006  0  20 10 
 1 2 250 500
4  103  3.68  102  3.68  1017 nx1 
Then
  167 cm 2 /V-s nx1   8.911014 cm 3
_______________________________________ _______________________________________

5.27 5.32
d  16  x 
2
Plot dp
_______________________________________ J p  eD p  eD p 10 1   
dx dx   L  
5.28 1016  x
Plot  eD p   21  
_______________________________________
L  L
(a) For x  0 ,
5.29
Jp 
   
 1.6 10 19 10 1016 2
dn  5 1014  n0  12 10  4
J n  eDn  eDn  

dx  0.01  0   26.7 A/cm 2
(b) For x  6  m,
 5 1014  n0 

0.19  1.6 10 19 25  
 0.010 
    
 6
 1.6 10 19 10 1016 21  
 12 
Then Jp  4
0.190.010  5 1014  n0 12 10

1.6  10 19 25   13.3 A/cm 2
(c) For x  12  m,
which yields
n0  0.25 1014 cm 3 Jp 0
_______________________________________ _______________________________________

5.30 5.33
For electrons:
dn n
J n  eD n
dx
 eD n
x J n  eD n
dn
dx
 eD n
d
dx

10 15 e  x / Ln 
 2 10  5 10 
   
16 15
J n  1.6 10 19 27    eD n 1015 e  x / Ln
 0  0.012  
Ln
J n  5.4 A/cm 2 At x  0 ,
_______________________________________
Jn 
   
 1.6 10 19 25 1015
 2 A/cm 2
3
5.31 2 10
For holes:
dn n
(a) J n  eD n
dx
 eD n
x J p  eD p
dp
dx
 eD p
d
dx
5  10 15 e 
 x / Lp

 1015  nx1  

 2  1.6 10 19 30  4  
 eD p 5  10 15 e   x / Lp

 0  20 10  
Lp
4 10 3  4.8 10 3  4.8 10 18 nx1 
For x  0 ,
which yields
nx1   1.67 1014 cm 3 Jp 
  
 1.6 10 19 10 5 1015 
 16 A/cm 2
4
5 10
J Total  J n x  0  J p x  0
 2   16  18 A/cm 2
_______________________________________
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 5
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

5.34 5.36
J p  eD p
dp
dx
 eD p
d
dx
5  10 15 ex / Lp
 (a) J n  eD n
dn
dx
 eD n
d
dx

2  10 15 e  x / L 

eD p 5  10 15 e  x / Lp

 eD n 2 1015 e  x / L

Lp L
1.6 10 105 10 
19 15

  
 1.6 10 19 27  2 1015 e  x / L 
(a) (i) J p  15 10  4
50 10  4
 5.76e  x / L
 1.6 A/cm 2
  
1.6 10 19 48 5 1015  (b) J p  J Total  J n  10   5.76e  x / L  
(ii) J p 
22.5 10  4 
 5.76e  x / L 10 A/cm 2 
 17.07 A/cm 2 (c) We have J p    e p po   
(b) (i) J p 
  
1.6 10 19 10 5 1015 e 1  5.76e x / L
 10  1.6 10 19
42010  16

50 10  4 
So   8.57e  x / L 14.88 V/cm 
 0.589 A/cm 2 _______________________________________
(ii) J p 
  
1.6 10 19 48 5 1015 e 1 
5.37
22.5 10  4
dnx 
 6.28 A/cm 2 (a) J  e n nx   eD n
_______________________________________ dx
We have  n  8000 cm 2 /V-s, so that
5.35 Dn  0.02598000  207 cm 2 /s
dn
J n  e n n  eD n Then

or
dx
 
100  1.6 10 19 800012nx 
dnx 
     x 
 40  1.6 10 19 9601016 exp  

 1.6  10 19 207   dx
  18  which yields

 1.6 10 19 25 1016    
100  1.536  10 14 nx   3.312  10 17   dndxx 
 1  x
 4
 exp  Solution is of the form
 18 10   18 
x
Then nx   A  B exp 
   x  x  d 
 40  1.536exp   22.22 exp  so that
  18   18 
dnx   B x
We find  exp 
dx d  d 
22.22 exp  x   40 Substituting into the differential equation, we
 18 
 have
1.536  exp  x 
 18   
100  1.536 10 14  A  B exp 
  x 

or   d 
x 3.312 10  B exp  x  17

##   14.5  26.0 exp  

 18  d  d 
_______________________________________ This equation is valid for all x, so

100  1.536 10 14 A 
or
A  6.511015
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 5
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

Also Then
x E F  E Fi  0.4  2.5 10 2 x
1.536 10 14 B exp 
 d  so

3.312 10  B exp  x   0
17  0.4  2.5 10 2 x 
n  ni exp 

d  d   kT 
which yields dn
(b) J n  eD n
d  2.156 10 3 cm dx
At x  0 , e n n0  50   2.5 10 2   0.4  2.5 10 2 x 
so that  eDn ni   exp
 

 kT   kT 
 
50  1.6 10 19 800012 A  B 
Assume T  300 K, so kT  0.0259 eV and
which yields
ni  1.5 1010 cm 3
B  3.255 1015
Then
Then
x Jn 
   
 1.6  10 19 25 1.5  1010 2.5  10 2 
nx   6.511015  3.255 1015 exp  cm 3 0.0259
 d 
 0.4  2.5 10 2 x 
(b)  exp 

At x  0 , n0  6.511015  3.255 1015  0.0259 
Or or
n0  3.26 1015 cm 3  0.4  2.5 10 2 x 
J n  5.79 10  4 exp 

At x  50  m,  0.0259 
  50  (i) At x  0 , J n  2.95 10 A/cm3 2
n50  6.511015  3.255 1015 exp 
 21.56  (ii) At x  5  m, J n  23.7 A/cm 2
or _______________________________________
n50  6.19 1015 cm 3
(c) 5.39
At x  50  m, (a) J n  e n n  eD n
dn
J drf  e n n50 dx

  
 1.6 10 19 8000 6.19 1015 12     
 x
 80  1.6 10 19 1000  1016 1  
or  L
J drf x  50  95.08 A/cm 2     1016 
 1.6 10 19 25.9 

Then  L 
J diff x  50  100  95.08 where L  10 10 4  10 3 cm
or We find
J diff x  50  4.92 A/cm 2  x 
 80  1.6  1.6 3   41.44
_______________________________________  10 
or
5.38 x 
 E  E Fi  80  1.6  1  41.44
n  ni exp F  L 
 kT  Solving for the electric field, we find
(a) E F  E Fi  ax  b , b  0.4 24.1

 
V/cm
0.15  a 10 3  0.4 x 
  1
which yields L 
a  2.5 10 2
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 5
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

## (b) For J n  20 A/cm 2 5.42

 kT  1 dN d x 
x   x     
20  1.6  1  41.44  e  N d x  dx
L 
Then For N d x   N do e  x / L
13.3 0.0259
 V/cm So  X   500 V/cm
 x L
1  
 L Which yields L  5.18 10 5 cm
_______________________________________ _______________________________________

5.40 5.43
 kT  1 dN d x  (a) We have
(a)  X     dN d x 
 e  d N  x  dx J diff  eD n
dn
 eD n
dx dx
 0.0259  d
 
N do e  x / L dx

N do e  x / L  
eD n x
 N do exp 
 L   L 
 0.0259    1 
    N do e  x / L We have
N do e  x / L  L   kT 
Dn   n    60000.0259

0.0259

0.0259  e 
L 10  10  4 or
D n  155.4 cm 2 /s
or  X  25.9 V/cm
Then
L

## (b)     X dx  25.9 L  0 

 
 1.6 10 19 155.4 5 1016  
x

0
J diff 

0.110  4 
exp 
 L 

 25.9 10 10 4  0.0259 V  or
or   25.9 mV x
J diff  1.243 10 5 exp  A/cm 2
_______________________________________  L 
(b)
5.41 0  J drf  J diff
From Example 5.6 Now
x 
 
0.0259 1019  0.0259 10 3   J drf  e n n

1016  1019 x 
1  10 3 x  
10 4    
   x 
 1.6 10 19 6000 5 1016 exp  
  L 
V  0
 x dx
or
   x 
J drf  48exp
10 4
 
 0.0259 10   3dx
1  10 x 
0
3
We have
  L 

   
104
 1  J drf   J diff
 0.0259 10 3  3  ln 1  10 3 x
 10  0 so
 0.0259ln 1  0.1  ln 1  
48exp  x   1.243 10 5 exp  x 
or   L   L 
V  2.73 mV which yields
_______________________________________
  2.59 10 3 V/cm
_______________________________________
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 5
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

5.44 5.48
Plot (a) V H  0  n-type
_______________________________________
(b) n 
 I X BZ

 0.50 10 3 0.10 
5.45 edV H  
1.6 10 19 10 5  5.2 10 3  
(a) (i) Dn  0.02591150  29.8 cm 2 /s  6.0110 m 21 3

## (ii) Dn  0.02596200   160.6 cm /s 2 or n  6.011015 cm 3

IX L
(b) (i)  p 
8
 308.9 cm 2 /V-s (c)  n 
0.0259 enV X Wd

(ii)  p 
35
 1351 cm 2 /V-s 
0.5 10 10 
3 3

## 0.0259 1.6 10 19

6.0110 1510 10 
21 4 5

## _______________________________________  0.03466 m 2 /V-s

5.46 or  n  346.6 cm 2 /V-s
L  10 1 cm, W  10 2 cm, d  10 3 cm _______________________________________
(a)

VH 
 I X BZ

 1.2 10 3 5 10 2   5.49

(a) V H   H W   16.5 10 3 5 10 2  
ned  
2 10 22 1.6 10 19 10 5   or
 1.875 10 3 V V H  0.825 mV
or V H  1.875 mV (b) V H  negative  n-type
(b)
I x Bz
V  1.875 10 3 (c) n 
H  H   0.1875 V/cm edV H
10  2
W
_______________________________________ 
 
 0.5 10 3 6.5 10 2 
  
1.6 10 19 5 10 5  0.825 10 3 
5.47 or
I x Bz n  4.924 10 21 m 3  4.924 1015 cm 3
(a) V H 
ned (d)

 250 10 6 5 10 2   n 
IxL
 
5 10 21 1.6 10 19 5 10 5   enV xWd
or

0.5 10 0.5 10 
3 2

## V H  0.3125 mV 1.6 10 19

4.924 10 1.255 10 5 10 
21 4 5

(b) or
V  0.3125 10 3  n  0.1015 m 2 /V-s  1015 cm 2 /V-s
H  H 
W 2 10  2 _______________________________________
or
 H  1.56 10 2 V/cm
(c)
IxL
n 
enV xWd

250 10 10  6 3

## 1.6 10 19

5 10 0.12 10 5 10 
21 4 5

or
 n  0.3125 m 2 /V-s  3125 cm 2 /V-s
_______________________________________
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 5
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

5.50
(a) V H  negative  n-type
I x Bz
(b) n 
edV H

 2.5 10 3 2.5 10 2  
 
1.6 10 19 0.0110  2  4.5 10 3  
or
n  8.68 10 20 m 3  8.68 1014 cm 3
IxL
(c)  n 
enV xWd



2.5 10 3 0.5 10 2 
 

 1.6 10
19
 
8.68 10 2.2 
20

 1 

 2
 0.05 10 0.0110 
2 
 
or
 n  0.8182 m 2 /V-s  8182 cm 2 /V-s
1
(d)    e n n

 
 1.6  10  19 8182 8.68  10 14  
or
  0.88 (  -cm)
_______________________________________
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 6
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 6
6.1 (b) Generation rate = recombination rate
no  N d  51015 cm 3 Then
2.25 10 4
ni2
po  
1.5 1010 
 4.5 10 4 cm 3
 2
G
20 10 6
 1.125 10 9 cm 3 s 1
Nd 5 10 15
(c)
(a) Minority carrier hole lifetime is a R  G  1.125 10 9 cm 3 s 1
constant.
_______________________________________
 pt   p 0  2  10 7 s
po 4.5  10 4 6.4
R po 
 p0

2  10  7
 2.25  1011 cm 3 s 1
(a) E  h 
hc

6.625 10 3 10 
34 8

##  6300 10 10

p o  p 4.5 10 4  1014
(b) R po   or
 p0 2 10 7 E  3.15 10 19 J; energy of one photon
3 1
 510 cm s 20
Now
_______________________________________ 1 W = 1 J/s  3.17 1018 photons/s
Volume = (1)(0.1) = 0.1 cm 3
6.2 Then
p o  N a  21016 cm 3 3.17 1018
g
n2
no  i 
1.8 10 6   2

 1.62 10  4 cm 3
0.1
po 2 1016  3.17 10 19 e-h pairs/cm 3 -s
n 5 1014 (b)
(a) R   
 n0 5 10 7
 10 21 cm 3 s 1 n  p  g  3.17 1019 10 10 6 
po no no or
(b) R p    n  p  3.17 1014 cm 3
 pt  nt  n0
  
_______________________________________
 pt
p
 o  n 0 
2 1016
 5 10 7 
no 1.62 10  4   6.5
We have
 6.17 10 s 13
p p
_______________________________________    F p  g p 
t p
6.3 and
(a) Recombination rates are equal J p  e p p  eD p p
no p
 o The hole particle current density is
 nO  pO Jp
F p    p  D p  p
no  N d  1016 cm 3  e p
ni2 
1.5 1010 2 Now
po    2.25 10 4 cm 3   F p   p    p   D p   p
no 1016
Then We can write
   p     p  p  
1016 2.25 10 4
 and
 nO 20 10  6
  p   2 p
which yields
so
 nO  8.89 10 6 s
  F p   p   p  p     D p  2 p
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 6
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

## Then By charge neutrality,

p n  p  n  n  p 
   p   p  p   
t and
 n   p 
 Dp2 p  g p 
p  2 n    2 p  and 
p t t
We can then write Also
D p  2 p   p   p  p   
p n
gn  g p  g ,  R
p n
p p
gp   Then we have
 p t
(1) D p  2 n    p   n   p  
_______________________________________
 n 
gR
6.6 t
From Equation (6.18), and
p
   F p  g p 
p (2) Dn  2 n   n   n  n  
t p  n 
gR
p t
t Multiply Equation (1) by  n n and Equation
Then (2) by  p p , and add the two equations.
0    F p  g p  R p We find
For a one-dimensional case,  n nD p   p pDn  2 n 
dF p   n  p  p  n  n
 g p  R p  10 20  2 1019
or
dx  
  n n   p p g  R

dF p
 81019 cm 3 s 1

 nn   p p  tn 
dx
_______________________________________
 
Divide by  n n   p p , then
  n nD p   p pD n  2
  n 
6.7  nn   p p 
From Equation (6.18),  
dF p   n  p  p  n
0  0  2 1019      n 
dx   n n   p p 
or  n 
 g  R  
dF p t
 21019 cm 3 s 1
dx Define
_______________________________________  n nD p   p pD n Dn D p n  p 
D  
nn   p p Dn n  D p p
6.8
We have the continuity equations and
 n  p  p  n
(1) D p  2 p    p   p   p    
nn   p p
p p 
gp   Then we have
p t
 n 
and D  2 n     n  g  R  
t
(2) Dn  2 n   n   n  n   Q.E.D.
_______________________________________
n  n 
 gn  
n t
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 6
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

6.9  n  p  p  n
p-type material;  
nn   p p
minority carriers are electrons
(a)     n

390019001.124 1013  5.124 1013 
From Figure 5.3,  n  1300 cm 2 /V-s 39005.124 1013  19001.124 1013 
 kT   1340 cm 2 /V-s
(b) D   Dn      n  0.02591300  (b) For holes,  pt   p 0  2  10 6 s
 e 
 33.67 cm 2 /s For electrons,
n p
(c)  nt   n 0  10 7 s 
 nt  p0
p o  N a  71015 cm 3
5.124 1013 1.124 1013
n2
no  i 

1.5 1010 2
 nt

2 10 6
Na 7 1015
  nt  9.12 10 6 s
 3.2110 4 cm 3 _______________________________________
no p
 o
 nt  pt 6.11
  e n n  e p p
3.214  10 4 7  1015
 With excess carriers
10  7  pt
n  n o  n and p  p o  p
so  pt  2.18  10 4 s For an n-type semiconductor, we can write
_______________________________________ n  p  p
Then
6.10   e n no  p  e p  po  p
For Ge: ni  2.4 1013 cm 3 or
Nd N 
2   e n no  e p po  e  n   p p  
no    d   ni2 so
2  2 

  e  n   p p 
2
 4 10  In steady-state, p  g  pO
4 10
 
13 13
    2.4 1013
2
 
2  2  So that
 5.124 1013 cm 3

  e  n   p g  pO  
ni2
po  
2.4 1013 
2

 1.124 1013 cm 3
_______________________________________

## no 5.124 1013 6.12

(a) We have: (a) p o  N a  1016 cm 3
 n  3900 cm 2 /V-s, Dn  101 cm 2 /s
no 
ni2

1.5 1010  2

 2.25 10 4 cm 3
 p  1900 cm /V-s, D p  49.2 cm /s
2 2
po 1016
For very, very low injection,   e n no  n  e p  po  p
Dn D p n  p 
D  
 e p po  e  n   p n 
Dn n  D p p
Now n  p  g  n 0 1  e  t /  n 0

10149.25.124 1013  1.124 1013 

1015.124 1013  49.21.124 1013 

 8 10 20
5 10 1  e
7 t /  n 0

 54.2 cm 2 /s
 4 1014 1  e  cm
t /  n 0 3

and
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 6
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________
t /  p 0
where p  g  p 0 e
Then 
  1.6 10 38010 
19 16

 8  10 20 5  10 7 e  t /  p 0

##  1.6 10 900  380 

19
t / 
 4 1014 e p 0 cm 3
 4 10 1  e  t /  n 0

   
14
  1.6 10 19 1300 8 1015  2 1015
  0.608  0.08191  e  (  -cm) t /  n 0 1
 1.6 10 1300  400 19

## (b) (i)  0  0.608 (  -cm) 1

 4  10 e 14 t /  p 0

## (ii)     0.690 (  -cm) 1

t /  p 0
  1.248  0.109e
1.248  0.109e 10 10
_______________________________________
t /  p 0 5
I
6.13 0.05
(a) For 0  t  10 6 s,  2.496 10  2.18 10 4 e
3 t /  p 0

 
A
t /  p 0
n  p  g  p 0 1  e or I  2.496  0.218e mA
t /  p 0

  
 4  10 21 5  10 8 1  e
t /  p 0
 _______________________________________

 2  10 1  e  cm
14 t /  p 0 3
6.15
6
At t  10 s, p o  N a  N d  2 1016  6 1015
p 10 6   2  10 14 1  e 10  6
/ 510 8
  1.4 1016 cm 3
 21014 cm 3 (a) n  p  g  n 0
Then for t  10 6 s, 5 1014  2 10 21  n0
p  2 1014 e

 t 10 6
/  p 0 cm 3   n0  2.5 10 7 s
(b) no  51015 cm 3 (b) n  p  g  n 0 1  e t /  n 0  
  e n no  e n   p p  5 10 1  e 14
 t /  n 0

For 0  t  10 6 s, n 5 10
 
14
R   1  e t /  n 0
  1.6 10 75005 10 
19 15  n0 2.5 10 7
 1.6 10 7500  310
19 
 2 10 21 1  e t /  no cm 3 s 1 
 2  10 1  e  14 t /  p 0 (c)

 6.0  0.250 1  e
t /  p 0
 (  -cm) 1
1
 
(i)   5 1014  5 1014 1  e t /  n 0  
4
For t  10 6 s, t   n 0 ln 1.3333  7.19 10 8 s
  6.0  0.250e
 
 t 10 6 /  p 0
(  -cm) 1
_______________________________________
1
 
(ii)   5 1014  5 1014 1  e t /  n 0  
2
6.14 t   n0 ln 2  1.73 10 7 s
3
   
V L
I ; R (iii)   5 1014  5 1014 1  e t /  n 0
R A 4
A
I  V t   n0 ln 4  3.47 10 7 s
   
L
(iv) 0.95 5 1014  5 1014 1  e t /  n 0
For N I  N d  N a  8 1015  2 1015
t   n0 ln 20  7.49 10 7 s
 1016 cm 3
_______________________________________
Then,  n  1300 cm 2 /V-s
 p  400 cm 2 /V-s
  e n no  e n   p p
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 6
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________
6.16 At t  2 10 6 s,
no  N d  N a  8 10  2 10 n  5  1014 e  210  / 510 
15 15 6 7
1
 61015 cm 3  9.16 1012 cm 3
po 
n

1.8 10
2
i  
6 2
 5.4 10  4 cm 3 For t  2 10 6 s
no 6 1015 n  5 1014  9.16 1012 1  e t /  n 0  
4
po 5.4 10  9.16 1012
(a) Ro   4 10 4 
 p0  p0 
 4.908 1014 1  e t /  n 0   9.16 1012 cm 3
so  p 0  1.35  10 s 8
(b) (i) n0  5 10 cm 14 3

(b) p  g  p 0  2  10  21
1.35 10  8
 
(ii) n 2 10 6  9.16 1012 cm 3
(iii) n   51014 cm 3
3
 2.7  10 cm 13

## (c)    p 0  1.35  10 8 s _______________________________________

_______________________________________
6.19
6.17 p-type; minority carriers - electrons
 kT 
(a) (i)For 0  t  5 10 7 s Dn    n  0.02591200
pt   g  p 0 1  e  t /  p 0
  e 

 
 5  10 20 5  10 7 1  e  t /  p 0
  31.08 cm 2 /s

 2.5  10 1  e 14
 t /  p 0
 cm 3
Ln  Dn n 0  31.08 10 6   
1/ 2

7  5.575 10 3 cm
At t  5 10 s,
(a) nx   px   2 1014 e  x / Ln cm 3
p  2.5 1014 1  e 1 / 1 
d n 
 1.58 1014 cm 3 (b) J n  eD n
dx
 eD n
d
dx
2  10 14 e  x / Ln 
For t  5 10 7 s eD n
pt   1.58 1014 e

 t  510 7 /  pO cm 3

Ln

2  1014 e  x / Ln 
 
(ii) p 5 10 7  1.58 1014 cm 3

 
 1.6 10 19 31.08 2 1014  x / Ln  
 
e
(b) (i) For 0  t  2 10 6
s 5.575 10 3
pt   2.5  10 1  e 14
 t /  p 0
 cm 3
J n  0.1784e  x / Ln A/cm 2
At t  2 10 6 s, Holes diffuse at same rate as minority carrier
6

p  2.5  1014 1  e  210  / 510 
7
 electrons, so
J p  0.1784e  x / Ln A/cm 2
3
 2.454 10 cm 14
_______________________________________
For t  2 10 6 s,
pt   2.454 1014 e
 
 t  210 6 /  pO
cm 3
6.20
(a) p-type; p pO  10 14 cm 3
 
(ii) p 2 10 6  2.454 1014 cm 3
and
_______________________________________
n pO 
ni2

1.5 1010
 2.25 10 6 cm 3
 2

6.18 p pO 1014
(a) For 0  t  2 10 6 s (b) Excess minority carrier concentration
nt   g  n0 e t /  n 0 n  n p  n pO
 
 10 21 5 10 7 e t /  n 0  At x  0 , n p  0 so that
 5 1014 e t /  n 0 cm 3 n0  0  n pO  2.25 10 6 cm 3
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 6
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

## (c) For the one-dimensional case, 6.22

d 2 n  n n-type, so we have
Dn  0 d 2 p  d p  p
dx 2  nO Dp   po  0
or dx dx  pO
d 2 n  n Assume the solution is of the form
 2  0 where L2n  Dn nO p  A expsx 
dx 2 Ln
The general solution is of the form Then
d p  d 2 p 
x x  As expsx  ,  As 2 expsx 
n  A exp   B exp
 L 
 dx dx 2
 Ln   n  Substituting into the differential equation
For x   , n remains finite, so B  0 .
D p As 2 exp sx    p  o As exp sx 
Then the solution is
x A expsx 
n  n pO exp   0
  pO
 Ln 
_______________________________________ or
1
Dp s 2   po s  0
6.21  pO
nx   5 1014 e  x / Ln cm 3 Dividing by D p , we have
where Ln  Dn n 0  25 10   6
 1/ 2

s2 
 po
s
1
0
 5 10 cm3 Dp L2p
d n 
J n  eD n
dx
 eD n
d
dx

5  10 14 e  x / Ln   The solution for s is
 2 
1 p  p 
 o   2 
4
s  o  
eD
Ln
 
  n 5  10 14 e  x / Ln 2 Dp

 Dp

 Lp



1.6 10 255 10  e
19 14
 x / Ln
which can be rewritten as
5 10  3 
1   p Lpo   p Lpo 
2 
s     1 
J n  0.4e  x / Ln A/cm 2 L p  2D p  2D p 
   
(a) For x  0 ,
n0  5 1014 cm 3 Define
 p Lpo
J n 0  0.4 A/cm 2 
2D p
J p 0  0.4 A/cm 2
Then
(b) For x  Ln  5 10 3 cm, 1   1   2 
s
nLn   5 10 e 14 1
 1.84 10 cm 14 3 Lp  

J n Ln   0.4e 1
 0.147 A/cm 2 In order that p  0 as x   , use the
minus sign for x  0 and the plus sign for
J p L n   0.4e 1  0.147 A/cm 2
x  0 . Then the solution is
(c) For x  15 10 3 cm  3L n p  A exps  x  for x  0
n3Ln   5 1014 e 3  2.49 1013 cm 3 p  A exps  x  for x  0
J n 3Ln   0.4e 3  0.020 A/cm 2 where
1 
J p 3L n   0.4e 3  0.020 A/cm 2 s    1   2 
L p  
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 6
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

6.23 or
Plot Ln  39.4  m
_______________________________________ For  o  12 V/cm, then
6.24 L 
kT e  0.0259  21.6 10  4
cm
(a) From Equation (6.55) o 12
d 2 n d n  n and
Dn  no  0
dx 2 dx  nO   5.75 10 2 cm 1
or (c) Force on the electrons due to the electric
d 2 n   n d n  n field is in the negative x-direction. Therefore,
2
 o  2 0 the effective diffusion of the electrons is
dx Dn dx Ln reduced and the concentration drops off faster
We have that with the applied electric field.
Dn  kT  _______________________________________
   so we can define
n  e 
6.25
n o 1 p-type so the minority carriers are electrons
o  
Dn kT e L  and
n n 
Then we can write D n  2 n    n   n   g   
d 2 n  1 d n  n  nO t
   2 0
dx 2 L  dx Ln Uniform illumination means that
The solution is of the form n    2 n   0 . For  nO   , we are
n  n0 exp x  where   0 left with
Then d n 
 g  which gives n  g t  C1
d n  d 2 n  dt
  n  and   2 n 
dx dx 2 For t  0 , n  0  C1  0
Substituting into the differential equation, we Then
find n  G o t for 0  t  T
n d n 
 2 n    n  2  0
1
L For t  T , g   0 so that 0
Ln dt
or And
1 n  G o T (no recombination)
   2 0
2

L Ln _______________________________________
which yields
6.26
 2 
1  Ln L  n-type, so minority carriers are holes and
   n   1 p p 
Ln  2 L   2L    D p  2 p    p   p   g   
   pO t
We may note that if  o  0 , then L   
We have  pO   ,   0 , and
1
and    p 
Ln  0 (steady-state). Then we have
t
(b)
d 2 p  d 2 p  g
 kT  Dp  g   0 or 
Ln  Dn nO where Dn   n   dx 2
dx 2
Dp
 e 
so For  L  x   L , g   G o = constant. Then
Dn  12000.0259  31.1 cm /s 2 d p  G
  o x  C1
and dx Dp
Ln  31.15 10 7   39.4 10 4 cm
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 6
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

and We find
G D p 10.42
p   o x 2  C1 x  C 2   0.02668 V
2D p  p 390.6
For L  x  3L , g   0 so we have This value is very close to 0.0259 for
d p 
2
d p  T  300 K.
 0 so that  C 3 and _______________________________________
dx 2 dx
p  C 3 x  C 4 6.28
For 3L  x   L , g   0 so that (a)
d 2 p  d p  Assume that f x, t   4 Dt 1 / 2 exp
  x2 

 0 so that  C 5 and 
dx 2
dx  4Dt 
p  C 5 x  C 6 is the solution to the differential equation
The boundary conditions are:   2 f  f
(1) p  0 at x  3L D 2  
 x  t
(2) p  0 at x  3L To prove: we can write
(3) p continuous at x  L f   x2 
1 / 2   2 x 
(4) p continuous at x   L  4 Dt    exp 

x  4 Dt   4 Dt 
d p 
(5) continuous at x  L and
dx 2
2 f   2 x    x2 
d p   4 Dt 
1 / 2
  exp 

(6) continuous at x   L x 2
 4 Dt   4 Dt 
dx
Applying the boundary conditions, we find  2    x2 
G
  exp 

p  o 5L2  x 2 for  L  x   L
2D p
  4 Dt   4 Dt 
Also
G L f 1 / 2   x   1    x2 
p  o 3L  x  for L  x  3L
2
 4 Dt    2  exp
 t   4Dt 

Dp t  4D   
Go L
p  3L  x  for 3L  x  L 1 / 2   1 
 4 D   t 3 / 2 exp
  x2 

Dp
 2  
 4Dt 
_______________________________________
2 f
Substituting the expressions for and
6.27 x 2
V 8 f
0    20 V/cm into the differential equation, we find
L 0 .4 t
d 0.25 0 = 0.
p  
 0 t 0 20  32  10  6   (b)
Q.E.D.

 390.6 cm /V-s 2
Consider

 p  0 2 t 2 
  x2 
Dp 
16t 0 

exp
 4 Dt
dx

390.6202 9.35 10 6 2 Let u  x 2 , then du  2 x  dx or

16 32 10 6  dx 
du

du
D p  10.42 cm /s 2 2x 2 u
1
Let a 
4 Dt
Now
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 6
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

  6.31
  x2    x2 
 exp
 4 Dt

dx  2 exp
 4 Dt

dx

(a) p-type
 0 p 
  E Fi  E F  kT ln  o 
2 exp au du   exp au du
1 1  ni 
2
u u  5 1015 
 0.0259 ln 
0 0

10 
  1.5 10 
  4Dt
a or
Then E Fi  E F  0.3294 eV

x  4D t 2 (b)

1
exp dx 
 1
4D t  4 Dt  4D t n  p  51014 cm 3

_______________________________________ and

no 
ni2

1.5 1010 
2

 4.5 10 4 cm 3
6.29 po 5 1015
Plot
Then
_______________________________________
 n  n 
E Fn  E Fi  kT ln  o 

6.30  ni 
n 
(a) E F  E Fi  kT ln  o   4.5 10 4  5 1014 
  0.0259 ln  

 ni  1.5 1010
 
 4 1016 
 0.0259 ln   or
10 
 1.5 10  E Fn  E Fi  0.2697 eV
 0.383225 eV and

(b) n  p  g  p 0  2  10 21 5  10 7    p  p 
E Fi  E Fp  kT ln  o 

 10 cm
15 3  ni 
 n  n   5 1015  5 1014 
E Fn  E Fi  kT ln  o   0.0259 ln  

  1.5 1010 
 ni 
or
 4 1016  1015 
 0.0259 ln  
 E Fi  E Fp  0.3318 eV
 1.5 10
10
 _______________________________________
 0.383865 eV
 p  p  6.32
E Fi  E Fp  kT ln  o 
 (a) For n-type,
 ni 
E Fn  E F  E Fn  E Fi   E F  E Fi 
 1015 
 0.0259 ln  
10 
 n  n  n 
 1.5 10   kT ln  o   kT ln  o
 n

 0.28768 eV  ni   i 
(c) E Fn  E F  0.383865  0.383225  n  n 
 kT ln  o 

 0.000640 eV  no 
or  0.640 meV  5 1015  n 
_______________________________________ So 0.00102  0.0259 ln  

 5 10
15

 0.00102 
5 1015  n  5 1015 exp 
 0.0259 
Which yields n  21014 cm 3
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 6
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

 n  n  6.34
(b) E Fn  E Fi  kT ln  o 
 n n
 ni  (a) (i) E Fn  E Fi  kT ln  o 

 5 1015  2 1014   ni 
 0.0259 ln  
  
 1.02 1016
 1.5 1010   0.0259 ln  
 1.8 10
6
 0.33038 eV 
 p   0.58166 eV
(c) E Fi  E Fp  kT ln    p 
 ni  (ii) E Fi  E Fp  kT ln  
 2 1014   ni 
 0.0259 ln  
10   0.02 1016 
 1.5 10   0.0259 ln  6 

 0.2460 eV  1.8 10 
_______________________________________  0.47982 eV
 1.11016 
6.33 (b) (i) E Fn  E Fi  0.0259 ln  
6 
 n   1.8 10 
(a) E Fn  E Fi  kT ln    0.58361 eV
 ni   0.11016 
 E  E Fi  (ii) E Fi  E Fp  0.0259 ln  
6 
or n  ni exp  Fn   1.8 10 
 kT   0.52151 eV
   0.270 
 1.5 1010 exp  
_______________________________________
 0.0259 
6.35
 5.05 1014 cm 3 Quasi-Fermi level for minority carrier
 p  p  electrons:
(b) E Fi  E Fp  kT ln  o 

 ni   n  n 
E Fn  E Fi  kT ln  o 

 6 1015  5.05 1014   ni 
 0.0259 ln  
 1.5 1010 
 n2
no  i 
1.8 10 62

 3.24 10  4 cm 3
 0.33618 eV po 1016
 
(c) (i) E F  E Fp  E Fi  E Fp  E Fi  E F  We have
 p  p 
 kT ln  o
p 
  kT ln  o 
 n 
   x 
n  1014  
 ni   i   50 
Then
 p o  p 
 kT ln  
 
 3.24 10 4  1014 x 50 
E Fn  E Fi  kT ln 

 po  
 1.8 10 6 
(ii) E F  E Fp
We find
 6 1015  5.05 1014 
 0.0259 ln  
 x (  m) ( E Fn  E Fi ) (eV)
 6 1015 
3
 2.093 10 eV 0 -0.581
or  2.093 meV 1 +0.361
_______________________________________ 2 +0.379
10 +0.420
20 +0.438
50 +0.462
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 6
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

## Quasi-Fermi level for holes: we have 6.38

 p  p   p 
E Fi  E Fp  kT ln  o 
 (a) E Fi  E Fp  kT ln  
 ni   ni 
We have p o  1016 cm 3 and n  p .  p 
 0.0259 ln  
 1.5 10 
10
We find

## x (  m) ( E Fi  E Fp ) (eV) p  1011 cm 3 , E Fi  E Fp  0.04914 eV

10 12 0.10877
0 +0.58115 13
50 +0.58140 10 0.16841
_______________________________________ 10 14 0.22805
10 15 0.28768
6.36
 n  n 
(a) We can write (b) E Fn  E Fi  kT ln  o 

p   ni 
E Fi  E F  kT ln  o 
 2 1016  n 
 ni   0.0259 ln  10 

and  1.5 10 
 p  p  n  1011 cm 3 , E Fn  E Fi  0.365273 eV
E Fi  E Fp  kT ln  o 

 ni  10 12 0.365274
so that 13

 
E Fi  E Fp  E Fi  E F   E F  E Fp
10
10 14
0.365286
0.365402
 p  p  p  15
 kT ln  o   kT ln  o 
 n 
10 0.366536
 ni   i  _______________________________________
or
6.39
 p  p 
E F  E Fp  kT ln  o   0.01kT (a)

 po 
R

C n C p N t np  ni2 
C n n  n   C p  p  p 
Then
p o  p
 exp0.01  1.010
po 
np  n 
2
i

or  pO n  n    nO  p  p 
p Let n   p   ni . For n  p  0
 0.010  low injection, so that
po  ni2  ni
R 
p  51012 cm 3  pO ni   nO ni  pO   nO
(b) (b) We had defined the net generation rate as
 p  g  R  g o  g   R o  R  
E Fn  E Fi  kT ln  
 ni  where g o  Ro since these are the thermal
 5 10 
12 equilibrium generation and recombination
 0.0259 ln  
10 
rates.
 1.5 10  If g   0 , then g  R   R  and
or
n i
E Fn  E Fi  0.1505 eV R 
 pO   nO
_______________________________________
ni
so that g  R  
6.37  pO   nO
Plot
Thus a negative recombination rate implies a
_______________________________________
net positive generation rate.
_______________________________________
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 6
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

6.40 At x   , p  g  pO so that B  0 ,
We have that
 
Then
C n C p N t np  ni2 x
R p  g  pO  A exp 
C n n  n   C p  p  p   Lp 
 

np  n  2
i We have
 pO n  ni    nO  p  ni  d p 
Dp  sp 
If n  n o  n and p  p o  n , then dx x 0 x 0

## no  n p o  n  ni2 We can write

R d p  A
 pO no  n  ni    nO  p o  n  ni   and p   g  pO  A
dx x 0 L p
no p o  nno  p o   n  ni2
2 x 0

 Then
 pO no  n  ni    nO  p o  n  ni   AD p
If n  n i , we can neglect n : also
2
Lp

 s g  pO  A 
no p o  ni2 Solving for A , we find
Then  sg  pO
A
nno  p o  Dp
R s
 pO no  ni    nO  p o  ni  Lp
(a) For n-type; n o  p O , n o  ni The excess concentration is then
Then  s   x 
p  g  pO 1   exp 
R

1
 10  7 s 1  
Dp Lp  s  L p 
 
n  pO
where
(b) For intrinsic, n o  p o  ni
Then L p  D p pO  1010 7   10 3 cm
R 2ni Now

n  pO 2ni    nO 2ni 
  
p  10 21 10 7 
or  s   x 
 1    
 
exp
R

1

1

3
 10 10  s  L p 
 
n  pO   nO 10 7  5 10 7
R or
 1.67  10  6 s 1
n  s   x 
p  1014 1   exp 
 10 4  s  L p 
(c) For p-type; p o  no , p o  ni  
Then (i) For s  0 ,
R 1 1 p  1014 cm 3
   2  10  6 s 1
n  nO 5  10  7 (ii) For s  2000 cm/s,
_______________________________________    x 
p  1014 1  0.167 exp 
 L p 
6.41   
(a) From Equation (6.56) (iii) For s   ,
d 2 p  p    x 
Dp  g 0 p  1014 1  exp 
dx 2
 pO  L p 
  
Solution is of the form
x  
p  g  pO  A exp   B exp  x 
 Lp   Lp 
   
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 6
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

(b) W  x 
(i) For s  0 , n0 sinh  
 Ln 
p0  1014 cm 3 n 
W 
(ii) For s  2000 cm/s, sinh  
p0  0.833 1014 cm 3  Ln 
where
(iii) For s   ,
p0  0 n0  1015 cm 3 and Ln  35.4  m
_______________________________________ (b) If  nO   , we have
d 2 n 
6.42 0
dx 2
Ln  Dn nO  255 10 7  so the solution is of the form
n  Cx  D
 35.4 10 4 cm
Applying the boundary conditions, we find
(a) At x  0 ,
  
g  nO  2 10 21 5 10 7  1015 cm 3

n  n01  
x
 W
or
_______________________________________
n0  g  nO  1015 cm 3
For x  0 6.43
d 2 n  n d 2 n  n For  pO   , we have
Dn   0   2 0
dx 2  nO dx 2 Ln d 2 p 
0
The solution is of the form dx 2
x x So the solution is of the form
n  A exp   B exp
 L 
 p  Ax  B
 n 
L  n 
At x  W
At x  0 ,
n  n0  A  B d p 
 Dp  sp 
At x  W , dx x W x W

 W   W  or
n  0  A exp   B exp
  L 
  D p A  s AW  B
 n 
L  n 
which yields
Solving these two equations, we find
A
A
 n0 exp 2W Ln  B
s
D p  sW 
1  exp 2W Ln 
At x  0 , the flux of excess holes is
d p 
and
n0 1019   D p  D p A
B dx x 0
1  exp 2W Ln 
so that
Substituting into the general solution, we find
 1019
n0 A  1018 cm 4
n  10
  W    W 
exp   exp
  L 
 and
  Ln   n 
B
1018
10  sW   1018  10  W 
   W  x     W  x    s  s 
 exp    exp   The solution is now
  L n   Ln  
 10 
which can be written as p  1018 W  x  
 s 
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 6
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

## (a) For s   , Then for W  x  0

p  1018 20 10 4  x  cm 3 G

n  o  x 2  2Wx  2W 2 
Then 2Dn
d p  and for 0  x  W
J p  eD p
G W
n  o W  x 
dx
  
  1.6 10 19 10  1018  Dn
or _______________________________________
J p  1.6 A/cm 2
6.45
(b) For s  210 3 cm/s, Plot
p  1018 70 10 4  x  cm 3 _______________________________________
Also
6.48
J p  1.6 A/cm 2 (a) GaAs:
_______________________________________ V 2
R   10 6 
I 2  10  6
6.44
For W  x  0 R
L
 A
and   e  n   p p  
d 2 n 
Dn
dx 2
 Go  0 p  g  p 0  10 21 5  10 8   5  10 13 cm 3
so that For N d  1016 cm 3 , from Figure 5.3,
d n  G
  o x  C1  n  7000 cm 2 /V-s,  p  310 cm 2 /V-s
   
dx Dn
and   1.6 10 19 7000  310 5 1013
G  0.05848 (  -cm) 1
n   o x 2  C1 x  C 2
2 Dn Let W  20  m
For 0  x  W , 
Then A  Wd  20 10 4 4 10 4  
d 2 n   80 10 cm 8 2
0
dx 2 L
So R  10 6 
so that
n  C 3 x  C 4

0.05848 80 10 8 
2
Which yields L  4.68 10 cm
The boundary conditions are
(b) Silicon:
(1) s  0 at x  W so that
R  10 6  , p  51013 cm 3
d n
0
dx x  W For N d  1016 cm 3 , from Figure 5.3,
(2) s   at x  W so that  n  1300 cm 2 /V-s,  p  410 cm 2 /V-s
nW   0  
  1.6 10 19 1300  410 5 1013  
(3) n continuous at x  0 1
 0.01368 (  -cm)
d n 
(4) continuous at x  0 Let W  20  m
  
dx
Applying the boundary conditions, we find Then A  Wd  20 10 4 4 10 4
8
G W G W 2  80 10 cm 2
C1  C 3   o and C 2  C 4   o
Dn Dn L
So R  10 6 
0.01368 80 10 8 
2
Which yields L  1.09 10 cm
_______________________________________
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 7
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 7
7.1 (b) N d  51016 cm 3 , N a  51016 cm 3
N N  Si: Vbi  0.778 V
Vbi  Vt ln  a 2 d 

 ni  Ge: Vbi  0.396 V
(a) GaAs: Vbi  1.25 V

## (i) Vbi  0.0259  ln 

 
 2 1015 2  1015  

(c) N d  1017 cm 3 , N a  1017 cm 3

 1.5  1010
2
  Si: Vbi  0.814 V
 0.611 V Ge: Vbi  0.432 V

## (ii) Vbi  0.0259  ln 

 
 2 1015 2  1016  
GaAs: Vbi  1.28 V

 1.5  1010
2
  _______________________________________

 0.671 V 7.3

## (iii) Vbi  0.0259  ln 

 
 2 1015 2  1017  

(a) Silicon ( T  300 K)

 1.5 1010
2
   Na Nd
Vbi  0.0259  ln 

 0.731 V 
 1.5  10
10
 2

(b) 3
For N a  N d  10 cm ; Vbi  0.4561 V
14

## (i) Vbi  0.0259  ln 

 
 2 1017 2  1015 

  1015 ;  0.5754 V
 1.5 1010 2
   10 16
;  0.6946 V
 0.731 V  10 17
;  0.8139 V

## (ii) Vbi  0.0259  ln 

 
 2 1017 2  1016 

 (b) GaAs ( T  300 K)

 1.5  10 10 2
 
 Na Nd
Vbi  0.0259  ln 

 0.790 V 
 1.8  10 6 
2


## (iii) Vbi  0.0259  ln 

 
 2 1017 2  1017 

 For N a  N d  10 cm ; Vbi  0.9237 V
14 3

 1.5  1010
2
  1015  1.043 V ;
 0.850 V  10 16
;  1.162 V
_______________________________________  10 17
;  1.282 V
(c) Silicon (400 K), kT  0.034533
7.2
ni  2.38 1012 cm 3
Si: ni  1.5 1010 cm 3
For N a  N d  1014 cm 3 ; Vbi  0.2582 V
Ge: ni  2.4 1013 cm 3
 1015  0.4172 V ;
GaAs: ni  1.8 10 6 cm 3
 10 16
;  0.5762 V
N N 
Vbi  Vt ln  a 2 d  and Vt  0.0259 V  10  0.7353 V
17
;

 ni  GaAs(400 K), ni  3.29 10 cm 3
9

## (a) N d  1014 cm 3 , N a  1017 cm 3 ' For N a  N d  1014 cm 3 ; Vbi  0.7129 V

Then Si: Vbi  0.635 V
 1015  0.8719 V ;
Ge: Vbi  0.253 V
 10 ;  1.031 V
16

## GaAs: Vbi  1.10 V

 10 17
;  1.190 V
_______________________________________
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 7
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

7.4 or
(a) n-side x p  0.0213  10 4 cm  0.0213  m
N 
E F  E Fi  kT ln  d 

We have
 ni  max 
eN d x n
 5 1015  s
 0.0259 ln  
10 
 1.5 10  
1.6 10 5 10 0.426 10 
19 15 4

## or 11.78.85 10  14

E F  E Fi  0.3294 eV or
p-side  max  3.29  10 4 V/cm
N  _______________________________________
E Fi  E F  kT ln  a 
 ni 
7.5
 1017 
 0.0259 ln  
10 
(a) n-side
 1.5 10  N 
E F  E Fi  kT ln  d 

or
 ni 
E Fi  E F  0.4070 eV
 2 1016 
(b)  0.0259 ln  
10 
Vbi  0.3294  0.4070  1.5 10 
or or
Vbi  0.7364 V E F  E Fi  0.3653 eV
(c) p-side
N N  N 
Vbi  Vt ln  a 2 d  E Fi  E F  kT ln  a 
 ni   ni 
 2 1016 
 
 10 17 5  10 15
 0.0259  ln 
  0.0259 ln  
10 
 1.5 10 

 1.5  10 10
2
 
or
or E Fi  E F  0.3653 eV
Vbi  0.7363 V
(b)
(d) Vbi  0.3653  0.3653
1/ 2
2 V  Na  1  or
x n   s bi   
N  N  N  Vbi  0.7306 V
 e  d  a d 
 
 211.7  8.85 10 14 0.736

(c)
N N 
 1.6 10 19 Vbi  Vt ln  a 2 d 
1/ 2  ni 
 1017  
   17
1
 10  5  1015 
 0.0259  ln 
 
 2 1016 2 1016 
 5  10 
15

or

 1.5 1010
2
 

## x n  0.426 10 4 cm  0.426  m or

Vbi  0.7305 V
Now

xp  
 
 211.7  8.85 10 14 0.736
(d)
2 V
1/ 2
 Na  1 
 1.6 10 19 xn   s bi   
N  N  N 
1/ 2  e  d  a d 
 5  1015  1 
   17
 10  5  1015 

17
 10 
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 7
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

 211.7 8.85 10 14 0.7305

 For 300 K;

##  1.6 10 19 Vbi  0.0259  ln 

 2 1015 4  1016 

 
 2  1016  1 
1/ 2  
1.8  10 6
2
 
  
 2  1016  2  1016   1.157 V
 2  10 
16
 For 400 K;
or
x n  0.154 10 4 cm  0.154  m Vbi  0.034533 ln 

 2 1015 4 1016 

 
By symmetry  3.28 10 9
2
  
x p  0.154  10 4 cm  0.154  m  1.023 V
_______________________________________
Now
eN d x n
 max  7.8
s xn  0.25W  0.25 xn  x p 

1.6 10 2 10 0.1537 10 
19 16 4
xp
11.78.85 10  14 0.75xn  0.25x p 
xn
3
or Nd xp
 max  4.75  10 4 V/cm xn N d  x p N a   3
Na xn
_______________________________________
So N d  3N a
7.6  Na Nd 
(a) Vbi  0.0259  ln  
 E  E Fi 
(b) N d  ni exp F  
 1.5  1010 
2

 kT 
 3N a2 
0.710  0.0259  ln 

 1.5 1010 exp 
 0.365 

 1.5 10
10
2

 
 0.0259 
or N d  1.98 1016 cm 3 
or 3N a2  1.5 1010  2  0.710 
exp 
 E  EF   0.0259 
N a  ni exp Fi  which yields N a  7.766 1015 cm 3
 kT 
N d  2.33 1016 cm 3

 1.5 10 10
  0.330 
exp  1/ 2
 0.0259   2  V  Na  1 
x n   s bi   
or N a  5.12 1015 cm 3  e N  N  N 
 d  a d 
(c)

 211.7 8.85 10 14 0.710 

 5.12  1015 1.98  1016 
Vbi  0.0259  ln  
  
 1.6 10 19
 1.5  1010
2
    
1/ 2
 1  1
 0.695 V   
_______________________________________  
3 4 7 . 
766  10 15  
 
 x n  9.93 10 6 cm
7.7
or x n  0.0993  m
200 K; kT  0.017267 ; ni  1.38 cm 3
300 K; kT  0.0259 ; ni  1.8 10 6 cm 3 xp  

 211.7 8.85 10 14 0.710 
 1.6 10 19
400 K; kT  0.034533 ; ni  3.28 10 9 cm 3 1/ 2
For 200 K;  3  1  
  

 2  1015 4  1016    
 1   4 7.766  10
15
 
 
Vbi  0.017267  ln  
 1.382   2.979 10 5 cm
 1.257 V or x p  0.2979  m
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 7
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

Now 
 211.7 8.85 10 14 0.6350


eN d x n
 max   1.6 10 19
s 1/ 2

1.6 10 2.33 10 0.0993 10 
19 16 4  1016
  15

 16
1
 10  1015


11.78.85 10  14  10  
or
 3.58  10 4 V/cm
(b) From part (a), we can write x n  0.8644 10 4 cm  0.8644  m

 
2  1.180  Now
3N a2  1.8 10 6 exp  1/ 2

2 V  Nd  
 0.0259  
1
x p   s bi  
 N  N  N 
which yields N a  8.127 1015 cm 3  e  a  a d 

N d  2.438 1016 cm 3 
 211.7 8.85 10 14 0.6350


xn  

 213.1 8.85 10 1.180 14
  1.6 10 19
 1.6 10 19  1015  1 
1/ 2

1/ 2   16  16
 10  1015 
 1  1    10  
  

 3   4 8.127  10
15

  or
x p  0.08644  10 4 cm  0.08644  m
 1.324 10 5 cm
or x n  0.1324  m (c)

 
eN d x n
 213.1 8.85 10 14 1.180  max 
xp   s
1.6 10 19

1.6 10 10 0.8644 10 
19 15 4

11.78.85 10 
1/ 2
 3  1   14
  

 1   4 8.127  10
15
 
  or
 3.973 10 5 cm  max  1.34  10 4 V/cm
or x p  0.3973  m _______________________________________
eN d x n
 max  7.10
s  2 1017 4  1016   

1.6 10 2.438 10 0.1324 10 
19 16 4 (a) Vbi  0.0259  ln 
 1.5  1010
2

  
13.18.85 10  14

 0.80813 V
 4.45  10 4 V/cm (b) V bi increases as temperature decreases
_______________________________________
At T  300 K, we can write
7.9 
ni2  1.5 1010 2

 1016 1015 
(a) Vbi  0.0259  ln 
  
  
  1.12 
 K 2.8 1019 1.04 1019 exp  

 1.5  1010 
2
  0.0259 
or  K  4.659
Vbi  0.635 V At T  287 K, kT  0.024778 eV

  
3
(b)  287 
1/ 2 ni2  K 2.8 1019 1.04 1019  
 2  V  Na  1   300 
x n   s bi   
 e N  N  N    1.12 
 d  a d 
 exp 
 0.024778 

 4.659 2.5496 10 38 2.3404 10 20  
So n  2.780 10
2
i
19
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 7
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

Then 7.12

Vbi  0.024778 ln 

 2 1017 4 1016    (b) For N d  1016 cm 3 ,

 2.780 10 N 
19

E F  E Fi  kT ln  d 

 0.82494 V  ni
We find
Vbi 287   Vbi 300   1016 
 100%  0.0259 ln  
10 
Vbi 300   1.5 10 
or
0.82494  0.80813
  100%  2.08% E F  E Fi  0.3473 eV
0.80813
 2% For N d  1015 cm 3
_______________________________________  1015 
E F  E Fi  0.0259 ln  
10 
7.11  1.5 10 
N N  or
Vbi  Vt ln  a 2 d 

E F  E Fi  0.2877 eV
 ni  Then

0.550  0.0259   ln 
16

 T   4  10 2  10 
15

  Vbi  0.34732  0.28768
 300   or

2
ni
Vbi  0.0596 V
Using the procedure from Problem 7.10, we
can write, for T  300 K, _______________________________________

 
ni2  1.5 1010
2
7.13

##  K 2.8 10 1.04 10 exp

  1.12  N N 
 (a) Vbi  Vt ln  a 2 d 
19 19

0.0259   
 ni 
 K  4.659
At T  300 K,  0.0259  ln 
  
 1012 1016 

 4  1016 2 1015    
 1.5  1010 
2

Vbi  0.0259  ln 
 1.5  1010 2
 
or
Vbi  0.456 V
 0.68886 V
(b)
For Vbi  0.550 V,  T  300 K
At T  380 K, kT  0.032807 eV
 
 211.7 8.85 10 14 0.456
xn  
Also  1.6 10 19
1/ 2
 1012  
 1.04 10 
3
 380 
n  4.659 2.8 10
1
2
i
19 19
    16  12
 10  1016 
 300   10  
  1.12  or
 exp 
 0.032807  x n  2.43 10 7 cm
 4.112 10 24 (c)
Then
xp  
 
 211.7  8.85 10 14 0.456

 4 1016 2 1015 
Vbi  0.032807  ln 
   1.6 10 19

 4.112 10
24

1/ 2
 1016  1 
 0.5506 V  0.550 V   12  12
 10  1016 
_______________________________________  10  
or
x p  2.43  10 3 cm
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 7
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

(d) 7.15
eN d x n 1/ 2
 max   2eVbi  Na Nd 
s  max   
 s N N 
 a 
1.6 10 10 2.43 10 
d
19 16 7
 We find
11.78.85 10  14
2e 
2 1.6 10 19 
  3.0904 10 7
or

s 11.7 8.85 10 14 
 max  3.75  10 2 V/cm (a)
_______________________________________ (i) For N a  1017 , N d  1014 ; Vbi  0.6350 V
7.14 (ii)  1015 ;  0.6946 V
Assume silicon, so (iii)  10 ;
16
 0.7543 V
1/ 2
  kT  (iv)  1017 ;  0.8139 V
L D   2s 

 e Nd 
(i) For N a  1017 ,
   
1/ 2
 11.7  8.85 10 14 0.0259  1.6 10 19
 N d  1014 ;  max  0.443  10 4 V/cm
  2
1.6 10 19 N d   (ii)  1015 ;  1.46 10 4 V/cm
or (iii)  1016 ;  4.60  10 4 V/cm
1/ 2
 1.676  10 5
 (iv)  1017 ;  11.2 10 4 V/cm
L D   

 Nd  (b)
(i) For N a  1014 , N d  1014 ; Vbi  0.4561 V
(a) N d  81014 cm 3 , L D  0.1447  m
(b) N d  2.2 1016 cm 3 , L D  0.02760  m (ii)  1015 ;  0.5157 V
(iii)  10 ;
16
 0.5754 V
(c) N d  81017 cm 3 , L D  0.004577  m
(iv)  1017 ;  0.6350 V
Now
(a) Vbi  0.7427 V
(i) For N a  1014 ,
(b) Vbi  0.8286 V
(c) Vbi  0.9216 V N d  1014 ;  max  0.265  10 4 V/cm
Also (ii)  1015 ;  0.38110 4 V/cm

xn  

 211.7  8.85  10 14 Vbi   (iii)  1016 ;  0.420 10 4 V/cm
 1.6  10 19 (iv)  1017 ;  0.443  10 4 V/cm
1/ 2
 8  1017  1  (c)  max increases as the doping increases,
   
 8 1017  N 
 Nd  d  and the electric field extends further into
Then the low-doped side of the pn junction.
_______________________________________
(a) x n  1.096  m
(b) x n  0.2178  m 7.16
(c) x n  0.02730  m 
 5  1016 1015
(a) Vbi  0.0259  ln 
 
Now
L

 1.5  1010
2
 
(a) D  0.1320  0.6767 V
xn
 2  V  V R   N a  N d
1/ 2
L 
(b) D  0.1267 (b) W   s bi  
  N N 
xn e  a d 
LD
(c)  0.1677
xn
_______________________________________
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition Chapter 7
By D. A. Neamen Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

(i) For V R  0 , 
 211.7 8.85 10 14 0.8081  2.5


W 

 211.7 8.85 10 14 0.6767    1.6 10 19
 1.6 10 19 1/ 2
 4 1016  1 

1/ 2   
 2 1017  4  1016 
 5  10 16  10 15    2 10
17
 



 5  10 10
16 15
  
   5.97 10 6 cm
 9.452 10 5 cm or x p  0.0597  m
or W  0.9452  m
 2  V  V R   N a  N d
1/ 2

(ii) For V R  5 V, W   s bi  
  N N 
e  

 211.7 8.85 10 14 0.6767  5 
a d

W 
1.6 10 19 

 211.7 8.85 10 14 0.8081  2.5 

1/ 2  1.6 10 19
 5  10 16  10 15   1/ 2
  2  10 17  4  10 16  

 5  10 10
16 15
  
  
4

 2  10 4  10
17 16
  
 
 2.738 10 cm 4
or W  2.738  m  0.3584 10 cm
or W  0.3584  m
2Vbi  V R 
(c)  max  Also W  xn  x p  0.3584  m
W
(i)For V R  0 , 2Vbi  V R  20.8081  2.5
(c)  max  
20.6767  W 0.3584  10  4
 max  4
 1.43  10 4 V/cm  1.85 10 5 V/cm
0.9452  10
1/ 2
(ii)For V R  5 V,  e s N a N d 
(d) C  A 
20.6767  5
 max   4.15  10 4 V/cm  2Vbi  V R N a  N d  

   
2.738  10  4  1.6 10 19 11.7 8.85 10 14
_______________________________________ 
 2 10  4 
20.8081  2.5