Global Calculus
S. Ramanan
Graduate Studies
in Mathematics
Volume 65
American Mathematical Society
Global Calculus
Global Calculus
S. Ramanan
Graduate Studies
in Mathematics
Volume 65
American Mathematical Society
Providence, Rhode Island
Editorial Board
Walter Craig
Nikolai Ivanov
Steven G. Krantz David Saltman (Chair)
2000 Mathematics Subject Classification. Primary 1401, 3201, 5301; Secondary 32Lxx, 32Qxx, 32Wxx, 53Cxx.
For additional information and updates on this book, visit
www.ams.org/bookpages/gsm65
Library of Congress CataloginginPublication Data
Ramanan, S.
Global calculus / S. Ramanan.
p. cm.  (Graduate studies in mathematics, ISSN 10657339 ; v. 65)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0821837028 (alk. paper)
_{1}_{.} _{G}_{e}_{o}_{m}_{e}_{t}_{r}_{y}_{,} _{A}_{l}_{g}_{e}_{b}_{r}_{a}_{i}_{c}_{.}
etry.
_{I}_{.} _{T}_{i}_{t}_{l}_{e}_{.}
II. Series.
2. Differential operators.
_{3}_{.} _{A}_{n}_{a}_{l}_{y}_{t}_{i}_{c} _{s}_{p}_{a}_{c}_{e}_{s}_{.}
4. Differential geom
QA564.R34 2004 

515'.94dc22 
2004057074 
_{C}_{o}_{p}_{y}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{r}_{e}_{p}_{r}_{i}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g}_{.}
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The paper used in this book is acidfree and falls within the guidelines
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10987654321
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Contents
Preface
_{C}_{h}_{a}_{p}_{t}_{e}_{r} _{1}_{.}
Sheaves and Differential Manifolds:
ix
Definitions and Examples 
1 

1. 
Sheaves and Presheaves 
2 
2. 
Basic Constructions 
9 
Differential Manifolds 
12 

4, 
Lie Groups; Action on a Manifold 
23 
Exercises 
25 
Chapter 2. 
Differential Operators 
_{2}_{7} 
1. First Order Differential Operators 
27 
2. 
Locally Free Sheaves and Vector Bundles 
29 
3. Flow of a Vector Field 
_{3}_{8} 

4. 
Theorem of Frobenius 
_{4}_{6} 
5. 
Tensor Fields; Lie Derivative 
_{5}_{0} 
6. The Exterior Derivative; de Rham Complex
_{5}_{4}
_{7}_{.} 
Differential Operators of Higher Order 
_{6}_{1} 
Exercises 
70 

Chapter 3. Integration on Differential Manifolds 
_{7}_{3} 

1; 
Integration on a Manifold 
_{7}_{3} 
_{2}_{.} 
Sheaf of Densities 
_{7}_{9} 
_{3}_{.} 
Adjoints of Differential Operators 
_{8}_{5} 
v
_{v}_{i}
Contents
Exercises
_{C}_{h}_{a}_{p}_{t}_{e}_{r} _{4}_{.}
Cohomology of Sheaves and Applications
1. Injective Sheaves
2. Sheaf Cohomology
_{3}_{.} Cohomology through Other Resolutions
_{4}_{.} Singular and Sheaf Cohomologies
5. Cech and Sheaf Cohomologies
_{6}_{.} Differentiable Simplices; de Rham's Theorem
Exercises
_{C}_{h}_{a}_{p}_{t}_{e}_{r} _{5}_{.}
Connections on Principal and Vector Bundles; Lifting of
Symbols
_{9}_{0}
93
93
98
105
107
114
117
122
^{.}^{1}^{2}^{5}
1. 
Connections in a Vector Bundle 
125 
2. The Space of All Connections on a Bundle 
131 

_{3}_{.} Principal Bundles 
135 

_{4}_{.} 
Connections on Principal Bundles 
143 
5. Curvature 
148 
6. ChernWeil Theory
7. Holonomy Group; AmbroseSinger Theorem
`154
164
Exercises 
168 

Chapter 6. Linear Connections 
171 

1. 
Linear Connections 
171 
2. 
Lifting of Symbols and Torsion 
177 
Exercises 
182 

Chapter 7. Manifolds with Additional Structures, 
185 

1. 
Reduct ion of the Structure Group 
185 
2. Torsio n Free GConnections 
194 
3. Compl ex Manifolds
197
4. 
The O uter Gauge Group 
201 
5. Riema nnian Geometry 
207 
6. Riema nnian Curvature Tensor
7. Ricci, Scalar and Weyl Curvature Tensors
8. Cliffor d Structures and the Dirac Operator
erators
Chapter 8 .
d'Al
Local Analysis of Elli
p
tic O
p
211
219
224
229
1.
Regularisation
_{2}_{2}_{9}
Contents
vii
2. A Characterisation of Densities
_{3}_{.} Schwartz Space of Functions and Densities
4. Fourier Transforms
_{5}_{.} Distributions
6. Theorem of Sobolev
_{7}_{.} Interior Regularity of Elliptic Solutions
_{C}_{h}_{a}_{p}_{t}_{e}_{r} _{9}_{.}
Vanishing Theorems and Applications
_{1}_{.} Elliptic Operators on Differential Manifolds
2. Elliptic Complexes
_{3}_{.} Composition Formula
4. A Vanishing Theorem
5. Hodge Decomposition
_{6}_{.} Lefschetz Decomposition
_{7}_{.} Kodaira's Vanishing Theorem
8. The Imbedding Theorem
Appendix
1.
2.
_{3}_{.}
Algebra
Topology
Analysis
232
233
238
242
245
251
257
257
261
270
276
279
281
287
292
301
301
305
307
Bibliography 
311 
Index 
313 
Preface
This book is intended for postgraduate and ambitious senior undergraduate
_{s}_{t}_{u}_{d}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s}_{.}
The key word is Differential Operators.
I have attempted to
develop the calculus of such operators in an uncompromisingly global set
up.
I have tried to make the book as selfcontained as possible. I do make
heavy demands on the algebraic side, but at least recall the required results
in a detailed way in an appendix.
This book has had an unusually long gestation period. It is incredible
for me to realise that the general tone of the book is very much the same
as that of a course which I gave way back in 1970 at the Tata Institute,
which I (hopefully) improved upon a couple of years later, and expanded
into a two quarter graduate course at the University of California, Los An
geles, in 197980. The encouragement that the audience gave me, especially
Nagisetty Venkateswara Rao (now at the University of Ohio, Toledo), my
first student the late Annamalai Ramanathan, and Jost at UCLA, was quite
overwhelming. The decision to write it all up was triggered by a strong sug
gestion of Stefan MuellerStach (now at Mainz University). He drove me from Bayreuth to Trieste in Italy, and I used the occasion to clear some of
his doubts in mathematics. Apparently happy at my effort, he suggested
that I had a knack for exposition and should write books. I took this for
more than ordinary politeness, and embarked on this project nearly ten
years later.
Chanchal Kumar, Amit Hogadi and Chaitanya Guttikar enthusiastically
read portions of the book and made many constructive suggestions. Mad
havan of the Chennai Mathematical Institute and Nandagopal of the Tata
Institute of Fundamental Research helped with the figures. Ms. Natalya
ix
_{x}
Preface
Pluzhnikov of the American Mathematical Society took extraordinary care
in finalising the copy. All through, and particularly in the last phase, my
wife Anu's support, physical and psychological, was invaluable.
I utilised the hospitality of various institutions during the course of writ
ing. Besides the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, my Alma Mater,
I would like to mention specially the Institute of Mathematical Sciences at
Chennai, the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, and at
the final stage, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas in Madrid.
I wish to thank all the individuals and institutions for the help received.
I collaborated for long years with M. S. Narasimhan.
_{I} _{w}_{i}_{s}_{h} _{t}_{o} _{t}_{a}_{k}_{e}
this opportunity to acknowledge the exciting time that I spent doing math
ematical research with him. Specifically, the idea of what I call the com
position formula in the last chapter of this book, arose in our discussions.
Narasimhan also suggested appropriate references for Chapter 8.
I learnt modern Differential Geometry from JeanLouis Koszul. His lec
tures at the Tata Institute, of which I took notes, were an epitome of clarity.
I wish to thank him for choosing to spend time in his youth to educate stu
dents in what must have seemed at that time the outback.
There is a short summary at the start of each chapter explaining the
contents. Here I would like to draw attention to what I think are the new
features in my treatment.
In Chapter 1 sheaves make their appearance before differential mani
folds. Everyone knows that this is the `correct' definition but I know of few
books that have adopted this point of view. The reason is that generally
sheaves are somehow perceived to be more difficult to swallow at the outset.
I believe otherwise. In my experience, if sufficient motivation is provided
and many illustrative examples given, students take concepts in their stride,
and will in fact be all the better equipped in their mathematical life for _{a}_{n} early start.
In Chapter 2 I have introduced the notion of the Connection Algebra
and believe most computations can, and ought to be, made in this algebra.
In Chapter 3 the treatment of densities and orientation are, I believe,
nonconventional. In particular, the changeofvariable formula is not used
but is in fact a simple consequence of this approach.
Chapter 4 is a fairly straightforward account of sheaf cohomology. Connections are treated as tools to lift symbols to differential operators;
various tensors connected with connections and linear connections have _{a}
natural interpretation from this point of view.
_{T}_{h}_{e}_{s}_{e} _{a}_{r}_{e} _{w}_{o}_{r}_{k}_{e}_{d} _{o}_{u}_{t} _{i}_{n}
Chapter 5. The existence of torsion free linear connections compatible with
Preface
xi
various structures lead to natural integrability conditions on them. This
treatment, which I believe is new, is given in Chapter 6. The additional structures are themselves studied in Chapter 7 with some emphasis on naturally occurring differential operators.
Chapter 8 is an account of the local theory of elliptic operators, while
Chapter 9 contains the composition formula I mentioned earlier. A general
vanishing theorem for harmonic sections of an elliptic complex is proved
here under a suitable curvature hypothesis.
_{T}_{h}_{e} _{B}_{o}_{c}_{h}_{n}_{e}_{r}_{,} _{L}_{i}_{c}_{h}_{n}_{e}_{r}_{o}_{w}_{i}_{c}_{z}
and Kodaira vanishing theorems are derived as special cases, followed by a
short account of how Kodaira's vanishing theorem leads to the imbedding
theorem.
Mistakes, particularly relating to signs and constants, are a professional
hazard. I would be grateful to any reader who takes trouble to inform me
of such and other errors, misleading remarks, obscurities, etc.
Chapter 1
Sheaves and Differential Manifolds:
Definitions and
Examples
In Geometry as well as in Physics, one has often to use the tools of differ
ential and integral calculus on topological spaces which are locally like open
subsets of the Euclidean space R', but do not admit coordinates valid every
where. For example, the sphere {(x, y, z) E R3 x2 + y2 + z2 = 1}, or more
generally, the space {(x1,
, _{x}_{,}_{,}_{,}_{)} _{E} _{1}_{[}_{8}_{n} _{:}
_{x}_{?} _{=} _{1}_{}} _{a}_{r}_{e} _{c}_{l}_{e}_{a}_{r}_{l}_{y} _{o}_{f} _{g}_{e}_{o}_{m}_{e}_{t}_{r}_{i}_{c}
interest. On the other hand, constrained motion has to do with dynamics
on surfaces in R3. In general relativity, one studies `spacetime' which com
bines the space on which motion takes place and the time parameter in one
abstract space and allows reformulation of problems of Physics in terms of
a 4dimensional object. All these necessitate a framework in which one can work with the tools of analysis, like differentiation, integration, differential
equations and the like, on fairly abstract objects. This would enable one to
study Differential Geometry in its appropriate setting on the one hand, and to state mathematically the equations of Physics in the required generality,
on the other. The basic objects which accomplish this are called differential
manifolds. These are geometric objects which are locally like domains in
the Euclidean space, so that the classical machinery of calculus, available in ILBn, can be transferred, first, to small open sets and then patched together.
The main tool in the patching up is the notion of a sheaf. We will first
1
2
1. Sheaves and Differential Manifolds
define sheaves and discuss basic notions related to them, before taking up
differential manifolds.
1. Sheaves and Presheaves
At the outset, it is clear that functions of interest to us belong to a class
such as continuous functions, infinitely differentiable (or CO°) functions, real
analytic functions, holomorphic functions of complex variables, and so on:
Some properties common to all these classes of functions are that
i) they are all continuous, and
ii) the condition for a continuous function to belong to the class is of a
local nature.
By this we mean that for a continuous function to be differentiable, real
analytic or holomorphic, it is necessary and sufficient for it to be so in the
neighbourhood of every point in its domain of definition. We will start with
an axiomatisation of the local nature of the classes of functions we seek to study.
1.1. Definition. Let X be a topological space. An assignment to every
open subset U of X, of a set .''(U) and to every pair of open sets U, V with
V C U, of a map (to be called restriction map) resuv :.F(U) * F(V)
satisfying
resvw o resuv = resuw
for every triple W C V C U of open sets, is called a presheaf of sets.
_{I}_{f}
.F(U) are all abelian groups, rings, vector spaces,
maps are homomorphisms of the respective structures, then we say that F
is a presheaf of abelian groups, rings, vector spaces,
_{a}_{n}_{d} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{r}_{e}_{s}_{t}_{r}_{i}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}
1.2. Definition. A presheaf is said to be a sheaf if it satisfies the following
additional conditions: Let U =
Vi be any open covering of an open set
U. Then
S1 
: Two elements s, t E F(U) are equal if resUV; s = resUV; t for all i E I. 
S2 
If si E .F(Ui) satisfy resUuudnUj si = resuu _{n}_{u}_{;} _{s}_{j} _{f}_{o}_{r} _{a}_{l}_{l} _{i}_{,} _{j} _{E} _{I}_{,} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{n} 
there exists an element s E F(U) with resUV; s = si for all i. We will
also assume that .F(O) consists of a single point.
1.3. Examples.
1) As indicated above, the concepts of differentiability, real analyticity,
are all local in nature, so that it is no surprise that if X is an open
subspace of R', then the assignment to every open subset U of X, of
the set A(U) of differentiable functions with the natural restriction of
1.
Sheaves and Presheaves
_{3}
functions as restriction maps, gives rise to a sheaf. This sheaf will be
called the sheaf of differentiable functions on X. Obviously this sheaf
is not merely a sheaf of sets, but a sheaf of Ralgebras.
2) The assignment of the set of bounded functions to every open set U of
X, and the natural restriction maps define a presheaf on X. However,
if we are given as in S2 any compatible set of bounded functions si,
then while such a data does define a unique function s on U, there is
no guarantee that it will be bounded. Thus this presheaf satisfies S1
but not S2 and so is not a sheaf. (Can one modify this in order to
obtain a sheaf?)
3) Consider the assignment of a fixed abelian group to every nonempty
open set U, all restriction maps being identity. We will also assign
the trivial group to the empty set. This defines a presheaf, but is not
a sheaf in general. (Why?)
4) The standard nsimplex A,z is defined to be {(xo, xl,
, xn) E Il8n+1
xi = 1, xi > 0} with the induced topology. In algebraic topology,
one way of studying the topology of a space X is to look at continuous
maps of the standard simplices into X and studying their geometry.
We will give the basic definitions here. A singular nsimplex in a
topological space X is a continuous map of the standard nsimplex
An into X. If A is a fixed abelian group, then an Avalued singular cochain in X is an assignment of an element of A to every singular
simplex. Now, to every open subset U of X, associate the set Sn(U)
of all singular cochains in U. If V is an open subset of U, then we
have an obvious inclusion of the set of singular simplices in V into that
in U. Consequently there is also a restriction map Sn(U) * Sn(V).
This makes Sn a presheaf, which we may call the presheaf of singular
cochains in X. It is obvious that this does not satisfy the axiom S1
for sheaves. For if X = U Ui is a nontrivial open covering, then we
can define a nonconstant cochain which is zero on all simplices whose
images are contained in some Ui. On the other hand, if a cochain is
defined on simplices with images in some Ui, then one can extend this
cochain to all singular simplices by defining the cochain to be zero on
simplices whose images are not contained in any of the U. Thus this
presheaf satisfies S2.
5) The most characteristic example of a sheaf from our point of view is
the one which associates to any open set U the algebra of continuous
functions on U. This can be generalised as follows. Let Y be any fixed
topological space and consider the assignment to any open set U, of the set of continuous maps from U to Y with the obvious restriction
_{4}
_{m}_{a}_{p}_{s}_{.}
into Y.
1. Sheaves and Differential Manifolds
This defines a sheaf of sets, the sheaf of continuous maps
6) We will generalise this example a little further. Let E be a topological
space and 7r : E + X a continuous surjective map. Then associate to
each open subset U of X the set of continuous sections of it over U _{(}_{n}_{a}_{m}_{e}_{l}_{y}_{,} _{c}_{o}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{u}_{o}_{u}_{s} _{m}_{a}_{p}_{s} _{o}_{} : U > E such that 7r o a = Idu). This,
together with the obvious restriction maps, is a sheaf called the sheaf
of sections of ir. Example 5) is obtained as a particular case on taking
E = Y x X and 7r to be the second projection.
We will see below that every sheaf arises in this way, that is to say,
to every sheaf F on X, one can associate a space E = E(F) and a map
it : E > X as above such that the sheaf of sections of it may be identified
with F.
1.4. Sheaf associated to a presheaf.
In the theory of holomorphic functions, one talks of a germ of a func
tion at a point, when one wishes to study its properties in an (unspecified)
neighbourhood of a point. This means the following. Consider pairs (U, f )
consisting of open sets U containing the given point x and holomorphic
functions f defined on U. Introduce an equivalence relation in this set by
declaring two such pairs (U, f ), (V, g) to be equivalent if f and g coincide in
some neighbourhood of x which is contained in U n V. An equivalence class
is called a germ. This procedure can be imitated in the case of a presheaf
and this leads to the concept of a stalk of a presheaf at a point.
1.5. Definition. Let Y be a presheaf on a topological space X. Then the
stalk.F. of Y at a point x E X is the quotient set of the set consisting of all pairs (U, s) where U is an open neighbourhood of x and s is an element of
Y(U) under the equivalence relation:
(U, s) is equivalent to (V, t) if and only if there exists an open neighbour
hood W of x contained in U n V such that the restrictions of s and t to W
are the same.
If s E F(X) then, for any x E X, the pair (X, s) has an image in the
stalk.F'x, namely the equivalence class containing it. It is called the germ of
s at x. We will denote it by s_,.
Let E = E(.F) be the germs of all elements at all points of X, that is to
say, the disjoint union of all the stalks .F, x E X. What we intend to do
now is to provide the set E with a topology such that
a) the map 7r : E + X which maps all of F to _{x}_{,} _{i}_{s} _{c}_{o}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{u}_{o}_{u}_{s}_{;}
1.
Sheaves and Presheaves
_{5}
b) ifs E .F(U) then the section s" of E over U, defined by setting s(x) = sx,
is continuous.
We achieve this by associating to each pair (U, s), where U is an open
subset of X and s E F(U), the set ss"(U), and defining a topology on E
whose open sets are generated by sets of the form s(U). In order to check
that with this topology, the maps s are continuous, we have only to show
that s'(t(V)) is open for every open subset V of X and t E F(V). This is
equivalent to the following
1.6. Lemma. If s E F(U) and t E .F(V), then the set of points x E U fl v
such that sx = tx is open in X.
Proof. From the definition of the equivalence relation used to define .fix, we
deduce that if sa, = to, for some point a E X, then the restrictions of s and t to
some open neighbourhood N of a are the same. Hence we must have sx = tx
for every point x of N as well. Thus N is contained in {x E U : sx = tx},
proving the lemma.
Finally if U is an open set in X, then it1(U) = UxEU.Fx = Us(V)
where the latter union is over all open subsets V C U and all s E .F(V).
This shows that 7r1(U) is open in E and hence that it is continuous.
1.7. Definition. The etale space associated to the presheaf F is the set
E(F) = UxEX .fix provided with the topology generated by the sets s(U),
where U is any open set in X and s E F(U). Moreover, if it is the natural map E(.F) i X which has Fx as fibre over x for all x E X, then the sheaf
of sections of it is called the sheaf associated to the presheaf F.
1.8. Remarks.
1) If we look at the fibre of it over x E X, namely .fix, we see that the
topology induced on it is nothing serious, since s(U) (being a section
of ir), intersects Fx only in one point, namely sx. In other words, the
induced topology on the fibres is discrete.
2) Consider the constant presheaf A defined by the abelian group A.
Clearly the stalk at any point x E X is again A so that E can in
this case be identified with A x X. Any a E A gives rise to an element
of A(U) for every open subset U of X. The corresponding section d
over U of 7r : E = A x X + X is given simply by x ' (a, x) over U.
Hence the image, namely {a} x U is open in E. From this one easily
concludes that the topology on E = A x X is the product of the dis
crete topology on A and the given topology on X. Hence its sections
over any open set U are continuous maps of U into the discrete space
A. This is the same as locally constant maps on U with values in A.
_{6}
1. Sheaves and Differential Manifolds
3) Notice that in the construction of the etale space we did not make full
use of the data of a presheaf. It is enough if we are given F(U) for
open sets U running through a base of open sets.
1.9. Definition. If '1, .72 are presheaves on a topological space X, then a
homomorphism f : F1 +.F2 is an association to each open subset U of X of
a homomorphism f (U) : 171(U) + .7=2 (U) such that whenever U, V are open
sets with V C U, we have a commutative diagram
F1(U)
^{f}
Iresuv
_{F}_{1}_{(}_{V}_{)}
^{f}
F2(U)
resuv
,7=2(V)
When we consider presheaves of abelian groups, rings,
, and talk. of
homomorphisms of such sheaves, we require that all the maps f (U) be ho
momorphisms of these structures.
1.10. Examples.
1) The inclusion of the set of differentiable functions (on a domain in RI)
in the set of continuous functions is clearly a homomorphism of the
sheaf of differentiable functions into that of continuous functions.
2) Consider the sheaf of differentiable functions in a domain of Rn. The
map f
kLi
induces a sheaf homomorphism of the sheaf of differen
tiable functions into itself, the homomorphism being one of sheaf of
abelian groups but not of rings.
We will rephrase this as follows. Let V be a (finitedimensional)
vector space over R. Then one has a natural sheaf of differentiable
functions on V. One can for example choose a linear isomorphism of
and consider functions of V as functions of the coordinate
V with IR
variables xl, x2,
dent of the isomorphism chosen. For let yi, y2,
, xn. Then differentiability makes sense, indepen
_{,} _{y}_{n} _{i}_{s} _{a} _{s}_{e}_{t} _{o}_{f} _{v}_{a}_{r}_{i}_{}
ables obtained by some other isomorphism of V with Rn, that is to
say,
yi = ai1x1 + ai2x2 + .
+ ainxn
where (aid) is an invertible matrix.
respect to (xi) if and only if it is so with respect to (yi). Indeed dif
_{T}_{h}_{e}_{n} _{f} _{i}_{s} _{d}_{i}_{f}_{f}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{a}_{b}_{l}_{e} _{w}_{i}_{t}_{h}
ferentiation can be defined intrinsically as follows. For any v E V,
define av f (x) = limt;o f ^{(}^{x}^{+}^{t}^{v}^{)}^{}^{f}^{(}^{x}^{)} sheaf homomorphism of abelian groups.
t
_{T}_{h}_{e}_{n} _{f}
_{8}_{o}_{f} _{g}_{i}_{v}_{e}_{s} _{r}_{i}_{s}_{e} _{t}_{o} _{a}
1.
Sheaves and Presheaves
7
3) The inclusion of constant functions in differentiable functions gives a ho
momorphism of the constant sheaf III in the sheaf of differentiable func
tions.
If F is a presheaf and F the sheaf of sections of E(F), then for every open
set U in X, we get a natural homomorphism of F(U) into .J'(U), which
maps any s to the section s. If V C U, then for every x E V, the element
of .cx given by (U, s) is the same as that given by (V, resuv s) by the very definition of Fx. This implies that the diagram
.F(U)
tresuv
F(V)
>
^{}^{}
jresuv
(V)
is commutative, proving that the natural homomorphisms F(U) , .,'(U)
define a homomorphism of presheaves.
1.11. Proposition. A presheaf F satisfies Axiom S1 if and only if the
_{i}_{n}_{d}_{u}_{c}_{e}_{d} _{m}_{a}_{p} _{F}_{(}_{U}_{)} _{}_{}_{3}
is injective, for every open set U of X.
Proof. To say that F(U) * F(U) is injective is equivalent to saying that
if 51, s2 E F(U) with (sl)x = (S2)x for all x E U, then sl = 82.
But
then the assumption assures us that resuNx sl = resUNN 82 for some open
neighbourhood Nx C U of x. Now Axiom S1, applied to the covering U =
_{U} _{N}_{x} _{s}_{a}_{y}_{s} _{p}_{r}_{e}_{c}_{i}_{s}_{e}_{l}_{y} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{s}_{l} _{=} _{5}_{2}_{.}
Conversely, if U = U UZ and s, t are
elements of F(U) satisfying resUU, (s) = resUV; (t) for all i, then the same
_{i}_{s} _{t}_{r}_{u}_{e} _{o}_{f} _{s}_{"} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{I}_{.} _{B}_{u}_{t} _{s}_{i}_{n}_{c}_{e}
_{w}_{e} _{a}_{s}_{s}_{u}_{m}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{F}_{(}_{U}_{)} _{}
conclude that F satisfies S1.
satisfies S1, it follows that s = t. Now if
is injective, it follows that s = t, so that we
1.12. Proposition. A presheaf F is a sheaf if and only if the natural maps
_{.}_{F}_{(}_{U}_{)} _{}_{}_{>}
are all isomorphisms.
Proof. In fact, if all these maps are isomorphisms, then .F is isomorphic to the sheaf F and it follows that F is itself a sheaf. On the other hand, if F is
asheaf, then we conclude from the above proposition that the maps F(U) >
F(U) are injective and we need only to verify that they are surjective. An
_{e}_{l}_{e}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t} _{a} _{E}
is a section over U of the etale space of T. Hence, for
every x E U, there is a neighbourhood Nx and an element s(x) E F(N,)
which represents the equivalence class a(x) E F. The section s(x) over
Nx of the etale space given rise to by s(x), and the section v, coincide at
x. It follows that the two sections coincide in a neighbourhood Nx of x,
contained in N. This means that there exist an open covering U = U Nx
and S(x) E F(Nx) such that (s(x))a = a(a) for all a E Nx. In particular, s(x)
_{8}
1. Sheaves and Differential Manifolds
and s() give rise to the same section of J over N n N. But, thanks to the
injectivity of the natural map .F(N, n N,) j :'(N,,' n N,) we conclude that
the restrictions of s(x) and s(Y) to NN n Ny are the same. Since F is actually
a sheaf, this implies that there exists s E .7= (U) whose restriction to Nx is
slxl for all x E U. Thus we have sx= u(x) for all x c U, or, what is the
same, s = or, proving that F(U) , F(U) is surjective.
Somewhat subtler is the relationship between Axiom S2 and the surjec
_{t}_{i}_{v}_{i}_{t}_{y} _{o}_{f} _{F}_{(}_{U}_{)} _{}_{*}
If F satisfies S2, then any section of F gives rise,
as above, to an open covering {Nx} and elements s(x) of 1F(Nx). In order to
piece all these elements together and obtain an element of F(U) we need to
check that the restrictions of s(x) and s(y) to Nx n N. coincide, at least after
passing to a smaller covering. We have the following settopological lemma.
1.13. Lemma. Let {Ui}iEI be a locally finite open covering of a topological
space U and {V }iEI be a shrinking. Then for every x E U, there exists an
open neighbourhood Mx such that Ix = {i E I : Mx n V
if i E Ix then x belongs to Vi and Mx is a subset of Ui.
intersect, then there exists i E I such that Mx U My C U.
O} is finite, and
If Mx and M.
Proof. Since {Ui} is locally finite, so is the shrinking, and the existence
of M. such that the corresponding Ix is finite, is trivial. We will now cut down this neighbourhood further in order to satisfy the other conditions.
We intersect Mx with U \Vi for all i E Ix for which x 0 V2. We thus obtain
an open neighbourhood of x, and the closures of all V, i E Ix then contain x.
It can be further intersected with niElx Ui, and the resulting neighbourhood
satisfies the first assertion of the lemma. Now if Mx n My 0 0, then for any
z E Mx n My, choose i E I such that z E V. Then Mx intersects V and
Similarly My is also contained in Ui proving the second
hence Mx C Ui.
assertion.
This lemma can be used to deduce that under a mild topological hy
pothesis, the natural maps .F(U) + F(U) are surjective for all open sets U,
if the presheaf F satisfies Axiom S2.
1.14. Proposition. If every open subset U of X is paracompact, and the
presheaf _'F satisfies S2, then the map F(U) + F(U) is surjective for all U.
Proof. Firstly, given an element o of F(U), there is a locally finite open
covering {Ui} of U, and elements si E F(Ui) for all i, with the property that
for all x E Ui, the elements si have the image o(x) in F. Let {V } be a
shrinking of {Ui}. For every x E U, choose M. as in Lemma 1.13. We may
also assume that the restrictions to Mx of any of the si for which i E Ix, is
the same, say s(x). It follows that the restrictions of s(x) and s(') to MxnMy
2.
Basic Constructions
9
are the same as the direct restriction of some si to m, fl my, proving in view
of Axiom S2, that there exists s E F(U) whose restriction to Mx is s(x) for
all x E U. This proves that .r(U) > F(U) is surjective.
1.15. Exercises.
1) Let X be a topological space which is the disjoint union of two proper open sets U1 and U2. Define .F(U) to be (0) whenever U is an open
subset of either U1 or U2. For all other open sets U, define .F(U) = A,
where A is a nontrivial abelian group.
If U C V and F(U) = A,
then define the restriction map to be the identity homomorphism.
All other restriction maps are zero. Show that F is a presheaf such
that .,' = (0).
2) In the above, does F satisfy Axiom S2?
Subsheaves.
1.16. Definition. A sheaf Q is said to be a subsheaf of a sheaf F if we are
given a homomorphism
conditions.
> F satisfying either of the following equivalent
_{1}_{)} _{Q}_{x}
Fx is injective for all x E X.
2) For any open subset U of X, Q(U) > F(U) is injective.
To see that the above conditions are equivalent, note that 1) implies
that E(Q) + E(F) is injective and hence the set of sections of Q over any
set is also mapped injectively into the set of sections of F.
assume 2), and let a, b E Qx have the same image in F. Then there exist
a neighbourhood U of x and elements s, t E Q(U) such that sx = a, tx = b.
Moreover, by replacing U with a smaller neighbourhood we may also assume
_{T}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{i}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{i}_{e}_{s} _{b}_{y} _{o}_{u}_{r}
that the images of s and t are the same in F(U).
assumption that s = t as elements of Q(U), as well. Hence sx = tx in Q.
2. Basic Constructions
When .F is a sheaf, it is legitimate to call elements of F(U) sections of F over
an open set U, since they can be identified with sections of the associated
etale space. Continuous sections of the etale space make sense, on the other
hand, over any subspace of X.
2.1. Proposition. If K is a closed subspace of a paracompact topological
space X, then any section over K of a sheaf F on X is the restriction to K
_{C}_{o}_{n}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{s}_{e}_{l}_{y}_{,}
of a section of Jc' over a neighbourhood of K.
_{1}_{0}
1. Sheaves and Differential Manifolds
Proof. In fact, any section s over K is defined by open sets Ui of X that
cover K and elements si E F(UU). Since K is also paracompact, we may
assume (by passing to a refinement, if necessary) that the covering is locally
finite. Let U = U Ui and {Vi} be a shrinking of this covering. Choose for
every x E U, an open neighbourhood Mx of x as in Lemma 1.13. Denote by
Ix the set of all i E I such that x E Vi. Then our choice of Mx is equivalent
to saying that i belongs to Ix if and only if Mx intersects Vi.
Consider
(si)x is independent of i for all i E Ix}. For any
y E Mx, we have Iy C I. For, if i E Iy, then y E Vi and hence Mx which is
a neighbourhood of y has nonempty intersection with Vi. This means that
i E I. Clearly, the set {y e Mx : (si)y is independent of i E Ix} is an open
set containing x and contained in W. Hence W is open. On the other hand
we have the inclusion K C W. It is now clear that the si actually give a
_{t}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{u}_{b}_{s}_{e}_{t} _{W} _{=} _{{}_{x} _{E} _{U}
section of F over W.
2.2. Remark. Let us consider the sheaf of continuous functions on R' for
example. A section of the corresponding etale space over a closed set K is
the same as a continuous function in a neighbourhood of K with the un
derstanding that two such continuous functions are to be considered equiv
alent if they coincide in a neighbourhood of K. Any such `germ' gives, on
restriction to K, a continuous function on K. On the other hand any con
tinuous function on K can be extended to some neighbourhood of K. Thus
we have a surjection of the set of sections over K of the sheaf of contin
uous functions into the set of continuous functions on K. But this is not
injective, even when K consists of a single point. For in this case, a section
is simply an element of the stalk at the point, which consists of germs of
continuous functions at the point.
2.3. Inverse images.
We used the construction of E(F) as a means to pass from a presheaf to
a sheaf. However, even when one starts with a sheaf the construction of
the etale space is useful in some applications. One such is the notion of
the inverse image of a sheaf.
topological spaces. If 1 is a sheaf on Y, we seek to define a sheaf f '.F
on X. Let E(F) be the etale space of T. Then form the fibre product of
Let f : X > Y be a continuous map of
the map f : X * Y and the map it : E(F) + Y.
(It is the subspace
of the topological space X x E(F) consisting of points (x, a) such that
_{f} _{(}_{x}_{)} _{=} _{7}_{r}_{(}_{a}_{)}_{.}_{)}
This space comes with a natural continuous map into X.
The sheaf of continuous sections of this space is called the inverse image of
.F by the map f.
2.
Basic Constructions
11
In the particular case when X C Y is a subspace, the inverse image is also called the restriction of F to X. We sometimes use the notation FIX
for this restriction.
2.4. Glueing together.
Let (Ui) be an open covering of a space Y and for each i, let Fi be
sheaves on Uj. Then we wish to glue all these together and obtain a sheaf on
the whole of Y.
For this we need some glueing data.
If the Fi are all
restrictions to Uj of the same sheaf F on Y, then the restrictions of Fi and
.Fj to Ui n Uj are the same as direct restrictions of F to Ui rl Uj. So, we
assume as data, isomorphisms mij : .mij I Ui fl Uj + Fi I Ui fl Uj.
Actually
we need more, namely compatibility of these isomorphisms. Consider the
set Ui fl Uj fl Uk. We have restrictions to it of the sheaves Fi, Fj and Fk.
Besides, the isomorphisms mij, mjk and mik restrict to isomorphisms (two
by two) of these three sheaves on Ui fl U. f1 Uk as well. We will use the same
notation for these restrictions. Then the compatibility condition that we
have in mind is that they should satisfy
mij o mjk = mik
One can easily verify that given such data as above, one can glue the sheaves Fi together and obtain a sheaf .'F on the whole of Y with natural
isomorphisms of FI UU with.Fi.
Actually, in a certain sense, the construction involved in glueing is the
converse of the construction of the inverse image. If X is the topological
union of the spaces Ui, then it is clear that the Fi build a sheaf F on it, and
what is needed is a sheaf on Y whose inverse image under the natural map
X >YisT.
2.5. Remark. Regarding our glueing construction above, we wish to make
the following remark. Let .77 be a sheaf on X. Let (Ui) be an open covering
and let Gi be subsheaves. of FI Ui, for all i.
Then, in order to glue the
9i together, we only need to check that gi I Ui n Uj is the same subsheaf of
Fl Ui fl Uj as 9j I Ui n Uj. Then we can, not only glue them together, but
also get a homomorphism of 9 into F which makes it a subsheaf.
2.6. Definition. Let F be a sheaf on a space X. Let f : X + Y be a
continuous map. Then one can define a sheaf on Y called the direct image
of .F by f as follows. To any open set U in Y, associate F(f 1(U)). It is
easy to check that this defines a sheaf. We will denote this by f" (.F) 
This is related to the inverse image very closely.
_{I}_{n} _{f}_{a}_{c}_{t}_{,} _{l}_{e}_{t} _{F} _{b}_{e} _{a}
sheaf on X in the above situation, and C a sheaf on Y. We may consider on
the one hand, the direct image f*(F) and on the other, the inverse image
_{1}_{2}
1. Sheaves and Differential Manifolds
f 1(g). Then one can see easily that there is a natural bijection between
homomorphisms 9 > f* (F) and f '(G) * F. Indeed, let us start with a
homomorphism T : C * f*(F). This gives, for every open subset U c Y
a homomorphism T(U) : 9(U) + (f,.F)(U) = .F(f1(U)). If x E f1(U),
then we have a natural map F(f 1(U)) + .fix.
_{C}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} _{T} _{(}_{U}_{)}_{,}
we get a homomorphism CP(U)  J1F. It is obvious that as U varies over
neighbourhoods of _1(c)x f (x), this is compatible with restrictions, and so induces
a map cf(x) = f
+ F. This is easily checked to be continuous on
the etale space and hence gives a homomorphism of f 1(CJ) into F. It is
this association that gives the bijection, as claimed.
2.7. Modules over a sheaf of algebras.
Before we leave this preliminary account of sheaves and move on to dif
ferential manifolds, we would like to introduce one more notion which is very
useful in our context. As we have observed, the sheaf of continuous func
tions on a topological space, that of differentiable functions in R', that of
holomorphic functions in a domain in C'y, etc. are all sheaves of algebras.
Let then A be a sheaf of algebras over a topological space X. On the other hand, let M be a sheaf of abelian groups. Then we say that M is a sheaf of
modules over A, or simply an A module if for every U, open in X, the abelian
group M(U) comes provided with a structure of an A(U)module in such a way that the restriction maps resuv respect the module structures in the
obvious sense, namely
resvv (f s) = resuv (f) resvv (s)
for all f E A(U) and s E M(U).
3. Differential Manifolds
After these preliminaries, we are now ready to define the concept of differ
ential manifolds. These objects provide the proper setting for developing
differential and integral calculus. In Physics, these are called configuration spaces and may be thought of as the set of all possible states of the system
of which one wishes to study the dynamics.
3.1. Definition. A differential manifold M (of dimension n) consists of
a) a topological space which is Hausdorff and admits _{a} _{c}_{o}_{u}_{n}_{t}_{a}_{b}_{l}_{e} _{b}_{a}_{s}_{e} _{f}_{o}_{r} open sets, and
b) a sheaf AM = A of subalgebras of the sheaf of continuous functions _{o}_{n}
M.
These are required to satisfy the following local condition. For _{a}_{n}_{y} _{x} _{E} _{M}_{,} there is an open neighbourhood U of x and a homeomorphism of U with _{a}_{n}
_{3}_{.}
Differential Manifolds
_{1}_{3}
open set V in IR' such that the restriction of A to U is the inverse image of
the sheaf of differentiable functions on V.
The homeomorphisms referred to above, defined in a neighbourhood of
any point, are called coordinate charts.
_{T}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{i}_{s} _{b}_{e}_{c}_{a}_{u}_{s}_{e} _{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{w}_{i}_{t}_{h}
this homeomorphism the coordinate functions in 118, one obtains functions
, xn,. We think of M as a global object on which action takes place,
and it is locally described by using coordinates.
3.2. Examples.
1) Since the concept of differential manifolds is based on the notion of
differentiability in 118'1, it is clear that 1R'z together with the sheaf of
differentiable functions is a differential manifold. Slightly more ab
stractly, any finitedimensional vector space over II8 is a differential
manifold.
2) If (M, A) is a differential manifold, and U an open subset of M, then
the subspace U, together with the restriction Al U of A is a differential
manifold as well. This will be referred to as an open submanifold of M.
3) Combining these two examples, we see that any open subspace of 118?1
(or any finitedimensional vector space) is a differential manifold. In
particular, the space GL(n, I18) of invertible (n, n)matrices, which is
actually the open set in the vector space of all (n, n)matrices given
by the nonvanishing of the determinant, is a manifold of dimension
n2. Incidentally, it is also a group under matrix multiplication and is
called the General Linear group.
4) Let f be a differentiable function in Jn. Consider the closed subspace
(the zero locus of f) of IR' given by
Zf={xEI18n: f(x)=0}.
Then Z f has a natural structure of differential manifold, if at every
x E Z J, at least one of the partial derivatives of f does not vanish.
In fact, consider the association to any open set U C Z f, of the set of
functions on U, which can be extended to a differentiable function on
This gives a presheaf on Zf. (Actu
ally it will turn out that it is a sheaf, but we do not need it here.)
_{a} _{n}_{e}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{b}_{o}_{u}_{r}_{h}_{o}_{o}_{d} _{o}_{f} _{U} _{i}_{n} _{I}_{1}_{8}_{n}_{.}
Let AZf be the associated sheaf. Then by our assumption, for any
x E Z f, there exists a neighbourhood N of x in RI such that, one of
the partial derivatives, say , is nonzero. By the implicit function
theorem, the projection to R` taking (x1,
x,1) to (x1,
, X.I)
is a differentiable isomorphism of N fl Z f with an open set V in
^{R}^{n}^{}^{1}
14
1. Sheaves and Differential Manifolds
(that is to say, a differentiable bijective map from N onto V whose in
verse is also differentiable). It is now clear that this isomorphism gives
the local requirement of the sheaf AZf. If we further specialise the
function to be f (x) _
length in Jn which we call the unit sphere S'1
On the contrary, if f is taken to be the function xy defined in
x?  1, then Zf is the set of vectors of unit
1182 with coordinates x, y, then clearly it does not satisfy the criterion
given above. In fact, both the partial derivatives, a and a vanish at
(0, 0). So we cannot conclude that Z f is a differential manifold in this
case. In fact, the topological space Z f cannot have a structure of a
differential manifold, since it is easy to see that no neighbourhood of 0 in Z f is homeomorphic to an open interval in R.
5) The above example can be generalised further, by taking, instead of
one function, finitely many functions. So, let f = (fz),1 < i < r, be
finitely many differentiable functions in 118n. Then the closed subspace
Zf={xERt: ff(x)=0foralli}
has a natural structure of a differential manifold, if f satisfies the
following condition. For every x c Z f, the rank of the (r, n) matrix
( ) is r. One may think of f as a function into Rr.
We will now take for f the function on (n, n)matrices with values
also in Rn2 given by A H AA'  1, where A' denotes the transpose
of A. Then one can check that the above criterion is fulfilled and
hence the topological space {A E Mn(]l8) : AA= In} is a differential
manifold. This is actually a subgroup of GL(n, R) as well,' called the
orthogonal group and is usually denoted O(n, l18).
_{S}_{i}_{m}_{i}_{l}_{a}_{r}_{l}_{y} _{t}_{a}_{k}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{e}
map f : M(n, C) into itself given by A H AT  In, and get the set f = 0 as a subgroup of GL(n, C). This group is called the unitary
group and denoted U(n). (Are these manifolds connected?)
6) Consider the real projective space IIBpn defined to be the quotient of
the unit sphere Sn by the identification of antipodal points _{x} _{a}_{n}_{d}
x. We may define a sheaf on 118Pn by associating to any open set
U C 1E,pn, the algebra of differentiable functions _{o}_{n} _{i}_{t}_{s} _{i}_{n}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{s}_{e} _{i}_{m}_{a}_{g}_{e}
in Sn which are invariant under the antipodal map. For _{a}_{n}_{y} _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t}
a E Sn, the open neighbourhood of a consisting of those y E Sn
whose distance from a is less than 1 is mapped homeomorphically _{o}_{n}
an open set in JRpn, and it is easy to see that this takes the sheaf of
differentiable functions on Sn isomorphically onto the sheaf defined
above. Thus we see that RPn is a differential manifold in _{a} _{n}_{a}_{t}_{u}_{r}_{a}_{l}
way.
_{3}_{.}
Differential Manifolds
_{1}_{5}
3.3. Exercises.
1) Show that the topological subspace of the space of all (n, n)matrices,
consisting of those matrices whose determinants are 1, is a differential
manifold. This is also a subgroup of the group GL(n,R) mentioned
above and is denoted SL(n, JR). It is called the Special Linear group.
2) Is the same true of matrices with determinant 0?
3.4. Glueing up differential manifolds.
Often, a structure of a differential manifold is given on a Hausdorff
topological space M with a countable base for open sets, by the following
procedure. Suppose {Ui} is an open covering, and that each Ui is provided
with a subsheaf Ai of the sheaf of continuous functions making (Ui, Ai) a differential manifold. If we can glue all these sheaves together to get a
sheaf of algebras on M, then it is clear that it would make M a differential
manifold. We have already seen (2.5) how we can glue them together. What
we need is simply that Ai I Ui n Uj is the same as Aj I Uj n U. In other words,
the open submanifold Ui n Uj of Ui is the same as the open submanifold
UinU; of UJ.
In particular, if (Vi, Ai) are open submanifolds of R, then the glueing data may also be formulated as follows. The space M is covered by open
sets U. For each i, one is given a homeomorphism ci of Ui with the open
_{s}_{u}_{b}_{s}_{e}_{t} _{V} _{o}_{f} _{R}_{1}_{.}
If Ui and Uj intersect, then Ui n Uj has as images in
V and Vj, two open sets which we may call Vj and Vji.
Then cj o c,1
gives a homeomorphism Vii > Vii. One may use the homeomorphism ci to transport the sheaf of differentiable functions on V to a sheaf of algebras on
U. But in order to glue these together, we need to know that its restriction
to Ui n Uj is the same as the restriction of the transported sheaf on Uj.
This can be achieved if and only if the above homeomorphism Vi + Vii is
differentiable for every i, j. (Note that the inverse is also differentiable, by
reversing the roles of i and j.) This is in fact the traditional definition of a
differential manifold.
V
For example, consider the sphere in R. The map
(xi,
,x,)
i. (xl,
,xi)
x, )
16
1. Sheaves and Differential Manifolds
is a homeomorphism of the open set consisting of points of the sphere for
which xi > 0 onto the open unit ball in Rn1. We can therefore provide
these open sets with the differential manifold structure of the unit ball. We
It is
could do the same with the open sets of the sphere in which xi < 0.
clear that all these open sets, as i varies, cover Sn1. To glue these up, we have only to check that the
map
(yi,
,yn1)
H
(y1,
,
1W,
4j,
)
yn1),
where the term
1 1Y11 occurs at the ith place, is a differentiable isomor
phism of the open set of the unit ball onto the open ball.
Another example is provided by the complex projective space. Notice
first that the real projective space R1Pn may also be defined as the quotient
of R'1+1 \ {0} by the equivalence relation: (xo, x1,
_{,} _{x}_{n}_{)} _{} _{(}_{y}_{o}_{,} _{y}_{l}_{,}
_{,} _{y}_{n}_{)}
if and only if there exists a nonzero real number a such that yi = axi, for
all i. An analogous definition makes sense over complex numbers as well.
In other words, define the complex projective space C1Pn to be the quotient
of Cn+l \ {0} by the equivalence relation:
(zo,
,z,)
 (zo,
,zn)
if and only if there exists a E C" such that zi' = azi for all i.
any such z = (zo,
_{S}_{i}_{n}_{c}_{e} _{f}_{o}_{r}
, zn) at least one zi is nonzero, Cp
_{i}_{s} _{c}_{o}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{d} _{b}_{y}
open sets which are images of sets Ui, i = 0,
CC's'+1 \ {0} > Ian, where Ui = {z _{=}_{.} _{(}_{z}_{o}_{,}
, n under the natural map 0}. It is clear that the
, zn) : zi
subspace zi = 1 of Ui is mapped homeomorphically onto the image of Ui in
(Clan. On the other hand, it is homeomorphic to Cn under the projection
which omits the ith coordinate. This can be used as above to put a structure
of a differential manifold on it. To check the condition for glueing up, we only have to check that the map
{(ZO,
given by (zo,
,zn),zi
= 1, z7
zn) f, (zo/zj,
This is of course obvious.
01 H {(ZO,
,zn),zi
_{7}_{'} 0,zj = 11
, zn/zj) is a differentiable isomorphism.
A little more abstractly, we could have replaced Cn+1 by any com
plex vector space V of dimension n + 1. Then one considers the open set
V \ {0} and introduces the equivalence relation: v  v' if and only if there
exists a E Cx such that av = v'. The quotient is defined to be the projective
space P(V) associated to V. If f is any nonzero linear form on V, the set {v E V : f (v) = 1} is mapped homeomorphically onto an open set X _{f} _{o}_{f}
P(V). What we did above amounts to using this homeomorphism to define
a differential structure on X f. We may glue all these structures together to
obtain a differential structure on the whole of P(V).
_{3}_{.}
Differential Manifolds
_{1}_{7}
One may also think of the points of P(V) as onedimensional subspaces
of V. Then one may generalise this by considering all rdimensional vector
subspaces of V for any fixed r < dim(V). The set thus formed is called
the Grassmannian of rdimensional subspaces of V. We will indicate two
ways in which one can provide this set with the structure of a differential
manifold. Firstly, let W be any such subspace. Consider the image of the
onedimensional space A' (W) in Ar (V). Thus to every element of the Grass
mannian we have associated an element of the projective space P(AD(V)).
Then one checks the following assertion.
3.5. Lemma. If w is any nonzero element of Ar(V), then the linear map
V * Ar+1(V) given by v  vnw has kernel of dimension < r. Moreover, the
kernel is of dimension r if and only if w E Ar(W) for some rdimensional
subspace W of V.
Proof. In fact, it is obvious that if w belongs to Ar(W), then every element
of W is in the kernel of the above map. Let {ei},1 < i < n, be a basis of V
such that the first r of these generate W. In other words, el A
A er can
be taken to be w. Let v = E aiei; then vnw = 0 if and only if ai = 0 for
all i > r. Thus the kernel of the map v H v A w is precisely W. Conversely, if the kernel contains an rdimensional subspace W, again
take a basis like the one above.
Writing out w in terms of a basis as
Eil<
<i,.
ail,
,ireil
A
A ei,., we deduce that if ej Aw = 0, then ail,
,jr
= 0
whenever j does not belong to the set {il,
, i, }. Since we have assumed
that ej A w = 0 for all j < r, we see that the only nonzero coefficient in
the expression for w is al,
,r,
that is to say, w E Ar(W). This also shows in
particular that the dimension of the kernel is < r.
The above lemma asserts in fact that the Grassmannian is imbedded in
P(A?V) as a closed subset. Using this description, one can check that the
Grassmannian is actually a closed submanifold. This imbedding is called
the Plucker imbedding.
Another way of introducing the structure of differential manifold on the
Grassmannian is the following. In order to introduce a coordinate system
in a neighbourhood of any rdimensional subspace Uo of V, we proceed
as follows.
Fix an (n  r)dimensional subspace W of V supplementary
to U0. Consider the set of all rdimensional subspaces U of V which are
supplementary to W. This set evidently contains Uo. The projection of
V onto W corresponding to the direct sum decomposition V = U ® W
restricted to U0 gives a linear map AU of Uo into W. When U = Uo this
map is the zero map. In general the linear map determines U as the image of rl  AU, where i is the inclusion of U0 in V. This sets up a bijection between
_{1}_{8}
1. Sheaves and Differential Manifolds
Hom(Uo, W) and the above set, thereby coordinatising the Grassmannian
in a neighbourhood of Uo.
3.6. Definition. If (M, A) is a differential manifold, then sections of A over an open set U of M are called differentiable functions on U.
Since A is a sheaf, the notion of a differentiable function on M is of a
local nature, so that the following properties are obvious.
1) If f is a nowhere vanishing differentiable function, then so is 11f.
ii) If (U,) is a locally finite covering and (fz) is a family of differen
tiable functions with support in UZ7 then > fz is also a differen
tiable function.
iii) If c o is a differentiable function on Rm and
are differen
tiable functions on M, then co(fl,
tion.
, fm) is also a differentiable func
3.7. Definition. A continuous map f of a differential manifold M into
another differential manifold N is said to be differentiable if for any x E M, and for every differentiable function co in a neighbourhood U of f (x) in N, the composite co o f is a differentiable function on f 1(U).
From the definition of a differentiable map it follows that there is a
homomorphism of the sheaf AN into f*(AM) and therefore also a homo
morphism of AM into f 1 (AN). This is called the structure homomorphism
associated to f.
3.8. Remark. It is clear from the definition above that if M, N, P are
differential manifolds, and f : M i N, g : N + P are differentiable maps,
then the composite g o f : M  P is also differentiable. However, if f :
M + N is a differentiable map which is bijective, then one cannot conclude
that the inverse map is also differentiable. The hackneyed counterexample
is the function x H x3 of 1f8 into 118, which is differentiable and bijective, but
whose inverse x H x3 is not differentiable at 0 _{.}
3.9. Definition. A differentiable map f : M > N of differential manifolds
is said to be a diffeomorphism if there is a differentiable inverse.
A fact, basic to the study of differentiable functions, is that there are
lots of them. We will now formulate this precisely.
_{3}_{.}
Differential Manifolds
19
Differentiable partition of unity.
3.10. Proposition. The following are equivalent.
i) Given any locally finite open covering (Ui)iEZ of M, there exist differen
tiable functions Wi on M with values in the closed interval [0, 1] such
that the support of Wi is contained in Ui and > cpi = 1.
ii) Given open sets U, V with V C U, there exists a positive differentiable
function whose support is contained in U and which does not vanish
anywhere in V.
Proof. i) implies ii). Consider the open covering (M \ V, U). By i), there
exist [0,1]valued functions cp, b with supports respectively in M \ V and U
such that cp +,0 = 1 everywhere. Then 0 satisfies the requirement in ii).
ii) implies i). Let (V) be a shrinking of (Ui), i.e. an open covering with
U C Uj for all i. By Assumption ii), we see that there exist positive differ
entiable functions coj such that supp cpi C Ui and cpi are nonzero everywhere
on Vi. Now since the covering is locally finite, the sum cp = E cpz makes
sense, is differentiable and is nonzero everywhere. The family of functions
f V)i = cpi/cp}, satisfies i).
Of course the point of the above proposition is that the equivalent prop
erties stated there are actually true. We will now prove this fact. Firstly,
in order to prove ii), it is enough to do it locally in the following sense.
For every m E M there exists a neighbourhood NN such that there is a
function as in ii) with V replaced by V fl Nx and U by U fl N
replaces the sets N., by a locally finite refinement and notes that the sum of the corresponding functions fulfils the requirement. Taking Nx to be a
coordinate neighbourhood of x, we therefore reduce the problem to proving
the following.
3.11. Proposition. Let S1, S2 be concentric spheres in Rn centered at 0,
with Sl C S2. Then there exists a differentiable function which is nonzero
Then one
everywhere inside Sl and has support contained in the interior of S2.
Proof. Clearly it is enough to construct a differentiable function on R
which is nonzero everywhere inside the unit ball and zero in the complement.
_{T}_{h}_{e} _{f}_{u}_{n}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{x}
exp(1) for all x inside the unit ball and 0 in the
complement, is such a function.
3.12. Definition. Let (Ui) be a locally finite open covering of a differential
manifold M. A family (cpj) of differentiable functions on M with values in
[0, 1] is said to be a partition of unity with respect to the covering (Ui), if
the support of cpi is contained in Ui for every i and E cpi = 1.
20
1. Sheaves and Differential Manifolds
We will now derive a simple consequence of the existence of a partition
of unity.
3.13. Proposition. Any section of A over a closed set can be extended to
a differentiable function on M. In other words, given a differentiable func
tion co in a neighbourhood of a closed set K, there exists a differentiable func
tion cp on M which coincides with co in a neighbourhood of K.
Proof. In fact, if K C U, and f is a differentiable function on U, consider
the partition of unity with respect to the covering U, M \ V, where V is a
neighbourhood of K with V C U. Thus there is a differentiable function cp
on M which is 1 on V and with support in U. The function f cp on U has
support contained in the support of cp. Hence the function f go on U and the
constant function 0 on M \ (supp f) coincide on the intersection, thereby
giving rise to a differentiable function on the whole of M as required.
3.14. Proposition. Let M, N be differential manifolds.
_{I}_{f} _{f} _{:} _{M} _{}_{+} _{N}
is a continuous map such that for every differentiable function cp on N the
composite cp o f is differentiable, then f is differentiable.
Proof. In fact, for any x E M and any differentiable function go in a neigh
bourhood of f (x), we have to show that co o f is differentiable in a neigh
bourhood of x. Let cp be a differentiable function on N coinciding with cp in
a neighbourhood of f (x); then we are given that cp o f is differentiable. But
then cP o f and cp o f coincide in a neighbourhood of x, proving our assertion.
3.15. Product manifolds.
Let M and N be differential manifolds. Then one can provide the topo
logical space M x N with the structure of a differential manifold in the
following way.
Cover M and N by coordinate charts cj _{:} _{U}_{2} _{}_{*} _{V} _{a}_{n}_{d}
c : Uk > Vk. Then we may cover M x N by Uz x Uk. On each _{o}_{p}_{e}_{n}
set UU x Uf one may define a coordinate chart ci x ck onto an open set in
R' x R". The compatibility condition that needs to be verified, namely
the differentiability of (ci x ci) o (ci x ck)1, follows obviously from those
of cj o cti 1 and c, o cr 1.
Thus we have provided the space M x N with
the structure of a differential manifold. Now it is easy to check from this
definition, that a mapping of any differential manifold L into M x N is dif
ferentiable if and only if its composites with the projections to M and N
are both differentiable. This manifold is (therefore) called the product of M
and N.
_{3}_{.}
Differential Manifolds
_{2}_{1}
3.16. Submanifolds.
We have already defined the notion of an open submanifold. One may
define a closed submanifold as follows. Let M be a closed subset of a differ
ential manifold N with the property that for every m E M, there exists a
coordinate chart (U, c) around m in N such that Mn u is the set of common
zeros of some of the coordinates of the chart c.
The rationale of the definition is quite clear. If U is an open submanifold
of Rn, then the set of points (x) in U satisfying xl = X2 =
_{=} _{x}_{,}_{.} _{=} _{0}_{,}
should clearly be defined to be a closed submanifold of U. Note that this.set
is itself a manifold with the remaining coordinates serving as a coordinate
chart.
Combining the notions of an open submanifold and a closed submanifold, we may define a locally closed submanifold, to be a closed submanifold of an
open submanifold.
3.17. Immersed manifolds.
There is a more general notion of a subset of a manifold that has the
structure of a manifold, which is formally similar to the above notion, but
subtler. Suppose M and N are differential manifolds. First of all, assume
that we have an injective differentiable map M > N. Secondly, for any point
m E M, we require that there is a coordinate chart (U, c) in N containing
the image of m and a neighbourhood U' of m in M such that U' maps into
U and its image is the set of common zeros of some of the coordinates in
the chart c. Then we say that M is a manifold immersed in N. The notion of an immersed manifold is somewhat delicate for the fol
lowing reason. Let us identify M with its image in the following discussion.
Notice that we have not required that for every point m of M, there is a
coordinate chart (U, c) of N such that u f1 M is defined by the vanishing of
some of the coordinates of the chart c. The difference is not slight! Indeed,
the topology of the immersed manifold M is not necessarily that of its image
induced from that of N.
Let us consider an example. We know that the real line R and the torus
S' x S' are both differential manifolds. Identify Sl with the submanifold of
C consisting of complex numbers of absolute value 1. Let ce E R. Consider
_{t}_{h}_{e} _{m}_{a}_{p} _{f} _{:} III + Sl x S' given by f (x) = (exp(27rix), exp(27raix)). It is
clearly differentiable. It is also injective if a is irrational. For, if f (x) = f (y),
then x  y E Z on the one hand and also, a (x  y) E Z on the other. Consider
the maps g : JR * JR x JR given by x H (x, ax) and h : R x J > S' x Sl
given
by (x, y) H (exp(27rix), exp(27riy)). Clearly we have f = hog. It is obvious
that g imbeds J as a closed submanifold of JR x JR. On the other hand, h is
a local isomorphism of differential manifolds and we conclude that f makes
22
1. Sheaves and Differential Manifolds
R an immersed manifold in Sl x Sl in our sense. It is easy to see that the
image with the induced topology is not even locally connected. Indeed this
shows that the image is not a subspace at any point.
If a is irrational, it goes round and round infinitely.
rewinds at a finite stage.
If it is rational, it
We will indicate many simpler examples as well. A figure like 6 (open
at the top end) can be realized as a submanifold of R2 by mapping ll8 differ
entiably like
Clearly this figure with the topology induced from that of R2 is not a man
ifold at the nodal point.
Again a figure like 8 can be realised as an immersed manifold of R2 in
two different ways, namely by parametrisii g it as follows.
4.
Lie Groups; Action on a Manifold
_{2}_{3}
This example also drives home the point that a closed submanifold is not
just an immersed manifold whose point set is closed. It also needs to have
the induced topology.
4. Lie Groups; Action on a Manifold
4.1. Definition. A Lie group G consists of two structures on the same
set G, namely it is a differential manifold and has also a group structure.
The two structures are interrelated by the assumptions that the group law
G x G * G and the group inverse G  G are both differentiable.
4.2. Examples.
1) Any countable group with the discrete topology is a Lie group in our
sense. (Countability is required because in our definition, manifolds
are supposed to have a countable base of open sets.)
2) The real line R is a Lie group under addition since the maps R x IR
R
given by (x, y) H x+y and I[8 * JR given by x  x are differentiable.
3) It is also clear that ]n is a Lie group under addition.
4) The multiplicative group Cx consisting of nonzero complex numbers is an open submanifold of C and is actually a Lie group under multipli
cation.
5) The groups GL(n, III) or GL(n, C), which are open submanifolds of
Jn2 and C'
2,
are Lie groups. Indeed, the group composition is the
restriction of a polynomial map I[8n2 X Rn2 + Rn2. If V is any vector
space of finitedimension over R or C, then the group GL(V) of linear
automorphisms is a Lie group.
6) The orthogonal group O(n, R) (resp. the unitary group U(n)) is a Lie
group under matrix multiplication.
_{2}_{4}
1. Sheaves and Differential Manifolds
4.3. Exercise. The quotient of GL(V) by its centre, namely nonzero scalar
matrices (or automorphisms), is called the projective linear group PGL(V).
Show that it is a Lie group.
4.4. Definition. A homomorphism G > H of Lie groups is a group homo
morphism which is also differentiable. A homomorphism of C into GL(V) is said to be a representation of G in the vector space V.
It is clear that the composite of a homomorphism G1 > G2 of Lie groups
and another from G2 to G3 is a homomorphism from G1 to G3
4.5. Definition. A Lie subgroup H of a Lie group G is a Lie group H with
an injective homomorphism of H into G.
4.6. Remark. For any g E G, the (right) translation map G > G given by
x H xg is of course differentiable, being the composite of the inclusion G f
G x G given by g H (x, g) and the group operation. Its inverse is translation
by g1. Hence right (and similarly left) translations are diffeomorphisms.
4.7. Definition. Let G be a Lie group and M a differential manifold. An
action of G on M is a differentiable map G x M * M denoted (g, m) H gm such that gl (g2m) = (9192) (m) for all gl, g2 e G and rn E M and 1.m = m
for all m E M.
In Physics, the role of the Lie group is that of the symmetries of the
system.
Often the most important physical insight turns out to be the
intuition for the appropriate group of symmetries.
4.8. Examples.
1) The proper orthogonal group SO(3) acting on 1[83 and the group gen erated by it and translations (called the Euclidean motion group) are
the group of symmetries in the study of motion of rigid bodies.
2) The group of all linear transformations of R4 which leave the symmetric
bilinear form
((xl, x2, x3, x4), (yl, y2, y3, y4)) H xlyl + x2y2 + x3y3 + x4y4
invariant, is called the homogeneous Lorentz group. If we consider the
group generated by this group and translations, then it is called the
inhomogeneous Lorentz group. Both these groups act on the differen
tial manifold 1184. This is the symmetry group for the theory of special relativity.
Exercises
_{2}_{5}
In quantum physics, one is often interested in representations of G in
the projective unitary group (namely the group of unitary operators, modulo
scalars) of a Hilbert space, but we will not deal with them in this book.
Exercises
1) Which of the following are sheaves on
a) For every open set define F(U) to be the space of square integrable
functions on U.
b) T(U) is the set of Lebesgue measurable functions on U.
c) T(U) consists of continuous functions on U which are restrictions of
continuous functions on I[8n.
2) Show that the stalk at 0 of the sheaf of differentiable functions on
Rn, n > 1, is an infinitedimensional vector space over R. 3) Show that the etale space associated to the sheaf of differentiable func
tions on I[8 is not Hausdorff.
4) Show that any section of the sheaf A of continuous functions on a closed
set of a normal topological space X can be extended to a section over
the whole of X.
5) Determine for what values of az and c is the intersection of the hyper
plane E azx2 = c with the sphere E x? = 1, a closed submanifold of
Rn.
6) Let M be a differential manifold and f a differentiable function on
it.
Realise the open submanifold of M given by f
submanifold of M x R.
0 as a closed
7) Consider the map x H x2 of GL(2, IR) (resp. GL(2, C)) into itself and
find its image. Is the image a submanifold?
8) Show that the space of nonzero nilpotent (2, 2) matrices is a closed
submanifold of the space of nonzero matrices.
9) If G1, G2 are Lie groups, show that the product manifold G1 x G2 with
the direct product structure is also a Lie group.
10) Interpret the Jordan canonical form for matrices, as describing the or
bits under the action of GL(2, C) on the space M(2, C) of all matrices
given by g.A = gAg1. Determine which orbits are closed submani
folds.
Chapter 2
Differential Operators
We will now proceed to develop the formal machinery necessary to carry
the notions of differential calculus in the Euclidean space over to arbitrary
manifolds. The first step in this programme is to define differential operators
on manifolds. We deal only with linear differential operators even if we do
not say so explicitly each time. We will start with first order operators.
1. First Order Differential Operators
Let M be a differential manifold. We first define homogeneous first order
operators on the algebra of differentiable functions, taking as characteristic
example, an operator like
Df
Of
where coj are some differentiable functions on lR
_{o}_{r} _{o}_{n} _{a}_{n} _{o}_{p}_{e}_{n} _{s}_{u}_{b}_{s}_{e}_{t} _{U} _{o}_{f}
R n. One of the basic properties of such an operator (sometimes called the
Leibniz property) is
1.1.
D(fg) = (Df)g + f (Dg)
for any two differentiable functions f, g on U. A klinear homomorphism of
a kalgebra into itself satisfying the Leibniz property, is for this reason called
a derivation. Notice that a consequence of the definition is that D(1) = 0,
for D(1) = D(1.1) = D(1).1 + 1.D(1) = 2D(1). It follows that D(A) = 0 for
all A E k.
We propose to take the purely algebraic property 1.1 as the definition
of a linear homogeneous differential operator of order 1 on an arbitrary
27
_{2}_{8}
2. Differential Operators
manifold. We will now provide the justification for doing so.
Firstly, the algebraic condition implies that the operator D is local in
the following sense.
1.2. Proposition. If D is a linear operator on the Jfkalgebra of differen
tiable functions satisfying the Leibniz property, then the value of D f in any
open set V depends only on the restriction of f to V.
Proof. In fact, if f = g in an open neighbourhood N of a point x in V,
consider a differentiable function cp which is 1 in a smaller neighbourhood of
x and vanishes outside N. Then we clearly have cp(f  g) = 0. Applying
D and using 1.1 we get (Dcp) (f  g) + cpD(f  g) = 0. In particular, we
see that cpD(f  g) = 0 on N, proving that D(f  g) = D f  Dg = 0 in
a neighbourhood of x. Since x is an arbitrary point of V, our assertion is
proved.
Consequently, any map A(M) i A(M) which satisfies the Leibniz prop
erty (in particular, an operator of the form
_{W}_{i} _{a}_{o}_{)} _{i}_{n}_{d}_{u}_{c}_{e}_{s} _{a} _{s}_{h}_{e}_{a}_{f} _{h}_{o}_{m}_{o}_{}
morphism of A into itself, the homomorphism being one of JRvector spaces.
1.3. Proposition. Let U be an open submanifold of IR'n. If D : AU ; AU
is a sheaf homomorphism of JRvector spaces, satisfying the Leibniz rule, then
D is an operator of the form f + E cpti a for some differentiable functions
cpi on U.
Proof. Clearly, if D is to be of the form E cpi, then applying D to the
functions xi, we see that cpi ought to be Dxi. Replacing D by DE(Dxi)&
we deduce that it is enough to prove the following. If D is a sheaf derivation
such that Dxi = 0 for all i, then D is the zero homomorphism. Let then
a = (al,
, a,,,) be a point of U and f any differentiable function in a
Then f can be written as the sum of the constant
neighbourhood of a.
function f (a) and E(xi  ai)gi in some neighbourhood of a. Let us assume this for the moment. Now D f = E(xi  ai)Dgi in view of our assumption. But (xi  ai) vanishes at a, implying that (D f) (a) _{=} _{0}_{.} _{S}_{i}_{n}_{c}_{e} _{a} _{i}_{s} _{a}_{n}_{y} _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t}
in U, it follows that D f = 0, as was to be proved.
It remains to prove our assertion about the decomposition of f. Indeed
we have
f (x)  f (a) =
f
_{f}
i
7{ft
(tx + (1  t)a)}dt
_{a}_{x}_{i} f (tx + (1  t)a). dt (txi + (1 _{} _{t}_{)}_{a}_{i}_{)}_{d}_{t}
J(xi  ai)
f 1 _{a}_{x}_{Z} a _{f} _{(}_{t}_{x} _{+} (1  t)a)dt.
_{2}_{.}
Locally Free Sheaves and Vector Bundles
29
The above considerations motivate the following definition.
1.4. Definition. A homogeneous first order differential operator on a dif
ferential manifold M is a linear operator on A(M) satisfying the Leibniz
rule. Equivalently, it is a sheaf homomorphism A * A which satisfies the
Leibniz rule. A linear differential operator of order at most one on functions
is of the form f H D f + gyp. f where D is a homogeneous operator as above.
From the geometric point of view, a homogeneous first order operator is
called a vector field or an infinitesimal transformation. We will presently
explain this alternate terminology.
_{2}_{.} Locally Free Sheaves and Vector Bundles
The set T(M) of all homogeneous first order operators on M has some nice
structure. Firstly it forms a vector space over IR in an obvious way. In tact, if D1, D2 E T(M) then D1 + D2 is defined by
(DI + D2) (co) = Dlcp + D2W
for all cp E A(M). It is obvious that it is also a derivation. Moreover if
f E A(M) then f D defined by
(fD) (co) = fDco
is also a derivation, thus making T (M) an A(M)module. Thirdly, if D1, D2
are two such operators, then the operator [Dl, D2] defined by
[D1,D2](co) =
is also one such. For, if cp, 0 E A(M), then we have
[DI, D2](co.b) =
Dl((D2W)V) + o(D20)
D2((D1So)' + P(DI'))
= (Dl (D2co))'' + (D2(o) (Dl's)
+(DlW)(D2 ) +cp(Dr(D20))
(D2(Dicc)), 
(D2(p)(Dlb)  co(D2(Dl,))
= ([DI, D2]co)' + w([DI, D2] )
We will refer to the map (DI, D2) i [DI, D2] as the bracket operation.
Finally, since any D E T (M) may also be described as a sheaf homomor
phism of A into itself satisfying the Leibniz rule, it is clear that if V C U are
open subsets of M, a restriction map T(U) j T(V) may also be defined,
making the assignment to any U of T(U) a sheaf as well. This sheaf will be
denoted T.
_{3}_{0}
2. Differential Operators
2.1. Definition. A Lie algebra over a commutative ring k is a module V
over k with a kbilinear operation
which satisfies
(X,Y)'' IX, Y1
i) [X, X] = 0; ii) (Jacobi's identity) [X, [Y, Z]] + [Y, [Z, X]] + [Z, [X, Y]] = 0,
for all X, Y, Z E V. A homomorphism of a Lie algebra V into another Lie
algebra W is a klinear map f : V > W which satisfies
f ([X, Y]) _ [f (X) I f (Y)]
for all X, Y E V.
2.2. Examples.
1) Consider the n2dimensional vector space M(n, k) of (n, n) matrices
Define the bilinear map
with coefficients in a commutative ring k.
(X, Y)
XY  YX to be the bracket operation (using matrix mul
tiplication). Then it is a Lie algebra over k. More generally, any
(associative) algebra can be regarded as a Lie algebra by defining
[x, y] = xy  yx where on the right side we use the algebra multipli
cation. If V is a vector space of dimension n, the algebra End(V) can
be regarded as a Lie algebra and this is the abstract version of the
matrix Lie algebra.
2) We can use various subspaces of End(V) or M(n) which are closed
under the bracket operation and obtain Lie algebras. For example, if
b is a bilinear form on V, we may consider {X E End(V) : b(Xv, w) +
b(v, Xw) = 0 for every v, w E V}. It is easy to check that if X and Y
satisfy this condition, XY  YX also does.
3) Any vector space with the bracket operation defined by [v, w] = 0
gets a Lie algebra structure. A Lie algebra in which all the bracket
operations are 0 is called an abelian Lie algebra.
4) Let A be any associative algebra over k. Then the space of kderivations of A form a Lie algebra over k under the operation [D1.D2] = D1D2 
D2D1i for any two derivations D1, D2.
The relevance of this definition here is of course that the bracket oper
ation we defined above on the space of homogeneous first order operators,
endows it with the structure of a Lie algebra over R. Although T(M) is a
Lie algebra over R and is a module over A(M), it is not a Lie algebra over
2.
Locally Free Sheaves and Vector Bundles
_{3}_{1}
A(M) since the bracket operation we defined above is not A(M)bilinear.
In fact, we have
[Di,fD2](co) =
(fD2)(Di((p))
= D1 f D2cp + f Di (D2co)  f D2(Dico)
_{=} f [D1i D2])(co)
It is obvious that the restriction maps T(U) + T(V) are all Lie alge
bra homomorphisms so that the sheaf T is a sheaf of Lie algebras over R.
Besides, we now have the following situation. On the one hand, A and T
are sheaves on M and on the other T (U) is an A(U)module for every open
subset U of M. The module structure is compatible with the restriction
maps in an obvious sense. We recall the definition of a sheaf of Amodules,
already indicated in [Ch. 1, 2.7].
2.3. Definition. i) Let A be a sheaf of rings over a topological space X.
Let M be a sheaf of abelian groups over X with a structure of A(U)module
on M(U) for every open subset U of X. Then we say that M is a sheaf of
Amodules or that it is an Amodule, if
resuv(am) = (resuv a)(resuv(m))
for all a E A(U) and m E M(U) and open sets V C U.
ii) An Ahomomorphism of an Amodule M1 into another Amodule
.M2 is a homomorphism f of sheaves. of abelian groups such that the homo
morphisms f(U) : M1(U) > M2(U) are A(U)linear, for all open sets U
in X.
2.4. Examples.
1) With this definition, we see that if (M, A) is a differential manifold,
then T is an Amodule, besides being a sheaf of Lie algebras over R.
This sheaf will be called the tangent sheaf.
2) The direct sum A' of A with itself r times (where A is a sheaf of rings)
is obviously an Amodule.
3) If (M, A) is a differential manifold and Z C M is a closed set, one may
consider for each open subset U of M, the set of all elements of A(U)
which vanish on z fl U. This gives a sheaf ZZ which is clearly an
Amodule. This is called the ideal sheaf of Z in M.
The local structure of the sheaf T as an Amodule is quite simple. We have seen that if (U, x) is a coordinate system, the sheaf T j U is actually
isomorphic to A.n, the map (ai) H
ai
z2 providing such an isomorphism.
_{3}_{2}
2. Differential Operators
2.5. Definition. Let A be a sheaf of rings on a topological space X. An
Amodule M is said to be locally free of rank r if every x E X has a neigh
bourhood U such that the restriction of M to U is isomorphic to A"I U as
an AI Umodule.
With this definition, our observation above implies that the tangent
sheaf of a differential manifold is locally free as an Amodule, where A is
the sheaf of differentiable functions.
2.6. Example. Let N be a closed submanifold of a differential manifold M.
We defined in 2.4, Example 3) the sheaf of ideals I by the prescription
1(U) _ { f E A(U) : f (x) = 0 for all x c U fl N}. If N has dimension n 1,
then this sheaf is a locally free Amodule of rank 1.
In order to see this,
first observe that this being a local statement, we may assume that M is
the unit ball in 118' and that N is the closed submanifold given by xn = 0.
If f is a function vanishing on N, then it can be written as xn.g. In fact,
we have
f (XI,
, xn) _{_}
1
_{'} _{f}_{(}_{x}_{l}_{,}
10
f1
, txn)dt = xn /
_{9}_{f} _{(}_{x}_{i}_{,}
, txn)dt.
In other words, the ideal of functions vanishing on N is a principal ideal
generated by xn.
Any function f which generates the ideal of functions vanishing on N, can be written as xn.g with g nonvanishing. This implies that at any point
of N, the function  = g + xn a does not vanish at any point of N. In
other words, a function f is a generator of the ideal at 0 if and only if it
vanishes on N and at least one of the partial derivatives of f is nonzero at 0.
2.7. Exercise. Show that the Rlinear map of the maximal ideal M of
functions vanishing at 0 into R' taking f to ((
)o,
, (;xL)o) induces an
isomorphism of M/M2 onto R'. Conclude that if r > 1, then the ideal
sheaf M of 0 is not locally free.
2.8. Definition. Let A be a constant sheaf of rings. Then any locally free
sheaf of Amodules is called a local system.
Let (M, A) be a differential manifold. Since sections of A are simply
differentiable functions on U, it is natural to call sections of the Amodule
A' = = EDT A, systems of functions or vectorvalued functions. In the general
case of a locally free sheaf E, let us discuss whether we can think of sections
as some sort of functions. Locally it is indeed possible since we have assumed
that £ is locally isomorphic to AT. If x E M, and Mx is the ideal of A.
consisting of germs of functions at x which vanish at x, one may consider
2.
Locally liee Sheaves and Vector Bundles
_{3}_{3}
for any f E Ax its image in AxI.AA,,. The natural evaluation map Ax > R
taking any f to f (x), gives an isomorphism of Ax/.M., with R. Therefore one
may think of the evaluation map as taking the image off in Ax/Mx. Guided
by this fact, we may take the 118vector space £x/.Mx£x to be the space in
which the sections of £ take values at the point x E M. The (important)
difference between the case of A and the general case of a locally free sheaf, is
that the vector space associated to x E M, namely Ex =
depends
on the point x E M. In other words, there is no natural isomorphism of
these vector spaces at two different points. Consider the set union E of all
these sets, namely UXEM Ex. This comes with a natural map 7r into M,
with 7r1(x) = E. For any x E M there exists an open neighbourhood U
such that £ J U is isomorphic to A', so that 7r1(U) may be identified with
U x 1[8' and the map it1(U) > U with the projection U x R' > U. In
particular, the set 7r1 (U) can be provided with the differential structure of
the product. This is obviously independent of the isomorphism £JU + A'
chosen and hence may be patched together to yield a differential structure
on E. It is easy to see that the topology we have introduced is Hausdorff and
that it admits a countable base for open sets. Now we have the following
structures on E.
a) E is a differential manifold.
b) 7r : E * M is a differentiable map.
c) For any x E M, there exist an open neighbourhood U of x and a
diffeomorphism 7r1(U) > U x JR such that it becomes the projection
U x W * U following this isomorphism.
d) There is a structure of a vector space on each fibre 7r1(x) for every
x E M, which is compatible with the isomorphism above. This means that if we identify 7r1(x) with 118' using the local isomorphism in c)
above, then the identification is a linear isomorphism.
2.9. Definition. A differentiable map 7r : E ; M satisfying a)  d) above,
is called a differentiable vector bundle of rank r. A homomorphism of a
vector bundle E into F is a differentiable map E * F which makes the
diagram
E 
 
F 
M 
commutative such that the induced maps on fibres are all linear.
The isomorphism of the type described in c) above is referred to as a
local trivialisation of the bundle E.
_{3}_{4}
2. Differential Operators
We have associated, to any locally free sheaf E of Amodules, a differ
entiable vector bundle E + M. Conversely, if it : E  M is a differen
tiable vector bundle, then the sheaf of differentiable sections of it is a locally
free sheaf of Amodules. Moreover, if F is another locally free sheaf of A
modules with associated vector bundle F, then there is a natural bijection
between the set of Alinear sheaf homomorphisms E * F and the set of
vector bundle homomorphisms E * F. Thus one may use the notions of
`locally free sheaf' and `differentiable vector bundle' interchangeably.
2.10. Remark. One has however to guard against the following possible
confusion. A subbundle of E is a vector bundle F together with a homomor
phism F * E which is injective on all fibres.
It gives rise to an injective
Ahomomorphism of F into E, namely an Asubsheaf of E. Conversely, the
inclusion of an Amodule F in E gives rise to a homomorphism F into E,
but the latter need not be injective on all fibres.
2.11. Exercise. Consider the inclusion of the ideal sheaf of any point in R
in the sheaf A. Show that the corresponding homomorphism at the vector
bundle level is not injective on all fibres.
If cp : M + M' is a differentiable map and E is a differentiable vector
bundle on M', then one can define a differentiable vector bundle cp*E called
the pullback of E as follows. Take the subspace of M x E defined by
cp*E = {(m, x) E M x E : cp(m) = 7r(x)l.
It is obvious that it is Hausdorff and admits a countable base for open sets. This subspace comes with two natural maps, namely, ir' _{:} _{c}_{p}_{*}_{E} _{}_{i} _{M} _{g}_{i}_{v}_{e}_{n}
by lr'(m, x) = m and cp : cp*E + E given by cp(m, x) = x. If U is an open set over which E is trivial and V = cp1(U), then 7r'1(V) can be identified
with V x R1 so that cp*E is a differential manifold, with respect to which
7r' is differentiable. Clearly the fibre 7ri1(m) over m E M can be identified with the fibre 1r1(cp(m)) and hence has a natural vector space structure. It is now easy to verify that ir' : cp*E * M satisfies the conditions a) _{} _{d}_{)} _{a}_{n}_{d}
hence cp*E is a vector bundle.
2.12. Definition. The vector bundle cp*E defined above is called the pull
back of the vector bundle E by the map cp _{:} _{M} _{}_{}_{}_{>} _{M}_{.} _{F}_{o}_{r} _{e}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{y} _{d}_{i}_{f}_{f}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{} tiable section s of E one can define a section of cp*s of cp*E again called the
pullback of s in such a way that
c (c *s(m)) = s((p(m))
forallmEM.
Suppose E is a locally free sheaf of Amodules on M' and cp is a dif ferentiable map M p M'. Then the inverse image cp1AM' _{a}_{s} _{d}_{e}_{f}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{d} _{i}_{n}
2.
Locally Free Sheaves and Vector Bundles
_{3}_{5}
Chapter 1, 2.3 is a sheaf of algebras over M. The inverse image co _{'} _{(}_{£}_{)} _{i}_{s} _{n}_{o}_{t}
a sheaf of AMmodules but only a locally free sheaf of cp (AMA)modules. The companion map of cp, namely the map cp _{:} _{c}_{p}_{}_{'}_{(}_{A}_{m}_{'}_{)} _{}_{}_{;} _{A}_{M} _{m}_{a}_{y} _{b}_{e}
used to define cp*£ as cp1£ (& _{W}_{_}_{J}_{(}_{A}_{1}_{1}_{'}_{)} AM, where AM is considered as a
sheaf of cp'AMAmodules via cp. With this definition it is easy to see that
the vector bundle associated to cp*£ can be canonically identified with the
pullback cp*E of the vector bundle E associated to £.
2.13. Remarks.
1) All the constructions which we have made above are also valid for locally
free sheaves of AM ® (Cmodules. The corresponding vector bundles
are bundles of vector spaces over C. If E is a complex vector bundle,
one can define r by setting E = E as a differential manifold but
changing the vector space structure on the fibres of E by redefining
multiplication by i =
real vector bundle E one can associate to it a complex vector bundle
as multiplication by i in E. Given any
EC by tensoring with G. Of course in such a case, we have a canonical
isomorphism of EC with E.
2) We refer to complex vector bundles of rank 1 as line bundles. Real
vector bundles of rank 1 are not that interesting. In fact, if L is one
such, then consider the relation given by declaring two points v, v' of
L to be equivalent if there exists a positive real number a such that
v' = av. Then the quotient space maps onto M and has precisely two
points on each fibre. In view of the local triviality of the line bundle,
the quotient is easily seen to be a twosheeted (etale) covering space
M' of M. If M is simply connected, this covering consists therefore of
two copies of M. Choosing one of them is equivalent to choosing for
all m E M, one of the components of Lm, \ {0}, where Lm, is the fibre
of L at in. We may call elements of that component positive vectors.
Local trivialisation of L is equivalent to the data consisting of an
open covering {Ui} and sections si on each Uj which are everywhere
nonzero. We may in the above situation, actually choose positive
sections s,, i.e. sections whose values are in the chosen component in
the fibre.
We may then take a partition of unity {cpj} for the covering and
get a global everywhere nonzero section E cpisi of L. This shows that
L is globally trivial. This argument actually shows that even if M
were not simply connected, we can pull back L to the twosheeted
covering M' and trivialise it on M. 3) If M is a closed submanifold of Rn of dimension n  1, then we have,
remarked already in (2.6) that its ideal sheaf is a locally free Amodule
_{3}_{6}
2. Differential Operators
_{o}_{f} _{r}_{a}_{n}_{k} _{1}_{.}
a section which generates the local ideal everywhere, that is to say,
there is a function f which vanishes precisely on M and generates the
ideal sheaf locally at all points.
By 2) this sheaf is globally trivial.
Therefore there is
Let us get back to our sheaf T, the tangent sheaf of M. Applying the
above considerations to it, we get a vector bundle, which is called the tangent
bundle T. For any x E M, the fibre over x is called the tangent space at
x. Elements of this space are called tangent vectors at x. A differentiable
section of this vector bundle may therefore be called a vector field and thus the concept of a homogeneous differential operator of first order and that of
a vector field are essentially equivalent.
The tangent space at a point x E M is thus the quotient space Tx/Mx2.
If X is a germ of a vector field at x then the map f i, X f induces a
derivation of the Ralgebra Ax. The map f H (Xf)(x) gives rise to a map
t : Ax * JR which is a derivation in the sense that
t(fg) = (tf)g(x) + f(x)t(g)
for all f, g E Ax. By this correspondence, one easily verifies that the tangent
space at x can be identified with the set of linear maps Ax j JR satisfying
the above condition.
In the case when M = IR1, or more abstractly a vector space V of
dimension n, the tangent bundle is trivial. The tangent space at any point
v E V can be identified with the vector space itself. In fact, we associate to
any x E V the derivation a, :,4,, + R given by f (x) + limt_,o f ^{(}^{x}^{+}^{t}^{v}^{)}^{}^{f} ^{(}^{x}^{)} If N is a submanifold of V, then the tangent bundle of N is a subbundle of
the trivial bundle N x V. Thus the tangent space at any point P E N is
a subspace of V. We visualise this geometrically as the coset space of this
subspace in V which contains P. In other words, the geometric tangent space
is then the space parallel to the abstract tangent space, passing through P.
t
2.14. Exercise. If a submanifold N of lR'z is given by f = 0 where f is
a differentiable function with the property that at least one of the partial
2.
Locally Free Sheaves and Vector Bundles
_{3}_{7}
derivatives of f is nonzero at every point of N, write down the equation of
the tangent space at a point n E N.
2.15. Differential of a map.
If cp : M > M' is a differentiable map of a manifold M into M' and t is a tangent vector at m E M, then one can define a tangent vector W(t)
at m' = cp(m), by setting cp(t)(f) = t(f o cp) for all f E A,,,,,. This defines
a linear map T, (M) > T,, (M') called the differential of W. The tangent
space at m is to be thought of as the linear approximation of M near m
and the differential of cp as the linear approximation of the map cp. Globally
speaking, the differential gives a vector bundle homomorphism of TM into
cp* (TM,) , or what is the same, a sheaf homomorphism of TM into cp* (TM,) _{.}
This homomorphism is usually denoted by dcp. Occasionally, we may write
cp for this differential as well.
If (U, x) (resp. (V, y)) is a coordinate system in M (resp. M'), such that
cp(x) = y and cp(U) C V, then cp is given by functions cpy(x1,
_{,} _{x}_{,}_{,}_{)}_{.} _{T}_{h}_{e}_{n}
its differential takes
to the vector at W(x) which takes the coordinate
functions yj to axk (cpj (x)). Hence we deduce that the differential of cp maps
to
ask (cps (x)) yj .
In other words, the matrix of the linear map
T > Ta(x) with respect to the standard bases, is given by AZj _{_} This matrix is called the Jacobian of the map W.
If f is a differentiable function, namely a differentiable map M > R,
then df is thus a homomorphism TM > f*(TR). But TT is a trivial bundle
_{(}_{c}_{p}_{s} _{)}_{.}
since the vector field a forms a basis for the tangent spaces at all points
of R. Hence df may be regarded as a homomorphism of TM into the trivial
bundle of rank 1, or what is the same, a section of the dual vector bundle.
This may simply be called the differential of f.
2.16. Normal bundle.
If f : N + M is a differentiable map such that the differential of f is
injective at all points of N, then the differential of f, namely the homomor
phism TN 3 f *TM, is a subbundle inclusion. The cokernel of this is called
the normal bundle of N in M. Thus we have the exact sequence of vector
bundles:
0 + TN  f*(TM) +Nor(N,M)  0.
Under this assumption, the implicit function theorem assures us of the
existence of a local coordinate system (U, x) at a point n E N and a local
coordinate system (V, y) at f (n) such that f IU is injective and f (U) C V
is given by the vanishing of some of the coordinates, say yl,
tangent space to N is freely generated by aya1 ,
, y,
The
_{T}_{.}
TY49
,
_{3}_{8}
2. Differential Operators
If in addition f is injective, it follows that N is a manifold immersed in
M. In that case, the notion of normal bundle is more geometric. Suppose
now that N is a closed submanifold of R. Then the tangent space at
P E N is a subspace of Jn, and the normal space is a quotient. But using
the Euclidean metric on IEBn, we may identify this quotient with a subspace as
well. We may visualise it as the coset of this latter space, passing through P.
2.17. Exercises.
1) Let N be a submanifold of R' given by f = 0 as in 2.14. Write down
the equation of the normal space at any point n E N.
2) If M is a closed submanifold of JRn of dimension n  1, show that its
normal bundle is trivial.
On the other hand, the differential of f may even be an isomorphism at
all points, without the map f being
2.18. Definition. If the differential of f : N + M is an isomorphism at all
points of N, we call it an etale map.
2.19. Example. The map t , exp(it) of JR * S' is an etale map.
If an etale map is also injective, it follows from the definition that it is
an inclusion of an open submanifold.
3. Flow of a Vector Field
A geometric way of looking upon differentiation in RI is the following. Sup
pose given a vector a = (al,
mation Cot : (x,,
, an). For any t E R, consider the transfor
, xn + tan) of RI into itself. This is
, x,,,) ' (x, + tat,
a homomorphism of the additive group R into the group of diffeomorphisms
of Rn. For any differentiable function f on R', define
(Dd(f))(x) = t o ^{f}^{(}^{c}^{t}^{(}^{x}^{)}^{)} ^{} ^{f}^{(}^{x}^{)}
t
_{3}_{.}
Flow of a Vector Field
_{3}_{9}
This exists and in fact defines the differential operator > az axi _{.} _{W}_{e} _{m}_{a}_{y}
generalise this idea to an arbitrary differential manifold. Let (cot), t E II8, be
a oneparameter group of diffeomorphisms of M in the sense that
i) the map IE8 x M * M given by (t, x) + cot(x) is differentiable.
ii) the map coo : M  M is the identity.
iii) cot o cot' = cot+t' for all t, t' E R.
Then we may define differentiation of functions f with respect to the
above data by setting
_{(}_{X}_{w}_{f}_{)}_{(}_{x}_{)} _{=} _{l} o f(cot(x))  f(x)
t
It is easy to see that Xw is indeed a homogeneous first order operator (i.e. a
vector field). In fact, the linearity of X. is obvious, while we have for every
f, g c A(M),
(Xw(fg))(x)
= limo f
_{+} _{l}_{i}_{m}_{t}_{}_{,}_{o} _{g}_{(}_{x}_{)}
(cot(x))g(wt(x))g(x)
(Wt (At f x
= f (x)(Xwg)(x) +g(x)(Xwf)(x)
3.1. Examples.
1) Take M=Randcpt(x)=x+tforallt,xER.
2) Take M = R and cot(x) = etx, for all t, x E R.
In these two cases, we see that the associated operators are respec
tively dx and x x . 3) Again take M = R and consider the function cot(x) = _{i} tx. It is easy to
see formally that cot o cot' = cot+ti But, for any given x
only defined for t < 1/x. We are dealing here with a local 1parameter
group of local automorphisms. In other words, for any x there exist a neighbourhood U and e > 0, such that Sot(y) is defined for all I ti < e
and y E U. The group condition iii) above is satisfied to the extent
_{i}_{t} _{m}_{a}_{k}_{e}_{s} _{s}_{e}_{n}_{s}_{e}_{.}
meaningful.
0, (pt (x) is
But notice that the associated vector field is still
3.2. Exercises.
1) Compute the vector field given in Example 3) above.
2) Determine the vector field given by the oneparameter group (cot) whose
action on 1[82 is given by
cot(v, w) = (cos(t)v + sin(t)w,  sin(t)v + cos(t)w).
With this extended notion we have a converse.
_{4}_{0}
2. Differential Operators
3.3. Theorem. Let X be a vector field on a differential manifold M. Then
for every x E M, there exist an open neighbourhood U of x, c > 0, and maps _{c}_{p}_{t} : U + M for all Itl < E, satisfying:
i) the map (e, E) x U + M given by (t, y) > Wt (y) is differentiable.
ii) the map cpo : U * M is the inclusion.
_{i}_{i}_{i}_{)} _{(}_{c}_{p}_{t}_{o}
t,) (y) = cot+t, (y) for all ItI, I t'J < e and y E M such that lt+t'l < E
and y, cot' (y) are in U.
iv)
X.
Proof. Since X,, and X are both vector fields, the assertion is purely local and so we may replace M by an open set in R' and prove the existence of
maps cpt such that XWxi = Xxi for all i. This reduces our task to showing
the following. Given differentiable functions ai, we need to find functions
cp(t, x) : (E, E) X U  1R
for some neighbourhood U of a given point such that
lim
t
cpz(t,)
 x2
= ai(x),
for all i.
^{a} (Pi (t, x) = lim
t'+O
t'o
cpi (t' + t, x)  cpi (t, x)
_{t}_{'}
coi(t', V(t, x))  Vi (t, x)
_{t}_{'}
ai(co(t, x)).
We also have the initial condition cpi (0, x) = xi. So we start with this equa
tion and note that it has a unique solution in a neighbourhood of (0, x) in
Il8 x IR". To prove that iii) is satisfied, we use the uniqueness of the solu
tion. In fact, both cp(t+t', x) and cp(t, cp(t', x)) are solutions of the equation x) = ai (0 (t, x)) with the initial condition _{4}_{'}_{i} _{(}_{0}_{,} _{x}_{)} _{=} _{c}_{p}_{i} _{(}_{t}_{'}_{,} _{x}_{)}_{.} _{F}_{i}_{n}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{y} equation iv) is obvious from the construction.
_{a}_{t}
From this point of view, the term `infinitesimal transformation' is an
appropriate alternative to that of a `vector field'.
3.4. Definition. The oneparameter group associated to a vector field is
called the flow of the vector field.
_{3}_{.}
Flow of a Vector Field
_{4}_{1}
z
y 
x
3.5. Remarks.
Ot(X)
1) Although a vector field gives rise in general only to a local 1parameter
group, a limited globalization is possible. Indeed, given a compact set K C M, we can define Wt in a neighbourhood of K for all Itl < e. For, by Theorem 3.3 this can be done in a neighbourhood of every point of K. Since K can be covered by finitely many of these neighbourhoods, cpt(y) are defined in the same open set Its < e for small enough e, and
for y in a neighbourhood of K. In particular, if M is itself compact,
then cot is defined as an automorphism of M for all Itl < e, and hence
by iteration, we get in this case, a global flow.
2) It is obvious that if X depends differentiably on some parameters s, then
the oneparameter group is defined for small values of the parameters and depends differentiably on them.
3.6. Definition. A vector field which gives rise to a global flow is said to
be complete.
We have seen above that any vector field on a compact manifold is
complete. It is easily seen that the vector field x2 d. on R is not complete.
3.7. Exercise. Let M be a compact manifold and X a vector field.
m E M, determine when the restriction of X to the open submanifold
M \ {m} is complete.
If
3.8. Definition. If X is a vector field and (cot) the flow corresponding to
it, the orbit of a point m E M under cot, namely the map t H cot(m), is
called an integral curve for X.
3.9. Remark. The integral curve of a vector field X has the property that
the differential of this map at t maps A to Xt(,,,t). This characterises the
curve. In particular, the curve degenerates to a constant map if and only if
Xm, = 0. If X is 0 at a point m, we say that m is a singularity of X. Our
_{4}_{2}
2. Differential Operators
remark amounts to saying that the oneparameter group cot fixes a point m if and only if m is a singularity of X.
Suppose that m is not a singularity. Then by continuity, we see that
Xx 0 0 for all x in a neighbourhood of m. Now the integral curve has
injective differential at all points near 0 and hence it is an immersed manifold
of dimension 1. Actually there is a local coordinate system (U, x) in which
X is given by al . Indeed, suppose X =
ai axti , where by our assumption
one of the ai's, say al, is nonzero. Consider the coordinate system given by
(yi,
, y,,,) where yi = coi(xi, 0, x2,
, xn). We now compute the partial
derivatives a at m given by xi = 0 for all is
_{a}_{x}_{i} _{=} ai(0);
yi
axe
_{=} _{6}
for j > 2.
_{T}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{s}_{h}_{o}_{w}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{(}_{y}_{i}_{,}
_{,} yn) is a coordinate system in a neighbourhood of
m. It is easy to see that this coordinate system serves the purpose.
Invariant vector fields.
We wish to study now vector fields on a Lie group.
3.10. Definition. Suppose M is differential manifold and a Lie group G
acts on it. Then a vector field X on M is said to be invariant under the
action if the transform of X by any element of G is the same as X, that
is to say, for every m E M and g E G, Xg,,.,, is the image of the vector X,,,,
under the differential at m of the map x H gx of M into itself.
From the uniqueness of the flow corresponding to a vector field, we deduce that if the flow of X is cot, then the flow corresponding to gX is
given by't(m) = gcot(gim). Therefore, if X is invariant under G, then
the flows
for all t.
t and cot are the same, so that cot commutes with the action of G
Notice also that from the definition of Lie brackets of vector fields it
follows that if X and Y are Ginvariant, then [X, Y] is also invariant. In
particular, the vector space of invariant vector fields is actually a Lie algebra.
We have already remarked that G acts on itself by left translations and so
left invariant vector fields of a Lie group form a Lie algebra over JR.
3.11. Definition. Let G be a connected Lie group. The Lie algebra of
vector f ields which are left invariant (i.e. invariant under left translation by
elements of G) is called the Lie algebra of G, and is often denoted by Lie(G)
or B.
3. Flow of a Vector Field
_{4}_{3}
3.12. Remark. There is a natural linear map of g into the tangent space
T1(G) at 1, given by X > X1. It is an isomorphism and the inverse as
sociates to any vector v E T1(G), the vector field X given by X9 = Lg (v),
where L9 denotes the differential at 1 of the left translation by g. So g is a
Lie algebra of dimension n = dim(G).
3.13. Examples.
1) The left invariant vector fields on the additive Lie group R are of the
form a dt , a E R. Hence the Lie algebra of R is canonically isomorphic to the abelian Lie algebra R. In the same way, if we take the additive
Lie group underlying a vector space V, then its Lie algebra is identified
with the abelian Lie algebra V.
2) On the other hand, if we take the multiplicative group R' or its con
nected component IIg+ containing 1, then the invariant vector fields
are scalar multiples of ti. Thus its Lie algebra is also the abelian Lie
algebra R.
3) The Lie algebra of the group GL(n, R) or the connected component
GL(n,1 )+ containing 1, can be identified with M(n,R). It is clear
that the tangent space at 1 of this open submanifold is canonically
M(n) as a vector space. It only remains to compute the Lie algebra
structure. Denote by xij the function which associates to any matrix
A its (i, j)th coefficient. Let A E M(n) and X be the left invariant vec
tor field on GL(n) such that X1(xij) = Aij. For any s E GL(n,R)+,
we have X9(xij) = Xl(xij o Ls), where LS is left translation by s.
Hence the function Xxij is given by s H >k xik(S)Xlxkj = > xikAkj
If Y is any left invariant vector field with Yl (xij) = Bij, then we
have (XY  YX)1(xij) = Xi(Yxij) _{}
Y1(Xxij) = X1(>xikBkj) 
Y1 (E xikAkj) = E AikBkj  E BikAkj = (AB  BA)ij. In other
words, if we identify left invariant vector fields on GL(n) with M(n),
then the Lie bracket is given by the bracket associated with the mul
tiplication in the matrix algebra.
3.14. Exercises.
1) Show that the left invariant vector fields on GL(n) are generated by
Ep,q =
xq,j
xi,p
i'q
and that the right invariant vector fields by Fp,q =
2) Deduce that Ep,q and Fr,9 commute. Explain this in terms of their
flows.
The integral curve through 1 of a left invariant vector field, namely _{t} _{}_{} cpt(1), is actually a homomorphism of the group R into G. In fact,
_{4}_{4}
2. Differential Operators
left invariance of X implies that for every g E G, the automorphism x 4
_{g}_{c}_{p}_{t}_{(}_{x}_{)} _{i}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{a}_{m}_{e} _{a}_{s} _{x}
cot(cOt'(1)) = cOt+t'(1)
cpt(gx). Taking g = cpt'(1), we get cpt,(1)cpt(1) _
3.15. Definition. A differentiable group homomorphism of the Lie group
JR into a Lie group G is called a oneparameter group .
_{I}_{f} _{p} _{:} I[8 > G is a 1parameter group, then p(at) gives a vector at 1
which in turn defines a left invariant vector field X. It is clear that p gives
an integral curve for X.
3.16. Remarks.
1) If the vector field X is 0, the corresponding oneparameter group is
the constant homomorphism t > 1.
Even if X is not 0, the map
_{t} cpt(1) mentioned above, may not be injective. If we take G = _{S}_{l} _{=} _{{}_{(}_{x}_{,} _{y}_{)} _{E} _{1}_{1}_{8}_{2} : x2 + y2 = 1}, then the left invariant vector fields
form a 1dimensional vector space generated by X = x y  ya . The
(cos at, sin at) is easily computed to
image of at under the map t
be aX. Hence it is the oneparameter group of the vector field aX.
Its kernel is the subgroup ^{2}^{a} Z of R.
2) Also the image of a oneparameter group is not in general closed. For
example, consider the case when G = S1 x S' and X = (at , _{a}_{t}_{)}_{.}
Then the induced oneparameter group is given by
t H ((cost, sin t), (cos at, sin at) ).
This is a closed submanifold if and only if a is rational. See the figure
in [Ch. 1, 3.17].
3) If g E G, then (the differential of) the inner automorphism x H gxg1
of G takes the vector field X to another left invariant vector field which
we may denote gXg1. If t > c(t) is the flow of X, then the flow of gXg1 is given by t H gc(t)g1.
3.17. Definition. The representation of a Lie group G into GL(g) which
associates to g E G the automorphism Ad(g) = X
adjoint representation of G.
_{g}_{X}_{g}_{}_{1} _{i}_{s} _{c}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{e}_{d} _{t}_{h}_{e}
3.18. Remark. The linear automorphism Ad(g) is actually an automor
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