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GLOBAL SERVICE TRAINING

374F / 390F Hydraulic Excavator


TIER 4 FINAL ENGINE AND SUPPORT SYSTEMS
MODULE 3 - TEXT REFERENCE

SERV1994

CAT, CATERPILLAR, their respective logos, ACERT, “Caterpillar Yellow” and the POWER EDGE
trade dress, as well as corporate and product identity used herein, are trademarks of Caterpillar
and may not be used without permission. © 2014 Caterpillar Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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SERV1994 - 05/14 -2- Module 3 - Tier 4 Final Engine and Support Systems

TABLE OF CONTENTS
SAFETY BRIEFING��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 3
PURPOSE����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 4
REASON������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 5
COMPETENCY STATEMENT����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 6
LEARNING OUTCOMES������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 7
C15 AND C18 ACERT™ TECHNOLOGY TIER 4 FINAL ENGINES������������������������������������������� 8
TIER 4 FINAL ENGINE ELECTRICAL SYSTEM����������������������������������������������������������������������� 13
C15 / C18 ENGINE MAJOR COMPONENT IDENTIFICATION������������������������������������������������ 20
C15 / C18 ENGINE SENSORS AND SERVICE POINTS��������������������������������������������������������� 24
374F / 390F HYDRAULIC EXCAVATOR COOLING SYSTEMS����������������������������������������������� 30
COMPONENT IDENTIFICATION - ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM�������������������������������������������� 32
C15 / C18 ENGINE - MEUI FUEL SYSTEM����������������������������������������������������������������������������� 36
COMPONENT IDENTIFICATION - ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM��������������������������������������������������� 38
ENGINE INTAKE AIR AND EXHAUST SYSTEMS�������������������������������������������������������������������� 40
COMPONENT IDENTIFICATION - ENGINE INTAKE AIR AND SYSTEM�������������������������������� 42
PURPOSE REVIEW������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 48
REASON REVIEW�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 49
COMPETENCY STATEMENT REVIEW������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 50
LEARNING OUTCOMES REVIEW������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 51
MODULE CONCLUSION���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 52

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -3- Module 3 - Tier 4 Final Engine and Support Systems

SAFETY BRIEFING
• Emergency Phone Numbers
• First Aid Responders
• Location of Exits
• Location of Fire Extinguisher
• Room Alerts or Hazards
• Designated Location for Evacuation
• Storm Shelter
• Hazardous Material

Safely Home. Everyone. Every Day.™

3
SAFETY BRIEFING

Before beginning this module, the following topics will be reviewed:


• Emergency Phone Numbers
• First Aid Responders
• Location of Exits
• Location of Fire Extinguisher
• Room Alerts or Hazards
• Designated Location for Evacuation
• Storm Shelter
• Hazardous Material

Safely Home. Everyone. Every Day.™

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -4- Module 3 - Tier 4 Final Engine and Support Systems

PURPOSE

This module is designed to ensure technicians can


locate, identify, and describe the function of all major
components and service points of the C15 and C18
Tier 4 Final engines and their supporting fuel, cooling,
and air systems, and to demonstrate knowledge of the
operational strategies used in these systems.

4
PURPOSE

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -5- Module 3 - Tier 4 Final Engine and Support Systems

REASON

It is necessary for technicians to identify system


components and service points and demonstrate
knowledge of the C15 and C18 Tier 4 Final engines
and support systems in order to troubleshoot engine
and support systems components. This will ensure
customers experience quick, accurate resolutions of
engine or machine performance problems.

5
REASON

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COMPETENCY STATEMENT

At the completion of this training session, participants


will be able to locate, identify, and describe the function
of all major components and service points of the C15
and C18 Tier 4 Final engines and support systems
during lab exercises. Participants will also be able
to demonstrate knowledge of basic engine operation
and describe the flow of fuel, coolant, and air through
the related engine support and emissions systems
during a classroom post-assessment with at least 80%
accuracy.

6
COMPETENCY STATEMENT

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -7- Module 3 - Tier 4 Final Engine and Support Systems

LEARNING OUTCOMES

Upon completion of this 374F/390F Hydraulic


Excavator Tier 4 Final Engine and Support Systems
module, participants will be able to:
• Locate, identify, and describe the functionality of all
C15 and C18 Tier 4 Final engine and support systems
components and service points.
• Describe the flow of fuel, coolant, and air through the
C15 and C18 Tier 4 Final engine, emissions, and support
systems.

7
LEARNING OUTCOMES

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -8- Module 3 - Tier 4 Final Engine and Support Systems

4 2

3
1

8
C15 AND C18 ACERT™ TECHNOLOGY TIER 4 FINAL ENGINES

• Illustration showing the C15 The C15 and C18 ACERT technology Tier 4 Final engines and emissions
ACERT technology engine and components installed in the 374F and 390F Hydraulic Excavators are identified as:
the Tier 4 Final emissions system
components • Cat ACERT technology Tier 4 Final engine (1)
• Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) (2)
• Defines the separation of the two • Cat Clean Emissions Module (CEM) electronics panel (3)
systems (engine and emissions)
• Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Catalyst (4)
• The C18 ACERT technology Tier • Pump Electronics Tank Unit (PETU) (5)
4 Final engine and emissions
system has a similar arrangement These engines and emissions system components attached to them will be
of engine and emissions discussed in this module. The CEM, DPF, SCR, and PETU will be discussed in
components. detail in the Emissions System module of this training package.

The C15 and C18 ACERT technology Tier 4 Final engines used in the 374F and
390F Hydraulic Excavators have the same arrangement of engine and attached
emissions system components. Some component locations are different between
the two machines, however, component functionality is the same. The differences
between these two engines will be discussed in detail later in this module.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -9- Module 3 - Tier 4 Final Engine and Support Systems

9
C15 Engine in the 374F Hydraulic Excavator

• Overview of the C15 ACERT The 374F Hydraulic Excavator is powered by the Cat C15 ACERT Technology
technology Tier 4 Final engine engine. This Tier 4 Final electronic engine is equipped with a Mechanical
specifications and features: Electronic Unit Injector (MEUI) fuel system, including a mechanical fuel transfer
-- In-line six-cylinder arrangement pump and six MEUI injectors. The Cat C15 engine is an in-line six-cylinder
arrangement with a displacement of 15 liters.
-- High efficiency turbocharger
-- ATAAC The engine is equipped with a turbocharger that is controlled by a balance valve,
-- A4:E4 V3.1 Engine ECM which provides higher boost over a wide range, improving engine response and
-- Rated at 367 net kW (492 net peak torque, as well as outstanding low-end performance. The 374F is also
horsepower) at 1600 rpm equipped with an updated Air to Air AfterCooler (ATAAC) intake air system. The
engine is electronically controlled using a fuel cooled A4:E4 V3.1 ECM.
• C15 engine, with the CEM meets:
The C15 is rated at 367 net kW (492 net horsepower) at 1600 rpm. The C15
-- U.S. EPA Tier 4 Final emission ACERT technology Tier 4 Final engine, along with the CEM, meets the U.S. EPA
standards Tier 4 Final emission standards, the EU Stage IV, and the MLIT Step 4 emission
-- EU Stage 4 emission standards standards for Japan.
-- MLIT Step 4 emission
standards for Japan Most maintenance and service points are located on top of the engine or on the
right side of the engine, which faces the front of the engine compartment. Access
• Most maintenance and service to the starter, engine oil drain, and other lower engine service points is more easily
points located on top or on the accomplished by removing the engine access panels beneath the upper structure.
right side of engine

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Engine oil and filter change intervals are set at 500 hours, using CJ4 engine oil.
However, engine load factor, sulfur levels in the fuel, oil quality, and altitude may
negatively impact the oil change interval. Regular engine oil samplings (S•O•S)
should be performed to confirm oil cleanliness.

A hydraulic cooling fan with reversing valve is standard on the 374F. The hydraulic
fan draws air through the radiator, the hydraulic oil cooler, the air conditioning
condenser, the fuel cooler, and the Air To Air AfterCooler (ATAAC).

Diesel Bio-Fuel, up to B20 (20% mixture), is approved for use in the engine.

The C15 engine specifications for the 374F Hydraulic Excavator are:
• Serial number prefix: ENG
• Maximum altitude: 3048 m (10,000 ft.) without derate
• Full Load power: 367 kW (492 horsepower) at 1600 rpm
• High Idle rpm: 1600 (in High HP mode)
• Low Idle rpm: 900

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -11- Module 3 - Tier 4 Final Engine and Support Systems

11
C18 Engine in the 390F Hydraulic Excavator

• Overview of the C15 ACERT The 390F Hydraulic Excavator is powered by the Cat C18 ACERT Technology
technology Tier 4 Final engine engine. This Tier 4 Final electronic engine is also equipped with a MEUI fuel
specifications and features: system, including a mechanical fuel transfer pump and six MEUI injectors. The Cat
-- In-line six-cylinder arrangement C18 engine is an in-line six-cylinder arrangement with a displacement of 18 liters.
-- High efficiency turbocharger
The C18 engine is also equipped with a turbocharger that is controlled by a
-- ATAAC balance valve, providing higher boost over a wide range to improve engine
-- A4:E4 V3.1 Engine ECM response and peak torque, as well as outstanding low-end performance. The 390F
-- Rated at 412 net kW (552.5 net is also equipped with an updated Air to Air AfterCooler (ATAAC) intake air system.
horsepower) at 1800 rpm The engine is electronically controlled using a fuel cooled A4:E4 V3.1 ECM.

• C15 engine, with the CEM meets: The C18 engine is rated at 412 net kW (552.5 net horsepower) at 1700 rpm.
The C18 ACERT technology Tier 4 Final engine, along with the CEM, meets the
-- U.S. EPA Tier 4 Final emission U.S. EPA Tier 4 Final emission standards, the EU Stage IV, and the MLIT Step 4
standards emission standards for Japan.
-- EU Stage 4 emission standards
-- MLIT Step 4 emission Most maintenance and service points are located on top of the engine or on the
standards for Japan right side of the engine, which faces the front of the engine compartment. Access
to the starter, engine oil drain, and other lower engine service points is easily
• Most maintenance and service accomplished by removing the engine access panels beneath the upper structure.
points located on top or on the
right side of engine

Engine oil and filter change intervals are set at 500 hours, using CJ4 engine oil.
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SERV1994 - 05/14 -12- Module 3 - Tier 4 Final Engine and Support Systems

However, engine load factor, sulfur levels in the fuel, oil quality, and altitude may
negatively impact the oil change interval. Regular engine oil samplings (S•O•S)
should be performed to confirm oil cleanliness.

A hydraulic cooling fan with reversing valve is standard on the 390F. The hydraulic
fan draws air through the radiator, the hydraulic oil cooler, the air conditioning
condenser, the fuel cooler, and the Air To Air AfterCooler (ATAAC).

Diesel Bio-Fuel, up to B20 (20% mixture), is approved for use in the engine.

The C18 engine specifications for the 390F Hydraulic Excavator are:
• Serial number prefix: MGF
• Max. altitude: 3048 m (10,000 ft.) without derate
• Full Load power: 412 kW (552.5 horsepower) at 1700 rpm
• High Idle rpm: 1700 (in High HP mode)
• Low Idle rpm: 900

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -13- Module 3 - Tier 4 Final Engine and Support Systems

ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM


TIER 4 FINAL MACHINES
(1) (2) (5)
Machine (3) (4) F-Series
Operator Controls
ECM ACS ACS Monitor
(Switches/Sensors)
ECM-1 ECM-2

(11)
(10) (8) ACS CAN Data Link
Switch
Machine Panel
Status ECM
Inputs

(9) Machine CAN Data Link


(6)
Video
(12) Engine ECM Cameras
(7) CAN 2 (J1939) Data Link
(16)
NOx
(15) (14)
Sensors
Clean Engine
Emissions CAN (13) Cat Data Link
(23) Module (CEM) Data
NOx Link
Sensor
ECUs

(17) Aftertreatment (22)


CAN Data Link Cat ET
(18)
DEF Dosing (19)
Control Unit Aftertreatment
ECM
(20) Gateway (21) Comm
Worldview ECM Adapter III

13
TIER 4 FINAL ENGINE ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

• 374F and 390F electronic control The illustration above shows the machine electrical system with all the standard
system showing ECM and data ECMs installed on the 374F and 390F Hydraulic Excavators and their connectivity
link connectivity with one another through Data Links. The Engine ECM (12) communicates
bidirectionally, via the dedicated Engine CAN Cat Data Link (14), with the
• Discussion covers Aftertreatment ECM (19).
communications between ECMs
and other electronic components The Aftertreatment ECM communicates with the NOX Sensor Electronic Control
via the CAN and Cat Data Links Units (ECUs) (23), and the DEF Dosing Control Unit (DCU) (18) via the dedicated
Aftertreatment CAN Data Link (17). The DCU monitors and controls the DEF
injectors and other Tier 4 Final components in the Pump Electronics Tank Unit
(PETU). The NOX Sensor ECUs monitor the NOX Sensors, which detect the level of
Nitrous Oxide (NOX) in the exhaust before and after the CEM. The Aftertreatment
ECM also monitors and operates the components on the Cat CEM (15).

Some engine strategies are tied to machine performance. Inputs from engine and
machine sensors that impact those strategies communicate their data between
ECMs through various data links, as shown. Back and forth communications and
sharing of data take place for numerous machine and engine components in order
to initiate machine and engine strategies that optimize horsepower and conserve
fuel.

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The F-Series Monitor (5) is constantly updated with engine and aftertreatment
information from the Engine ECM and the Aftertreatment ECM. The monitor keeps
the operator informed with displays showing the status of engine conditions such
as engine speed, coolant temperature, and other operating parameters.

The F-Series monitor warns the operator or technician of faults or conditions that
may damage the engine.

NOTE: The Tier 4 Final engine emission systems are discussed


separately, in the Emissions System module. This module discusses some
of the emission systems components that are located on the engine. This
module will cover all components of the fuel system, cooling system, air
system, and engine up to the point that air, fuel, exhaust, and cooling cross
over to the emission systems. The Emissions System module discusses
these systems further as they apply to the components in those systems.
NOTE: Callouts on graphics not mentioned in the text are shown for
reference and illustration purposes only.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -15- Module 3 - Tier 4 Final Engine and Support Systems
C15 / C18 TIER 4 FINAL ENGINE ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
Input Components
(3) (7)
(2)
Key Other Devices
Aftertreatment
Start
(9) ECM
Switch (1) Machine ECM
Switch Engine ECM
Panel
Gateway World View ECM
ECM
(4) Engine CAN Data Link
(5) CAN 2 (J1939) Data Link
Monitor

(6) Cat Data Link


Cat ET
(8) Machine CAN Data Link

Engine Oil Pressure Sensor Ground Level Shutdown Switch

TDC Service Probe Connector


Fuel Pressure Sensor (post-filter)

Fuel Temperature Sensor NRS Intake Air Pressure Sensor

Barometric Pressure Sensor NRS Differential Pressure Sensor

Coolant Temperature Sensor Coolant Level Switch

Charge Air (ATAAC) Temperature Sensor NRS Air Temperature Sensor

Air Inlet Temperature Sensor CRS Cab Switch

Air Filter Pressure (Restriction) Sensor Primary Speed/Timing Sensor

Intake Manifold Air Pressure Sensor Secondary Speed/Timing Sensor


15
• Discussion regarding engine The illustration above shows the direct input components to the Engine ECM (1) for
input components to the Engine the Tier 4 Final engines used in the 374F and 390F. The input components of the
ECM CEM, the PETU, and DCU will be discussed later in this training package.

The Engine ECM can send and receive sensor signal information to and from
Other Devices (7) over the CAN 2 (J1939) Data Link (5) and the Cat Data Link (6).
Data from the Aftertreatment ECM (2) that can have an effect on engine operation
is shared with the Engine ECM over the Engine CAN Data Link (4). Sensor data
monitored by the Engine ECM is made available to the Monitor and other ECMs on
the machine via the CAN 2 Data Link. Engine speed is determined by the signal
from the engine throttle dial position sensor (Engine Speed Dial) contained in the
Switch Panel ECM (9), which is communicated over the Machine CAN Data Link (8).

The Engine ECM controls the engine output components based on the data from the
input components according to the strategies contained in the engine software. The
engine output components are discussed later in this presentation.

Because the Tier 4 Final strategies require additional components that were not
present on Tier 4 Interim engines, some of the inputs from the emissions system are
now monitored and their output components controlled by the Aftertreatment ECM.
These input and output components will be discussed in the Emissions System
module of this training package.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -16- Module 3 - Tier 4 Final Engine and Support Systems

• Brief explanations of each Engine electrical input components:


electrical input component to the
Engine ECM • Key Start Switch: The Key ON input to the Engine ECM enables the ECM for
operation and is recognized by any ECM on the machine.

• Engine Oil Pressure Sensor: An input to the Engine ECM to supply an


informational warning for low oil pressure, engine derates for low oil pressure,
or logged events.
• Fuel Pressure Sensor (post-filter): Used to monitor post-filter fuel pressure
and sends a signal to the Engine ECM. The ECM uses this information for
engine derates and logged events.
• Fuel Temperature Sensor: Sends fuel temperature data to the Engine ECM.
The ECM uses this information for injection calculations and for engine derates
and logged events.
• Barometric Pressure Sensor: Measures the ambient air pressure and is
used as a reference for air filter restriction. Also, the sensor is used to supply
information to the Engine ECM during operation at high altitudes. (This sensor
is also referred to as the Atmospheric Pressure Sensor.)
• Coolant Temperature Sensor: An input to the Engine ECM supplying
information on the temperature of the engine coolant. The ECM uses this
information for fan speed, high coolant temperature warnings, engine derates
for high coolant temperature, or logged events.
• Air Inlet Temperature Sensor: Supplies air temperature data at the air filter
to the Engine ECM. The signal from this sensor is used by the Engine ECM to
determine if ether injection is required or if the inlet air heater is needed, if the
machine is equipped with either of these attachments. The temperature signal
is also used in several starting and operational strategies. The ECM also uses
this information for engine derates and logged events.
• Air Filter Pressure (Restriction) Sensor: An input to the Engine ECM that
supplies data about the air pressure before the turbocharger. The signal from
this sensor is compared to the signal from the barometric pressure sensor by
the Engine ECM to determine air filter restriction. If the difference between
these two pressures becomes great enough, the CMPD will alert the operator
of a “Clogged Air Filter.” The ECM also uses this information for engine
derates and logged events.
• Intake Manifold Air Pressure Sensor: An input to the Engine ECM to supply
information about the air pressure inside the intake manifold.
• Ground Level Shutdown Switch: An input to the Engine ECM. This input
disables fuel injection when the engine is running or at engine start-up.
• TDC Service Probe Connector: Used for timing the engine using a timing
calibration probe and Cat ET.
• NRS Intake Air Pressure Sensor: An input to the Engine ECM to supply
information about the cooled exhaust gas pressure in the NRS before the
NRS venturi. (This sensor is one of the inputs to the Engine ECM needed to
calculate NRS Mass Air Flow.)
• NRS Pressure Differential Sensor: Monitors the difference in the cooled
NRS gas pressure before and after the NRS venturi to help determine the
mass exhaust gas flow rate that is being introduced into the intake system.
(This sensor is one of the inputs to the Engine ECM needed to calculate NRS
Mass Air Flow.)

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -17- Module 3 - Tier 4 Final Engine and Support Systems

• NRS Air Temperature Sensor: Supplies air temperature data in the NRS to
the Engine ECM. The ECM uses this information for aftertreatment, engine
operation strategies, engine derates, and logged events. (This sensor is one of
the inputs to the Engine ECM needed to calculate NRS Mass Air Flow.)
• Charge Air (ATAAC) Temperature Sensor: Supplies charge air (ATAAC)
temperature data at the air inlet manifold to the Engine ECM. The ECM uses
this information for engine operation strategies, engine derates, and logged
events.
• ARD Pilot Fuel Pressure Sensor: Supplies fuel pressure data at the fuel
manifold from the Aftertreatment Regeneration Device (ARD) pilot fuel
solenoid. The ECM uses this information for regeneration purposes.
• ARD Main Fuel Pressure Sensor: Supplies fuel pressure data at the fuel
manifold from the ARD main fuel solenoid. The ECM uses this information for
regeneration purposes.
• CRS Cab Switch: Used to manually force a regeneration of the DPF filter or
disable regeneration from occurring (located on the switch panel on the right
console).
• Coolant Level Switch: An input to the Engine ECM supplying information on
the level of engine coolant in the shunt (expansion or overflow) tank. If the
level is low, the CMPD will alert the operator of the condition.
• Primary Speed/Timing Sensor: Sends a signal to the Engine ECM in order
to determine the speed, the direction, and the timing of the engine during
normal operating conditions.
• Secondary Speed/Timing Sensor: Sends a signal to the Engine ECM in
order to determine the speed, the direction, and the timing of the engine when
starting and during low idle conditions.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -18- Module 3 - Tier 4 Final Engine and Support Systems

C15 / C18 TIER 4 FINAL ENGINE ELECTRICAL SYSTEM


Output Components
(7)
Other Devices
(2)
(3) Key
Aftertreatment Machine ECM
Start Switch
ECM
(1)
Engine ECM Gateway WorldView ECM

(4) Engine CAN Data Link Monitor


(5) CAN 2 (J1939) Data Link

(6) Cat Data Link Cat ET

Fuel Injectors
Turbo Balance Valve Solenoid

Fuel Diverter Solenoid Valve

Hydraulic Cooling Fan Pump Solenoid

Fan Reversing Solenoid NRS Valve Solenoid

Ether Start Aid Solenoid

Priming Pump Relay

+5 Volt Supply

+8 Volt Supply ARD Ignition Transformer

18
• Discussion regarding engine The illustration above shows the engine output components controlled by the
output components controlled by Engine ECM (1). A few of the CEM components are controlled by the Engine ECM,
the Engine ECM but most of the components in the emissions system are controlled by the
Aftertreatment ECM (2) and the PETU (not shown). The remaining components of
the CEM will be discussed in the Emissions module of this training package.

The Engine ECM can send sensor signal information to Other Devices (7) over
the Cat Data Link (6) or the CAN 2 (J1939) Data Link (5). The status of the output
components is monitored by the Engine ECM and is made available to the monitor
over the CAN 2 (J1939) Data Link or the Cat Data Link. Other data is made
available to other ECMs on the machine through the other Data Links. The Engine
ECM can provide engine status data to any other ECM or to Cat ET over the Cat
Data Link or the CAN 2 (J1939) Data Link, however, the CAN 2 Data Link is the
primary communication path used by the ECM.

• Brief explanations of each Electrical output components:


electrical output component
controlled by the Engine ECM • Hydraulic Cooling Fan Pump Solenoid: Based on the input signals, the
Engine ECM ENERGIZES the cooling fan pump solenoid to control fan speed,
in proportion to the determining temperature sensor inputs (hydraulic oil,
intake air, engine coolant) and the fan speed maps contained in the Engine
ECM software (Flash File). Hydraulic oil temperature data is monitored by the
Machine ECM and is communicated to the Engine ECM via the CAN 2 (J1939)
Data Link or the Cat Data Link.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -19- Module 3 - Tier 4 Final Engine and Support Systems

• Fuel Injectors: The injector solenoids are ENERGIZED by the Engine ECM to
operate the injectors, which control the amount and timing of the fuel supply to
the engine cylinders.

• Fan Reversing Solenoid: The Engine ECM ENERGIZES this


ON/OFF solenoid to reverse the flow of oil from the fan pump to the fan
motors, which reverses the direction of fan rotation.

• Ether Start Aid Solenoid: If equipped, the Engine ECM ENERGIZES the
ether aid solenoid to inject ether into the intake air at the air inlet manifold
according to the charge air temperature sensor input and the ether injection
map contained in the Engine ECM software (Flash File).

• Turbo Balance Valve Solenoid: The Engine ECM ENERGIZES this ON/
OFF solenoid to control the turbocharger speed based on barometric pressure
sensor and intake manifold air pressure sensor inputs.

• Fuel Diverter Solenoid: DE-ENERGIZED by the Engine ECM during


normal engine operation and during DPF regeneration. The solenoid is only
ENERGIZED during fuel system priming in order to send fuel through the
engine fuel system.

• NRS Valve Solenoid: A proportional solenoid ENERGIZED by the Engine


ECM to control the flow (volume) of cooled NRS exhaust gases into the air
inlet manifold.

• Priming Pump Relay: The Engine ECM activates this relay to operate the
electric fuel priming pump when the machine key switch is first turned to the
ON position. The priming pump also is activated during a DPF regeneration
cycle to provide fuel flow to the ARD head under all conditions.

• ARD Ignition Transformer: The spark transformer in the ignition coil


assembly is controlled by the Engine ECM and provides the high voltage
current needed to create an electrical spark between the center electrode of
the spark plug and the surrounding cast iron of the ARD head.

• +5 Volt Supply: The regulated 5 volt power supply for the sensor inputs to the
Engine ECM.

• +8 Volt Supply: The regulated 8 volt power supply for the sensor inputs to the
Engine ECM.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -20- Module 3 - Tier 4 Final Engine and Support Systems

4 3 2 1
5

11
6

10

8
20
C15 / C18 ENGINE MAJOR COMPONENT IDENTIFICATION
C15 Engine Right Side

• Location and identification The right side of the C15 ACERT technology engine faces the front of the machine.
of major components on the Major components and service points located on the right side of the engine are:
right side of the C15 ACERT
technology engine • Engine coolant S•O•S port (1)
• Water temperature regulator (thermostat) housing (2)
• Turbocharger (3)
• Engine oil fill cap (4)
• NRS cooler (5)
• Pump drive housing for fan pump and pilot oil pump (6)
• External engine oil cooler (7)
• Engine oil drain valve (8)
• Jacket water pump (9)
• Alternator (10)
• Air conditioning compressor (11)

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5

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21
C15 Engine Left Side

• Location and identification The left side of the engine faces the rear of the machine. Major components and
of major components on the service points visible above on the left side of the engine include:
left side of the C15 ACERT
technology engine • NRS air valve (1)

• Crankcase breather (2)

• Air inlet (mixing) manifold (3)

• Engine oil level gauge (dipstick) (4)

• Fuel transfer pump (5)

• Timing calibration TDC service probe port (6)

• Starter location (7)

• Engine ECM (8)

• Fuel pressure regulator (9)

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4
14

5
13

6 12

11
7
10
8 9
22
C18 Engine Right Side

• Location and identification The right side of the C18 ACERT technology engine faces the front of the machine.
of major components on the Major components and service points located on the right side of the engine are:
right side of the C18 ACERT
technology engine • Water temperature regulator (thermostat) housing (1)
• Turbocharger (2)
• Engine oil fill cap (3)
• NRS cooler (4)
• Pump drive housing for fan pump and pilot oil pump (5)
• External engine oil cooler (6)
• Engine coolant S•O•S port (7)
• Engine oil drain valve (8)
• Engine oil filter (9)
• Engine oil S•O•S port (10)
• Engine oil level gauge (dipstick) (11)
• Jacket water pump (12)
• Alternator (13)
• Air conditioning compressor (14)

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23
C18 Engine Left Side

• Location and identification The left side of the engine faces the rear of the machine. Major components and
of major components on the service points visible above on the left side of the engine include:
left side of the C18 ACERT
technology engine • NRS air valve (1)

• Crankcase breather (2)

• Air inlet (mixing) manifold (3)

• Fuel transfer pump (4)

• Timing calibration TDC service probe port (5)

• Starter location (6)

• Engine ECM (7)

• Fuel pressure regulator (8)

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -24- Module 3 - Tier 4 Final Engine and Support Systems

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7 8

4 3

2 1

24
C15 / C18 ENGINE SENSORS AND SERVICE POINTS
Engine Left Side
• Location and identification of The location of electronic components and service points on the C15 and C18
electronic components and ACERT Technology Tier 4 Final engines in the 374F and 390F Hydraulic
service points on the left side Excavators are identified above:
of the C15 and C18 ACERT
technology engines • Engine ECM (1): This A4:E4 V3.1 Engine ECM is fuel cooled.

• Engine Oil Pressure Sensor (2): Sends information to the Engine ECM
regarding the actual engine oil pressure in the oil galleries of the engine block.

• Barometric (Atmospheric) Pressure Sensor (3): Provides data to the


Engine ECM regarding the ambient air pressure and is used to determine fuel
dosing, fuel-to-air ratios, fan speeds, and other engine functions.

• TDC Service (Timing Calibration) Probe Port (4): Remove the plug to
thread in the TDC service probe for performing the engine timing calibration
routine using Cat ET.

• Intake Manifold Air (Boost) Pressure Sensor (5): The Engine ECM uses the
signal from this sensor and compares it to the atmospheric pressure sensor
signal to calculate “boost.”

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -25- Module 3 - Tier 4 Final Engine and Support Systems

• Charge Air Temperature Sensor (6): Informs the Engine ECM of the
temperature of the cooled charge air from the ATAAC and is used to calculate
engine mass air flow.

• TDC Service Probe Connector (7): Connects the TDC service probe to
the engine electrical system when using Cat ET to perform the engine timing
calibration procedure.

• NRS Air Temperature Sensor (8): Monitors and sends data to the Engine
ECM regarding the temperature of the cooled exhaust gasses. The Engine
ECM uses this data for controlling the NRS valve and for calculating mass
exhaust gas flow.

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26
• Location, identification, and brief The image above shows the front timing gear cover (3) of the C15 and C18
explanation of the crank and cam engines. C15 and C18 engine speed and timing is electronically monitored using:
speed/timing sensors on the C15
and C18 engines: • Crankshaft (Crank) Speed/Timing Sensor (1): A Hall Effect sensor that
reads the front crankshaft gear and sends data to the Engine ECM regarding
the crankshaft speed and position.
-- Crankshaft (Crank)
Speed/Timing Sensor (1) • Camshaft (Cam) Speed/Timing Sensor (2): A Hall Effect sensor that reads
the camshaft gear and sends data to the Engine ECM regarding the camshaft
speed and position.
-- Camshaft (Cam) Speed/Timing
Sensor (2)
If the crank speed/timing sensor is lost, a fault code will be logged by the Engine
ECM. The Engine ECM will use the cam speed/timing sensor to time the engine.
The engine will have an extended starting period and run rough until the Engine
ECM determines the proper firing order using only the cam speed/timing sensor.

If the cam speed/timing sensor is lost, a fault code will also be logged by the
Engine ECM. The Engine ECM will then use the crank speed/timing sensor to
calculate engine timing. The engine will take longer to start and will run rough until
the Engine ECM determines the proper firing order, using only the crank
speed/timing sensor.

If the signals from both engine speed/timing sensors are lost, the engine will not
start. During a running condition, the engine will shut down if the signals from both
engine speed/timing sensors are lost.

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• Location and identification of Electronic components and engine service points located at the upper left, rear of
electronic components and the C15 and C18 engines are shown above:
service points at the upper left
rear of the C15 and C18 ACERT • NRS Air Valve (1): An electro-hydraulic mechanism that controls the flow of
technology engines cooled exhaust gases to the air inlet (mixing) manifold.

• NRS Intake Pressure Sensor (2): Monitors the pressure of the NRS exhaust
gases prior to entering the NRS venturi (5).

• NRS Differential Pressure Sensor (3): Monitors the difference in pressure of


the NRS exhaust gases before and after the NRS venturi (Delta pressure).

• Turbo Balance Valve Solenoid (4): An ON/OFF solenoid that controls the
air pressure from the mixing manifold sent to operate the turbo balance valve
actuator.

• NRS Air Valve Actuator Solenoid (6): A proportional solenoid that is


ENERGIZED by the Engine ECM to control the flow of engine oil that operates
the NRS air valve.

• Fuel Pressure Regulator (7): A mechanical valve that maintains the fuel
pressure available to the fuel injectors.

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28
374F Engine Oil Filter

• Location and identification of The engine oil filter (1) is remotely mounted in the pump compartment, at the right
374F engine oil filter and S•O•S rear of the machine. The engine oil S•O•S test port (2) is installed in the filter base.
test port
NOTE: The engine oil filter for the 390F is mounted to the right side of the
engine and is easily accessible from the service platform. The engine oil
filter and S•O•S test port were shown earlier in this module, located in the
right side view of the engine.

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• Location and identification of Electronic components and engine service points located at the upper right, front of
electronic components and the C15 and C18 engines are shown above:
service points at the upper right,
front of the C15 and C18 ACERT • Water Temperature Regulator (Thermostat) Housing (1): The housing
technology engines contains dual thermostats.

• Engine Coolant S•O•S Port (2): Engine coolant samples are taken at this
test port for the C15 in the 374F. This test port is located toward the rear of the
engine oil cooler on the C18 engine in the 390F.

• Coolant Return Line from Turbocharger (3): Directs engine coolant from the
turbocharger bearings into the inlet of the thermostat housing. Coolant is used
to prevent the turbocharger bearings from overheating.

• Coolant Temperature Sensor (4): An input to the Engine ECM supplying


information on the temperature of the engine coolant. The ECM uses this
information for fan speed, high coolant temperature warnings, engine derates
for high coolant temperature, or logged events.

• Vent Line Fitting (5): A cooling system vent ls connected here and aids in
completely draining all coolant from the cooling system. There are multiple
vent lines connecting here and also with the top radiator tube and the coolant
shunt tank.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -30- Module 3 - Tier 4 Final Engine and Support Systems

374F / 390F HYDRAULIC EXCAVATOR COOLING SYSTEM


C15 & C18 TIER 4 FINAL ENGINES AT OPERATING TEMPERATURE
SCR

DPF (10)
ARD
(9) (12)
DEF Vent Lines (13)
Injector (11) Shunt
Water Tank
Temperature
(8) Regulators
(14)
Cab Overflow
Heater Tube
≥ 92°C Hottest

(2)
(4) Jacket
Turbo Water (15) Air
(3) Pump Increasing
Bypass Conditioning
Condenser
87°C Coolant
Tube Temperature
Normal
Air
(5) NRS Cooler
Flow
(18)
(6) External Cooling
≤ 81°C Coldest
Engine Oil Cooler Fans

(16)
Fuel
Cooler

(7)
PETU (17)
Drain (1)
Valve Radiators

30
374F / 390F HYDRAULIC EXCAVATOR COOLING SYSTEMS
Engine Cooling Circuit
• Explanation of coolant flow A schematic of the C15 and C18 engines and the machine cooling systems for the
through the C15 and C18 cooling 374F and 390F Hydraulic Excavators is shown above. The twin hydraulic Cooling
system circuits: Fans (18) draw air inward through the twin Radiators (1), twin oil-to-air type
hydraulic oil coolers, and the Air to Air AfterCooler (ATAAC), all of which are in line.
-- Engine Cooling Circuit The fans also draw air through the Air Conditioning Condenser (15) and the Fuel
Cooler (16). The engine is situated side-to-side, with the front of the engine facing
-- NRS Cooling Circuit the left side of the machine. The fans are mounted inboard of the in-line cooler
arrangement.
-- ARD Cooling Circuit Coolant flows from the Jacket Water Pump (2) through the External Engine Oil
Cooler (6) and then into the engine block. Coolant flows through passages in the
-- PETU Heating Circuit engine block, then into the cylinder head. From the cylinder head, coolant flows to
the water temperature regulator housing, which contains two Water Temperature
-- Cab Heating Circuit Regulators (11) (thermostats) and either flows directly to the jacket water pump
through the external Bypass Tube (3) or to the radiator, depending on the
temperature of the coolant. A small amount of coolant is directed to the Turbo (4).
This coolant is used to cool the turbocharger bearings and returns to the thermostat
housing.
When the engine is cold, the coolant flows directly to the jacket water pump through
the bypass tube. As the temperature of the coolant increases, the thermostats
open and the coolant begins to flow to the radiator. When the thermostats open
further, more coolant flows to the radiator. The opening temperature for the
thermostats is 81°- 84°C (178°-183°F). The thermostats should be completely
open at 92°C (198°F).

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -31- Module 3 - Tier 4 Final Engine and Support Systems

Hot coolant from the thermostats enters the radiator at the top tank and is cooled
as it flows downward through the radiator core. The cooled coolant is drawn from
the radiator and returns to the jacket water pump.
A coolant Shunt Tank (13) (expansion tank) acts as a coolant reservoir. The shunt
tank is situated above the radiator. As the engine warms, the coolant expands and
collects in the shunt tank. When the engine cools, the coolant contracts and is
drawn from the shunt tank back into the radiator and the engine through the hose
connected to the jacket water pump or via one of the Vent Lines (12).
Coolant should be added to the cooling system through the filler tube on top of
the shunt tank. The translucent shunt tank acts as a coolant reservoir and has
two level lines embossed on the side. The “LOW” level line serves as a gauge
for determining the coolant level when the engine is cold. The upper FULL line
denotes the coolant level when the engine is hot. A small Overflow Tube (14) is
connected to the filler tube and directs coolant onto the ground if the system is
overfilled and the coolant warms and expands.
The cooling system Drain Valve (17) is located on the bottom radiator hose. The
drain valve is used to drain coolant from the entire cooling system. When the drain
valve is opened, all the coolant from the entire cooling system can be drained into
a suitable container via a drain hose connected to the valve. The vent lines ensure
all hoses, tubes, coolers, and passages are drained.
The coolant S•O•S port is located on top of the thermostat housing on the 374F
and is located at the rear of the external engine oil cooler on the 390F. Coolant
samples may be taken at those locations. Refer to the operation and Maintenance
Manuals (OMMs) for sampling frequencies and coolant change frequencies.
NRS Cooling Circuit
As the coolant flows from the jacket water pump into the engine oil cooler, some
of the coolant is directed to the front of the NRS Cooler (5). This coolant cools the
exhaust gases that will be recirculated to the air inlet manifold. The coolant flows
from the front to the rear of the NRS cooler, where it is directed into the thermostat
housing via a tube.
CEM Cooling Circuit
Coolant is supplied to the CEM for cooling the DEF Injector (9) and the ARD (10).
Coolant from the outlet of the jacket water pump is directed to a small manifold at
the CEM, which then sends the coolant to the DEF injector. From the DEF injector,
the coolant is directed to the ARD. Coolant flow returning from the ARD is directed
back to the bottom of the jacket water pump, via a small manifold connecting
the pump to the oil cooler. The coolant prevents the DEF injector and the ARD
components from overheating.
PETU Heating Circuit
Warm coolant is used to prevent the Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) from freezing in
the PETU (7). The warm coolant supply line from the outlet of the jacket water
pump directs coolant to the PETU. The coolant return line directs coolant from the
PETU to the inlet to the jacket water pump.
Cab Heating Circuit
Coolant is used to heat the operator compartment, when requested. The heater
supply hose connects to outlet of the jacket water pump and directs warm coolant
to the Cab Heater (8) core. Coolant is returned to the system through a hose
connected to the jacket water pump inlet.

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32
COMPONENT IDENTIFICATION - ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM
374F and 390F Cooler and Radiator Cores

• Location and identification of The cooler compartment is located at the left rear of both machines. Major
electronic components cooling components, service, and maintenance points located here are:
system components in the cooler
compartments of the 374F and • Twin hydraulic oil cooler cores (1)
390F
• Air conditioning condenser (2)

• Twin radiator cores (3)

• Air To Air AfterCooler (ATAAC) (4)

• Fuel cooler core (5)

Twin hydraulic cooling fans are situated inboard of the cooler cores shown above
on both the 374F and the 390F. The fans draw outside air in through the cooler
cores. The cooling fan system includes a manually operated fan reversing feature,
which is standard equipment. The reversing fan helps purge dirt and dust from the
fins in the cooler cores by reversing the flow of air when activated.

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Coolant S•O•S Ports

• Location and identification of The coolant S•O•S port (1) on the C15 engine in the 374F is located above the
cooling system components and thermostat housing (2).
service points on the C15 and
C18 engines: The coolant S•O•S port (4) on the C18 engine in the 390F is located rearward of
the engine oil cooler (5). Both ports are easily accessible from the service platform.
-- Coolant S•O•S port (1) on the
C15 engine The thermostat housing, engine oil cooler, and jacket water pump (3) are located in
the same places on both engines.
-- Thermostat housing (2) location
for the C15 and C18 engines

-- Jacket water pump (3) location


for the C15 and C18 engines

-- Coolant S•O•S port (4) on the


C18 engine

-- Engine oil cooler (5) location


for the C15 and C18 engines

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34
Radiator Bottom and Cooling System Drain Valve Access

• Location and identification of Removing the bottom access panel to the service opening (3) beneath the upper
radiator bottom and cooling structure at the left rear of the machines gains access to the following cooling
system drain valve for the 374F system service points and components below the left side of the engine
and 390F compartment for the 374F and the 390F:

• Radiator bottom tank (1) (two cores)

• Radiator bottom hoses (to jacket water pump) (2)

• Radiator and cooling system drain valve (3)

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Coolant Shunt Tank

• Location and identification of The image above shows the 374F engine compartment with the sheet metal
cooling system components and removed. The location of cooling system components identified above are in
service points on the 374F and similar locations on the 390F.
390F machines:
Coolant is added to the 374F cooling system through the filler tube (1) on top of the
-- Coolant shunt tank filler tube shunt tank (2). A spring-hinged door normally covers the tank filler cap.
and cap (1)
Also shown above are the top hoses (3) to the twin radiator cores and the twin
-- Coolant shunt tank (2) hydraulic cooling fans (4).

-- Radiator top hoses (3)

-- Twin hydraulic cooling fans (4)

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -36- Module 3 - Tier 4 Final Engine and Support Systems

C15 / C18 ENGINE FUEL DELIVERY SYSTEM


NORMAL ENGINE OPERATION

(11) (10) (2)


Clean Fuel Diverter Electric Fuel
Emissions Solenoid Valve Priming Pump
Module

(1)
Fuel
(12) Check Valve Tank

(7) Fuel Injectors

(8)
Fuel
Pressure
(6) (5) (3)
Regulator
Tertiary Secondary Primary
Fuel Filter Fuel Filter Fuel Filter

(4)
Fuel Transfer
Pump

(9) (13) Fuel


Engine ECM Cooler

36
C15 / C18 ENGINE - MEUI FUEL SYSTEM

• Detailed explanation of the fuel Engine Fuel Circuit


flow through the C15 and C18 The fuel system for the C15 and C18 ACERT Technology Tier 4 Final engines are
engine MEUI fuel system identical in operation. Both engines incorporate a MEUI fuel system. Under
normal engine operating conditions, the Engine Fuel Circuit is supplied with fuel as
• Two fuel circuits in the fuel follows. Fuel is drawn from the Fuel Tank (1) through the 10-micron Primary Fuel
system: Filter (3) and water separator by the gear-type Fuel Transfer Pump (4). The fuel
transfer pump then directs the fuel through the Engine ECM (9) before it flows to
-- Engine Fuel Circuit the 4-micron Secondary Fuel Filter (5).

-- Emissions Fuel Circuit From the secondary fuel filter, fuel is directed to the 4-micron Tertiary Fuel
Filter (6). Fuel is then sent to the cylinder head and into the fuel gallery where it is
made available to each of the six MEUI Fuel Injectors (7). Excess fuel not injected
leaves the cylinder head. From the cylinder head, the fuel is directed to the fuel
tank through the Fuel Pressure Regulator (8), which maintains fuel pressure of
approximately 558 ± 50 kPa (81 ± 7 psi). The fuel pressure regulator is a check
valve installed in a manifold at the upper left rear of the engine.

From the fuel pressure regulator, the excess fuel flow passes through the Fuel
Cooler (13) before returning to the fuel tank. The ratio of fuel between combustion
and fuel returned to tank is approximately 3:1 (i.e. four times the volume required
for combustion is supplied to the system for combustion and injector cooling
purposes).

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -37- Module 3 - Tier 4 Final Engine and Support Systems

Pressure sensors are installed in the secondary and tertiary fuel filter base and will
alert the operator, via the monitor, of a clogged fuel filter. This warning indicates
fuel flow is restricted and the fuel filter should be replaced immediately. The
recommended fuel filter change frequency interval is 500 hours, under optimum
conditions. Refer to the OMM for information on changing fuel filters.

The Electric Fuel Priming Pump (2) is standard equipment on both machines. The
priming pump is capable of priming the entire fuel system by turning the machine
key start switch to the ON position, but without starting the engine. The priming
pump provides fuel flow to the transfer pump, the secondary fuel filter, and the
tertiary fuel filter, to purge these components of air that may have entered the
system during servicing. The normally DE-ENERGIZED Fuel Diverter Solenoid
Valve (10) is ENERGIZED by the Engine ECM only when the key start switch is
turned to the ON position. This strategy ensures fuel flow from the priming pump
can flow through the engine fuel circuit. When the fuel priming pump turns OFF,
the solenoid is then DE-ENERGIZED. At all other times, the solenoid remains
DE-ENERGIZED.

Emissions Fuel Circuit


The emissions fuel circuit provides fuel to the fuel manifold on the Clean Emissions
Module (CEM) (11). This fuel is used by the CEM for regeneration of the Diesel
Particulate Filter (DPF). During a manual or automatic regeneration cycle of the
DPF, the electric fuel priming pump is activated by the Engine ECM to draw fuel
from the fuel tank to provide supply fuel to the Aftertreatment Regeneration
Device (ARD). The Check Valve (12) maintains a fuel pressure of approximately
1896 kPa (275 psi) to the ARD. If the flow of fuel to the CEM exceeds this
pressure, the check valve opens and the excess fuel flow blends with the fuel being
drawn by the fuel transfer pump.

During normal engine operation, and when DPF regeneration is not required, the
Engine ECM keeps the fuel diverter solenoid DE-ENERGIZED. During normal
engine operation, the fuel transfer pump draws fuel to provide fuel flow for engine
operation and the electric fuel priming pump draws fuel to provide fuel flow to the
CEM for operation of the ARD during DPF regeneration.

Information regarding the DPF regeneration cycle and the strategies and operation
of the fuel diverter solenoid valve and the CEM is presented in the Emissions
System module of this training package.

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COMPONENT IDENTIFICATION - ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM
C15 / C18 Fuel Transfer Pump
• Location and identification of The gear-type fuel transfer pump (1) creates fuel flow to the MEUI fuel injectors.
the fuel transfer pump and brief The MEUI injectors mechanically create the required fuel pressure and the Engine
explanation of pump components ECM controls the timing of the injections. The fuel transfer pump is located at the
and operation on the C15 and front left of the engine, near the bottom. The fuel transfer pump is driven by the
C18 engines: front gear train.

-- Fuel transfer pump (1) Fuel is drawn from the primary fuel filter and water separator by the fuel transfer
pump through a hose connected to the pump inlet (2). The fuel transfer pump
-- Fuel pump inlet (2) directs the fuel to the secondary fuel filter, via the Engine ECM, through a hose
connected to the pump outlet (3).
-- Fuel pump outlet (3)
The fuel transfer pump incorporates a bypass (one way check) valve. The bypass
valve allows fuel to flow around the transfer pump when priming the fuel system
(using the electric fuel priming pump contained in the primary fuel filter base). A
relief valve is also installed in the fuel transfer pump, which limits the maximum fuel
pressure in the fuel system prior to flowing to the Engine ECM.

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10

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Fuel Filters

• Location and identification All three fuel filters are located beneath a cover (removed above), just forward of
of the fuel filters and related the engine compartment and on the right side of the machine. The image above is
components: that of the fuel filters on a 390F Hydraulic Excavator. The fuel filters on the 374F
are located in the same place and arranged similarly.
-- 10-micron primary fuel filter (1)
-- Water separator (2) The 10-micron primary fuel filter (1) and water separator (2) assembly is the single
outboard filter at this location. The 4-micron secondary fuel filter (3) and 4-micron
-- 4-micron secondary fuel tertiary fuel filter (4) are mounted inboard.
filter (3)
-- 4-micron tertiary fuel filter (4) The secondary and tertiary fuel filter base contains a combination fuel pressure
and fuel S•O•S test port (5), as well as post-filter fuel pressure sensor (6) and fuel
-- Fuel pressure and fuel S•O•S temperature sensor (7).
test port (5)
-- Post-filter fuel pressure The electric fuel priming pump (9) and fuel diverter valve solenoid (8) are integrated
sensor (6) into the primary fuel filter base.
-- Fuel temperature sensor (7)
The fuel shutoff valve (10) is installed on the fuel supply line to the primary fuel
-- Fuel diverter valve filter.
solenoid (8)
-- Electric fuel priming pump (9)
-- Fuel shutoff valve (10)

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -40- Module 3 - Tier 4 Final Engine and Support Systems

TIER 4 FINAL (17)


Clean Exhaust
ENGINE INTAKE AIR, EXHAUST,
AND NOX REDUCTION SYSTEM
AIR FLOW (14)
(19)
(18) CEM
SCR
DPF

(4) CEM Exhaust Inlet


(20)
(2) ARD
Combustion Air (12) NRS
Cooler Outlet
(7) NRS Cooler

(6) Turbocharger

(8) Balance Valve


Actuator

(15) (16)
Exhaust Manifold Exhaust Manifold
(3) Intake
Cylinders Cylinders
Air Filter
1, 2, 3 4, 5, 6

(10) ACERT Engine

(1) Air To Air (5)


AfterCooler Air Inlet (Mixing)
(ATAAC) Manifold
(13) NRS Venturi

(11) Balance Valve


(9) Solenoid
NRS Air Valve 40
ENGINE INTAKE AIR AND EXHAUST SYSTEMS
Engine Intake Air, Exhaust, and NOX Reduction System Air Flow - Operation
• Detailed description of general The general flow of intake air and exhaust for the C15 and the C18 Tier 4 Final
air flow through the Tier 4 Final ACERT Engines (10) is identical to that in the Tier 4 Interim engine systems. The
engine intake air, exhaust, and diagram above illustrates the flow of all air through the intake air, exhaust, and NOX
NOX reduction system for both reduction systems of both engines, at normal operating temperature.
the C15 and C18 engines
As the engine runs, hot exhaust gases from the Exhaust Manifold (15) and (16)
enter the Turbocharger (6), causing the turbine wheel to rotate. As the turbine
wheel spins, the connected compressor wheel also rotates. Rotation of the
compressor wheel draws outside air into and through the Intake Air Filter (3). The
compressed intake (charge) air is forced through the Air To Air AfterCooler (1),
which cools the charge air. The cooled charge air is then directed to the Air Inlet
(Mixing) Manifold (5).
At the same time, some of the hot exhaust gases from cylinders one, two, and
three are directed into the air-to-water type NRS Cooler (7), which cools the hot
gases. The cooled exhaust gases flow through the NRS Cooler Outlet (12) and are
directed to the NRS Venturi (13). The flow and temperature of the NRS gases are
measured by sensors mounted in the NRS venturi. The Engine ECM monitors the
venturi sensors and calculates total NRS gas flow, based on the signals from these
sensors.
From the NRS venturi, the cooled gases then flow to the NRS Air Valve (9). A
solenoid on the NRS air valve controls the flow of cooled exhaust gases into the air
inlet manifold, based on the signals from the sensors in the NRS venturi.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -41- Module 3 - Tier 4 Final Engine and Support Systems

The intake (charge) air from the ATAAC and the cooled exhaust gases from the
NRS air valve are mixed in the air inlet manifold and are drawn into the engine
cylinders through the intake valves in the cylinder head. After combustion, the
exhaust gases are forced from the cylinders through the exhaust valves by the
pistons. The exhaust gases then enter the two-piece exhaust manifold, which
directs most of the gases into the turbine section of the turbocharger.
The turbocharger assembly contains a balance valve operated by the Balance
Valve Actuator (8). Exhaust gases enter a portion of the turbocharger turbine
housing. As intake manifold air pressure increases (as measured by the intake
manifold air pressure sensor), the balance valve actuator will open the balance
valve, reducing the speed of the turbocharger turbine wheel. The balance valve
actuator works to maintain a high turbine speed at low engine speeds and also
prevents the turbine from spinning too fast and creating too much boost at higher
engine speeds and loads. The balance valve actuator is operated by pressurized
air from the Balance Valve Solenoid (11). The balance valve solenoid controls the
flow of pressurized air from the air inlet manifold to the actuator based on an ON/
OFF current supplied by the Engine ECM.
The exhaust then flows to the CEM (14), where it enters through the CEM Exhaust
Inlet (4). The exhaust flows through the ARD (20) and then enters the DPF (18),
which is a component of the CEM. The DPF removes soot from the exhaust. From
the DPF, the exhaust is directed to the SCR (19) (Selective Catalytic Reduction).
Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) is injected into the exhaust stream prior to entering the
SCR. The DEF, along with rare earth elements in the SCR, break down the NOX
so that Clean Exhaust (17) exits the exhaust pipe. The clean exhaust consists of
water vapor and carbon dioxide (CO2).
During the regeneration process for the DPF, fuel and air are directed to the ARD
for a regeneration cycle that converts the soot to ash. Compressed air from the
turbocharger is directed through a tube to the ARD as Combustion Air (2) for this
purpose.
The NRS reduces the production of NOX emissions by introducing a measured
amount of exhaust gas into the air inlet manifold. To control NOX emissions, the
amount of NRS gas flow allowed into the engine is calculated by the Engine ECM
based on engine mass air flow at any given rpm or operating temperature. Six
inputs are needed to accurately calculate mass air flow because the volume of
recirculated exhaust gas throughout the operating range of the engine is not
consistent or steady. The exhaust mass airflow calculation inputs consist of:
• NRS Intake Pressure Sensor: Measures the volume of exhaust pressure in
the NRS system.
• NRS Differential Pressure Sensor: Measures the pressure drop across the
venturi.
• NRS Air Temperature Sensor: Measures the temperature of the exhaust gas
at the NRS Valve.
• Intake Manifold Pressure Sensor: Measures the pressure in the intake
manifold.
• Charge Air Temperature Sensor: Measures the temperature of the exhaust
gas at the air inlet manifold.
• Engine Speed/Timing Sensors: Measure engine rpm and position of crank
and cam.
More information regarding the Tier 4 Final strategies and the operation of the CEM
can be found in the Emissions System module of this training package.

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COMPONENT IDENTIFICATION - ENGINE INTAKE AIR AND SYSTEM

• Identification of major intake air Major components of the engine intake air and exhaust system are shown above:
and exhaust components
• Intake air filter canister (1)
• Air inlet temperature sensor (2)
• Air filter pressure sensor (3)
• Turbocharger (4)
• Exhaust tube to CEM (5)
• DEF injector (6)
• CEM air inlet (7)
• Combustion air tube to CEM (8)
• Cooled intake (charge) air tube to inlet air manifold (9)
• Compressed air tube to ATAAC (10)
• Intake air tube to turbocharger compressor (11)
• ATAAC (12)

NOTE: The image above shows the 374F engine and emissions
compartment with sheet metal removed. The components on the 390F are
the same and in nearly identical locations.

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Engine Air Filter

• Intake air and exhaust The intake (charge) air pre-filter (1) and the radial seal-type air filter canister (2) are
component location: located in the battery and air filter compartment on the left side of the machine and
to the rear of the operator’s compartment.
-- Pre-filter (1)
Other types of air filtration are available as options.
-- Radial-type air filter canister (2)

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High Efficiency Turbocharger

• Location and identification of The turbocharger on the Tier 4 Final engines operate similarly to the turbochargers
components - turbocharger and on the Tier 4 Interim engines. Exhaust gases from the exhaust manifold (1) cause
related components: the turbine section (8) to rotate. The exhaust gases pass through the turbocharger
exhaust outlet (9) to the emissions system.
-- Exhaust manifold (1)
-- Air pressure tube to The rotation of the turbine causes the compressor section (7) to rotate, drawing
actuator (2) air in from the air cleaner through the compressor air inlet (5) and forcing the
compressed air through the compressor air outlet (6) to the ATAAC.
-- Balance valve actuator (3)
The speed of the turbocharger is precisely controlled by the turbocharger balance
-- Turbocharger balance
valve (4), which is operated by the balance valve actuator (3). The actuator is
valve (4)
controlled by air pressure from the turbocharger balance valve solenoid (located
-- Compressor air inlet (5) on the left side of the engine). Air pressure from the turbocharger balance valve
solenoid is directed to the balance valve actuator through a small tube (2).
-- Compressor air outlet (6)
NOTE: The image above shows the C15 engine and turbocharger in the
-- Turbocharger compressor 374F. Component locations, identification, and their operation for the C18
section (7) engine in the 390F are the same.
-- Turbocharger turbine
section (8)
-- Turbocharger exhaust
outlet (9)

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NRS Cooler and Exhaust Gas Flow

• Location and identification of Engine coolant from the jacket water pump (1) is directed to the front of the NRS
NRS system components on cooler (6) through the coolant supply tube (2). The coolant flows from front to rear
the right side of the engine - through a bundle of small tubes inside the cooler. The coolant exits the NRS cooler
explanation of the NRS cooler at the coolant outlet (5) and flows through the coolant return tube (9) to the inlet of
and the flow of coolant and gases the temperature regulator housing (8) .
through the cooler:
-- Jacket water pump (1) Hot exhaust gases from cylinders one, two, and three are directed into the front of
the NRS cooler through the exhaust inlet manifold (7). The hot exhaust gases pass
-- Coolant supply tube (2) through the NRS cooler from front to rear and are cooled as they flow around the
coolant-filled tubes in the cooler core. The cooled exhaust gases exit the cooler at
-- Exhaust gas outlet (3) the exhaust gas outlet (3) and are directed through the NRS exhaust gas tube (4)
-- NRS exhaust gas tube (4) to the NRS venturi and NRS valve on the left side of the engine (rear of the engine
compartment).
-- Coolant outlet (5)
NOTE: Exhaust gas temperatures entering the NRS Cooler are
-- NRS cooler (6)
approximately 650-700°C (1202-1292°F). The approximate maximum
-- Exhaust inlet manifold (7) temperature at the outlet of the NRS cooler is 240°C (464°F).
-- Water temperature regulator
housing (8)
-- Coolant return tube (9)

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NRS Venturi and NRS Air Valve
• Location, identification, and brief After leaving the NRS cooler, the cooled exhaust gases flow through the NRS
explanation of NRS exhaust gas exhaust gas tube (1) to the NRS venturi (2). The NRS venturi limits the flow rate of
components on the left side of the exhaust gases to the NRS air valve.
the engine:
The NRS intake air pressure sensor (9) monitors the NRS gas pressure before
-- NRS exhaust gas tube (1) the NRS venturi. The NRS differential pressure sensor (10) monitors the delta
pressure across the venturi. The Engine ECM compares the data from these two
-- NRS venturi (2) pressure sensors, along with the signal from the NRS air temperature sensor (4), to
-- NRS air valve (3) calculate mass exhaust gas flow.

-- NRS air temperature sensor (4) The NRS air valve (3) controls the volume of cooled exhaust gases allowed into the
intake air system. Engine oil is supplied to the NRS air valve actuator (6) through
-- NRS inlet tube (5) the rear oil line (7). Engine oil is used by the actuator to operate the NRS air valve.
-- NRS air valve actuator (6) The Engine ECM sends current to the NRS solenoid (8), which uses the engine
oil to pressurize the valve chambers in order to open or close the NRS air valve.
-- Engine oil supply and return Engine oil drained by the actuator returns to the engine block through the forward
lines (7) to the NRS air valve oil line.
-- NRS solenoid (8) Based on the calculated NRS mass exhaust gas flow rate, the volume and
temperature of the intake (charge) air from the ATAAC, and other engine electronic
-- NRS intake air pressure inputs, the Engine ECM determines the operation of the NRS air valve.
sensor (9)
Once the exhaust gases have passed through the NRS valve, the metered volume
-- NRS differential pressure of cooled exhaust gases flow through the NRS inlet tube (5) into the air inlet
sensor (10) (mixing) manifold where they blend with the intake (charge) air from the ATAAC.

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Air Inlet Manifold

• Location, identification, and brief After passing through the NRS air valve (1), the cooled exhaust gases are directed
explanation of NRS exhaust gas through the NRS inlet tube (2) to the Air inlet (mixing) manifold (3). At the same
and charge air mixing in the air time, cooled intake air from the ATAAC is directed to the air inlet manifold through
inlet manifold: the larger charge air tube (7). The NRS exhaust gases and charge air are blended
together in the air inlet manifold, which directs the mixture into the intake
-- NRS air valve (1) manifold (4).
-- NRS inlet tube (2)
The signal from the charge air temperature sensor (6) is used by the Engine
-- Air inlet (mixing) manifold (3) ECM to calculate mass charge air flow, which is one of the determining factors for
-- Intake manifold (4) operation of the NRS air valve. The signal from the charge air temperature sensor
is also one of the inputs for determining the speed of the hydraulic cooling fans.
-- Intake manifold (boost)
pressure sensor (5) The balance valve air supply line (8) directs pressurized inlet air to the balance
-- Charge air temperature valve solenoid (9). The solenoid is ENERGIZED by the Engine ECM to supply
sensor (6) control pressure to the balance valve actuator on the turbocharger. The intake
manifold (boost) pressure sensor (5) is one of the inputs to the Engine ECM for
-- Charge air tube (7) determining operation of the balance valve solenoid, which controls the speed of
-- Balance valve air supply line (8) the turbocharger, which determines intake manifold (boost) pressure.

-- Balance valve solenoid (9)

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PURPOSE

This module was designed to ensure technicians can


locate, identify, and describe the function of all major
components and service points of the C15 and C18
Tier 4 Final engines and their supporting fuel, cooling,
and air systems, and to demonstrate knowledge of the
operational strategies used in these systems.

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PURPOSE REVIEW

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REASON

This training was necessary so technicians can


identify system components and service points and
demonstrate knowledge of the C15 and C18 Tier 4
Final engines and support systems in order to
troubleshoot engine and support systems components,
ensuring customers experience quick, accurate
resolution of engine or machine performance problems.

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REASON REVIEW

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COMPETENCY STATEMENT

Participants are now able to locate, identify, and


describe the function of all major components and
service points of the C15 and C18 Tier 4 Final
engines and support systems. Participants have also
demonstrated knowledge of basic engine operation
and described the flow of fuel, coolant, and air through
the related engine support and emissions systems
during a classroom post-assessment with at least 80%
accuracy.

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COMPETENCY STATEMENT REVIEW

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LEARNING OUTCOMES

This 374F and 390F Hydraulic Excavator Tier 4


Final Engine and Support Systems module has been
completed and participants are able to:
• Locate, identify, and describe the function of all C15
and C18 Tier 4 Final engine and support systems
components and service points.
• Describe the flow of fuel, coolant, and air through the
C15 and C18 Tier 4 Final engine, emissions, and support
systems.

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LEARNING OUTCOMES REVIEW

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MODULE CONCLUSION

This concludes the 374F and 390F Hydraulic Excavator Tier 4 Final Engine and
Support Systems module.
When used in conjunction with the System Operations Manuals, the Test and
Adjust Manuals, the Troubleshooting Manual, the Operation and Maintenance
Manuals (OMM), and other service publications, the information in this module
will aid the service technician in troubleshooting, testing, adjusting, and correcting
problems with the C15 and C18 Tier 4 Final engines in these machines.

For service repairs, adjustments, and maintenance, always refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manuals (OMM), Service Manuals, and other related service
publications.

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