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GLOBAL SERVICE TRAINING

374F / 390F Hydraulic Excavator


Emissions System
MODULE 4 - TEXT REFERENCE

SERV1994

CAT, CATERPILLAR, their respective logos, ACERT, “Caterpillar Yellow” and the POWER EDGE
trade dress, as well as corporate and product identity used herein, are trademarks of Caterpillar
and may not be used without permission. © 2014 Caterpillar Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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SERV1994 - 05/14 -2- Module 4 - Emissions System

TABLE OF CONTENTS
SAFETY BRIEFING��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 3
PURPOSE����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 4
REASON������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 5
COMPETENCY STATEMENT����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 6
LEARNING OUTCOMES������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 7
BACKGROUND��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 8
EMISSIONS TYPES�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 9
C15 & C18 TIER 4 FINAL ENGINES AND EMISSION SYSTEMS������������������������������������������� 10
NOX REDUCTION SYSTEM - BASIC OPERATION������������������������������������������������������������������ 12
TIER 4 FINAL ENGINE AND EMISSIONS ELECTRICAL SYSTEM����������������������������������������� 14
AFTERTREATMENT EMISSIONS SYSTEM - COMPONENT LOCATIONS���������������������������� 16
CLEAN EMISSIONS MODULE (CEM) AND CEM ELECTRONICS PANEL����������������������������� 26
REGENERATION���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 40
REGENERATION TRIGGERS�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 41
SCR (SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION) CATALYST������������������������������������������������������� 46
PUMP ELECTRONICS TANK UNIT (PETU)����������������������������������������������������������������������������� 49
DEFINITION OF INDUCEMENT����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 57
SAFE HARBOR MODE������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 58
ENGINE EMISSIONS OPERATOR INDUCEMENT SERVICE MODE OVERRIDE������������������ 59
INDUCEMENT PARAMETERS������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 60
DEF LEVEL INDUCEMENT - REDUCED PERFORMANCE���������������������������������������������������� 61
DEF LEVEL INDUCEMENT - REDUCED TIME������������������������������������������������������������������������ 62
DEF QUALITY, TAMPERING, AND DOSING INTERRUPTION INDUCEMENT����������������������� 63
EGR SYSTEM FAULT INDUCEMENT�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 64
INDUCEMENT EVENT CODES������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 65
DEF CLEANLINESS������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 66
PURPOSE REVIEW������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 68
REASON REVIEW�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 69
COMPETENCY STATEMENT REVIEW������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 70
LEARNING OUTCOMES REVIEW������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 71
MODULE CONCLUSION���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 72
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SAFETY BRIEFING
• Emergency Phone Numbers
• First Aid Responders
• Location of Exits
• Location of Fire Extinguisher
• Room Alerts or Hazards
• Designated Location for Evacuation
• Storm Shelter
• Hazardous Material

Safely Home. Everyone. Every Day.™

3
SAFETY BRIEFING

Before beginning this module, the following topics will be reviewed:


• Emergency Phone Numbers
• First Aid Responders
• Location of Exits
• Location of Fire Extinguisher
• Room Alerts or Hazards
• Designated Location for Evacuation
• Storm Shelter
• Hazardous Material

Safely Home. Everyone. Every Day.™

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -4- Module 4 - Emissions System

PURPOSE
This module is designed to ensure technicians can
locate, identify, and describe the functionality of all
major components and service points of the C15 and
C18 Tier 4 Final emission systems, and to demonstrate
knowledge of the operational strategies used in the
emission systems.

4
PURPOSE

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REASON
It is necessary for technicians to able to identify system
components and service points and demonstrate
knowledge of the C15 and C18 Tier 4 Final engines’
emission systems in order to troubleshoot emissions
system components, which will ensure customers
experience quick, accurate resolution of emissions
performance problems.

5
REASON

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COMPETENCY STATEMENT
At the completion of this training session, participants
will be able to locate, identify, and demonstrate
knowledge of the C15 and C18 Tier 4 Final emission
systems and related components during lab exercises.
Participants will also be able to describe the flow of
fuel, coolant, and air through the emissions systems
during a classroom post-assessment with at least 80%
accuracy.

6
COMPETENCY STATEMENT

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LEARNING OUTCOMES

Upon completion of this 374F and 390F Hydraulic


Excavator Emissions System module, participants will
be able to:
• Locate, identify, and describe the functionality of
all major Tier 4 Final engine emissions system
components.
• Perform the DEF quality and dosing tests for the
emissions system and perform the machine data
link test to confirm proper communications between
ECMs.

7
LEARNING OUTCOMES

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8
BACKGROUND

• Explanation of the emissions To limit the amount of pollutants in the world air supply, the U.S. Environmental
reduction efforts around the Protection Agency (EPA), the European Union (EU), and the Ministry of Land,
world - identify similar standards Infrastructure, Transport, and Tourism (MLIT) in Japan developed a wide variety of
and differing implementation rules to limit the exhaust emissions of diesel engines. The rules cover many
strategies different horsepower ranges and applications.

Non-road diesel exhaust emission standards have been phasing in gradually over
a number of years. These phases are identified as Tier 1 – Tier 4. In the EU, they
are identified as Stage I – Stage IV. In Japan, they are identified as MLIT
Step 1 – MLIT Step 4.

Tier 4 standards demand such a dramatic reduction in exhaust emissions over


Tier 3 that implementation has been divided into two phases: Tier 4 Interim and
Tier 4 Final.

This training module details the components and systems used to achieve the
US EPA Tier 4 Final, EU Stage 4, and MLIT Step 5 emission standards.

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NO
NO2

CO HC 9
EMISSIONS TYPES

• Types of combustion ignition Internal combustion engines emit four major types of emissions: Oxides of Nitrogen
engine emissions (NOX), Particulate Matter (PM), Hydrocarbons (HC), and Carbon Monoxide (CO).

The types of emissions are:


• NOX are highly reactive gases that form when fuel is burned at high
temperatures with excess air. NOX are primarily composed of nitric oxide (NO)
and nitrogen dioxide (NO2).
• PM (not shown) is a mixture of solids and liquids that might include soot
from incomplete combustion, Soluble Organic Fraction (SOF) from fuel and
lubricating oil, and inorganic sulfates, phosphates, and carbonates from
lubricating oil additives.
• HC are the result of unburned fuel and lubricating oil. HC are regulated as
either Total Hydrocarbon Emissions (THC) or Non-Methane Hydrocarbons
(NMHC).
• Carbon Monoxide is an odorless and colorless gas that is the result of
incomplete combustion, primarily from a lack of sufficient oxygen in the engine
cylinder.

The components detailed in this module are used to limit the formation of all of the
above described emissions during engine operation.

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TIER 4 FINAL ENGINES AND EMISSIONS SYSTEMS


COMPONENT AND SYSTEMS IDENTIFICATION

(3) (2) (1)


Diesel Particulate Cat Clean Cat ACERT
Filter (DPF) Emissions Module Technology
Assembly (CEM) Electronics Tier 4 Final
Panel Engine

(4)
Selective Catalytic
Reduction (SCR)
Assembly

(5)
Pump Electronics
Tank Unit (PETU)

(6)
Dosing Control
Unit (DCU)
10
C15 & C18 TIER 4 FINAL ENGINES AND EMISSION SYSTEMS
Systems Identification
• Illustration showing the C15 The C15 and C18 Tier 4 Final ACERT™ Technology engines and emission systems
engine and the Tier 4 Final components installed in the 374F and 390F Hydraulic Excavators are identified
components - defines the two below:
systems (engine and emissions)
• Cat C15 or C18 ACERT Technology Tier 4 Final engine (1)
• Cat Clean Emissions Module (CEM) Electronics Panel (2)
• The C18 ACERT technology
Tier 4 Final engine has a nearly • Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) Assembly (3)
identical arrangement of engine
and emissions components • Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Assembly (4)
• Pump Electronics Tank Unit (PETU) (5)
• Pump Electronics Tank Unit (DCU) (6)

The CEM, DPF, SCR, DCU, and PETU used in these machines are discussed
in detail in this module. Prior knowledge of the Tier 4 Final strategies and the
NOX Reduction System are required before studying the specifics of the emission
systems in these machines.

NOTE: The C15 and C18 ACERT Technology Tier 4 Final engines used in
the 374F and 390F Hydraulic Excavators have the same arrangement of
engine and emissions system components.

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NOX REDUCTION SYSTEM


COMPONENT IDENTIFICATION

(1)
(5)
Exhaust
Air Inlet
Manifold
(Mixing)
Manifold

(4)
NRS Air
Valve

(3)
NRS Venturi (2)
and Pressure NRS Cooler
Sensors

11
NOX Reduction System - Major Component Identification
• Identification of the Tier 4 Final Part of the Tier 4 Final strategy includes the NOX Reduction System (NRS). The
NRS components used on the NRS reduces the production of NOX emissions by introducing a measured amount
engine of exhaust gases into the air inlet manifold. To control NOX emissions, the amount
of NRS gas flow allowed into the engine is calculated by the Engine ECM, based on
engine mass air flow at any given rpm or operating temperature. The NRS controls
• Brief description of the NRS and the mixture of cooled charge air and cooled exhaust gases that are used in the
the purpose for each of the five combustion process as the portion of the Tier 4 Final strategy that occurs at the
major system components engine. Briefly, the major components in the NRS and their function are:
• Exhaust Manifold (1): A specially designed manifold that directs some of the
exhaust gases into the NRS.
• NRS Cooler (2): An air-to-water type cooler that reduces the temperature of
the exhaust gases to be introduced into the intake manifold.
• NRS Venturi and Pressure Sensors (3): Limits the flow rate of the exhaust
gasses to the NRS air valve and measures the pressure of the exhaust gases
flowing to the NRS Valve.
• NRS Air Valve (4): Measures the temperature of the cooled exhaust gas flow
and controls the mass exhaust gas flow to the air inlet manifold.
• Air Inlet (Mixing) Manifold (5): Mixes the charge air from the ATAAC and
exhaust gases from the NRS valve and directs the mixture into the engine
intake manifold
The NRS is explained in detail in the C15/C18 Tier 4 Final Engines and Support
Systems module of this training package.

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TIER 4 FINAL (17)


Clean Exhaust
ENGINE INTAKE AIR, EXHAUST,
AND NOX REDUCTION SYSTEM
AIR FLOW (14)
(19)
(18) CEM
SCR
DPF

(4) CEM Exhaust Inlet


(20)
(2) ARD
Combustion Air (12) NRS
Cooler Outlet
(7) NRS Cooler

(6) Turbocharger

(8) Balance Valve


Actuator

(15) (16)
Exhaust Manifold Exhaust Manifold
(3) Intake
Cylinders Cylinders
Air Filter
1, 2, 3 4, 5, 6

(10) ACERT Engine

(1) Air To Air (5)


AfterCooler Air Inlet (Mixing)
(ATAAC) Manifold
(13) NRS Venturi

(11) Balance Valve


(9) Solenoid
NRS Air Valve 12
NOX REDUCTION SYSTEM - BASIC OPERATION

• Brief explanation of the NOX Several engine mounted components are used to control the formation of NOX
Reduction System that is emissions during the combustion process. These components are a vital part of
mounted to the engine and is part the engine air inlet system and must be present for the engine to operate within the
of the Tier 4 Final strategy US EPA Tier 4 Final, EU Stage 4, and MLIT Step 5 emission standards.

• Refer to the Engine and Support The NOX Reduction System (NRS) cools, measures, and introduces recirculated
Systems module of this training exhaust gas into the intake manifold of both ACERT Engines (10). The cooled
package for more information on exhaust gases enter the cylinder during the normal intake cycles and reduce the
the NRS and inlet air systems temperature inside the cylinders during the combustion process.

The NOX reduction system consists of the following major components:

• Turbocharger (6)

• NRS Cooler (7)

• Balance Valve Actuator (8)

• NRS Air Valve (9)

• Balance Valve Solenoid (11)

• NRS Venturi (13)

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -13- Module 4 - Emissions System

The NRS reduces the production of NOX emissions by introducing a measured


amount of exhaust gases into the Air Inlet (Mixing) Manifold (5).

The Cat Clean Emissions Module (CEM) (14) consists of the DPF (18) and the
SCR (19). The CEM removes the remaining emissions in the exhaust.

The engine exhaust from the Turbocharger (6) is directed to the CEM through the
CEM Exhaust Inlet (4). Soot is removed from the exhaust as it passes through
the DPF. The exhaust is then directed into the SCR. Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF)
is injected into the exhaust stream after leaving the DPF and prior to entering the
SCR. The DEF, along with rare earth elements inside the SCR, break down the
NOX so that Clean Exhaust (17) exits the exhaust pipe. The clean exhaust consists
of water vapor and carbon dioxide (CO2).

Refer to the 374F/390F Hydraulic Excavators Tier 4 Final Engine and Support
Systems Module in this training package for more information on the NRS and
intake air systems.

NOTE: Callouts on graphics that are not mentioned in the text are shown
for reference and illustration purposes only.

NOTE: Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) and NRS are equivalent terms.
References to EGR used within this module are due to industry wide
terminology as they are described by emission standards.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -14- Module 4 - Emissions System

ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM


TIER 4 FINAL MACHINES
(1) (2) (5)
Machine (3) (4) F-Series
Operator Controls
ECM ACS ACS Monitor
(Switches/Sensors)
ECM-1 ECM-2

(11)
(10) (8) ACS CAN Data Link
Switch
Machine Panel
Status ECM
Inputs

(9) Machine CAN Data Link


(6)
Video
(12) Engine ECM Cameras
(7) CAN 2 (J1939) Data Link
(16)
NOx
(15) (14)
Sensors
Clean Engine
Emissions CAN (13) Cat Data Link
(23) Module (CEM) Data
NOx Link
Sensor
ECUs

(17) Aftertreatment (22)


CAN Data Link Cat ET
(18)
DEF Dosing (19)
Control Unit Aftertreatment
ECM
(20) Gateway (21) Comm
Worldview ECM Adapter III

14
TIER 4 FINAL ENGINE AND EMISSIONS ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
• 374F and 390F electronic control The illustration above shows the machine electrical system with the standard ECMs
system showing ECM and data installed on the 374F and 390F Hydraulic Excavators and their connectivity with
link connectivity one another through Data Links. The Engine ECM (12) communicates
bidirectionally, via the dedicated Engine CAN Cat Data Link (14), with the
• Discussion covers Aftertreatment ECM (19).
communications between ECMs
and other electronic components The Aftertreatment ECM communicates with the NOX Sensor Electronic Control
via the CAN and Cat Data Links Units (ECUs) (23), and the DEF Dosing Control Unit (DCU) (18) via the dedicated
Aftertreatment CAN Data Link (17). The DCU monitors and controls the DEF
injectors and other Tier 4 Final components in the Pump Electronics Tank
Unit (PETU). The NOX Sensor ECUs monitor the NOX Sensors (16), which detect
the level of Nitrous Oxide (NOX) in the exhaust before and after the CEM. The
Aftertreatment ECM also monitors and operates the components on the Cat Clean
Emissions Module (CEM) (15).
Some engine strategies are tied to machine performance, and inputs from engine
and machine sensors that impact those strategies communicate their data between
ECMs through various data links, as shown. Bi-directional communications and
sharing of data take place for numerous machine and engine components in order
to initiate machine and engine strategies that optimize horsepower and conserve
fuel.
The F-Series Monitor (5) is constantly updated with engine and aftertreatment
information from the Engine ECM and the Aftertreatment ECM. The monitor keeps
the operator informed with displays showing the status of engine conditions, such
as engine speed, coolant temperature, and other operating parameters.
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SERV1994 - 05/14 -15- Module 4 - Emissions System

The F-Series monitor warns the operator or technician of faults or conditions that
may damage the engine. The following pages show the engine electrical input
devices to the Engine ECM and the output devices the Engine ECM uses to control
the engine and the Tier 4 Final engine emissions system.

NOTE: The Tier 4 Final engine emission systems are discussed


separately, in the Emissions System module. This module discusses some
of the emission systems components that are located on the engine. This
module will cover all components of the fuel system, cooling system, air
system, and engine up to the point that air, fuel, exhaust, and cooling cross
over to the emission systems. The Emissions System module discusses
these systems further as they apply to the components in those systems.
NOTE: Callouts on graphics that are not mentioned in the text are shown
for reference and illustration purposes only.

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3
5

16
• Location and identification AFTERTREATMENT EMISSIONS SYSTEM - COMPONENT LOCATIONS
of major components in the
aftertreatment system The location of the major aftertreatment emissions system components are
the same for the 374F and 390F Hydraulic Excavators. All of the Cat CEM
components are located along the right side of the machine.

The CEM electronics panel (1) is mounted horizontally and inboard of the DPF and
SCR assemblies.

The DPF assembly (2) is the inboard canister in this arrangement.

The primary fuel filter base, with the fuel diverter valve (3) is the outboard fuel filter.

The SCR assembly (4) is the outboard canister.

The PETU and DEF tank assembly (5) is located at the right front corner of the
machine, and is accessible by opening the outboard tool box cover (removed in the
image shown here).

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4
3
5

2 1

6
7
8 9 17
DEF Injector and NOX Sensors - Component Location
• Location and identification of The Tier 4 Final strategy has introduced several new components to the existing
components in the emissions aftertreatment components from the Tier 4 Interim strategy. These components are
system: identified in the image above:

-- NOX sensor #1 (1) • NOX sensor #1 (1): Installed in the exhaust pipe after the turbocharger but
before the ARD (8).
-- NOX Sensor #1 ECU (2)
• NOX sensor #2 (5): Installed in the exhaust pipe after the SCR (6).
-- DPF (3)
• NOX Sensor #1 Electronic Control Unit (ECU) (2): Mounted to the panel in
-- DEF injector (4) front of the left side of the engine compartment, near the fuel filters (not shown
above).
-- NOX sensor #2 (5)
• NOX Sensor #2 ECU (7): Mounted to the panel in front of the left side of the
-- SCR (6) engine compartment, near the fuel filters.

-- NOX Sensor #2 ECU (7) • The DEF injector (4): Installed in the exhaust tube connecting the DPF (3)
and the SCR. The DEF injector is cooled by engine coolant via the coolant
hoses (9) routed to the CEM.
-- ARD (8)

-- Coolant hoses (9)

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3
1

1
4
5

18
Pump Electronics Tank Unit (PETU) and Dosing Control Unit (DCU)

• Aftertreatment components The DEF tank fill tube (1) is located in the outboard storage compartment (2) and
located in the storage may be accessed by raising the compartment door (3).
compartment at the right front
corner of the machine: The DCU (4) is a programmable ECM mounted on the inboard side of the
PETU (5). The PETU and DCU are contained in one assembly.
-- DEF tank fill tube (1)
The DCU communicates with the Aftertreatment ECM via the Aftertreatment CAN
-- Storage compartment (2) Data Link and the CAN 2 (J1939) Data Link. The DCU monitors and controls the
injection of DEF into the exhaust stream as part of the Tier 4 Final strategy.
-- Storage compartment door (3)

-- DCU (4)

-- PETU (5)

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3 4
19
DEF Tank Drain Valve Access

• Aftertreatment components Loosening the two bolts and sliding the small access panel (1) beneath the right
located in and beneath the front of the cab out of the way gains access to:
storage compartment at the right
front corner of the machine: • DEF tank drain valve (2)
• DEF tank drain hose (3)
-- Access panel (1)
After sliding the access panel out of the way, the DEF tank drain hose must be
pulled down from the compartment and the end placed into a suitable container
-- DEF tank drain valve (2) when draining the DEF tank.

-- DEF tank drain hose (3) The overflow tube (4) is connected to the spill pan surrounding the DEF tank filler
tube and directs spilled DEF out of the compartment.
-- Overflow tube (4) NOTE: Always ensure the overflow tube protrudes from the bottom of the
machine. DEF is corrosive to metal and can damage other components in
the storage compartment. Clean up any DEF spills and wash down with
water, in accordance with applicable guidelines..

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1
5 4

2
3

20
DEF Purge Lamp

• Location and identification of Because DEF freezes, all DEF fluid must be drained from the DEF lines back to the
the amber DEF purge lamp and DEF tank when the engine is shut down. If DEF freezes in the DEF pump or the
explanation of its purpose and DEF lines it may cause damage to the components. DEF is allowed to freeze in
operation: the tank, as the tank is designed for this condition. Electricity from the machine
batteries is required to purge all DEF from the lines and the pump.
-- DEF purge lamp (1)
To prevent the DEF lines and pump from damage due to freezing, an amber DEF
-- Main Electrical Disconnect purge lamp (1) is installed next to the main electrical disconnect switch (2). The
Switch (2) lamp illuminates when the engine has been shut down and the system is purging
DEF from the pump and lines. The lamp will be turned OFF when all DEF has
-- Purge lamp decal (3) been drained back into the tank from the lines and the pump.

-- Electrical disconnect The main electrical disconnect switch should not be moved to the OFF position
compartment door (4) while the lamp is illuminated.

-- Left side catwalk (5) The small purge lamp decal (3) beneath the lamp warns not to disconnect battery
power while the purge cycle is active.

The lamp and disconnect switch are located behind the compartment door (4), on
the left side of the machine, beneath the catwalk (5), outside the left cab door.

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21
Aftertreatment ECM
• A5:E2 Aftertreatment ECM The A5:E2 Aftertreatment ECM (arrow) is mounted to the rear wall of the battery
location - rear wall of the battery and air filter compartment, on the left side of the machine.
and air filter compartment (arrow)
The Aftertreatment ECM receives signals from sensors and senders on the CEM,
the NOX Sensor ECUs, and also from controls in the operator compartment. The
Aftertreatment ECM then controls the aftertreatment functions of the CEM and
PETU and shares the status of the CEM and its electronic components with the
monitor and other ECMs through the Data Links.

The Aftertreatment ECM also communicates and controls the DCU, which is the
ECM mounted to the Pump Electronics Tank Unit (PETU).

NOTE: Some service publications may refer to the Aftertreatment ECM as


the Chassis ECM. These are the same components.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -22- Module 4 - Emissions System

5
3 2

22
Fuel Priming Pump and Fuel Diverter Valve

• Location and identification of Fuel is supplied to the CEM fuel manifold by the electric fuel priming pump (1),
the fuel priming pump and fuel which is contained in the fuel filter base (3) of the primary fuel filter and water
diverter solenoid valve: separator (4). The fuel filter is mounted on the front of a panel forward of the right
side engine compartment (5).
-- Electric fuel priming pump (1)
When a regeneration cycle is required, the Engine ECM will ACTIVATE the fuel
-- Fuel diverter valve solenoid (2) priming pump and keep the fuel diverter valve solenoid (2) DE-ENERGIZED at the
start of any regeneration cycle. The pump must continue to operate throughout the
-- Fuel filter base (3) entire regeneration cycle.

-- Primary fuel filter and water


separator (4)

-- Engine compartment (5)

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2
1

23
DPF Regeneration Switch

• Identification and location of the The DPF Regeneration Switch (1) is located in the rocker switch panel (2), which is
DPF Regeneration Switch in the part of the right side instrument panel in the operator’s compartment. This
right side instrument panel 3-position momentary-type rocker switch performs the following functions:
• Depressing the bottom of the switch and holding it for at least two seconds
activates the Force Regeneration function, which manually activates a DPF
regeneration cycle. (A manual regeneration will only be allowed if the DPF
level is between 80% and 116% or if the ‘‘Time to Regen’’ is less than 8 hours.)
• The center position is the normal biased position and allows the Aftertreatment
ECM to automatically perform normal DPF regeneration cycles when required.
• Depressing the top of the switch and holding it for at least two seconds stops
an ACTIVE regeneration cycle and/or inhibits automatic regeneration by the
Aftertreatment ECM.

The DPF Regeneration Switch is monitored by and is an input to the Aftertreatment


ECM.

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(1) (2) (3) (4)


DPF DEF Level Emissions Check
Regeneration Gauge Malfunction Engine
Switch Indicator Indicator

(5) (6) (7) (8)


Regeneration DPF Regeneration Action
ACTIVE Indicator DISABLED Indicator
Indicator Indicator

24
Aftertreatment Interface
• Explanation of the indicator The illustration above shows the regeneration switch, DEF gauge, and the alert
lamps, gauges, and switches indicator icons used for the operator interface with Tier 4 Final strategies:
used for the operator interface
with the aftertreatment system • DPF Regeneration Switch (1): A 3-position rocker switch used to control the
regeneration system:
-- Force Regen (manually initiate a DPF regeneration cycle)
-- Auto Regen (normal position - allows automatic regeneration cycles)
-- Disable Regen (disable system and/or stop active regeneration cycle)
• Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) Level Gauge (2): Located on the monitor.
• Emissions Malfunction Indicator (3): Emissions related fault codes and
diagnostics.
• Check Engine Indicator (4): Engine and Aftertreatment related fault codes
and diagnostics - Level 2 or higher.
• Regeneration Active Indicator (5): Indicates an active regeneration cycle.
• DPF Indicator (6): Indicates the system is due for regeneration.
• Regeneration DISABLED Indicator (7): Invoked when the bottom of the DPF
Regeneration Switch is pressed.
• Action Indicator (8) - Invoked when regeneration is required.
The indicators icons shown above are displayed in Warning Indicator graphics that
are displayed in the Message Area of the F-Series Monitor.

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(6)
Action
Lamp

(2)
(3)
Emission
DEF Level
System
Gauge
Status Icon

(1)
Warning
Message
(4)
Information
Icon

(5)
Soft
Key

25
Instrument Cluster : LED Lamps and LCD Indicators
• Identification of the DEF gauge The emission system indicators and the DEF Level Gauge in the monitor that are
and emission system indicators associated the emissions system are shown in the illustration above:
displayed on the F-Series
monitor: • Warning Message (1): Warning messages with the emission system icons
are displayed below the gauge displays. All of the indicators shown previously
will be displayed in a warning message like the example above. The operator
-- Warning Message (1) can acknowledge the warning message to hide it.
• Emission System Status Icon (2): An indicator reflecting the status of the
-- Emission System Status
emission system is displayed in the top banner area of the monitor. This icon
Icon (2)
will be displayed even when the warning message has been acknowledged
and hidden.
-- DEF Level Gauge (3)
• DEF Level Gauge (3): This analog gauge shows the level of Diesel Exhaust
Fluid in the DEF tank. The Action Lamp (6) will illuminate and flash when the
-- Information Icon (4)
DEF tank level falls to 19% or below. A “Low DEF Level” warning message will
also pop up and a fault code will be logged.
-- Soft Key (5)
If the warning message contains a “More Info” icon in the upper right of the pop-up
-- Action Lamp (6) display, pressing the Soft Key (5) beneath the Information Icon (4) will expand the
message and the meaning of the warning will be explained. The Action Lamp will
also flash when any warning message is displayed that is associated with a fault in
the system.

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2 4 26
CLEAN EMISSIONS MODULE (CEM) AND CEM ELECTRONICS PANEL
Component Identification
• Clean Emissions Module (CEM) Installed in the right side of the engine and emissions compartment is the Cat
major components Clean Emissions Module (CEM). The CEM contains the following major
components:

• Aftertreatment #1 Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor (1)

• CEM Cradle (2)

• DEF Injector (3)

• ARD Head (4)

NOTE: The image above, and the images on the following pages,
are generic CEM images and may vary in their arrangement from the
components on the 374F and 390F. However, the functionality and
operation of these components are the same.

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1 2

5 6 7 8
27
• Clean Emissions Module (CEM) Additional major components of the CEM are:
major components - continued
• DPF Differential (Delta) Pressure Sensor (1)

• DPF #1 Inlet Pressure Sensor (2)

• DPF #1 Inlet Temperature Sensor (3)

• ARD Ignition Coil (4)

• Combustion Air Valve (5)

• Aftertreatment #1 Secondary Air Pressure Sensor (6)

• ARD Nozzle Heater Relay (7)

• Coolant Manifold (8)

• Fuel Manifold (9)

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2 1

5 9
3 8
28
CEM Electronics Panel

• Location, identification, and brief The CEM Electronics Panel contains most of the electronic components that
explanation of the components monitor and control the exhaust aftetreatment system. The Tier 4 Final CEM
on the CEM electronics panel: Electronics Panels for the C15 and C18 engine emissions systems are very similar
to those used for the Tier 4 Interim strategies. The major differences between the
-- DPF #1 Inlet Pressure Tier 4 Interim and Tier 4 Final strategy are the absence of the ARD air controller.
Sensor (1) Also, most of the electronic components of the CEM are monitored and controlled
-- DPF Differential (Delta) by an Aftertreatment ECM, instead of the Engine ECM. (NRS system components
Pressure Sensor (2) mounted on the engine are still monitored and controlled by the Engine ECM.)

-- ARD Air Valve (3) The CEM utilizes several components which are located on the electronics
-- ARD Secondary Air Pressure panel. To help in the determination of both the amount of soot in the DPF and the
Sensor (4) frequency of DPF regeneration are the DPF #1 Inlet Pressure Sensor (1) and the
DPF Differential (Delta) Pressure Sensor (2).
-- Temperature sensor common
connector (5) The ARD Air Valve (3) precisely controls the amount of air entering the ARD to aid
-- CEM Fuel Manifold (6) in the regeneration process. The air pressure reading to aid in control of the ARD
air valve is provided by the ARD Secondary Air Pressure Sensor (4).
-- ARD Ignition Coil (7)
-- ARD Nozzle Heater Relay (8) Other components that aid in the regeneration process are the ARD Flame Detect
Temperature Sensor (not shown) and the DPF Intake Temperature Sensor (not
-- Selective Catalytic Reduction shown). Both temperature sensors share a common connector (5) located on the
(SCR) Inlet Temperature CEM electronics panel.
Sensor (9)

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Fuel from the engine electric priming pump (not shown) is delivered to the CEM
Fuel Manifold (6), to be used by the ARD for regeneration. Within the fuel manifold
resides two pressure sensors and two solenoid valves which monitor and control
the fuel delivered to the ARD (not shown).

The ARD Ignition Coil (7) is used to provide voltage to the spark plug in the ARD
head. The spark plug is used to ignite the diesel fuel within the ARD, elevating the
exhaust temperature and making regeneration possible.

The ARD Nozzle Heater Relay (8) provides current to the ARD nozzle heater.
When current is supplied, the surface of the nozzle becomes hot enough to remove
fuel coking on the tip of the ARD fuel nozzle.

The one component on the CEM electronics panel that is not associated with the
regeneration system is the connector for the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)
Inlet Temperature Sensor (9). The SCR inlet temperature sensor is located in
the inlet portion of the SCR canister, prior to the SCR catalyst, and is used to
determine the proper temperature for SCR dosing. The sensor is a
thermocouple-type sensor and is similar to the DPF inlet temperature sensor.

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6 4 5 3

2
1

30
CEM Fuel Manifold

• Identification and brief The CEM Fuel Manifold (1) is mounted to the CEM electronics panel and contains
explanation of the components in several components that are integral to the regeneration process.
the CEM Fuel Manifold (1):
As fuel from the fuel diverter solenoid valve (on the primary fuel filter base) enters
-- Inlet Filter Fitting (2) the CEM fuel manifold, the fuel is filtered by the Inlet Filter Fitting (2). This in-line
filter is the first of three in-line filter fittings in the ARD fuel system.
-- ARD Pilot Fuel Solenoid
Valve (3) Once fuel passes through the inlet filter fitting, the manifold divides fuel flow into
two paths - pilot fuel supply and main fuel supply. Each fuel path contains a
-- Pilot Fuel Pressure Sensor (4) solenoid valve that controls fuel flow to the ARD, as well as a pressure sensor to
monitor the fuel pressure to the ARD. These two fuel paths and their components
-- ARD Main Fuel Solenoid are:
Valve (5) • Pilot Fuel Supply - the pilot fuel supply flows to and is controlled by the
ARD Pilot Fuel Solenoid Valve (3). The Pilot Fuel Pressure Sensor (4) is
-- Main Fuel Pressure Sensor (6) downstream from the solenoid and informs the Aftertreatment ECM of the pilot
fuel supply pressure.
• Main Fuel Supply - the main fuel supply flows to and is controlled by the
ARD Main Fuel Solenoid Valve (5). The Main Fuel Pressure Sensor (6) is
downstream from the solenoid and informs the Aftertreatment ECM of the main
fuel supply pressure.

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31
Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC)

• Identification of the major All engine exhaust gases flow through the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)
components of the Diesel Assembly (1) . The DPF assembly houses the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) (2)
Particulate Filter (DPF): and the DPF (3).

-- Diesel Particulate Filter The DOC is a flow-through device (not a filter) that reduces hydrocarbons from the
(DPF) Assembly (1) exhaust gas. As the engine operates, a chemical reaction takes place within the
catalyst. The catalyst is constructed of a substrate and has the appearance of a
-- Diesel Oxidation honeycomb.
Catalyst (DOC) (2)
The substrate is coated with an active catalyst layer composed of precious
-- Diesel Particulate Filter metals, such as platinum or palladium. As hot exhaust gases pass through
(DPF) (3) the honeycomb-like structure of the substrate, unburned gaseous and liquid
hydrocarbons in the exhaust gases are oxidized by a chemical reaction with the
• Explanation of the DOC and the precious metals in the DOC. The oxidation process reignites the hydrocarbons in
oxidation process performed to the exhaust gas allowing the remaining carbon atoms to be burned.
reduce exhaust emissions
The DOC oxidizes the following exhaust components:
• Carbon Monoxide (CO)
• Hydrocarbons (HC) and odor-causing compounds
• Soluble Organic Fraction (SOF) of Particulate Matter (PM)

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32
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)

• Explanation of the DPF operation The DPF (1) is a particulate trap used to reduce up to 90% of particulate emissions
from the exhaust gases.

These filters have a cellular structure with individual channels that are open on the
upstream end and plugged at the downstream end. Exhaust gases flow from the
DOC, through the pores of the DPF cell walls, then exit the DPF into the outlet of
the DPF Assembly (2).

Particulates and soot particles too large to flow through the pores of the DPF
collect on the cell walls. To maintain the filtering efficiency of the DPF, as well
as engine operating efficiency, soot that collects in the filter must be periodically
removed using a process called regeneration.

During regeneration the internal temperature of the DPF is elevated high enough
to facilitate a chemical reaction. The chemical reaction converts the carbon-based
soot particulates trapped in the filter into ash, carbon dioxide, and water.

High temperature, or “active” regeneration requires an external heat source to


elevate and sustain the exhaust temperatures. The ARD performs this function
by igniting and maintaining combustion in the ARD head, which elevates the
temperature of the exhaust.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -33- Module 4 - Emissions System

The DPF described here is installed on both the C15 and C18 ACERT Technology
Tier 4 Final engines.

Refer to Special Instruction REHS8180 for the three approved processes for
performing the required DPF maintenance on Tier 4 Final products equipped with a
DPF.

NOTE: Ash formed from the engine oil will also be present in the exhaust
gases of the engine. The ash will not be cleaned from the DPF during
regeneration.

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34
DPF Pressure Sensors

• Location, identification, and The DPF assembly is equipped with a DPF Differential (Delta) Pressure Sensor (1).
explanation of the function of the This pressure sensor is mounted adjacent to the DPF Inlet Pressure Sensor (2).
following: These two sensors are inputs to the Aftertreatment ECM.

-- DPF Differential (Delta) The differential pressure sensor measures the difference in exhaust gas pressure
Pressure Sensor (1) between the inlet and the outlet of the DPF assembly. The differential pressure
sensor receives a 5 volt reference voltage from the Aftertreatment ECM.
-- DPF Inlet Pressure Sensor (2)
The pressure sensor output signal voltage increases, up to a maximum of
approximately 4.5 volts, as the pressure differential between the inlet and outlet of
the DPF increases.

The output signal of the differential pressure sensor is monitored by the


Aftertreatment ECM. The Aftertreatment ECM uses the signal from the DPF
differential pressure sensor as well as the DPF inlet pressure sensor to aid in
determining the DPF soot level. As the DPF fills with soot, the pressure differential
between the DPF inlet and outlet increases.

The DPF pressure sensor comparison is only a part of the information used by the
Aftertreatment ECM to determine DPF soot load.

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1
2
3

35
DPF Monitoring System
• Explanation of the DPF pressure Components of the DPF monitoring system include:
and temperature sensors used
for monitoring the condition of • The DPF #1 Inlet Pressure Sensor (1): Mounted on the right side of the
the DPF: CEM. The sensor is used to monitor the exhaust pressure on the inlet
(turbocharger) side of the DPF group. As the soot load of the DPF increases,
-- DPF #1 Inlet Pressure the pressure at the inlet of the DPF will also increase. The output of this sensor
Sensor (1) can be used for troubleshooting high back-pressures in the inlet housing
-- DPF Differential Pressure (turbocharger side) of the DPF.
Sensor (2) • The DPF Differential Pressure Sensor (2): Mounted to the right side of
the CEM, adjacent to the inlet pressure sensor. This sensor compares the
-- DPF #1 Inlet Temperature difference in pressure between the DPF inlet and outlet housings. The sensor
Sensor (3) sends a signal to the Aftertreatment ECM indicating the difference in the
-- DPF #1 Inlet Temperature pressures between the two housings.
Sensor (3) The Aftertreatment ECM uses the differential pressure sensor signal as well as the
-- Aftertreatment #1 Exhaust Gas soot model (contained in the ECM software) to determine the amount of soot load
Temperature #1 in the DPF and when an automatic DPF regeneration is required. The output of
Sensor (4) the soot monitor, discussed later, is also considered by the Aftertreatment ECM in
determining the soot load or the DPF.
-- Aftertreatment #1 Secondary
Air Pressure Sensor (5) • The DPF #1 Inlet Temperature Sensor (3): Mounted in the inlet housing of
the DPF group. The output from this sensor is monitored by the Aftertreatment
ECM. The Aftertreatment ECM will use this signal to determine the
temperature of the exhaust gas. The exhaust gas in the inlet housing is a
combination of engine exhaust and combustion air provided by the ARD head.
• The Aftertreatment #1 Exhaust Gas Temperature #1 Sensor (4): Mounted
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SERV1994 - 05/14 -36- Module 4 - Emissions System

in the ARD head. This sensor is used to monitor the exhaust temperature on
the inlet (turbocharger) side of the DPF group. The Aftertreatment ECM uses
the signal from this sensor to determine if the flame in the ARD has started and
if the flame has possibly gone out.
• The Aftertreatment #1 Secondary Air Pressure Sensor (5): Mounted to
the combustion air valve assembly and the Aftertreatment ECM monitors the
signal from this sensor. The ECM uses the signal from the secondary air
pressure sensor and the DPF inlet pressure sensor to determine mass air
flow through the ARD and DPF inlet. Measuring mass air flow is necessary to
maintain the flame in the ARD head during regeneration.

NOTE: The illustration shows representative views of the sensors. The


actual sensor may be equipped with different length lines and/or cables.

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9 6

1
5

2
4

7
8

3 37
Aftertreatment Regeneration Device (ARD)

• Identification of components and The ARD is comprised of two main components, the ARD housing (1) and the ARD
explanation of operation of the head (2). The ARD housing is the path through which the exhaust flows in order to
ARD head: be heated when regeneration is occurring. Air, fuel, and spark come together in the
ARD head to facilitate combustion, which elevates the temperature of the exhaust
-- ARD housing (1) flowing through the housing.

-- ARD head (2) Within the ARD head are several components. The pilot fuel fitting (3) and the
main fuel fitting (4) each contain an integrated in-line filter designed to protect the
-- Pilot fuel fitting (3) ARD fuel nozzle from debris that may enter the system during service of the ARD
fuel system.
-- Main fuel fitting (4)
There are also coolant supply (5) and return (6) passages in the ARD head.
Coolant is used to protect the internal components of the fuel injector (not shown)
-- Coolant supply passage (5) inside of the ARD head. The fuel injector has two inlets, one each for pilot and
main fuel. An electrical connection for the heater coil (7) surrounds the body of the
-- Coolant return passage (6) injector. The coil is used to super heat the injector tip to prevent coking.

-- Heater coil (7) A thermocouple is installed in the ARD head to detect if ignition has been achieved.
The ARD flame detect sensor (8) supplies the ECM with temperature data from
inside the ARD housing. The Aftertreatment ECM uses the temperature data to
determine if ignition occurred.

The spark plug (9) is used to ignite the air/fuel mixture within the ARD head.

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38
ARD Fuel Supply

• Location, identification, and brief Fuel for the ARD head is supplied by the electric fuel priming pump (2), which is
description of the components mounted to the primary fuel filter base. The primary fuel filter is the outboard filter
on the primary fuel filter base assembly mounted to the front of a panel forward of the right side of the engine
for providing fuel to the CEM for compartment. The Engine ECM will ACTIVATE the fuel priming pump whenever a
regeneration of the DPF regeneration cycle is started. The fuel priming pump will remain ACTIVATED
throughout the entire regeneration cycle. Components of the ARD fuel supply
system visible above are:
• Primary fuel filter with water separator (1)
• Electric fuel priming pump (2)
• CEM fuel supply line (to CEM fuel manifold) (3)
• Fuel diverter solenoid valve (4)

During a regeneration cycle, the output fuel pressure from the priming pump is
regulated. The Engine ECM will ACTIVATE the fuel priming pump and
DE-ENERGIZE the fuel diverter valve solenoid at the start of any regeneration
cycle. The pump must continue to operate throughout the entire regeneration
cycle.

If there is insufficient fuel pressure from the pump, the regeneration cycle will be
halted. Low ARD fuel pressure will cause the temperature of the combustion gas
entering the DPF to be too low to completely burn the soot from the DPF.

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39
• Explanation of fuel flow to the During a DPF regeneration cycle, the pressure of the output fuel from the priming
ARD from the primary fuel filter pump is regulated. The ARD fuel pressure regulator (2) will maintain a fuel priming
and base: pump output pressure of approximately 1900 kPa (275 psi) to the CEM fuel
manifold.
-- Fuel diverter solenoid valve (1)
During a regeneration cycle, the Engine ECM will ACTIVATE the fuel priming
-- ARD fuel pressure regulator (2) pump to provide fuel flow to the ARD. The Engine ECM will keep the fuel diverter
solenoid valve (1) DE-ENERGIZED in this condition to allow fuel to flow to the
fuel manifold. The priming pump will continue to operate throughout the entire
regeneration cycle.

If there is insufficient fuel pressure from the fuel priming pump, the regeneration
cycle will be halted.

Low ARD fuel pressure will cause the temperature of the combustion gas entering
the DPF to be too low to completely burn the soot from the DPF.

NOTE: The fuel diverter solenoid valve is referred to as the ARD Fuel Flow
Diverter Actuator in Cat ET.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -40- Module 4 - Emissions System

What is regeneration? Removing soot from the DPF.


How does it work? Elevates exhaust temperatures.
• Passive: Higher engine loads cause higher exhaust
temperature, which removes soot naturally.
-- All DPF systems have some low temperature
regeneration.
-- Some engine systems need added devices (e.g. intake
throttle, back pressure valve, additional catalysts).
• Active: A small amount of additional diesel fuel is used to
increase exhaust temperature (e.g. Dosing, Burner,
Doser/Burner combination).

40
REGENERATION

• Explanation of Passive Passive Regeneration: Higher engine loads cause higher exhaust temperature.
Regeneration and Active
Regeneration of the DPF • Exhaust temps ~ 450°C.

• All DPF systems have some passive regeneration.

• A Tier 4 Final regeneration system may take days or weeks to build soot
compared to a Tier 4 Interim regeneration system for the following reasons:

-- Advanced fuel timing to increase engine-out NOX and decrease engine-out


soot. (So the engine produces a lot less soot)

-- The increased NOX in the exhaust helps oxidize soot at lower temperatures.

Active Regeneration: A small amount of additional diesel fuel is used to increase


exhaust temperature (e.g. Dosing, Burner, Doser/Burner combination). Active
regeneration types include:

• High Speed (transient)

• Low Speed (stationary)

• Manual (stationary)

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REGENERATION TRIGGERS
• Start up
-- Dosing Temperature
◦◦SCR Catalyst must be 200°C for DEF dosing to occur.
-- SCR Maintenance
◦◦Clears urea deposits from SCR System.
-- ARD Maintenance
◦◦Exercises the ARD in the event regeneration has not
occurred in 25 hours.
• Soot
-- Regeneration will occur when the soot load reaches a
level the ECM determines regeneration is needed to
oxidize the soot.

41
REGENERATION TRIGGERS

• Explanation of the conditions For Tier 4 Final, regeneration occurs for several reasons other than to oxidize soot.
that trigger the regeneration The start up regeneration occurs more than any other regeneration. It is used for
function several different purposes such as warming up the SCR catalyst and cleaning the
catalyst and exhaust system of deposits. Additionally, fuel is flushed through the
ARD nozzle to ensure proper function upon demand.

• Dosing Temperature

-- The SCR Catalyst must be at 200°C (392°F) for DEF dosing to occur.

• SCR Maintenance

-- Clears urea deposits from the SCR System. Urea becomes a solid at
room temperature and is very corrosive. Heating the exhaust allows the
urea to melt and be carried out as a vapor.

• ARD Maintenance

-- Exercises the ARD in the event regeneration has not occurred in 25 hours.
With regeneration intervals increasing due to a combination of changes in
timing and catalyst in the DPF, the ARD will need to be checked to ensure
proper operation can/will still occur.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -42- Module 4 - Emissions System

• Soot Oxidation

-- The final regeneration trigger is the need to clean the DPF. The DPF
collects soot produced by combustion. Regeneration is required to oxidize
the soot. In the event the soot load reaches 90%, the operator will be
notified and a manual regeneration should be performed.

-- When soot oxidation was regenerated for Tier 4 Interim, there were three
main types of regeneration: High Speed (transient), Low Speed (stationary),
and Manual (stationary). For Tier 4 Final, the same is true with the only
difference being regenerations have the ability to transition from low speed
to high speed. This helps ensure the regeneration will complete if the
operator goes back to work in the middle of a Low Speed regeneration.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -43- Module 4 - Emissions System

What is SCR?
• Needed to further reduce NOX to meet Tier 4 Final
emissions standards.
• SCR is Selective Catalytic Reduction .
--Selective: reductant reacts with NOX.
--Catalytic: requires a catalyst.
--Reduction: NOX is reduced to Nitrogen (N2) by a
reductant (below).
• The reductant used is ammonia (NH3).
-- Ammonia comes from urea that has been heated above
200°C.
-- Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) contains urea.

43
• Explanation of the term SCR and The illustration above explains the composition of the SCR and summarizes the
how the process works chemical reaction that reduces the emissions of the engine.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -44- Module 4 - Emissions System

Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF)


• 32.5% urea and 67.5% deionized water.
• Safe and inexpensive way to store ammonia (NH3).
• Non-toxic, non-hazardous, and not considered an
environmental issue.
• Freezes at 12°F (-11°C)
-- The system will be capable of avoiding freezing during
operation and thawing frozen DEF at engine start up.
• Degrades over time at elevated temperatures.
-- Optimum storage temperature is 15°F to 77°F
(-9°C to 25°C).

44
Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) (For Use in SCR - Equipped Engines)

• Explanation of Diesel Exhaust Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) is a liquid that is injected into the engine exhaust
Fluid (DEF), its properties, and stream of engines equipped with SCR systems to reduce emissions of NOX in
how it works to reduce emissions diesel engine exhaust.

• Urea: Solid, white, nitrogen containing chemical

• DEF solution:

-- DEF is composed of 32.5% urea and 67.5% of Deionized water


(ISO 22241-1). DEF decomposes when heated above 200°C (392°F) into
NH3 and CO2.

-- DEF solution was chosen because it is safer and easier to store than the
alternate reductant: ammonia gas.

-- The freezing point of DEF is -11°C (+12°F).

-- DEF degrades over time at elevated temperatures. The water within the
solution evaporates leaving behind a higher concentration of urea.

• Impact of storage temperature on DEF life:


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SERV1994 - 05/14 -45- Module 4 - Emissions System

-- Below 77ºF (25ºC) - 18 months

-- 77 - 86ºF (25 - 30ºC) - 12 months

-- 86 - 95ºF (30 - 35ºC) - 6 months

-- More than 95ºF (35ºC) – Test quality before use

• A supplier-branded DEF can be ordered through the Cat parts ordering


system.

• DEF concentration can be checked using a digital refractometer (part number:


360-0774).

For proper DEF handling procedures and fluid recommendations, refer to Special
Publication SEBU6250.

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46
SCR (SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION) CATALYST

The SCR:

• Is a cordierite flow-through substrate catalyzed with Copper Zeolite.

• Catalyst heats up enough for the water in DEF to evaporate.

• The H2O in the DEF evaporates when the ammonia, which is absorbed by the
catalyst, creates a chemical reaction which reduces NOX

• Converts NOX (Nitric Oxide and Nitrogen Dioxide) to N2.

AMOX (Ammonia Oxidation) Catalyst coating

• During certain engine operating conditions, too much ammonia will be stored
and may pass through the catalyst. This is called ammonia slip.

• A selective ammonia oxidation (AMOX) catalyst is used to eliminate the


ammonia prior to exiting the exhaust pipe. It is used to convert the NH3 slip to
N2+ H2O.

• The AMOX is primarily responsible for removing odor from the exhaust. The
cause of said odor is ammonia slip.

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47
History
• Explanation of the how the DPF, SCR was first developed and used for reducing NOX emissions from stationary
DOC, SCR, AMOX, and urea work electric power plants. Caterpillar began using SCR systems to meet Tier 4 Interim
together to reduce emissions emissions standards in some Locomotive and Generator Set applications.

The reduction of engine emissions is outlined in the graphic above:

• Exhaust flows through the ARD housing and is heated to the temperature
needed for regeneration to occur (>500°C).

• The exhaust then flows through the DOC where Hydrocarbons (HC), Carbon
Monoxide (CO), NOX, Oxygen (O2), and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) are converted
to Nitric Oxide (NO), Water (H2O), CO2, Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), and O2. This
not only removes HC and some CO2, but sets the stage for the rest of the
chemical reactions that will occur as exhaust passes through the CEM.

• The exhaust passes through the DPF where soot is trapped. When the
DPF core is heated to 450°C (842°F) or higher, regeneration occurs, thus
converting soot and O2 into CO2 and H2O.

• From the DPF, the exhaust stream enters the SCR mixing tube where it is
mixed with DEF.

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• As the DEF contacts the hot catalyst, the water is evaporated and the urea is
converted to ammonia. The ammonia is then absorbed by the catalyst. As
the exhaust gas passes through the catalysts a chemical reaction between the
ammonia and precious metals will convert the NOX to N and H2O. The quantity
of DEF injected depends on the reading from the NOX Sensors.

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5 4

3
2

6 49
PUMP ELECTRONICS TANK UNIT (PETU)

• Location and identification of The Pump Electronics Tank Unit contains the DEF tank and most of the
components on the PETU components associated with the injection and safe storage of the Diesel Exhaust
Fluid. The image above shows the PETU and the major components included in
• Brief description of component the assembly. These components and their functions are:
functionality
• Coolant Diverter Valve (1): Controls coolant flow to the tank and DEF pump.

• PETU Relay (2): Controls power to the entire PETU.

• Heated DEF Line Relay (3): Controls power to the heated DEF lines.

• Coolant Manifold (4): The connection point between the PETU coolant outlet
and the engine cooling system.

• Fill Adapter and Cap (5): The filler tube for adding and containing DEF in the
tank.

• DEF Tank (6): The container for holding the DEF.

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50
• Location and identification of Additional components of the PETU are listed below:
components on the PETU
• DEF Dosing Control Unit (DCU) (1): An ECM that controls all the electrical
• Brief description of component components on the PETU and the DEF injectors. The DCU also monitors the
functionality NOX sensors. The DCU may be accessed and reprogrammed using Cat ET.
(The DCU is sometimes referenced as the DEF Control Module.)

• Voltage Line Protection Module (VLPM) (2): Protects all electrical


components on the PETU from voltage spikes.

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7

6 4
51
• Location and identification of Additional components of the PETU are listed below:
components on the PETU
• Heated DEF Lines (1): Electrically heated lines that will energize any time
• Brief description of component ambient temperature and DEF tank temperature are cold. These lines will
functionality thaw any frozen DEF after starting in cold ambient temperatures and will also
stay heated to prevent freezing during operation.

• DEF Pump Assembly (2): Supplies filtered DEF fluid to the DEF injector.

• DEF Level Sensor (3): Measures the amount of DEF in the tank. This level
sensor is a made up of multiple reed switches that will open and close when
a magnetic float moves over them. The reed switch will provide a resistance
reading to the aftertreatment ECM that will be converted into a DEF level
percentage.

• DEF Temperature Sensor (4): Located at the bottom of the tank and is
integrated within the DEF level sensor.

• DEF Tank Heater (5): Activated by the Aftertreatment ECM when the DEF
tank temperature is less than 15°C (59°F)

• The DEF Pickup Screen (6): A 100-micron screen integrated into the pickup
tube, used to eliminate any debris in the DEF tank.

• DEF Pickup Tube (7): Suction tube for the DEF pump to draw DEF from the
tank.

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7

4
1

3
2

52
Cold Weather Operation

• Explanation of the cold weather Since DEF freezes at approximately -11°C (11°F), the system is designed to thaw
operation of the DEF system - the DEF before dosing can occur.
heating and purging
Engine coolant is supplied to the PETU (1) via the Coolant Diverter Valve (2).
The diverter valve solenoid is ENERGIZED by the Aftertreatment ECM when the
DEF tank temperature is less than 15°C (59°F). When ENERGIZED, the diverter
valve directs coolant to the DEF Tank Heater (3). If the DEF tank temperature
drops below 20°C (68°F) or if the ambient temperature falls below 0°C (32°F)
during operation, the coolant diverter valve solenoid will be ENERGIZED to begin
circulating warm engine coolant to keep the DEF from freezing. This action will
also thaw DEF around the DEF Level Sensor Float (6) and the pickup screen. The
coolant will then flow through the DEF Pump (4) to warm the pump. Coolant is
then directed back to the engine jacket water pump inlet through a hose connected
to the return fitting (5).

If DEF freezes in the DEF pump or DEF lines it may cause damage to the
components. DEF is allowed to freeze inside the tank. The DEF tank filler neck
design provides an air gap at the top of the tank for expansion. The system is
designed to purge all DEF back to the DEF tank when the engine is shut down.

To purge the DEF lines, the DEF injector opens and the DEF reversing valve
reverses the flow of the pump. DEF purging occurs at key-OFF or when a DEF
related fault code becomes active. The purge takes approximately 1.5 minutes to
completely remove the DEF from the lines and pump.

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Do not turn the battery disconnect switch OFF during the purge process. A DEF
purge lamp is located next to the machine battery disconnect switch and stays
illuminated while the DEF purge cycle is active. When the lamp is turned OFF by
the Aftertreatment ECM, the disconnect switch may then be moved to the OFF
position. If the purge process does not complete and the temperature of the DEF
drops below -11°C (11°F), the pump and lines are at risk of damage.

If the purge process does not complete, a diagnostic code will become active for
1.5 minutes, at which time the code will become a logged code. Any warranty
report will include a history of these events.

The DEF supply lines, suction lines, and back flow lines are also heated
(electrically) to prevent the DEF in the line from freezing while dosing.

DEF dosing must be fully functional within 70 minutes after machine start up.

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2 3
4

54
DEF Injector

• Explanation of the operation of The DEF injector is an electronically controlled valve that sprays DEF into the
the DEF injector exhaust stream as three solid streams. It is critical that the spray pattern is
cone-shaped for proper mixing with the exhaust. Once the system starts dosing, it
• Identification of the DEF injector will continue until the engine is shut down. When the injector operates, it pulses
features ON and OFF, injecting the same dosage of DEF each time. To control the dosing
quantity, the time between pulses is varied by the Aftertreatment ECM. If more
DEF is required, the pulses become faster.

Coolant is supplied to the injector as a means to keep the injector cooled as it


encounters the high heat from the exhaust and the extreme heat encountered
during regeneration. Coolant flow can be reversed with no issues.

Features on the DEF injector identified above are:

• Electrical connection (1)

• DEF supply fitting (2)

• Coolant supply fitting (3)

• Coolant return fitting (4)

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1 6

5
55
• Location and identification of the The DEF injector assembly (1) is in installed in the front of the exhaust tube
DEF injector between the DPF (2) and the SCR (3), beneath the hood and on the right side of
the engine compartment.
• Identification of the coolant, DEF,
and electrical connections Features of the DEF injector assembly identified above are:

• Electrical Connection (4)

• DEF Supply line (5) (inside insulating wrap)

• Coolant Return line (6)

• Coolant Supply line (7)

NOTE: The coolant supply and coolant return hoses can be reversed
without any adverse effects to operation or performance.

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56
NOX Sensors
• Explanation of the operation of The NOX sensors (1 and 2) consist of a sensing element, harness, and an
the NOX Sensors Electronic Control Unit (ECU) (3). The sensing element is made of two chambers
and a heater. The first chamber measures the amount of O2 and the second
chamber measures the amount of NOX and NH3.

Using electrochemistry, a ceramic material attracts ions at approximately


800°C (1,472°F) and an electrode on the chamber wall measures the electrical
charge, which equates to a voltage or current. The voltage or current signal is then
received by the ECU and interpreted as a NOX concentration.

The heater is used to maintain the sensing element temperature. The sensing
element is sensitive to moisture. If the sensor detects any moisture while at
800°C (1,472°F), it could quickly cool the element which would cause it to crack.

At engine start-up there is always some moisture in the exhaust pipes. The NOX
sensors will not start working until the exhaust temperature at the sensors is
greater than 100°C (212°F) for approximately 2.5 minutes.

There are two NOX sensors used - one is installed in the exhaust tube, immediately
after the turbocharger and measures the amount of NOX in the exhaust prior to
aftertreatment. The second sensor is installed immediately after the aftertreatment
package and measures the amount of NOX after the SCR.

NOTE: Refer to Special Instruction REHS8151 for the proper handling and
installation procedures for NOX sensors.

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INDUCEMENT

Inducement: Something that helps bring about an


action or a desired result.
• The purpose of inducements is to prompt the operator to
repair or perform maintenance on the emissions control
system.

57
DEFINITION OF INDUCEMENT

• Explanation of the definition of Inducement is defined as something that helps bring about an action or a desired
Inducements and the reason for result. The purpose of inducements is to prompt the operator to repair or perform
the inducement strategies maintenance on the emissions control system.

Inducement strategies are control actions required by EPA/CARB Tier 4 Final and
European Union (EU) Stage IV regulations to ensure prompt correction of various
failures in the engine NOX emissions control system. They require actions to limit
engine performance and define required indications including visual alarms (lamps
and messages) and audible alarms. The times for lights, derates, and alarms will
vary between EPA and EU. The inducements are initiated by the Engine ECM
(include engine derating or shutdown). When the engine derates, the rpm and
torque are reduced.

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SAFE HARBOR MODE


• Key cycle
• 20 Minutes

58
SAFE HARBOR MODE

• Explanation of the Safe Harbor Safe harbor mode is a 20 minute engine run time period when the engine can be
Mode of engine operation and the operated with full power. Once the engine is in level 3 inducement, the operator can
reason for the condition perform a key cycle, and the engine will enter safe harbor mode. For example, on a
machine, if the operator reaches a level 3 inducement, the safe harbor mode can
be used to move the machine to a location where the machine can be serviced. If
20 minutes of engine running time has passed and the fault has not been
corrected, the engine will reach final inducement with derates until the fault has
been fixed. Safe harbor mode can only be implemented once.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -59- Module 4 - Emissions System

ENGINE EMISSIONS OPERATOR INDUCEMENT


SERVICE MODE OVERRIDE
• Cat ET Override within System Troubleshooting Settings
for the Engine ECM
• Unlimited Time As Long As Cat ET Is Connected

59
ENGINE EMISSIONS OPERATOR INDUCEMENT SERVICE MODE OVERRIDE

• Explanation of the operator Engine emissions operator inducement service mode override mode allows a
inducement service mode technician to service inducement-related faults on a machine while having full
override, the purpose, and how to engine operation and no derate effects. This mode is initiated through a connection
activate with Cat® ET. This mode requires a factory password to activate. The engine
emissions operator inducement service mode override can be entered as many
times as necessary and does not have a time limit. However, If Cat ET loses
connection, the override will automatically turn off.

NOTE: The Cat ET engine emissions operator inducement service mode


is located in the diagnostic tests, system troubleshooting settings section
under the engine ECM.

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CONFIGURABLE PARAMETERS IN CAT ET:


• Engine Emissions Operator Inducement Progress
Configuration (This defines the time and engine
performance as an inducement is active)
-- Reduced Performance
-- Reduced Time
• Engine Emissions Operator Final Inducement Action
-- Shutdown
-- Idle

60
INDUCEMENT PARAMETERS

• Explanation of the configurable There are two notable configurable inducement parameters available. They are
inducement parameters described as follows:
• Engine Emissions Operator Inducement Progress Configuration:
-- Reduced performance: Allows operation of the engine for a longer period
of time, but the engine will progressively derate the longer the engine is
operated.
-- Reduced time: Allows operation of the engine with full power, but for a
reduced amount of time.
• Engine Emissions Operator Final Inducement Action: Determines what will
happen when the third level of inducement occurs.
-- Idle down: Configures the engine to operate at 100% derate with a
maximum engine speed of 1000 rpm.
-- Shutdown: Configures the engine to shut down. The operator may restart
the engine. The engine will run for 5 minutes at 100% derate and then shut
down. This event will occur until the issue is resolved.
NOTE: If low idle is set higher than 1000 rpm, then only “Shutdown”
configuration can be selected.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -61- Module 4 - Emissions System

DEF LEVEL INDUCEMENTS


Reduced Performance
Idle or
Shutdown

Configurable Parameter
1. Idle - 100% Derate, 1000 rpm max Audible Alarm

2. Shutdown = Cool down, 5 minutes (minimum)


rolling shutdown (100% Derate,
1000 rpm max). 50% Engine Derate

ILLUMINATED FLASHING

Action Lamp

CONSTANT ILLUMINATION

CONSTANT ILLUMINATION

DEF TANK LEVEL

DEF Guage
100% 20% 13.5% 7.5% 1% Empty
Tank
Level 1 Fault Level 2 Fault Level 3 Fault

61
DEF LEVEL INDUCEMENT - REDUCED PERFORMANCE

• Explanation of the inducement The following describes the inducement strategy for DEF level when the reduced
strategy when the Reduced performance configuration is selected in Cat ET.
Performance configuration is
selected If the DEF level falls below 20%, an amber indicator will illuminate next to the DEF
Level Gauge on the dash. To avoid further inducements, add DEF to the DEF tank.

If the DEF level falls below 13.5%, the Emissions Malfunction Indicator Lamp will
illuminate. The amber indicator next to the DEF Level Gauge on the dash will
continue to remain lit.

If the DEF level is below 7.5%, the Emissions Malfunction Indicator Lamp will
illuminate and a flashing Action Indicator Lamp will also illuminate. The amber
indicator next to the DEF Level Gauge on the dash will remain lit. When DEF level
has reached 1%, the machine will be limited to 75% torque. At this point, a small
amount of DEF will still remain in the tank.

If no action is taken, and the tank has been emptied of all DEF (detected by a
pressure loss in the DEF system) the Emissions Malfunction Indicator Lamp will
illuminate, the flashing Action Indicator Lamp will illuminate, and an audible alarm
will sound 20 seconds prior to the final inducement.

At final inducement (empty tank) the engine will be taken too low idle or will be shut
down (depending on which programmable parameter was selected in Cat ET).

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -62- Module 4 - Emissions System

DEF LEVEL INDUCMENTS


Reduced Time
Configurable Parameter

1. Idle-50% Torque Derate, 1000 rpm max Idle or


Shutdown
2. Shutdown = Cool down, 5 minutes (minimum)
rolling shutdown (50% Torque Derate,
1000 rpm max).
Audible Alarm Engine Derate

ILLUMINATED FLASHING
Action Lamp

CONSTANT ILLUMINATION

CONSTANT ILLUMINATION

DEF TANK LEVEL


DEF
Level Gauge 0% 20% 13.5% 7.5% 3%

Level 1 Fault Level 2 Fault Level 3 Fault

62
DEF LEVEL INDUCEMENT - REDUCED TIME

• Explanation of the inducement The following describes the inducement strategy for DEF level when the reduced
strategy when the Reduced Time time configuration is selected in Cat ET.
configuration is selected
If the DEF level falls below 20%, an amber indicator will illuminate next to the DEF
Level Gauge on the dash. To avoid further inducements, add DEF to the DEF tank.

If the DEF level falls below 13.5%, the Emissions Malfunction Indicator Lamp will
illuminate. The amber indicator next to the DEF Level Gauge on the dash will
continue to remain lit.

If the DEF level is below 7.5%, the Emissions Malfunction Indicator Lamp will
illuminate and a flashing Action Indicator Lamp will also illuminate. The amber
indicator next to the DEF Level Gauge on the dash will remain lit. \

If no action is taken, and the DEF level reaches 3%, the Emissions Malfunction
Indicator Lamp will remain illuminated, the flashing Action Indicator Lamp remain
illuminated, and an audible alarm will sound 20 seconds prior to final inducement.
At final inducement, the engine will be taken too low idle or will be shut down
(depending on which programmable parameter was selected in Cat ET).

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DEF QUALITY/TAMPERING/DOSING INTERRUPTION INDUCMENT


Idle or
Shutdown
Configurable Parameter 100% Power

1. Idle-50% Torque Derate, 1000 rpm max


2. Shutdown = Cool down, 5 minutes (minimum)
rolling shutdown (50% Torque Derate, SAFE HARBOR

1000 rpm max). Idle or


One Keycycle Shutdown

ILLUMINATED FLASHING
Audible Alarm

ILLUMINATED FLASHING

Action Lamp
CONSTANT ILLUMINATION

1st Fault
Occurance 2.5hrs 3 hrs 40min 4 hrs

Repeat Fault
Within 40 Hrs 0 hrs 5 min 10 min 30 min
Level 1 Fault Level 2 Fault Level 3 Fault Level 3 Fault
Final Inducement

TIME
63
DEF QUALITY, TAMPERING, AND DOSING INTERRUPTION INDUCEMENT

• Explanation of the inducement The emissions malfunction indicator lamp will illuminate for a fault resulting from
strategy when DEF quality is poor DEF quality, SCR system tampering, or an SCR system fault. If the fault is the
detected, system tampering, or result of poor DEF quality or system tampering, a first occurrence will result in a
dosing interruption occurs level 1 inducement for a duration of 2.5 hours. Repeat occurrences will result in a
level 1 inducement duration of 5 minutes.

If a fault condition exists for the entire duration of inducement level 1, the strategy
advances to inducement level 2. The emissions malfunction indicator lamp will
illuminate and a flashing action indicator will illuminate. The duration for a level 2
inducement is 70 minutes for the first occurrence. Repeat occurrences will result in
a level 2 inducement duration of 5 minutes.

If a fault condition exists for the entire duration of inducement level 2, the strategy
advances to inducement level 3. The emissions malfunction indicator lamp will
remain illuminated, flashing action indicator will remain illuminated, and an audible
alarm will sound 20 seconds prior to the level 3 inducement.

At final inducement, the engine will be taken too low idle or will be shut down
(depending on which programmable parameter was selected in Cat ET). After the
final inducement you may cycle the key, which will allow 20 minutes (safe harbor)
of engine run time with full torque. After safe harbor, the audible alarm will once
again sound for 20 seconds prior to engine idle or shut down state until the issue
has been resolved.

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EGR SYSTEM FAULT INDUCEMENT


Idle or
Shutdown

Configurable Parameter 100% Power

1. Idle - 100% Derate, 1000 rpm max


2. Shutdown = Cool down, 5 minutes (minimum)
rolling shutdown (100% Derate, SAFE HARBOR
1000 rpm max).
Idle or
One Keycycle
Shutdown

ILLUMINATED FLASHING
Audible Alarm

ILLUMINATED FLASHING

Action Lamp
CONSTANT ILLUMINATION

1st Fault
Occurance 35 hrs 36 hrs 36 hrs
20 min

Repeat Fault
1 hr 2 hrs
Within 40 Hrs 0 hrs 48 min 48 min 08 min
Level 1 Fault Level 2 Fault Level 3 Fault Level 3 Fault
Final Inducement

TIME
64
EGR SYSTEM FAULT INDUCEMENT

• Explanation of the inducement The emissions malfunction indicator lamp will illuminate for a fault resulting from
strategy when an EGR (NRS) either a low mass air flow rate code. If the fault is the result of an impeded EGR
valve fault occurs (NRS) valve a first occurrence will result in a level 1 inducement for a duration of
35 hours. Repeat occurrences will result in a level 1 inducement duration of
48 minutes.

If a fault condition exists for the entire duration of inducement level 1, the strategy
advances to inducement level 2. Once at level 2, the emissions malfunction
indicator lamp will illuminate and a flashing action indicator will illuminate. The
duration for a level 2 inducement is 60 minutes for all occurrences.

If a fault condition exists for the entire duration of inducement level 2, the strategy
advances to inducement level 3. The emissions malfunction indicator lamp will
remain illuminated, the flashing action indicator will remain illuminated, and an
audible alarm will sound 20 seconds prior to the level 3 inducement.

At final inducement, the engine will be taken too low idle or will be shut down
(depending on which programmable parameter was selected in Cat ET). After the
final inducement you may cycle the key, which will allow 20 minutes (safe harbor)
of engine run time with full torque. After safe harbor, the audible alarm will once
again sound for 20 seconds prior to engine idle or shut down state until the issue
has been resolved.

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INDUCEMENT EVENT CODES


• E1389 (1) CDL/5246-15 J1939: Aftertreatment #1 SCR
Operator Inducement
• E1389 (2) CDL/5246-16 J1939: Aftertreatment #1 SCR
Operator Inducement
• E1389 (3) CDL/5246-0 J1939: Aftertreatment #1 SCR
Operator Inducement
• E954 (1) CDL/1761-17 J1939: Aftertreatment #1 Diesel
Exhaust Fluid Tank Level Low
• E954 (2) CDL/1761-18 J1939: Aftertreatment #1 Diesel
Exhaust Fluid Tank Level Low
• E954 (3) CDL/1761-1 J1939: Aftertreatment #1 Diesel
Exhaust Fluid Tank Level Low 65
INDUCEMENT EVENT CODES
• Explanation of the fault codes The following is a list of fault codes associated with the DEF system and
associated with the DEF system inducements:
and inducements
• E1389 (1) CDL/5246-15 J1939: Aftertreatment #1 SCR Operator
Inducement: Indicates a fault has occurred in the SCR system.
• E1389 (2) CDL/5246-16 J1939: Aftertreatment #1 SCR Operator
Inducement: Indicates an SCR fault has continued past the level one time
threshold.
• E1389 (3) CDL/5246-0 J1939: Aftertreatment #1 SCR Operator
Inducement: Indicates an SCR fault has continued past the level two time
threshold.
NOTE: The exact time threshold varies depending on the situation and was
mentioned in detail on the four slides preceding.
• E954 (1) CDL/1761-17 J1939: Aftertreatment #1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Tank
Level Low: Indicates DEF level has reached 13.5% remaining.
• E954 (2) CDL/1761-18 J1939: Aftertreatment #1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Tank
Level Low: Indicates DEF level has reached 7.5% remaining.
• E954 (3) CDL/1761-1 J1939: Aftertreatment #1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid
Tank Level Low: Indicates DEF level has reached 3% remaining on the
reduced time configuration and an empty tank on the reduced performance
configuration.

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66
DEF CLEANLINESS

• Explanation of the importance of Preventing inducements from occurring can almost always be accomplished by
DEF and DEF tank cleanliness ensuring the DEF tank is filled every time the diesel fuel tank is filled and through
the use of proper contamination control processes. Ensure the filling area is clean
prior to removing the DEF filler cap, and always use a clean container when
transferring DEF from a bulk storage location to the machine. Additionally,
ensuring DEF cleanliness from the supplier and implementing a filtration strategy
when dispensing DEF from the bulk tank will significantly reduce the likelihood of
failures resulting in inducements.

Contaminants can degrade the quality and life of DEF. Filtering DEF is
recommended when dispensed into the DEF tank. Filters should be compatible
with DEF and should be used exclusively with DEF. Check with the filter supplier
to confirm compatibility with DEF before using. Mesh-type filters using compatible
metals, such as stainless steel, are recommended. Paper (cellulose) media and
some synthetic filter media are not recommended because of degradation during
use.

The images above depict areas of concern when referring to DEF cleanliness. Prior
to filling the DEF tank, clean the blue colored DEF tank filler cap and surrounding
area. Failure to clean the appropriate surfaces of the DEF system can lead to
several failure modes including Low Aftertreatment #1 SCR Dosing Reagent
Pressure (E931 CDL/4334-18 J1939) or Aftertreatment #1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid
Dosing Unit Loss of Prime (E1370 CDL/5392-31 J1939), both of which lead to the
DEF Pressure Is Low procedure in the Troubleshooting Guide.

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Care should be taken when dispensing DEF. Do not fill the DEF tank from a
contaminated container or funnel. Do not overfill the tank. Spills should be cleaned
immediately. Machine or engine surfaces should be wiped clean and rinsed with
water. Caution should be used when dispensing DEF near an engine that has
recently been running. Spilling DEF onto hot components will cause harmful
vapors.

DEF tanks have been carefully designed to prevent accidentally filling the DEF
tank with diesel fuel or filling the fuel tank with DEF. The standard nozzle diameter
for dispensing DEF is 19 mm (.75 in.). The diesel fuel nozzle has a diameter of
22 mm (.87 in.). Because the fuel nozzle is larger than the DEF tank opening, it
reduces the chance of dispensing the wrong fluid into the tank.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -68- Module 4 - Emissions System

PURPOSE
This module was designed to ensure technicians can
locate, identify, and describe the functionality of all
major components and service points of the C15 and
C18 Tier 4 Final emission systems, and to demonstrate
knowledge of the operational strategies used in the
emissions systems.

68
PURPOSE REVIEW

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REASON
This training was necessary for technicians to able
to identify system components and service points
and demonstrate knowledge of the C15 and C18
Tier 4 Final engines’ emission systems in order to
troubleshoot emissions system components, ensuring
customers experience quick, accurate resolution of
emissions system problems.

69
REASON REVIEW

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COMPETENCY STATEMENT
Participants are now able to locate, identify, and
demonstrate knowledge of the C15 and C18 Tier 4
Final emission systems. Participants were successful
in describing the flow of fuel, coolant, and air through
the emissions systems during a classroom
post-assessment with at least 80% accuracy.

70
COMPETENCY STATEMENT REVIEW

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LEARNING OUTCOMES

Participants have completed this 374F/390F Hydraulic


Excavator Emissions System module and are able to:
• Locate, identify, and describe the functionality of
all major Tier 4 Final engine emissions system
components.
• Perform the DEF quality and dosing tests for the
emissions system and perform the machine data
link test to confirm proper communications between
ECMs.

71
LEARNING OUTCOMES REVIEW

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72
MODULE CONCLUSION

This concludes the 374F and 390F Hydraulic Excavator Tier 4 Final Emissions
System module.
When used in conjunction with the System Operations Manuals, the Test and
Adjust Manuals, the Troubleshooting Manual, the Operation and Maintenance
Manuals (OMM), and other service publications, the information in this module
will aid the service technician in troubleshooting, testing, adjusting, and correcting
problems with the C15 and C18 Tier 4 Final emissions systems in these machines.

For service repairs, adjustments, and maintenance, always refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manuals (OMM), Service Manuals, and other related service
publications.

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