Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 35

GLOBAL SERVICE TRAINING

374F / 390F Hydraulic Excavator


HYDRAULIC COOLING FAN SYSTEM
MODULE 6 - TEXT REFERENCE

SERV1994

CAT, CATERPILLAR, their respective logos, ACERT, “Caterpillar Yellow” and the POWER EDGE
trade dress, as well as corporate and product identity used herein, are trademarks of Caterpillar
and may not be used without permission. © 2014 Caterpillar Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow
SERV1994 - 05/14 -2- Module 6 - Hydraulic Cooling Fan System

TABLE OF CONTENTS
SAFETY BRIEFING��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 3
PURPOSE����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 4
REASON������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 5
COMPETENCY STATEMENT����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 6
LEARNING OUTCOMES������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 7
HYDRAULIC COOLING FAN SYSTEM - OVERVIEW���������������������������������������������������������������� 8
HYDRAULIC COOLING FAN SYSTEM - COMPONENT IDENTIFICATION����������������������������� 10
HYDRAULIC COOLING FAN SYSTEM OPERATION�������������������������������������������������������������� 15
FAN CONTROL������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 25
PURPOSE REVIEW������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 31
REASON REVIEW�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 32
COMPETENCY STATEMENT REVIEW������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 33
LEARNING OUTCOMES REVIEW������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 34
MODULE CONCLUSION���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 35

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -3- Module 6 - Hydraulic Cooling Fan System

SAFETY BRIEFING
• Emergency Phone Numbers
• First Aid Responders
• Location of Exits
• Location of Fire Extinguisher
• Room Alerts or Hazards
• Designated Location for Evacuation
• Storm Shelter
• Hazardous Material

Safely Home. Everyone. Every Day.™

3
SAFETY BRIEFING

Before beginning this module, the following topics will be reviewed:


• Emergency Phone Numbers
• First Aid Responders
• Location of Exits
• Location of Fire Extinguisher
• Room Alerts or Hazards
• Designated Location for Evacuation
• Storm Shelter
• Hazardous Material

Safely Home. Everyone. Every Day.™

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -4- Module 6 - Hydraulic Cooling Fan System

PURPOSE

This module is designed to ensure technicians can


locate, identify, and describe the functionality of all
major components in the hydraulic cooling fan system
and demonstrate knowledge of the operational
strategies used for controlling fan speed and direction.

4
PURPOSE

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -5- Module 6 - Hydraulic Cooling Fan System

REASON

It is necessary for technicians to properly identify


system components and to be knowledgeable of the
hydraulic cooling fan system operation in order to
accurately diagnose and correct system problems,
which will ensure customers experience quick, accurate
resolution of problems in the hydraulic cooling fan
system.

5
REASON

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -6- Module 6 - Hydraulic Cooling Fan System

COMPETENCY STATEMENT

At the completion of this training session, participants


will be able to locate, identify, describe the functionality
of all major components in the hydraulic cooling fan
system, and demonstrate the ability to test and make
adjustments to the fan system during lab exercises.
Participants will also be able to demonstrate general
knowledge of the hydraulic cooling fan system
operation and the strategies used for controlling fan
speed and direction during a classroom
post-assessment with at least 80% accuracy.

6
COMPETENCY STATEMENT

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -7- Module 6 - Hydraulic Cooling Fan System

LEARNING OUTCOMES

Upon completion of this 374F Hydraulic Excavator


Hydraulic Cooling Fan System module, participants will
be able to:
• Locate, identify, and describe the functionality of all major
components and service points in the hydraulic cooling
fan system.
• Test and properly adjust the hydraulic cooling fan system.
• Describe the hydraulic cooling fan system operation
and the strategies used for controlling fan speed and
direction.

7
LEARNING OUTCOMES

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -8- Module 6 - Hydraulic Cooling Fan System

(4) 374F / 390F HYDRAULIC COOLING FAN SYSTEM


Hydraulic Oil
Cooler Cores
SYSTEM COMPONENT IDENTIFICATION
(5)
Radiator
Cores
(6)
Air-To-Air
Aftercooler (3)
(ATAAC) Fan
Motor 1
(1)
Hydraulic
Oil Tank

(2)
Hydraulic Cooling
Fan Pump

(9)
Case Drain
Manifold

(8) (10)
Hydraulic Fan Fan Pump
Reversing Valve Suction Hose

(7) (11)
Fan Main Hydraulic Oil
Motor 2 Suction Tube

8
HYDRAULIC COOLING FAN SYSTEM - OVERVIEW
• Overview of the hydraulic cooling The hydraulic cooling fan systems for the 374F and 390F Hydraulic Excavators are
fan system operation. identical in design and in component location. Twin cooling fans are used to draw
outside air inward, through two Hydraulic Oil Cooler Cores (4), two engine coolant
• Identification of hydraulic cooling Radiator Cores (5), and the Air-To-Air AfterCooler (ATAAC) (6). The air conditioning
fan system components: condenser and a fuel cooler are mounted outboard of these main cores and also
-- Hydraulic Oil Tank (1) benefit from the air flow created by the fans. A fan reversing valve is standard
equipment.
-- Hydraulic Cooling Fan Pump (2)
-- Fan Motor 1 (3) The electronically controlled, variable displacement, piston-type Hydraulic Cooling
Fan Pump (2) is driven by a gear in the pump drive housing, at the rear of the
-- Hydraulic Oil Cooler Cores (4) engine. The hydraulic cooling fan pump draws oil from the Hydraulic Oil Tank (1),
-- Radiator Cores (5) via the Main Hydraulic Oil Suction Tube (11) and the Fan Pump Suction Hose (10).
Pump discharge oil flows to the Hydraulic Fan Reversing Valve (8). The reversing
-- Air-To-Air AfterCooler valve then directs the oil flow to Fan Motor 1 (3) and Fan Motor 2 (7), which are
(ATAAC) (6) fixed-displacement, bidirectional, piston-type motors.
-- Fan Motor 2 (7) Return oil from the fan motors is directed back through the fan reversing valve
-- Hydraulic Fan Reversing to the return oil manifold on the rear of the main hydraulic control valve. After
Valve (8) passing through the slow return check valve in the return oil manifold, the oil then
flows either to the hydraulic oil tank or the hydraulic oil cooler, depending on the
-- Case Drain Manifold (9)
temperature of the oil. In either case, the oil is returned to the hydraulic oil tank, via
-- Fan Pump Suction Hose (10) the return oil filters.
-- Main Hydraulic Oil Suction Case drain oil from both fan motors is directed to the Case Drain Manifold (9),
Tube (11) which directs the oil to the case drain oil filters (not shown) before the oil returns to
the hydraulic oil tank.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -9- Module 6 - Hydraulic Cooling Fan System

The hydraulic fan reversing valve is standard equipment on both machines.


Reversing the fans’ direction reverses the flow of air through the cooler cores,
purging them of most dirt and debris, which helps maintain the efficiency and the
cooling ability of the cooler cores. The fans are reversed manually using the fan
reversing switch in the monitor. There is no automatic reversing feature.

Hydraulic Cooling Fan Control Strategy


The pump is controlled by the hydraulic cooling fan pump solenoid. The solenoid
is controlled by a PWM signal (current) from the Engine ECM. The Engine ECM
regulates current to the hydraulic cooling fan pump solenoid based upon three
temperature inputs:
• engine coolant temperature sensor
• charge air temperature sensor (intake manifold air temperature sensor
on LRC machines)
• hydraulic oil temperature sensor
The charge air temperature sensor and the engine coolant temperature sensor
send signals to the Engine ECM. The hydraulic oil temperature sensor sends a
signal to the Switch Panel ECM, which shares that information with the Engine
ECM via the CAN 2 (J1939) Data Link and/or the Cat Data Link. Based upon
the three temperature sensor inputs, the Engine ECM sends a PWM signal to
ENERGIZE the hydraulic cooling fan pump solenoid. The frequency of the PWM
signal from the Engine ECM to the solenoid is determined by the cooling maps in
the Engine software, or Flash File. The ECM software then determines which of
the three sensor signals indicates the most need for cooling.

As the demand for cooling INCREASES, the Engine ECM DECREASES the PWM
current to the hydraulic cooling fan pump solenoid, which results in INCREASED
pump flow rate to the fan motors. INCREASED oil flow causes the fan blades to
turn faster. As the need for cooling DECREASES, the Engine ECM INCREASES
the current to the fan pump solenoid. An INCREASE in the current to the solenoid
causes a DECREASE in oil flow rate from the pump to the fan motors, reducing fan
speed.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -10- Module 6 - Hydraulic Cooling Fan System

1
4
10
HYDRAULIC COOLING FAN SYSTEM - COMPONENT IDENTIFICATION
Hydraulic Cooling Fan Pump
• Hydraulic cooling fan pump The variable displacement, piston-type hydraulic cooling fan pump (1) is driven by
location and identification and a gear in the pump drive housing, at the rear of the engine. The pump is
brief description of component accessible in the pump compartment and is located at the upper right of the
functionality: compartment. The pilot oil pump (2) is mounted outward of the fan pump and is
driven by a through-drive shaft in the fan pump.
-- Hydraulic cooling fan pump (1) The hydraulic cooling fan pump solenoid (3) is installed in the pump control valve,
which is oriented at the lower left of the pump housing. The solenoid electronically
-- Pilot oil pump (2) operates the pump pressure control spool. Also shown is the adjustable pump flow
control spool (4).
-- Hydraulic cooling fan pump
solenoid (3) NOTE: The images above are showing the fan pump in the 374F pump
compartment. Component location is the same in the 390F.
-- Pump flow control spool (4)

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -11- Module 6 - Hydraulic Cooling Fan System

2
3

5
11
Hydraulic Cooling Fan Motors

• Hydraulic cooling fan motors The twin fixed-displacement, bidirectional, piston-type hydraulic fan motors are
location and identification located along the left side of the machine, inboard of the cooler cores in the cooler
compartment. Shown in the image above are:

• Fan motor 1 (1)

• Fan motor 2 (2)

• Pump supply and return oil tubes (3)

• Fan motors case drain lines (4)

• Hydraulic fan reversing valve (5)

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -12- Module 6 - Hydraulic Cooling Fan System

12
Hydraulic Cooling Fan Reversing Valve

• Hydraulic demand fan reversing Immediately forward of, and above the radiator bottom hoses (1) is the hydraulic
valve location - access through cooling fan reversing valve (2). The reversing valve is installed on top of a
the service opening beneath the mounting bracket (3). The reversing valve is most easily accessed through the
left rear of the upper structure: service access opening beneath the radiator bottom hoses, along the left side of
the machine.
-- Radiator bottom hoses (1)
NOTE: The mounting bracket in the image above has been made
semi-transparent in order to more easily see the valve.
-- Hydraulic cooling fan reversing
valve (2)

-- Mounting bracket (3)

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -13- Module 6 - Hydraulic Cooling Fan System

2
1
4
6 5

8
9
13
• Location, identification, and brief The images above show the components of the hydraulic cooling fan reversing
explanation of the function of valve (1):
the components installed in the
hydraulic cooling fan reversing • Pump supply line (2) - Directs the fan pump discharge oil flow to the fan
valve motors.
• Return oil line (3) - Directs the return oil from the fan motors to the return oil
manifold on the rear of the main hydraulic control valve.
• Relief valve (4) - Opens with pressure spikes in the system, especially when
reversing the fan direction.
• Pilot supply line (5) - Used by the solenoid valve to operate the fan reversing
spool.
• Fan reversing solenoid (6) - ENERGIZED when the reversing switch is
pressed, sending pilot oil to shift the reversing spool.
• Makeup valves (7) - Used to prevent cavitation of the fan motor and to
prevent voiding of the fan pump when the engine is stopped and momentum
causes the fan blades to continue rotation.
• Pilot drain line (8) - Directs drain oil from the operation of the reversing spool
to the case drain manifold.
• Reversing spool (9) - Operated by pilot pressure from the fan reversing
solenoid and reverses the flow of pump supply oil and return oil to and from
the fan motors. (The spool is behind the cover shown.)

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -14- Module 6 - Hydraulic Cooling Fan System

1 2 3 4

14
Cooler Compartment
• Location and identification of The fans draw outside air in through the cooler cores, which are identified in the
the cooler cores in the cooling image above. The cooler compartment is located at the left rear of the machine.
compartment Components located behind this hinged door include:
• Twin hydraulic oil coolers (1)

• Air conditioning condenser (2)

• Twin radiator cores (3)

• Air to Air AfterCooler (ATAAC) (4)

• Fuel cooler (5)

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -15- Module 6 - Hydraulic Cooling Fan System
(23)
F-Series
(5)
Machine ECM
374F / 390F HYDRAULIC COOLING FAN SYSTEM
Monitor MAXIMUM CONTROLLED FAN SPEED - FORWARD
(7) Fan Pump
Solenoid and Pressure
Control Spool
(22)
Minimum
PWM Signal
(21) (17)
(6)
Machine CAN (20) Engine ECM Hydraulic
Data Link CAN 2 (J1939) Cooling
Data Link
Fan Pump

(8) Pump
Flow Control
(4) Spool
Switch
Panel ECM (12) Pilot Oil Supply

(2)
Coolant
Temperature
Sensor

(3) (1)
Hydraulic Oil Charge Air (13)
Temperature Temperature Fan Reversing
Sensor Sensor Solenoid (11) (10)
Large Small
Actuator piston Actuator Piston

(14)
Relief
(15) Valve
Reversing (18) To Return Oil Manifold
Spool
(19) Fan Motors
(16)
Makeup
Valves

(17) Fan Reversing Valve


15
HYDRAULIC COOLING FAN SYSTEM OPERATION
Maximum Controlled Fan Speed - Forward

• Explanation of the hydraulic The illustration above is a schematic of the hydraulic cooling fan system at
cooling fan operation in the maximum controlled pressure, resulting in MAXIMUM CONTROLLED FAN SPEED.
maximum controlled fan speed The hydraulic cooling (demand) fan is part of the hydraulic system, but is controlled
condition, in the forward by the Engine ECM (6).
direction
The Charge Air Temperature Sensor (1) and the Coolant Temperature Sensor (2)
are inputs into the Engine ECM. The Hydraulic Oil Temperature
Sensor (3) is an input to the Switch Panel ECM (4). Hydraulic oil temperature data
is sent to the Machine ECM via the Machine CAN Data Link (21), which shares the
data with the Engine ECM via the CAN 2 (J1939) Data Link (20).

The Engine ECM software monitors these three temperature sensor inputs to
control fan speed. A target speed for the cooling fan is assigned for each engine
speed based on the output of the various temperature sensors. The target values
for the maximum fan speeds are assigned by specific software designed for the
374F and 390F excavators.

The Engine ECM sends a PWM signal to the proportional solenoid on the Fan
Pump Solenoid and Pressure Control Spool (7) to regulate the oil flow from the
pump. The pump discharge is directed to the Fan Motors (19) to cause rotation of
the motors and the attached fan blades, drawing air through the cooler cores.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -16- Module 6 - Hydraulic Cooling Fan System

When engine coolant temperature, charge air temperature, and/or hydraulic


oil temperature indicate high temperatures, the fan speed is increased. If the
temperatures are low, the fan speed is decreased.

For high temperatures, like the condition shown in the schematic above, the Engine
ECM sends the Minimum PWM Signal (22) to the proportional fan pump solenoid
to UPSTROKE the fan pump. The minimum PWM signal results in the maximum
amount of pump oil flow. When maximum pump oil flow is sent to the fan motors,
the fan rotates at the maximum (software) controlled rpm.

When the solenoid is ENERGIZED with the minimum signal, as shown in this
illustration, the pressure control spool is shifted slightly (to the right), which allows
only a small amount of pump supply pressure to drain to tank. This condition
maintains a high enough pressure above the Pump Flow Control Spool (8), along
with the spring, to keep the spool pushed DOWN. In the DOWN position, the
flow control spool blocks the flow of oil to the pump’s Large Actuator Piston (11),
which allows the Small Actuator Piston (10) and bias spring to keep the pump
UPSTROKED. With the pump in the UPSTROKED condition, maximum oil flow is
sent to the fan motors, resulting in maximum fan speed.

The monitor can be used to calibrate the fan speed. Refer to the Hydraulic
Systems Test and Adjust Manual for the calibration procedure.

Maximum mechanical pump pressure, or maximum UNCONTROLLED fan speed


(maximum mechanical high pressure cut-off) can be achieved by disconnecting the
electrical connection to the solenoid.

If communication is lost between the Engine ECM and the fan pump solenoid, the
fan will default to the maximum mechanical pressure setting (high pressure cutoff).
This action results in a higher system pressure. This pressure is higher than the
maximum pressure controlled through the software. The fan speeds are also
higher than the maximum fan speed normally controlled by the software.

The Makeup Valves (16), or anti-cavitation valves installed in the Fan Reversing
Valve (16) are used to prevent motor cavitation when the machine is shut down
and flow from the Hydraulic Cooling Fan Pump (17) stops. The momentum of the
fan blades will continue to rotate the fan motors, which can cause the fan motors to
cavitate without the makeup valves. This rotational momentum can also cause the
motors to void the pump of oil, without the makeup valves.

Return oil from the fan motors is directed To the Return Oil Manifold (18), where
it combines with oil from the implement control valve and then returns to the
hydraulic oil tank through the hydraulic oil cooler and then the main return oil filters.

The Engine ECM software contains four cooling maps, or strategies, for controlling
the fan pump. The cooling maps are dependant upon ambient temperature
conditions and/or sound regulations at the machine site. Using Cat ET, the service
technician may choose HIGH AMBIENT, HIGH AMBIENT TEMPERATURE & LOW
NOISE, STANDARD, or STANDARD & LOW NOISE from a list in the F-Series
Monitor, through the fan configurations screen, or by using Cat ET.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -17- Module 6 - Hydraulic Cooling Fan System

(1) Minimum
PWM Signal
HYDRAULIC COOLING FAN PUMP AND CONTOL VALVE
MAXIMUM CONTROLLED FAN SPEED
(2)
Fan Pump
Solenoid

(16) Pump Output


(3) to Fan Motors
Adjustment
(15) Case
Screw (14) Large
Drain
Passage Actuator
(4) (13) Swashplate
Springs
(7) Pin
(5)
Orifice (8)
Pressure
(6) Control
Pump Spool
Flow Control
Spool
(9)
Spring (18) Drive
Shaft

(12) Small Actuator


and Bias Spring
(10) Signal Passage (11) Piston and
(17) Adjustment
Barrel Assembly
Screw

17
• Explanation of the hydraulic This illustration above shows the fan pump and control valve in the MAXIMUM
cooling fan pump operation in CONTROLLED FAN SPEED condition, as depicted in the prior schematic. The fan
the maximum controlled fan control software causes the Engine ECM to send the Minimum PWM Signal (1) to
speed condition the proportional Fan Pump Solenoid (2) when conditions require MAXIMUM
CONTROLLED FAN SPEED. The minimum PWM signal causes the solenoid
Pin (7) to move the top half of the split Pressure Control Spool (8) downward
slightly.

The pressure control spool Spring (9) forces the top half of the split Pressure
Control Spool (8) UP against the solenoid pin, which causes the lower land of the
upper pressure control spool to move upward, toward its seat in the valve body.
The upper spool is never completely seated when controlled by the ECM. The
downward force from the solenoid pin and the upward force of the spring allows
precise modulation of the upper half of the spool to meter a small amount of oil past
the land and its seat, controlling the pressure of the oil in the spring chamber above
the Pump Flow Control Spool (6).

In this condition, the combined force of the Springs (4) at the top of the pump flow
control spool, plus the pressure of the oil in the spring chamber, is greater than the
oil pressure at the bottom of the pump flow control spool. This condition causes the
pump flow control spool to be held DOWN, blocking pump output oil from entering
the Signal Passage (10) and therefore, the Large Actuator Piston (14). The large
actuator piston is open to the case drain passages via the pressure control spool
and the pump flow control spool.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -18- Module 6 - Hydraulic Cooling Fan System

The Small Actuator and Bias Spring (12) move the pump Swashplate (13) to an
increased angle which causes the pump to UPSTROKE. This condition provides
a controlled maximum flow of oil to the fan motors and creates the maximum
controlled fan pump system pressure, which results in the maximum controlled fan
speed.

If the solenoid fails or is disconnected, then no current is sent to the solenoid and
the pump will default to its maximum mechanical displacement, which results in
a higher flow rate and pressure than is allowed by the software. This condition is
referred to as MAXIMUM MECHANICAL HIGH PRESSURE CUTOFF.

The maximum mechanical high pressure cutoff is attained when the pump pressure
becomes high enough to unseat the land of the upper half of the pressure control
spool from its seat in the control valve housing. This cutoff pressure can be
increased by turning the Adjustment Screw (17) INWARD, or CLOCKWISE, which
increases the spring tension, or the force against the bottom of the upper spool.

Maximum cutoff pressure will be lowered when the screw is turned OUTWARD, or
COUNTER-CLOCKWISE.

NOTE: The pressure control spool has two affective surface areas - the
bottom of the upper land and the top of the lower land. Because the
affective surface area of the lower land is greater than the affective surface
area of the spool’s upper land, a high pressure between the two lands will
cause the upper half of the pressure control spool to unseat, or move down,
against the pressure control spool spring. This condition is referred to as
“maximum mechanical high pressure cutoff.” The tension on the spring
determines the pressure at which the upper spool is unseated.
NOTE: The lower half of the pump pressure control spool does not move
unless its adjustment screw is turned. Turning the adjustment screw
INCREASES or DECREASES the tension on the pressure control spool
spring as the screw is turned IN or OUT, respectively.
Increasing the spring tension will create higher system pressures and
higher fan speeds for a given PWM signal to the pump control solenoid
and the results are opposite when decreasing the spring tension. If the
pressure control spool is adjusted using the adjustment screw, a pump
control solenoid calibration should be performed to compensate for the
change to the pump control spring.
In most cases, the two adjustment screws on the pump control valve should
not be used. The proportional pump control solenoid can be calibrated
using the monitor in order to correctly adjust fan speed.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -19- Module 6 - Hydraulic Cooling Fan System
(23)
F-Series
(5)
Machine ECM
374F / 390F HYDRAULIC COOLING FAN SYSTEM
Monitor MINIMUM FAN SPEED - FORWARD
(7) Fan Pump
Solenoid and Pressure
(22) Control Spool
Maximum
PWM Signal
(21) (17)
(6)
Machine CAN (20) Hydraulic
Engine ECM
Data Link CAN 2 (J1939) Cooling
Data Link Fan Pump

(8) Pump
Flow Control
(4) Spool
Switch
Panel ECM (12) Pilot Oil Supply

(2)
Coolant
Temperature
Sensor

(3) (1)
Hydraulic Oil Charge Air (13)
Temperature Temperature Fan Reversing
Sensor Sensor Solenoid (11) (10)
Large Small
Actuator piston Actuator Piston

(14)
Relief
(15)
Valve
Reversing
(18) To Return Oil Manifold
Spool
(19) Fan Motors
(16)
Makeup
Valves

(17) Fan Reversing Valve

19
Minimum Controlled Fan Speed - Forward
• Explanation of the hydraulic The illustration above shows the hydraulic cooling (demand) fan system with the
cooling fan operation in the fan at MINIMUM CONTROLLED FAN SPEED.
minimum controlled fan speed
condition, in the forward When the three temperature sensor inputs indicate the cooling demand is at a
direction minimum, the Engine ECM (6) sends the (software controlled) Maximum PWM
Signal (22) to the proportional solenoid of the Fan Pump Solenoid and Pressure
Control Spool (7). This action DESTROKES the Hydraulic Cooling Fan Pump (17)
to the minimum swashplate angle. At the minimum swashplate angle, the pump
produces the minimum controlled oil flow, resulting in MINIMUM FAN SPEED.

When the proportional fan pump solenoid receives the MAXIMUM software
controlled PWM signal from the Engine ECM, the pressure control spool is
unseated by the solenoid, allowing a greater amount of pump supply oil to drain to
tank. This action reduces the pressure in the spring chamber above the Pump Flow
Control Spool (8). The reduction in pressure in the spring chamber the flow control
spool to move UP due to the lower pressure above the spool.

When the pump flow control spool moves UP, pump oil flow is directed to the Large
Actuator Piston (11). As pressure builds in the large actuator, the force of the large
actuator piston overcomes the force of the bias spring and the Small Actuator
Piston (10), which causes the pump to DESTROKE. With the pump DESTROKED,
oil flow to the Fan Motors (19) is reduced, which results in a reduced, or MINIMUM
FAN SPEED.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -20- Module 6 - Hydraulic Cooling Fan System

Intermediate temperatures, as indicated by the three temperature sensor inputs,


will cause the Engine ECM to send a PWM signal to the proportional fan pump
control solenoid that is proportionate with the cooling demand. This causes the
pump control valve to regulate the angle of the pump swashplate, which will
provide an oil flow rate to the fan motors that will satisfy the cooling demand.

As temperatures INCREASE, the PWM signal to the solenoid from the Engine ECM
is DECREASED, resulting in INCREASED oil flow and therefore, INCREASED
fan speed. As temperatures lower, the PWM signal to the solenoid from the
Engine ECM is INCREASED, resulting in DECREASED oil flow and therefore,
DECREASED fan speed.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -21- Module 6 - Hydraulic Cooling Fan System

(1) Maximum
PWM Signal
HYDRAULIC COOLING FAN PUMP AND CONTOL VALVE
MINIMUM FAN SPEED
(2)
Fan Pump
Solenoid

(16) Pump Output


(3) to Fan Motors
Adjustment
Screw (15) Case
Drain
(17) Vent (14) Large
Passage (13) Swashplate
(4) Hole Actuator
Springs (7) Pin

(8)
(5) Pressure
Orifice Control
Spool
(6)
Pump
Flow Control
Spool
(9)
Spring (18) Drive
Shaft

(12) Small Actuator


and Bias Spring
(10) Signal Passage (11) Piston and
(17) Adjustment
Screw Barrel Assembly

21
• Explanation of the hydraulic The illustration above shows the fan pump control valve and the fan pump at
cooling fan pump operation minimum displacement, resulting in the MINIMUM CONTROLLED FAN SPEED, as
in the minimum controlled fan depicted in the prior schematic.
speed condition
If the three temperature inputs are below a predetermined value, indicating little
demand for cooling, the Engine ECM sends the Maximum PWM Signal (1) to the
proportional Fan Pump Solenoid (2) to reduce the pump oil flow rate. A maximum
PWM signal causes the solenoid plunger and Pin (7) to push the Pressure Control
Spool (8) DOWN to its furthest controlled position, unseating it and allowing oil to
drain to tank through the Case Drain Passage (15).
Draining oil to tank past the pressure control spool also drains the spring chamber
above the Pump Flow Control Spool (6), via the internal passages in the control
valve body connecting the two pressure chambers.
This condition creates a pressure drop across the Orifice (5) at the top of the pump
flow control spool. The pump output pressure at the bottom of the flow control
spool is now greater than the combined forces of the pump flow control spool
Springs (4) and the reduced pressure in the spring chamber above the flow control
spool. The pump output pressure pushes the pump flow control spool UP. This
action closes the case drain passage from the large actuator and allows pump
supply oil to flow through the Signal Passage to the large Actuator Piston (14).
The flow of oil to the large actuator causes an INCREASE in pressure at the large
actuator piston. The large actuator overcomes the combined forces of the Small
Actuator and Bias Spring (12) to move the Swashplate (13) toward minimum angle.
Pump flow rate DECREASES, therefore, fan speed DECREASES.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -22- Module 6 - Hydraulic Cooling Fan System

When the oil is cold, or upon a cold start-up, the Engine ECM will send the
MAXIMUM PWM signal to the proportional pump control solenoid. As described
earlier, the pump flow control spool moves UP and pump output pressure is sent
to the large actuator piston through the signal passage. Pressurizing the large
actuator moves the swashplate toward MINIMUM angle. The large actuator stops
moving when the Vent Hole (17) in the large actuator piston is opened to the case
drain chamber. The pump flow is decreased to MINIMUM to reduce the fan speed
to MINIMUM.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -23- Module 6 - Hydraulic Cooling Fan System
(23)
F-Series
(5)
Machine ECM
374F / 390F HYDRAULIC COOLING FAN SYSTEM
Monitor INTERMEDIATE FAN SPEED - REVERSE
(7) Fan Pump
Solenoid and Pressure
Control Spool
(22)
Intermediate
PWM Signal (17)
(21)
(6)
Machine CAN (20) Engine ECM
Hydraulic
Data Link CAN 2 (J1939) Cooling
Data Link Fan Pump

(8) Pump
Flow Control
(4) Spool
Switch
Panel ECM (12) Pilot Oil Supply

(2)
Coolant
Temperature
Sensor

(3) (1)
Hydraulic Oil Charge Air (13)
Temperature Temperature Fan Reversing
Sensor Sensor Solenoid (11) (10)
Large Small
Actuator piston Actuator Piston

(14)
Relief
(15)
Valve
Reversing
(18) To Return Oil Manifold
Spool
(19) Fan Motors
(16)
Makeup
Valves

(17) Fan Reversing Valve

23
Intermediate Fan Speed - Fan Reverse
• Explanation of the hydraulic The Fan Reversing Valve (17) is standard equipment on both the 374F and 390F
cooling fan operation in the Hydraulic Excavators. The Fan Reversing Solenoid (13) controls the fan Reversing
reverse direction, at intermediate Spool (15). The Engine ECM (6) controls the reversing fan solenoid when the
speed operator activates the reversing feature using the switch in the F-Series
Monitor (23). The Reverse Fan Setting option from the main menu on the F-Series
Monitor allows the technician to set the Reversing Duration Time. When the
reversing feature is activated, the Engine ECM will automatically switch the fans’
rotation back to FORWARD when the duration time has been reached.
Operation of the fan pump and fan motors are the same as previously discussed.

The illustration above shows the fan pump in a state between maximum and
minimum fan speed. The proportional Fan Pump Solenoid and Pressure Control
Spool (7) drains enough oil to tank to move the Pump Flow Control Spool (8)
to an intermediate position. This position allows full system pressure at the
Small Actuator Piston (10) and sends a reduced system pressure to the Large
Actuator Piston (11). This condition causes the pump swashplate to move to an
intermediate position, sending oil flow to the Fan Motors (19) through the Fan
Reversing Valve (16), causing the fans to rotate at intermediate speeds.

When the fan reversing switch is pressed, the Engine ECM ENERGIZES the
reversing fan solenoid, which sends Pilot Supply Oil (12) is to shift the reversing
spool, causing the reversing spool to shift DOWN. When the reversing spool shifts
DOWN, the flow of oil to the fan motors is reversed, causing the fan motors to slow
to a stop and begin rotating in the opposite direction.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -24- Module 6 - Hydraulic Cooling Fan System

The Relief Valve (14) opens when the fans are first commanded to change
directions (either reverse or forward). The momentum of the fan blades prevents
the fan motors from immediate directional change when the flow of oil is reversed.
The relief valve opens to dissipate excess pressure to the return side of the circuit,
sending pump discharge back To the Return Oil Manifold (18), preventing damage
to the system during the directional change.

When the reversing duration time set in the monitor has been reached, the Engine
ECM then DE-ENERGIZES the fan reversing solenoid and the spring beneath the
reversing spool returns the spool back to its default position. This action causes
the high pressure oil flow to the fan motors to be redirected back to the FAN
FORWARD direction. Again, the relief valve will open to dissipate the resulting
pressure spike to the return, or low pressure side of the circuit until the fan motor
returns to its full forward rpm.

The Makeup Valves (16) serve to prevent cavitation of the fan motors and to
prevent voiding of the fan pump. Fan motor cavitation can occur as the rotational
momentum of the fan blades cause the motors to continue rotating after the
machine has been shut down. The fan motor momentum can also cause the
motors to void the fan pump of oil, which could cause cavitation of the fan pump the
next time the machine is started. Such a condition is referred to as “the pumping
effect of a motor” and it is eliminated by the makeup valves.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -25- Module 6 - Hydraulic Cooling Fan System

REVERSING FAN OPERATION


Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Step 5

25
FAN CONTROL
Reverse Fan Setting - Reversing Fan Activation
• Explanation and step-by-step The reversing fan function is manually ACTIVATED, but will switch back to the
procedure for setting the FORWARD direction automatically when the Reversing Duration Time (reverse
REVERSING DURATION time and operation time) has expired. To access the fan reversing function and ACTIVATE
ACTIVATING the fan reversing the fan reversing feature:
function 1. From the Main Menu, use the arrow keys to highlight the Reverse Fan Setting
icon. Press the OK key. The Password Entry screen will be displayed.
2. At the Password Entry screen, use the arrow keys and the OK key to type
each password number - either the customer password (#1) or the service
password (#9992). The Number buttons on the Soft Switch panel may also be
used to type the current customer password or the current service password.
Then press the Enter key. The Attention screen will be displayed.
3. At the Attention screen, read and follow the instructions displayed on the
screen, then press the OK key once the conditions are met. The Step 1: Set
Duration Time screen will be displayed.
4. At the Step 1: Set Duration Time screen, use the arrow keys to adjust
the Reversing Duration Time UP or DOWN to the desired reversing time
(seconds). Press the OK key. The fan speed will decrease and begin the
reverse cycle. The Step 2: Reversing screen will be displayed.
5. At Step 2: Reversing screen, the reversing feature may be cancelled at any
time by pressing the Back key.
When the set duration time has expired, the fan will automatically revert to the
FORWARD fan direction.
Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow
SERV1994 - 05/14 -26- Module 6 - Hydraulic Cooling Fan System

REVERSING FAN INSTALLATION


Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Step 5

26
Reversing Fan Installation
• Explanation and step-by-step The reversing fan is standard equipment on the 374F and 390F. Engine ECM
procedure for installing a software from the factory has the reversing fan Installed, allowing the ECM to
reversing fan - to be used if operate the reversing fan. When an ECM is replaced, or if new software is flashed
software or ECM is replaced into the Engine ECM, the reversing fan must be Installed again. To Install the
reversing fan using this monitor feature:
1. From the Main Menu, use the arrow keys to highlight the Service icon. Press
the OK key. The Password Entry screen will be displayed.
2. At the Password Entry screen, use the arrow keys and the OK key, or use the
number buttons on the Soft Switch panel to enter the service password (9992).
Then press the Enter key. The Service Menu will be displayed.
3. From the Service Menu, use the arrow keys to highlight the Configurations
option. Press the OK key. The Configurations Menu will be displayed.
4. From the Configurations Menu, use the down arrow key to scroll to and
highlight the Fan Configuration option. Then press the OK key. The Fan
Configuration screen will be displayed.
5. Use the arrow keys to highlight the Fan Type Configuration option, then press
the OK key. The option’s highlight will change from blue to green, indicating the
edit mode. While in edit mode, use the up arrow key or the down arrow key to
change the value to Reversing Fan. Then press the OK key again to set the
reversing fan as installed.
This function may also be performed using Cat ET.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -27- Module 6 - Hydraulic Cooling Fan System

FAN COOLING MAPS SELECTION


Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Step 5

27
Cooling Fan Map Selection

• Explanation and step-by- The Engine ECM software contains several cooling fan maps so a fan map can be
step procedure for selecting selected that is best suited for the environment in which each machine is operating.
a cooling fan map to best fit
the environment in which the From the factory, the 374F and 390F models sold in NACD are configured to the
machine is operating required High Ambient configuration. Machines sold in EAME are configured to
High Ambient Temperature + Low Noise. Machines sold for use in Japan (ISJ) are
configured to the required Standard + Low Noise configuration.

If a different cooling fan map is desired, the monitor can be used to make this
change:

1. From the Main Menu, use the arrow keys to highlight the Service icon. Press
the OK key. The Password Entry screen will be displayed.

2. At the Password Entry screen, use the arrow keys and the OK key, or use the
number buttons on the Soft Switch panel to enter the service password (9992).
Then press the Enter key. The Service Menu will be displayed.

3. From the Service Menu, use the arrow keys to highlight the Configurations
option. Press the OK key. The Configurations Menu will be displayed.

4. From the Configurations Menu, use the down arrow key to scroll to and
highlight the Fan Configuration option. Then press the OK key. The Fan
Configuration screen will be displayed.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -28- Module 6 - Hydraulic Cooling Fan System

5. Use the arrow keys to highlight the Cooling Fan Map option, then press the
OK key. The option’s highlight will change from blue to green, indicating the
edit mode. While in edit mode, use the up arrow key or the down arrow key
to change the value to the desired Cooling Fan Map. Then press the OK key
to activate the new Cooling Fan Map. The option will change back to a blue
highlight with the new Cooling Fan Map listed.

Available cooling fan map configurations are:


• Standard
• High Ambient
• High Ambient Temperature + Low Noise
• Standard + Low Noise

This function may also be performed using Cat ET.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -29- Module 6 - Hydraulic Cooling Fan System
Step 1
SERVICE MENU
FAN SPEED OVERRIDE
Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Step 5

Step 6

Step 7

29
Fan Speed Override
• Step-by-step instructions for The Override Parameters option from the Service Menu allows the technician to
using the Override Parameters override the state of a component from what the ECM would normally command.
option from the monitor Service This option allows the technician to troubleshoot the fan by commanding the fan to
Menu to command a specified fan turn at a specified rpm, then test the speed to ensure the fan is responding
speed properly. (This feature is similar to the Overrides feature in Cat ET.) To override
the fan speed using the Override Parameters option:
• Used for troubleshooting the fan 1. From the Main Menu, use the arrow keys to highlight the Service icon. Press
system the OK key. The Password Entry screen will be displayed.

2. At the Password Entry screen, use the arrow keys and the OK key, or use the
number buttons on the Soft Switch panel to enter the service password (9992).
Then press the Enter key. The Service Menu will be displayed.

3. From the Service Menu, use the arrow keys to highlight the Override
Parameters option. Press the OK key. The Override Parameters screen will
be displayed.
4. From the Override Parameters screen, use the up arrow key or the down
arrow key to highlight the Desired Fan Speed option from the list.
5. With the Desired Fan Speed option highlighted, press the OK key to enter the
Override Mode. The highlight will change from blue to green, indicating the
Override Mode is active.
6. With the Override Mode active, use the Number buttons on the Soft Switch
panel to enter the desired fan speed, in rpm.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -30- Module 6 - Hydraulic Cooling Fan System

7. With the desired fan speed entered, press the OK key to enforce the Override.
The highlight will change from green to red, indicating the fan speed has been
overridden. (This is a warning indicator that the component is not in its normal
state.)

The fan speed may now be tested using a photo-tachometer to see if the fan is
responding properly to the override command.

When testing is complete, press the Cancel key (blue circle above) to cancel the
override. After cancelling the override, the highlight will change from red to blue,
indicating the fan is returned to the correct state, given the operational state of the
machine.
This function may also be performed using Cat ET.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -31- Module 6 - Hydraulic Cooling Fan System

PURPOSE

This module was designed to ensure technicians


can locate, identify, and describe the functionality
of all major components in the hydraulic cooling fan
system and demonstrate knowledge of the operational
strategies used for controlling fan speed and direction.

31
PURPOSE REVIEW

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -32- Module 6 - Hydraulic Cooling Fan System

REASON

This training was necessary for technicians to properly


identify system components and to be knowledgeable
of the hydraulic cooling fan system operation in order
to accurately diagnose and correct system problems,
ensuring customers experience quick, accurate
resolution of problems in the hydraulic cooling fan
system.

32
REASON REVIEW

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -33- Module 6 - Hydraulic Cooling Fan System

COMPETENCY STATEMENT

Participants are able to locate, identify, describe the


functionality of all major components in the hydraulic
cooling fan system, and demonstrate the ability to
test and make adjustments to the fan system during
lab exercises. Participants have also demonstrated
general knowledge of the hydraulic cooling fan system
operation and the strategies used for controlling fan
speed and direction during a classroom
post-assessment with at least 80% accuracy.

33
COMPETENCY STATEMENT REVIEW

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -34- Module 6 - Hydraulic Cooling Fan System

LEARNING OUTCOMES

Participants have completed this 374F/390F Hydraulic


Excavator Hydraulic Cooling Fan System module and
are able to:
• Locate, identify, and describe the functionality of all major
components and service points in the hydraulic cooling
fan system.
• Test and properly adjust the hydraulic cooling fan system.
• Describe the hydraulic cooling fan system operation
and the strategies used for controlling fan speed and
direction.

34
LEARNING OUTCOMES REVIEW

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -35- Module 6 - Hydraulic Cooling Fan System

35
MODULE CONCLUSION

This concludes the Hydraulic Cooling Fan System module for the 374F and 390F
Hydraulic Excavators.

When used in conjunction with the Systems Operation Manuals, the Test and
Adjust Manuals, the Operation and Maintenance Manuals (OMM), and other
service publications, the information in this module will aid the service technician in
troubleshooting, testing, adjusting, and correcting problems in the hydraulic cooling
fan systems of these machines.

For service repairs, adjustments, and maintenance, always refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manuals (OMM), Service Manuals, and other related service
publications.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow