Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 39

GLOBAL SERVICE TRAINING

374F / 390F Hydraulic Excavator


MAIN HYDRAULIC PUMPS
MODULE 8 - TEXT REFERENCE

SERV1994

CAT, CATERPILLAR, their respective logos, ACERT, “Caterpillar Yellow” and the POWER EDGE
trade dress, as well as corporate and product identity used herein, are trademarks of Caterpillar
and may not be used without permission. © 2014 Caterpillar Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow
SERV1994 - 05/14 -2- Module 8 - Main Hydraulic Pumps

TABLE OF CONTENTS
SAFETY BRIEFING��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 3
PURPOSE����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 4
REASON������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 5
COMPETENCY STATEMENT����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 6
LEARNING OUTCOMES������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 7
MAIN HYDRAULIC PUMPS SYSTEM - OVERVIEW������������������������������������������������������������������ 8
MAIN HYDRAULIC PUMPS SYSTEM - COMPONENT IDENTIFICATION������������������������������ 10
MAIN HYDRAULIC PUMP OPERATION���������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 19
MAIN HYDRAULIC PUMPS AND PUMP CONTROL - OPERATION���������������������������������������� 24
PURPOSE REVIEW������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 35
REASON REVIEW�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 36
COMPETENCY STATEMENT REVIEW������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 37
LEARNING OUTCOMES REVIEW������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 38
MODULE CONCLUSION���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 39

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -3- Module 8 - Main Hydraulic Pumps

SAFETY BRIEFING
• Emergency Phone Numbers
• First Aid Responders
• Location of Exits
• Location of Fire Extinguisher
• Room Alerts or Hazards
• Designated Location for Evacuation
• Storm Shelter
• Hazardous Material

Safely Home. Everyone. Every Day.™

3
SAFETY BRIEFING

Before beginning this module, the following topics will be reviewed:


• Emergency Phone Numbers
• First Aid Responders
• Location of Exits
• Location of Fire Extinguisher
• Room Alerts or Hazards
• Designated Location for Evacuation
• Storm Shelter
• Hazardous Material

Safely Home. Everyone. Every Day.™

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -4- Module 8 - Main Hydraulic Pumps

PURPOSE

This module is designed to ensure technicians


can locate, identify, and describe the functionality
of all major components and service points of the
main hydraulic pumps and pump regulators and to
demonstrate knowledge of main hydraulic pump
operation and pump control.

4
PURPOSE

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -5- Module 8 - Main Hydraulic Pumps

REASON

It is necessary for technicians to properly locate and


identify the main hydraulic pumps components and
service points and to demonstrate knowledge of pump
operation and pump control in order to diagnose and
correct hydraulic pump problems. This will ensure
customers experience quick and accurate resolution of
hydraulic system complaints.

5
REASON

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -6- Module 8 - Main Hydraulic Pumps

COMPETENCY STATEMENT

At the completion of this training session, participants


will be able to locate and identify the components and
service points of the main hydraulic pumps and pump
regulators. Participants will be able to describe the
functionality of the major components of the pumps and
demonstrate the ability to test and make adjustments to
the pumps during lab exercises. Participants will also
be able to demonstrate general knowledge of the main
hydraulic pumps operation and describe the strategies
used for controlling pump flow during a classroom
post-assessment with at least 80% accuracy.
6
COMPETENCY STATEMENT

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -7- Module 8 - Main Hydraulic Pumps

LEARNING OUTCOMES

Upon completion of this 374F/390F Hydraulic


Excavator Main Hydraulic Pumps module, participants
will be able to:
• Locate, identify, and describe the functionality of all major
components and service points of the main hydraulic
pumps and pump regulators.
• Test and make adjustments to the main hydraulic pumps
and pump regulators.
• Describe the main hydraulic pumps operation and the
methods and strategies used to control pump flow rates.

7
LEARNING OUTCOMES

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -8- Module 8 - Main Hydraulic Pumps

374F / 390F MAIN HYDRAULIC PUMPS


SYSTEM COMPONENT IDENTIFICATION

(6)
Main Hydraulic
Control Valve

(1)
Main
Hydraulic
Pumps

(5)
Hydraulic
Oil Tank

(4)
Main Hydraulic
Oil Suction Tube
(2)
Pump (3)
Regulators Pilot
Solenoid
Manifold

8
MAIN HYDRAULIC PUMPS SYSTEM - OVERVIEW
• Overview of the main hydraulic The 374F and 390F main hydraulic pumps system consists of three basic
pumps system, outlining three components, which include:
basic components • Main Hydraulic Pumps (1)
• Pump Regulators (2)
• Brief description of pump
construction • Pilot Solenoid Manifold (3)
The main hydraulic pumps are located in the pump compartment. The main
• Brief, high-level description of hydraulic pumps consist of the front pump, the rear pump, and an internal charge
main hydraulic pumps, how they pump, all contained in one housing. The charge pump draws oil from the Hydraulic
are controlled, and to which Oil Tank (5) via the Main Hydraulic Oil Suction Tube (4) and delivers charge oil to
circuits each pump provides oil the front pump and the rear pump. The front pump and the rear pump deliver high
flow. pressure oil to the Adaptive Control System (ACS) Main Hydraulic Control Valve (6)
for operation of the bucket, stick, boom, attachments, and travel circuits.
The front pump provides high pressure oil flow to:
• The lower Independent Metering Valve (IMV) sections in the ACS valve for
controlling the boom and bucket functions.
• The center section of the ACS valve for controlling the left travel function.
The rear pump provides high pressure oil flow to:
• The upper IMV sections in the ACS valve for controlling the stick and any
optional high pressure attachment functions.
• The center section of the ACS valve for controlling the right travel and swing
function.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -9- Module 8 - Main Hydraulic Pumps

The front pump and the rear pump are both variable displacement piston-type
pumps. The charge pump is a fixed displacement impeller-type pump.
Pump flow rates are determined by the position of the front pump and rear pump
swashplates. The positions of the pump swashplates are controlled by the pump
regulators. A Negative Flow Control (NFC) strategy is used to control the pump
regulators. The pump regulators are electro-hydraulically controlled using two
NFC Proportional Reducing Valves (PRVs), which are located in the pilot hydraulic
manifold. The Machine ECM sends a Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) signal to the
NFC PRVs, which use pilot pressure oil to create an artificial NFC hydraulic signal
to the pump regulators. The Machine ECM adjusts the PWM current sent to the
NFC PRVs based on the following factors:
• Operator controls: Joystick position sensors and function switches and the
travel control pressure sensors
• Main hydraulic pump discharge pressure sensors: Installed at the pump
inlets in the ACS valve
• Implement and travel circuit pressure sensors: Located at the high
pressure ports for each circuit to and from the ACS valve
• Desired engine speed: Determined by the position of the engine speed dial
• Actual engine speed: Determined by the engine speed/timing sensors
• Pump displacement position sensors: Attached to the pump swashplates
• Machine ECM Software: Algorithms in the Flash File compare the requested
flow rates (operator controls) to the actual flow rates (pump displacement
sensors)

Each pump uses five different pressures that act on the control spools in the pump
regulators for controlling the pump’s flow rate:
• Pilot oil pressure
• Same pump pressure
• Cross-sensing pressure (from the opposite pump)
• Power Shift pressure
• NFC pressure

The NFC pressures are created by the NFC PRVs, using algorithms in the software
that consider the pump discharge pressure sensors, engine speed,

The Power Shift Pressure system is used to control maximum pump output
pressure. The Power Shift Proportional Reducing Valve (PSPRV) is installed in
the pilot solenoid manifold. The PSPRV uses pilot pressure oil to provide power
shift pressure to the main hydraulic pump regulators, which is used to maintain a
balance between the main pump pressures and the optimum load on the engine.

Pilot pressure oil is also supplied directly from the pilot pump to both main hydraulic
pump regulators for controlling oil flow from both main hydraulic pumps.

NOTE: Callouts in graphics not mentioned in the text above, or in


subsequent graphics and text, are for reference information only.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -10- Module 8 - Main Hydraulic Pumps

1
2

7
6
5
3 4

10
MAIN HYDRAULIC PUMPS SYSTEM - COMPONENT IDENTIFICATION
Main Hydraulic Pumps - Pump Compartment
• Identification of the main The main hydraulic pumps (1) are located in the pump compartment, at the right
hydraulic pumps system rear of the machine. The main hydraulic pumps (pump group) consist of the front
components in the pump pump and the rear pump and an internal charge pump, all contained in a common
compartment: housing. The main hydraulic pumps are arranged in-line and are connected by a
common control block located between the two pumps. The front pump is closest
-- Main hydraulic pumps (1)
to the engine and is driven by the engine flywheel. The rear pump is closest to the
-- Pump regulator (2) compartment door. The rear pump and the charge pump are connected and driven
by through-drive shafts and couplings from the front pump. The charge pump
-- Pilot solenoid block (3) draws oil from the hydraulic oil tank, via the main hydraulic oil suction tube (4), and
-- Main hydraulic oil suction delivers charge oil equally to the front pump and the rear pump. The front pump
tube (4) and the rear pump deliver high pressure oil to the ACS main hydraulic control valve
for use in operating the bucket, stick, boom, attachments, swing, and travel circuits.
-- Pump discharge pressure test
ports (5) Both of the high pressure variable displacement piston-type main hydraulic
pumps have their own pump regulator (2). Both pump regulators are identical in
-- Pump discharge manifold (6) construction and operation.
-- Pump discharge hoses (7) When the 374F pumps and regulators are properly adjusted, the front and rear
pumps can each produce a flow rate of approximately 439 lpm (115.9 gpm) at
-- Side branch resonator
10,000 kPa (1450 psi), at 1600 rpm (High Horsepower Mode).
hoses (8)
When the 390F pumps and regulators are properly adjusted, the front and rear
• Components and locations are pumps can each produce a flow rate of approximately 468 lpm (123.6 gpm) at
the same in the 374F and 390F 10,000 kPa (1450 psi), at 1700 rpm (High Horsepower Mode).

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -11- Module 8 - Main Hydraulic Pumps

The pump regulators receive electronically controlled NFC signal pressure and
power shift pressure from three solenoid valves in the pilot solenoid block (3) (not
completely visible).

High pressure pump supply oil to the ACS main hydraulic control valve is delivered
through the two pump discharge hoses (7) connected to the pump discharge
manifold (6). Pump discharge pressures my be tested using the front pump and
rear pump discharge pressure test ports (5).

The side branch resonator hoses (8) are installed to help reduce pump noise and to
absorb pressure spikes in the pump discharge oil flow to the ACS valve.
NOTE: The front pump is designated Pump 1 and the rear pump is
designated Pump 2 in the F-Series monitor and in Cat ET.

NOTE: The image above shows the 390F pump compartment. Main
hydraulic system components on the 374F are located in the same places
and operate the same way.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -12- Module 8 - Main Hydraulic Pumps

3 4
2

1
5

8 7 6
12
374F / 390F Pilot Solenoid Manifold - Pump Compartment
• Pilot solenoid manifold and the The pilot solenoid manifold (1) is located immediately inside the pump compartment
pump control components and door, at the bottom of the compartment and beneath the rear pump (5). The
pressure test ports installed in manifold contains the following pump control solenoids:
the manifold • Power Shift Pressure PRV (2): A proportional solenoid valve that is
ENERGIZED by the Machine ECM to send a proportional hydraulic control
• Brief description of the function pressure to both the front and rear pump regulators.
of each feature in the manifold • Pump 2 NFC PRV (3): A proportional solenoid valve that is ENERGIZED by
the Machine ECM to create an NFC hydraulic signal pressure that is sent to
• Components and locations are the rear pump (Pump 2 ) regulator.
the same in the 374F and 390F • Pump 1 NFC PRV (4): A proportional solenoid valve that is ENERGIZED by
the Machine ECM to create an NFC hydraulic signal pressure that is sent to
the front pump (Pump 1) regulator.

The pressure test ports on top of the manifold allow the technician to test the
following pressures during test and adjust procedures for the main hydraulic pumps
control pressures:
• Pump 1 (Front Pump) NFC signal pressure (6)
• Pump 2 (Rear Pump) NFC signal pressure (7)
• Power Shift Pressure (8)
The pilot solenoid manifold is installed in the same location on both the 374F and
390F machines.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -13- Module 8 - Main Hydraulic Pumps

374F / 390F MAIN HYDRAULIC PUMPS


COMPONENT AND SERVICE POINTS IDENTIFICATION

(2) (1) (11) (10)


Rear Pump Rear Maximum Angle 374F
(Pump 2) Pump Stop Screws Case Drain
Regulator Oil Port

(3)
(12)
Pump #1
390F
Displacement
Case Drain
Sensor
Oil Port

(9)
Front
Pump

(8)
Pump Discharge
Ports

(4) (7)
Front Pump (5) (6) (5) Pump #2
(Pump 1) Minimum Angle Pump Inlet Minimum Angle Displacement
Regulator Stop Screw Port Stop Screw Sensor

13
374F / 390F Main Hydraulic Pumps - Component / Service Point Identification
• Identification and brief Two views of the main hydraulic pumps are shown in the image above. The image
description of the major on the left shows the pumps as viewed from the bottom rear. The image on the
components and service points right shows the pumps as viewed from the top front. The major components and
of the main hydraulic pumps service points of the pumps are identified above, with explanations of their purpose
below:

• Rear Pump (1): Provides oil flow to the ACS valve for operation of the stick,
swing, and right travel functions, and any optional high pressure attachments.

• Rear Pump (Pump 2) Regulator (2): Controls the oil flow rate of the rear
pump.

• Pump #1 Displacement Sensor (3): A rotary position sensor that sends


a PWM signal to the Machine ECM, confirming the angle of the front pump
swashplate.

• Front Pump (Pump 1) Regulator (4): Controls the oil flow rate of the front
pump.

• Minimum Angle Stop Screw (5): Adjustment screws that limit the minimum
angles of the pump swashplates, one screw each for the front and rear pumps.

• Pump Inlet Port (6): The main oil suction port through which the charge pump
draws oil from the main hydraulic oil tank, via the main hydraulic oil suction
tube.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -14- Module 8 - Main Hydraulic Pumps

• Pump #2 Displacement Sensor (7): A rotary position sensor that sends


a PWM signal to the Machine ECM, confirming the angle of the rear pump
swashplate.

• Pump Discharge Ports (8): The main oil ports that direct high pressure
supply oil flow through pump discharge hoses to the ACS valve.

• Front Pump (9): Provides oil flow to the ACS valve for operation of the boom,
bucket, and left travel functions.

• 374F Case Drain Oil Port (10): Directs case drain oil from the 374F main
hydraulic pumps to the case drain oil filters.

• Maximum Angle Stop Screw (11): Adjustment screws that limit the maximum
angles of the pump swashplates, one screw each for the front and rear pumps.

• 390F Case Drain Oil Port (12): Directs case drain oil from the 390F main
hydraulic pumps to the case drain oil filters.

NOTE: The minimum angle stop screws and the maximum angle stop
screws should never be adjusted on the machine. These stops are set by
the factory during pump assembly and are the reference points used when
calibrating the pump displacement sensors. Once calibrated, the pump
displacement sensors are the feedback inputs to the Machine ECM for
calculating pump flow rates to meet the operator requests for implement
operation.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -15- Module 8 - Main Hydraulic Pumps

1
4

15
• Identification and brief The Pump Discharge Manifold (3) is bolted to the front (side) of the main hydraulic
description of the major pumps and directs the high pressure oil flow to the ACS valve, via the attached
components and service points large hydraulic hoses. The service points identified above are identified with
of the main hydraulic pumps explanations of their purpose below:
• Front Pump Discharge Pressure Test Port (1): May be used to test the
discharge pressure of the oil in the front pump circuit.
• Rear Pump Discharge Pressure Test Port (2): May be used to test the
discharge pressure of the oil in the rear pump circuit.
• Pump Discharge Control Pressure Hoses (4): Direct pump discharge
pressures to the control ports on the opposite pumps’ regulators:
-- Front pump discharge oil pressure is directed to the control port on the rear
pump regulator.
-- Rear pump discharge oil pressure is directed to the control port on the front
pump regulator.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -16- Module 8 - Main Hydraulic Pumps

2 3

8
10 1
4
6

9
7

16
374F / 390F Main Hydraulic Pump Regulators - Component Identification
• Identification and brief The image above shows the two main hydraulic pump regulators and identifies the
description of the four different control pressure hoses connected to each regulator. Each regulator uses five
pressures delivered to the main separate control pressures to operate the main hydraulic pumps:
hydraulic pump regulators, used
for pump flow control • NFC pressure
• Pilot pressure
• Opposite pump pressure
• Same pump pressure
• Power shift pressure

The hydraulic lines that direct these pressures to the front pump regulator (1) and
the rear pump regulator (2) are identified above:
• NFC 2 pressure (3) from the Pump 2 NFC PRV to the NFC spool in the rear
pump regulator.
• Front pump discharge pressure (4) from the front pump discharge passage to
the horsepower control spool in the rear pump regulator.
• Pilot oil pressure (5) from the pilot oil pump to the rear pump actuator piston,
via an internal shuttle valve in the pump case.
• Power shift pressure (6) from the power shift pressure PRV to the horsepower
control spool in the rear pump regulator.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -17- Module 8 - Main Hydraulic Pumps

• Power shift pressure (7) from the power shift pressure PRV to the horsepower
control spool in the front pump regulator.
• Pilot oil pressure (8) from the pilot oil pump to the front pump actuator piston,
via an internal shuttle valve in the pump case.
• Rear pump discharge pressure (9) from the rear pump discharge passage to
the horsepower control spool in the front pump regulator.
• NFC 1 pressure (10) from the Pump 2 NFC PRV to the NFC spool in the front
pump regulator.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -18- Module 8 - Main Hydraulic Pumps

ADAPTIVE CONTROL SYSTEM (ACS)


MAIN HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE

(3)
Rear Pump
Inlet Port
(2)
Pump 2
Discharge Pressure
Sensor

(4)
Front Pump
Inlet Port

(1)
Pump 1
Discharge Pressure
Sensor

18
ACS Main Hydraulic Control Valve Inlets and Pump Pressure Sensors

• Location, identification, and brief The front pump discharge hose is connected to the Front Pump Inlet Port (4), on
description of the drive and idler the rear of the ACS valve. The Pump 1 Discharge Pressure Sensor (1) monitors
pump discharge inlets to the ACS the pressure of the front pump pressure at the inlet to the ACS valve.
main hydraulic control valve
The rear pump discharge hose is connected to the Rear Pump Inlet Port (3), on the
• Location, identification, and brief rear of the ACS valve. The Pump 2 Discharge Pressure Sensor (2) monitors the
description of the function of the pressure of the rear pump pressure at the inlet to the ACS valve.
pump pressure sensors installed
in the rear of the ACS main The pump discharge pressure sensors detect the pump discharge pressures from
hydraulic control valve the front pump and the rear pump at the pump inlets to the valve. The signal from
these sensor are monitored by the Machine ECM and are used as electronic inputs
to create the NFC hydraulic signal pressure to the pump regulators.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -19- Module 8 - Main Hydraulic Pumps
(3)
Charge
(4)
Pump MAIN HYDRAULIC PUMP
Inlet
Pump
Passage INTERNAL COMPONENTS
(5) (6) (7)
Passage Barrel Swashplate
(2)
Front
Pump

(1)
Drive
Shaft

(13) (12) (11) (10) (9) (8)


Coupling Port Passage Piston Retaining Slipper
(15) (14) Plate Plate Pad
Pump Actuator (24)
Regulator Piston Lever
(23) (22) (21) (20)
Maximum Angle Rear Pump Minimum Rear
Servo Piston Discharge Passage Angle Stop Pump
Screw

(25)
Pump
Displacement
Sensor

(16) (17) (18) (19)


Maximum Angle Front Pump Minimum Angle Destroke
Stop Screw Discharge Passage Servo Piston Rod 19
MAIN HYDRAULIC PUMP OPERATION
• Main hydraulic pump group The main hydraulic pumps (or main hydraulic pump group) consists of the Front
component identification Pump (2), the Rear Pump (20), and an internal Charge Pump (3), all contained in a
common pump housing. The two main hydraulic pumps and the charge pump are
• Basic operation of the main connected in series by a Coupling (13), inside a common control block located
hydraulic pumps between the front and rear piston pumps. The description of the pump operation,
below, uses components from both piston pumps, for ease of identification. Both
pumps are identical in construction and operation.
Each pump contains a Rotating Group, which consists of the Barrel (6), the
Pistons (10), the Slipper Pads (8), and a Retaining Plate (9). The slipper pads are
held against the pump Swashplate (7) by the retaining plate. The rotating group
is turned by the Drive Shaft (1) which is connected to the engine by a coupling in
the flywheel housing. The engine flywheel causes the drive shaft to rotate. When
the engine is running, the drive shaft causes the rotating group and the charge
pump impeller to rotate. As the rotating group turns, the pistons are moved in and
out of their bores in the barrel by the slipper pads as they slide against the angled
swashplate. Movement of the pistons in and out of their bores is referred to as the
piston STROKE.
When the charge pump impeller rotates, hydraulic oil is drawn into the Pump Inlet
Passage (4) and is delivered to both pump rotating groups through the piston inlet
Passage (11) in the Port Plate (12). This oil is drawn into the piston bores by the
suction created as the pistons rotate past the piston inlet passage and start to
move inward. The inward piston stroke is caused by the slipper pads pulling the
piston to the left as the swashplate angle falls away (piston moving from bottom to
top, as shown above).

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -20- Module 8 - Main Hydraulic Pumps

After the barrel and slipper pads have rotated approximately 180° around the
swashplate, they are completely filled with oil. As the rotating group continues to
turn, the slipper pads cause the pistons to move to the right as the swashplate
angle moves inward (piston moving from top to bottom, as shown above). When
the pistons move inward, they compress and pressurize the oil contained in the
bore. When the rotating group nears approximately 360° of rotation, the piston
bores pass by the oil outlet Passage (5) in the port plate. As each piston bore
becomes open to the outlet passage, the pressurized oil in the bore flows out
through the passage and is directed to the Front Pump Discharge Passage (17).
From the discharge passage, the high pressure oil is then directed to the main
control valve for operation of the bucket, boom, stick, attachment, and travel
circuits.
The angle of the swashplate determines the length of the piston’s stroke, and
therefore, the oil flow rate of the pump. Pilot oil from the pilot pump is delivered to
the right end of the Minimum Angle Servo Piston (18), via the Pump Regulator (15)
when the pump is in the STANDBY condition. As the minimum angle servo piston
is pressurized with pilot oil, the piston moves to the right, moving the Destroke
Rod (19) to the right, resulting in rotating the swashplate toward minimum angle.
As the swashplate moves toward minimum angle, the oil flow rate from the front
pump is DECREASED.
When demand for high pressure pump discharge oil is INCREASED, the pump
regulator directs high pressure pump discharge oil to the Maximum Angle Servo
Piston (23) and, at the same time, drains oil from the minimum angle servo piston.
Pressurizing the maximum angle servo piston moves it to the left, which causes the
swashplate to rotate an INCREASED angle; therefore, the oil flow from the front
pump is INCREASED.
The maximum angle servo piston contains an Actuator Piston (14). The actuator
piston is fitted perpendicularly into a bore on the top (periphery) of the maximum
angle servo piston. The actuator piston is pressurized from beneath by the
pressure oil inside the maximum angle servo piston. A roller is affixed to the top
of the actuator piston. The roller rides in a slot on the underside of a Lever (24) in
the pump regulator. As the maximum angle servo piston is pressurized, it moves
the actuator piston laterally and outward. This movement affects the lever, which
affects the NFC spool and the horsepower control spool in the pump regulator.
The Maximum Angle Stop Screws (16) are the mechanical means of limiting the
angle of the pump swashplates and therefore, the maximum flow rates from the
pumps at any given engine rpm. Conversely, the Minimum Angle Stop Screws (21)
are the mechanical stops for limiting the minimum angle of the pump swashplates
and therefore, the minimum flow rates from the pumps at any given engine rpm.
These stop screws should not be moved from the position set at the factory.
The stop screws are the reference points used when calibrating the Pump
Displacement Sensors (25). Also, the flow rates from the front pump and the rear
pump must be balanced. Changing only one stop screw will cause that pump to be
out of flow balance with the other.
Control of the main hydraulic pumps is accomplished by the pump regulators, one
for each pump. Operation of the pump regulators and controlling the pressure and
flow rate from the main hydraulic pumps is discussed in greater detail later in this
module.

NOTE: The Pump Displacement Sensors are sometimes referred to as the


Swashplate Angle Sensors.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -21- Module 8 - Main Hydraulic Pumps

POWER SHIFT PRESSURE SYSTEM


(6) (4) (2)
Engine ECM Machine ECM Power Shift Pressure
Reducing Valve (PSPRV)

(5) CAN 2 (J1939) Data Link

(9) Machine CAN


Data Link (3) Pilot Solenoid Manifold

(8)
Engine (1)
(7) Pilot Oil
Speed Dial (12)
Engine Pump
Speed/Timing Main
Sensors (11) Hydraulic
Pump Discharge Pumps
Pressure Sensors (13)
Pump
Displacement
(10) Sensors
Switch Panel ECM

21
Power Shift Pressure System
• Power shift pressure system Power Shift Pressure (PSP) is one of the four pressures used to control the main
component identification and hydraulic pumps. PSP is controlled by the Machine ECM (4). INCREASED power
explanation shift pressure to the pump regulators DESTROKES the Main Hydraulic Pumps (12)
when the engine speed falls below its optimum rpm, given the setting of the Engine
Speed Dial (8). PSP prevents the main hydraulic pumps’ load from overcoming
engine horsepower, which could cause the engine to stall. PSP also ensures the
engine runs at a steady rpm, which increases fuel efficiency.
The Pilot Oil Pump (1) supplies pilot oil to the Pilot Solenoid Manifold (3). The
Power Shift Pressure Reducing Valve (PSPRV) (2) is ENERGIZED to send varying
pressures to the pump regulators, depending on the inputs to the PSP system. The
Machine ECM ENERGIZES the PSPRV solenoid based on the following inputs:
• The Engine Speed Dial (8) setting (desired engine speed), which is
communicated from the Switch Panel ECM (10) via the Machine CAN Data
Link (9).
• The Engine Speed/Timing Sensors (7) (actual engine speed), which is
communicated from the Engine ECM (6) via the CAN 2 (J1939) Data Link (5)
• The Pump Discharge Pressure Sensors (11) (pump delivery pressure).
• Requested flow rate (from all implement, attachment, and travel control
sensors)
• The Pump Displacement Sensors (13) (actual flow rate).

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -22- Module 8 - Main Hydraulic Pumps

The PSP is set to specific fixed values, which are dependent upon the inputs listed
above. The PSP can also be INCREASED or DECREASED from those fixed
values by the PSPRV, based on the hydraulic torque load, which is determined by
the P-Q Curve (explained next).
When the engine speed dial is set to position 10 and a high hydraulic load is placed
on the engine, the actual engine speed can DECREASE below the desired rpm.
When this DECREASE begins to occur, the Machine ECM signals the PSPRV
solenoid valve to send INCREASED power shift pressure to the pump regulators.
The INCREASED power shift pressure causes the pumps to DESTROKE and
reduce the load placed on the engine. System pressure is maintained, but flow
rate is DECREASED. With a DECREASED load from the hydraulic pumps,
the engine can maintain its target rpm. This function is referred to as engine
underspeed control.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -23- Module 8 - Main Hydraulic Pumps

MAIN HYDRAULIC PUMPS


P-Q CURVE
(1) Destroke Point (1) Destroke Point

(2) P-Q Curve

(2) P-Q Curve


Flow (Q)

Flow (Q)
HIGH TORQUE

LOW TORQUE

Delivery Pressure (P) Delivery Pressure (P)


LOW PSP HIGH PSP

23
P-Q Curve Chart

• Explanation of the P-Q The flow rate of the front pump and the rear pump is represented on the P-Q
characteristic chart Curve (2) from the Destroke Point (1). Each point on the P-Q characteristic curve
represents the flow rate and pressure when pump output horsepower is maintained
at a constant rate.

The P-Q characteristic curve is determined by the Machine ECM. The Machine
ECM adjusts the PSP to determine the required P-Q characteristic curve (torque
line) of the pump. When the Machine ECM commands a LOW PSP to the
pump regulator, the pump can produce HIGH TORQUE. When the Machine
ECM commands a HIGH PSP to the pump regulator, the pump produces LOW
TORQUE.

The output characteristic of each pump depends on the inputs described earlier.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -24- Module 8 - Main Hydraulic Pumps

MAIN HYDRAULIC PUMPS


AND PUMP CONTROL
STANDBY CONDITION
(22) (21) (20)
Pump 1 Pump 2 Power Shift
NFC PRV NFC PRV Pressure PRV

FRONT REAR
PUMP PUMP
REGULATOR PILOT SOLENOID REGULATOR
NFC-1 NFC-2 PSP
MANIFOLD

LEFT TRAVEL AND RIGHT TRAVEL/SWING


LOWER IMV (14) Pump 1 AND UPPER IMV
(15) Pump 2
SECTIONS (18) (19) SECTIONS
Horsepower Control Horsepower Control
(BOOM/BUCKET) Pump 1 (16) (17) Pump 2 (STICK/ATTACHMENT)
Spool Spool
Pressure Cross Cross Pressure
Sensor Sensing Sensing Sensor
Piston
P Piston
P
(31)
Pistons
(28) Bypass (26) (27) (29) Bypass
Cut Valve Lever Lever Cut Valve

(23) (24)
Pump 1 Pump 2
Pressure (12) (13) Pressure
NFC 1 NFC 2
Spool Spool
(30) (30) (2)
(1) (8) (9)
(10) Actuator Piston Actuator Piston (11) Rear
Front Maximum (3) Maximum
Pump Shuttle Angle Angle Shuttle Pump
Charge
Valve Servo Piston Servo Piston Valve
Pump
(25)
Pilot Oil
Pump M

U G U G

MAIN
(4) (6) (7) (5)
HYDRAULIC Pump 2
Pump 1 Minimum Angle (24) Case Drain Minimum Angle
PUMPS Displacement
Displacement Servo Piston Servo Piston
Sensor Sensor
24
MAIN HYDRAULIC PUMPS AND PUMP CONTROL - OPERATION
Standby Condition
• Explanation of main hydraulic The illustration above is a schematic of the Main Hydraulic Pumps and the Pump
pumps in the STANDBY condition Regulators with the pumps in the STANDBY condition. Also shown is the Pilot
Solenoid Manifold, which contains the following solenoid valves used to control
pump regulation:
• Pump 1 NFC PRV (22): A solenoid controlled PRV that is ENERGIZED by
the Machine ECM to DECREASE the NFC signal pressure (reduced pilot
pressure) sent to the Front Pump Regulator (Pump 1), which causes the front
pump to UPSTROKE. Full pilot pressure is transferred to the regulator when
the solenoid is DE-ENERGIZED.
• Pump 2 NFC PRV (21): A solenoid controlled PRV that is ENERGIZED by the
Machine ECM to DECREASE the NFC signal pressure sent to the Rear Pump
Regulator (Pump 2), which causes the rear pump to UPSTROKE. Full pilot
pressure is transferred to the regulator when the solenoid is DE-ENERGIZED.
• Power Shift Pressure PRV (20): A solenoid controlled PRV that is
ENERGIZED by the Machine ECM to INCREASE the power shift pressure
sent to both regulators, causing both pumps to DESTROKE.
The Machine ECM also monitors the Pump 1 Pressure Sensor (18) and the Pump
2 Pressure Sensor (19) to determine the system pressures for each pump. The
Pump 1 Displacement Sensor (4) and the Pump 2 Displacement Sensor (5) confirm
the angles of the swashplates, which confirms the flow rate from each pump.
Together, the pump flow rates and the related pump pressures determine the
Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow
SERV1994 - 05/14 -25- Module 8 - Main Hydraulic Pumps

hydraulic horsepower produced by each pump.


When the operator moves a lever or a travel pedal, the proportional PWM signals
sent from the joystick position sensors, the travel pedal control pressure sensors,
and/or attachment switches/sensors are sent to the Machine ECM. Algorithms in
the Machine ECM software interpret those signals as flow requests. The Machine
ECM responds by sending a PWM current to one, or all three pump control PRVs
(listed above) to UPSTROKE or DESTROKE one or both pumps to meet the
requested demand for flow, given the system pressures. The further the levers or
pedals are moved, the more flow is commanded by the Machine ECM.
When no implement, travel, or attachment controls are moved, there is no demand
for oil flow, the Machine ECM OPENS the Bypass Cut Valves (28) and (29) in the
ACS main hydraulic control valve, allowing pump discharge to flow through the
valve to tank. The Machine ECM keeps the Pump 1 NFC PRV (22) or the Pump 2
NFC PRV (21) DE-ENERGIZED, which allows full NFC (pilot) pressure to flow to
the pressure chambers at the NFC 1 Spool (12) and the NFC 2 Spool (13), which
initially allows the spring force to move the NFC spools outward.
Pilot pressure oil from the Pilot Oil Pump (25) is always sent to the two Shuttle
Valves (10) and (11). When the pumps are in the STANDBY condition, pump
discharge pressure is lower than pilot pressure, therefore the shuttle valves direct
pilot pressure oil to the Maximum Angle Servo Pistons (8) and (9).
Front Pump (1) discharge pressure is always present at the rear pump Cross
Sensing Piston (17). Rear Pump (2) discharge pressure is always present at the
front pump Cross Sensing Piston (16). The cross sensing pistons move the Pump
Horsepower Control Spools (14) and (15) inward, which direct pilot pressure oil
to the Minimum Angle Servo Pistons (6) and (7). Due to the effective areas of the
minimum angle servo pistons being greater than those of the maximum angle servo
pistons, the reduced pilot pressure plus the force of the assist springs move the
minimum angle servo pistons outward, rotating the swashplates to DESTROKE the
pumps.
As the pumps DESTROKE, the maximum angle servo pistons are moved inward,
causing the Actuator Pistons (30) to also move inward. As the servo pistons
are moved inward, their mechanical advantage on the Levers 26) and (27) is
decreased, which lessens the outward spring force on the NFC spools. The NFC
spools then move inward slightly until the spring forces balance the spool position.
The NFC spools then begin to drain off some of the pilot pressure to Case
Drain (24), which reduces the pressure to the minimum angle servo pistons. The
swashplates will then rotate to a balance point that produces the desired amount of
oil flow in the STANDBY condition.

NOTE: The bypass cut valves are OPEN when there is no demand for
implement or travel operation when the oil is warm. If the oil is cold,
the Machine ECM CLOSES the valves during the warm-up mode. The
Machine ECM also CLOSES the bypass cut valves when there is a request
for travel or implement operation, in order to build pressure in the system.
Operation of the bypass cut valves is discussed in the Main Hydraulic
Control Valve module.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -26- Module 8 - Main Hydraulic Pumps

MAIN HYDRAULIC PUMPS


AND PUMP CONTROL
START OF UPSTROKE - NFC CONTROL
(22) (21) (20)
Pump 1 Pump 2 Power Shift
NFC PRV NFC PRV Pressure PRV

FRONT REAR
PUMP PUMP
REGULATOR PILOT SOLENOID REGULATOR
NFC-1 NFC-2 PSP
MANIFOLD

LEFT TRAVEL AND RIGHT TRAVEL/SWING


LOWER IMV (14) Pump 1 AND UPPER IMV
(15) Pump 2
SECTIONS (18) (19) SECTIONS
Horsepower Control Horsepower Control
(BOOM/BUCKET) Pump 1 Pump 2 (STICK/ATTACHMENT)
Spool Spool
Pressure Pressure
Sensor (16) (17) Sensor
Cross Cross
P Sensing Sensing P
Piston Piston
(31)
(28) Bypass (26) Pistons (27) (29) Bypass
Cut Valve Lever Lever Cut Valve

(23) (24)
Pump 1 Pump 2
Pressure (12) (13) Pressure
NFC 1 NFC 2
Spool Spool
(30) (30) (2)
(1) (8) (9)
(10) Actuator Piston Actuator Piston Rear
Front Maximum Maximum (11)
(3)
Pump Shuttle Angle Angle Shuttle Pump
Charge
Valve Servo Piston Servo Piston Valve
Pump
(25)
Pilot Oil
Pump M

U G U G

MAIN
(4) (6) (7) (5)
HYDRAULIC Pump 2
Pump 1 Minimum Angle (24) Case Drain Minimum Angle
PUMPS Displacement
Displacement Servo Piston Servo Piston
Sensor Sensor
26
Main Hydraulic Pumps - START OF UPSTROKE - NFC Control

• Explanation of main hydraulic The illustration above is a schematic of the Main Hydraulic Pumps and the Pump
pumps in the START OF Regulators with the pumps in the Start of UPSTROKE condition, due to a
UPSTROKE condition, due to DECREASE in NFC control pressure.
a DECREASE in NFC control
pressure When the operator moves a joystick or travel control lever/pedal, the Machine ECM
request implement or swing movement starts to proportionally ENERGIZE the
Pump 1 NFC PRV (22) and/or the Pump 2 NFC PRV (21) to mimic a DECREASE
in the NFC signal pressure that would naturally occur in a traditional NFC hydraulic
system.

When the NFC control pressure DECREASES, the force of the springs in the two
NFC pistons start to move NFC 1 Spool (12) and NFC 2 Spool (13) inward. The
NFC spool movement connects the Minimum Angel Servo Pistons (6) and (7) to the
Case Drain (24). The force of the pilot pressure from the Pilot Oil Pump (25) acting
on the two Maximum Servo Pistons (8) and (9) is now greater than the force of the
case pressure acting on the two minimum angle servo pistons, which causes the
swashplates to rotate, in order to UPSTROKE the pump.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -27- Module 8 - Main Hydraulic Pumps

MAIN HYDRAULIC PUMPS


AND PUMP CONTROL
UPSTROKED - NFC CONTROL
(22) (21) (20)
Pump 1 Pump 2 Power Shift
NFC PRV NFC PRV Pressure PRV

FRONT REAR
PUMP PUMP
REGULATOR PILOT SOLENOID REGULATOR
NFC-1 NFC-2 PSP
MANIFOLD

LEFT TRAVEL AND RIGHT TRAVEL/SWING


LOWER IMV AND UPPER IMV
(14) Pump 1 (15) Pump 2 SECTIONS
SECTIONS (18) (19)
Horsepower Control Horsepower Control (STICK/ATTACHMENT)
(BOOM/BUCKET) Pump 1 Pump 2
Spool Spool
Pressure Pressure
Sensor (16) (17) Sensor
Cross Cross
P Sensing Sensing P
Piston Piston
(31)
(26) Pistons (27)
(28) Bypass (29) Bypass
Cut Valve Lever Lever Cut Valve

(23) (24)
Pump 1 Pump 2
Pressure (12) (13) Pressure
NFC 1 NFC 2
Spool Spool
(30) (30) (2)
(1) (8) (9)
(10) Actuator Piston Actuator Piston Rear
Front Maximum Maximum (11)
(3)
Pump Shuttle Angle Angle Shuttle Pump
Charge
Valve Servo Piston Servo Piston Valve
Pump
(25)
Pilot Oil
Pump M

U G U G

MAIN
(4) (6) (7) (5)
HYDRAULIC Pump 2
Pump 1 Minimum Angle (24) Case Drain Minimum Angle
PUMPS Displacement
Displacement Servo Piston Servo Piston
Sensor Sensor
27
Main Hydraulic Pumps - UPSTROKED - NFC Control

• Explanation of main hydraulic The illustration above shows a schematic of the Main Hydraulic Pumps and the
pumps in the UPSTROKED Pump Regulators with the pumps UPSTROKED, due to the DECREASE in NFC
condition, after the pumps have control pressure. This schematic shows the condition of the main hydraulic pumps
come to a balance point from the when the pumps come to a balance point after the START OF UPSTROKE
START OF UPSTROKE, which condition shown in the previous schematic.
was shown in the previous
schematic As the pumps UPSTROKE, system pressure begins to INCREASE from implement
or travel movement and resistance to that movement. When system pressure
becomes higher than pilot pressure, the Shuttle Valves (10) and (11) shift. This
action closes off the pilot oil pressure and directs pump discharge pressure into
the control passages to the NFC 1 Spool (12), the NFC 2 Spool (13), the Pump 1
Horsepower Control Spool (14), the Pump 2 Horsepower Control Spool (15), and to
the Maximum Angle Servo Pistons (8) and (9). This INCREASED pressure causes
the maximum angle servo pistons to move further outward, UPSTROKING the
pumps more. The INCREASE in system pressure also starts to move the Actuator
Pistons (30) upward, against Levers (26) and (27).

Moving the maximum angle servo pistons outward INCREASES the mechanical
advantage of the actuator pistons, causing the levers to rotate inward, allowing the
springs to move the horsepower control spools inward. Conversely, the outward
movement of the maximum angle servo pistons INCREASES the spring force on
the NFC spools, which starts to move the spools outward. The positions of the
NFC spools and the horsepower control spools allow some of the pump discharge
oil to be directed to the minimum angle servo pistons.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -28- Module 8 - Main Hydraulic Pumps

With the connection between the minimum angle servo pistons and case drain
mostly blocked, the pressure against the larger area of the minimum angle servo
pistons begins to rotate the pump swashplates to UPSTROKE the pumps. The
swashplate stops rotating and balances when the pressures and forces all
equalize, given the request for implement or travel movement.

The Pump 1 Displacement Sensor (4) and the Pump 2 Displacement Sensor (5)
provide a PWM signal to the Machine ECM to confirm the swashplate position.
Given engine speed and system pressures, the ECM can calculate the pump
flow rates and provide a portion of the data used by the ECM software to make
adjustments to pump displacement, via the NFC PRVs and the Power Shift
Pressure PRV (20).

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -29- Module 8 - Main Hydraulic Pumps

MAIN HYDRAULIC PUMPS


AND PUMP CONTROL
DESTROKE - NFC CONTROL
(22) (21) (20)
Pump 1 Pump 2 Power Shift
NFC PRV NFC PRV Pressure PRV

FRONT REAR
PUMP PUMP
REGULATOR PILOT SOLENOID REGULATOR
NFC-1 NFC-2 PSP
MANIFOLD

LEFT TRAVEL AND RIGHT TRAVEL/SWING


LOWER IMV AND UPPER IMV
(14) Pump 1 (15) Pump 2 SECTIONS
SECTIONS (18) (19)
Horsepower Control Horsepower Control (STICK/ATTACHMENT)
(BOOM/BUCKET) Pump 1 Pump 2
Spool Spool
Pressure Pressure
Sensor (16) (17) Sensor
Cross Cross
P Sensing Sensing P
Piston Piston
(31)
Pistons (27)
(28) Bypass (26) (29) Bypass
Cut Valve Lever Lever Cut Valve

(23) (24)
Pump 1 Pump 2
Pressure (12) (13) Pressure
NFC 1 NFC 2
Spool Spool
(30) (30) (2)
(1) (8) (9)
(10) Actuator Piston Actuator Piston Rear
Front Maximum Maximum (11)
(3)
Pump Shuttle Angle Angle Shuttle Pump
Charge
Valve Servo Piston Servo Piston Valve
Pump
(25)
Pilot Oil
Pump M

U G U G

MAIN
(4) (6) (7) (5)
HYDRAULIC Pump 2
Pump 1 Minimum Angle (24) Case Drain Minimum Angle
PUMPS Displacement
Displacement Servo Piston Servo Piston
Sensor Sensor
29
Main Hydraulic Pumps - DESTROKE - NFC Control

• Explanation of main hydraulic The illustration above is a schematic of the Main Hydraulic Pumps and the Pump
pumps in the DESTROKE Regulators with the pumps in the DESTROKE condition, due to an INCREASE in
condition, due to an INCREASE NFC control pressure.
in NFC control pressure
When the Machine ECM DE-ENERGIZES the NFC PRVs (21) and (22), NFC
control pressure INCREASES. The INCREASED pressure moves the NFC pistons
outward, against their springs. This action causes the spring force of the NFC
Spools (12) and (13) to move them outward, which connects the passages to the
Minimum Angle Servo Pistons (6) and (7) to pump discharge pressure.

Since the affective area of the minimum angle servo pistons is greater than the
area of the Maximum Angle Servo Pistons (8) and (9), the swashplates are rotated
toward their minimum angles in order to DESTROKE the pumps. When the
swashplates rotate toward minimum angle, the maximum angle servo pistons move
outward. This movement DECREASES the mechanical advantage of the Actuator
Pistons (30) beneath the Levers (26) and (27), causing the levers to rotate inward.
This action REDUCES the levers’ force against the Horsepower Control Spools
(14) and (15), and with the INCREASED pressure behind the Cross Sensing
Pistons (16) and (17), the horsepower control spools move inward.

When the pump flow rates and system pressures reach the desired state, the
horsepower control spools and the NFC spools keep the minimum angle servo
pistons pressurized to the point that balance the swashplates.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -30- Module 8 - Main Hydraulic Pumps

MAIN HYDRAULIC PUMPS


AND PUMP CONTROL
UPSTROKE CONDITION - HORSEPOWER CONTROL
(22) (21) (20)
Pump 1 Pump 2 Power Shift
NFC PRV NFC PRV Pressure PRV

FRONT REAR
PUMP PUMP
REGULATOR PILOT SOLENOID REGULATOR
NFC-1 NFC-2 PSP
MANIFOLD

LEFT TRAVEL AND RIGHT TRAVEL/SWING


LOWER IMV AND UPPER IMV
SECTIONS (14) Pump 1 (15) Pump 2
(18) (19) SECTIONS
(BOOM/BUCKET) Horsepower Control Horsepower Control
Pump 1 Pump 2 (STICK/ATTACHMENT)
Spool Spool
Pressure Pressure
Sensor (16) (17) Sensor
Cross Cross
P Sensing Sensing P
Piston Piston

(28) Bypass (26) (27) (29) Bypass


Cut Valve Lever Lever Cut Valve

(23) (24)
Pump 1 Pump 2
Pressure (12) (13) Pressure
NFC 1 NFC 2
Spool Spool
(30) (30) (2)
(1) (8) (9)
(10) Actuator Piston Actuator Piston Rear
Front Maximum Maximum (11)
(3)
Pump Shuttle Angle Angle Shuttle Pump
Charge
Valve Servo Piston Servo Piston Valve
Pump
(25)
Pilot Oil
Pump M

U G U G

MAIN
(4) (6) (7) (5)
HYDRAULIC Pump 2
Pump 1 Minimum Angle (24) Case Drain Minimum Angle
PUMPS Displacement
Displacement Servo Piston Servo Piston
Sensor Sensor
30
Main Hydraulic Pumps - UPSTROKE - Horsepower Control

• Explanation of main hydraulic The illustration above is a schematic of the Main Hydraulic Pumps and the Pump
pumps in the UPSTROKE Regulators with the pumps in the UPSTROKE condition, due to a DECREASE in
condition, due to a DECREASE in system pressure.
system pressure
When the system pressures DECREASE, the upward force of the Actuator
Pistons (30) also DECREASES and the Levers (26) and (27) rotate outward. The
levers force the Pump 1 and Pump 2 Horsepower Control Spools (14) and (15)
outward. Shifting the horsepower control spools outward connects the Minimum
Angle Servo Pistons (6) and (7) to Case Drain (24), reducing the pressure behind
the servo pistons. The force of the NFC piston springs and the outer bias springs
of the NFC 1 and NFC 2 Spools (12) and (13) keep the NFC spools held in their
inward position, blocking system pressure and maintaining a path open to the case
from the minimum angle servo pistons, via the horsepower control spools.

Since the minimum angle servo pistons are open to case pressure and the
Maximum Angle Servo Pistons (8) and (9) are pressurized by system pressure, the
pump swashplates rotate toward maximum angle and the pumps UPSTROKE.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -31- Module 8 - Main Hydraulic Pumps

MAIN HYDRAULIC PUMPS


AND PUMP CONTROL
START OF DESTROKE - HORSEPOWER CONTROL
(22) (21) (20)
Pump 1 Pump 2 Power Shift
NFC PRV NFC PRV Pressure PRV

FRONT REAR
PUMP PUMP
REGULATOR PILOT SOLENOID REGULATOR
NFC-1 NFC-2 PSP
MANIFOLD

LEFT TRAVEL AND RIGHT TRAVEL/SWING


LOWER IMV AND UPPER IMV
(14) Pump 1 (15) Pump 2
SECTIONS (18) (19) SECTIONS
Horsepower Control Horsepower Control
(BOOM/BUCKET) Pump 1 Pump 2 (STICK/ATTACHMENT)
Spool Spool
Pressure Pressure
Sensor (16) (17) Sensor
Cross Cross
P Sensing Sensing P
Piston Piston
(31)
(28) Bypass (26) Pistons (27) (29) Bypass
Cut Valve Lever Lever Cut Valve

(23) (24)
Pump 1 Pump 2
Pressure (12) (13) Pressure
NFC 1 NFC 2
Spool Spool
(30) (30) (2)
(1) (8) (9)
(10) Actuator Piston Actuator Piston Rear
Front Maximum Maximum (11)
(3)
Pump Shuttle Angle Angle Shuttle Pump
Charge
Valve Servo Piston Servo Piston Valve
Pump
(25)
Pilot Oil
Pump M

U G U G

MAIN
(4) (6) (7) (5)
HYDRAULIC Pump 2
Pump 1 Minimum Angle (24) Case Drain Minimum Angle
PUMPS Displacement
Displacement Servo Piston Servo Piston
Sensor Sensor
31
Main Hydraulic Pumps - START OF DESTROKE - Horsepower Control

• Explanation of main hydraulic The illustration above is a schematic of the Main Hydraulic Pumps and the Pump
pumps in the START OF Regulators with the pumps in the START OF DESTROKE condition, due to an
DESTROKE condition, due to an INCREASE in system pressure.
INCREASE in system pressure
When the system pressure INCREASES, the upward force of the Actuator
Pistons (30) INCREASES, causing the Levers (26) and (27) to rotate inward. The
levers force the Pump 1 and Pump 2 Horsepower Control Spools (14) and (15)
inward against the force of the springs in the power shift pressure Pistons (31).
Shifting the horsepower control spools inward connects the Minimum Angle Servo
Pistons (6) and (7) to system pressure.

Since the force of the system pressure against the larger minimum angle servo
pistons is larger than the force of the same system pressure against the smaller
area of the Maximum Angle Servo Pistons (8) and (9), the swashplates rotate
toward minimum angle to DESTROKE the pumps.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -32- Module 8 - Main Hydraulic Pumps

MAIN HYDRAULIC PUMPS


AND PUMP CONTROL
DESTROKED - HORSEPOWER CONTROL
(22) (21) (20)
Pump 1 Pump 2 Power Shift
NFC PRV NFC PRV Pressure PRV

FRONT REAR
PUMP PUMP
REGULATOR PILOT SOLENOID REGULATOR
NFC-1 NFC-2 PSP
MANIFOLD

LEFT TRAVEL AND RIGHT TRAVEL/SWING


LOWER IMV AND UPPER IMV
(14) Pump 1 (15) Pump 2
SECTIONS (18) (19) SECTIONS
Horsepower Control Horsepower Control
(BOOM/BUCKET) Pump 1 Pump 2 (STICK/ATTACHMENT)
Spool Spool
Pressure Pressure
Sensor (16) (17) Sensor
Cross Cross
P Sensing Sensing P
Piston Piston
(31)
(26) Pistons (27)
(28) Bypass (29) Bypass
Cut Valve Lever Lever Cut Valve

(23) (24)
Pump 1 Pump 2
Pressure (12) (13) Pressure
NFC 1 NFC 2
Spool Spool
(30) (30) (2)
(1) (8) (9)
(10) Actuator Piston Actuator Piston Rear
Front Maximum Maximum (11)
(3)
Pump Shuttle Angle Angle Shuttle Pump
Charge
Valve Servo Piston Servo Piston Valve
Pump
(25)
Pilot Oil
Pump M

U G U G

MAIN
(4) (6) (7) (5)
HYDRAULIC Pump 2
Pump 1 Minimum Angle (24) Case Drain Minimum Angle
PUMPS Displacement
Displacement Servo Piston Servo Piston
Sensor Sensor
32
Main Hydraulic Pumps - DESTROKED - Horsepower Control

• Explanation of second stage of The illustration above is a schematic of the Main Hydraulic Pumps and the Pump
the main hydraulic pumps in the Regulators with the pumps in the DESTROKED condition, due to an INCREASE in
DESTROKED condition due to an system pressure. This condition is the continuation of the movement of spools,
INCREASE in system pressure pistons, and levers from the previous START OF DESTROKE condition.

With the pump swashplates rotated toward minimum angle, the Maximum Angle
Servo Pistons (8) and (9) move inward, which DECREASES the mechanical
advantage of the Actuator Pistons (30) on the Levers (26) and (27). The reduction
in the mechanical advantage allows the Pump 1 and Pump 2 Horsepower Control
Spools (14) and (15) to move back to the left. The positions of the horsepower
control spools are determined by the system pressure behind the Cross Sensing
Pistons (16) and (17) and by the opposing forces of the levers.

When the horsepower control spools shifts to the left, the connection between
the minimum angle servo and system pressure is partially blocked. Some of the
system pressure is relieved to Case Drain (24) and the resulting lower pressure
is directed to the Minimum Angle servo Pistons (6) and (7). The swashplates will
stop rotating and come to a balance point when the force from the system pressure
acting on the smaller affective area of the maximum angle servo pistons is equal to
the force of the reduced system pressure acting on the larger affective area of the
minimum angle servo pistons.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -33- Module 8 - Main Hydraulic Pumps

MAIN HYDRAULIC PUMPS


AND PUMP CONTROL
DESTROKE - POWER SHIFT PRESSURE
(22) (21) (20)
Pump 1 Pump 2 Power Shift
NFC PRV NFC PRV Pressure PRV

FRONT REAR
PUMP PUMP
REGULATOR PILOT SOLENOID REGULATOR
NFC-1 NFC-2 PSP
MANIFOLD

LEFT TRAVEL AND RIGHT TRAVEL/SWING


LOWER IMV AND UPPER IMV
(14) Pump 1 (15) Pump 2
SECTIONS (18) (19) SECTIONS
Horsepower Control Horsepower Control
(BOOM/BUCKET) Pump 1 Pump 2 (STICK/ATTACHMENT)
Spool Spool
Pressure Pressure
Sensor (16) (17) Sensor
Cross Cross
P Sensing Sensing P
Piston Piston
(31)
(26) Pistons (27)
(28) Bypass (29) Bypass
Cut Valve Lever Lever Cut Valve

(23) (24)
Pump 1 Pump 2
Pressure (12) (13) Pressure
NFC 1 NFC 2
Spool Spool
(30) (30) (2)
(1) (8) (9)
(10) Actuator Piston Actuator Piston Rear
Front Maximum Maximum (11)
(3)
Pump Shuttle Angle Angle Shuttle Pump
Charge
Valve Servo Piston Servo Piston Valve
Pump
(25)
Pilot Oil
Pump M

U G U G

MAIN
(4) (6) (7) (5)
HYDRAULIC Pump 2
Pump 1 Minimum Angle (24) Case Drain Minimum Angle
PUMPS Displacement
Displacement Servo Piston Servo Piston
Sensor Sensor
33
Main Hydraulic Pumps - DESTROKE - Power Shift Pressure Control

• Explanation of second stage of The illustration above is a schematic of the Main Hydraulic Pumps and the Pump
the main hydraulic pumps in Regulators with the pumps in the DESTROKE condition, due to an INCREASE in
the DESTROKE condition due Power Shift Pressure (PSP).
to an INCREASE in power shift
pressure When resistance to implement movement causes system pressures to INCREASE,
the high pressures at any given pump flow rate can cause the pumps to place a
high load on the engine, causing the engine to lug. When the engine lugs, fuel
efficiency is lessened.

The PSP strategy is used to DESTROKE the pumps in order to reduce engine lug.
System pressures and lifting/breakout forces are maintained, but flow rates, and
therefore, cylinder/motor speeds are REDUCED. The PSP strategy is part of the
L5 Engine and Pump Power Management strategy, which tries to anticipate and
prevent engine lug, which enhances fuel efficiency.

Given the engine speed dial position, actual engine speed, system pressures from
the Pump 1 Pressure Sensor (18) and the Pump 2 Pressure Sensor (19), joystick
position and/or travel control pressure sensor data, and the work mode selected
in the monitor, the Machine ECM will apply a current to the solenoid on the Power
Shift Pressure PRV (20). When ENERGIZED, the PSP PRV can send pilot oil to
pressurize the PSP Pistons (31), which moves the pistons inward, reducing the
pistons’ outward spring force against the Horsepower Control Spools (14) and (15).

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -34- Module 8 - Main Hydraulic Pumps

With the reduced spring forces from the PSP piston springs, the upward force
of the Actuator Pistons (30) against the bottom of the Levers (26) and (27), and
the inward forces from the Cross Sensing Pistons (16) and (17), the Horsepower
Control Spools (14) and (15) move inward. The further the horsepower control
spools move inward, the more system pressure is allowed to flow to the Minimum
Angle Servo Pistons (6) and (7). As the pressure increases behind the minimum
angle servo pistons, the pump swashplates are rotated further toward minimum
angle, which DESTROKES the pumps and pump flow rates are REDUCED.

This strategy maintains a more constant engine speed, enhancing fuel efficiency.
The Machine ECM constantly monitors all of these inputs and adjusts PSP as
needed.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -35- Module 8 - Main Hydraulic Pumps

PURPOSE

This module was designed to ensure technicians


can locate, identify, and describe the functionality of
all major components and service points of the main
hydraulic pumps and pump regulators and are able
to demonstrate knowledge of main hydraulic pump
operation and pump control.

35
PURPOSE REVIEW

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -36- Module 8 - Main Hydraulic Pumps

REASON

This training was necessary for technicians to


properly locate and identify the main hydraulic pumps
components and service points and to demonstrate
knowledge of pump operation and pump control
in order to diagnose and correct hydraulic pump
problems, which will ensure customers experience
quick, accurate resolution of hydraulic system
complaints.

36
REASON REVIEW

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -37- Module 8 - Main Hydraulic Pumps

COMPETENCY STATEMENT

Participants are able to locate and identify the


components and service points of the main hydraulic
pumps and pump regulators, describe the functionality
of the major components of the pumps, and
demonstrate the ability to test and make adjustments
to the pumps. Participants have also demonstrated
general knowledge of the main hydraulic pumps
operation and described the strategies used for
controlling pump flow during a classroom
post-assessment with at least 80% accuracy.

37
COMPETENCY STATEMENT REVIEW

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -38- Module 8 - Main Hydraulic Pumps

LEARNING OUTCOMES

Participants have completed this 374F/390F Hydraulic


Excavator Main Hydraulic Pumps module and are able
to:
• Locate, identify, and describe the functionality of all major
components and service points of the main hydraulic
pumps and pump regulators.
• Test and make adjustments to the main hydraulic pumps
and pump regulators.
• Describe the main hydraulic pumps operation and the
methods and strategies used to control pump flow rates.

38
LEARNING OUTCOMES REVIEW

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -39- Module 8 - Main Hydraulic Pumps

39
MODULE CONCLUSION

This concludes the Main Hydraulic Pumps module for the 374F and 390F Hydraulic
Excavators.

When used in conjunction with the Systems Operation Manuals, the Test and
Adjust Manuals, the Operation and Maintenance Manuals (OMM), and other
service publications, the information in this module will aid the service technician in
troubleshooting, testing, adjusting, and correcting problems with the main hydraulic
pump in these machines.

For service repairs, adjustments, and maintenance, always refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manuals (OMM), Service Manuals, and other related service
publications.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow