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GLOBAL SERVICE TRAINING

374F / 390F Hydraulic Excavator


MAIN HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE / RETURN OIL SYSTEM

MODULE 9 - TEXT REFERENCE

SERV1994

CAT, CATERPILLAR, their respective logos, ACERT, “Caterpillar Yellow” and the POWER EDGE
trade dress, as well as corporate and product identity used herein, are trademarks of Caterpillar
and may not be used without permission. © 2014 Caterpillar Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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SERV1994 - 05/14 -2- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

TABLE OF CONTENTS
SAFETY BRIEFING��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 3
PURPOSE����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 4
REASON������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 5
COMPETENCY STATEMENT����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 6
LEARNING OUTCOMES������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 7
MAIN HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE OVERVIEW������������������������������������������������������������������� 8
MAIN HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE SYSTEM COMPONENT IDENTIFICATION�����������������11
MAIN HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE - MAJOR COMPONENT IDENTIFICATION���������������� 15
ACS VALVE OPERATION��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 26
IMV VALVE SECTION OPERATION����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 29
ACS VALVE CENTER SECTION OPERATION������������������������������������������������������������������������ 43
MAIN HYDRAULIC RELIEF VALVES���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 48
RETURN OIL SYSTEM������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 55
RETURN OIL SYSTEM - OPERATION������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 64
PURPOSE REVIEW������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 69
REASON REVIEW�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 70
COMPETENCY STATEMENT REVIEW������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 71
LEARNING OUTCOMES REVIEW������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 72
MODULE CONCLUSION���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 73

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -3- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

SAFETY BRIEFING
• Emergency Phone Numbers
• First Aid Responders
• Location of Exits
• Location of Fire Extinguisher
• Room Alerts or Hazards
• Designated Location for Evacuation
• Storm Shelter
• Hazardous Material

Safely Home. Everyone. Every Day.™

3
SAFETY BRIEFING

Before beginning this module, the following topics will be reviewed:


• Emergency Phone Numbers
• First Aid Responders
• Location of Exits
• Location of Fire Extinguisher
• Room Alerts or Hazards
• Designated Location for Evacuation
• Storm Shelter
• Hazardous Material

Safely Home. Everyone. Every Day.™

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -4- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

PURPOSE

This module is designed to ensure technicians are able


to locate, identify, and describe the functionality of all
major components and service points of the ACS main
hydraulic control valve and return oil system and can
demonstrate knowledge of the main hydraulic control
valve operation.

4
PURPOSE

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -5- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

REASON

It is necessary for technicians to be able to properly


locate and identify all major components and service
points of the ACS main hydraulic control valve and
return oil system and to demonstrate knowledge of the
valve operation and the control of oil flow to hydraulic
circuits in order to properly diagnose and correct
hydraulic system problems. These abilities will ensure
customers experience quick, accurate resolution of
hydraulic system complaints.

5
REASON

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -6- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

COMPETENCY STATEMENT

At the completion of this training session, participants will be


able to locate and identify all major components and service
points of the ACS main hydraulic control valve and return oil
system, describe the functionality of the major components,
and demonstrate the ability to test and properly make
adjustments to the valve components during lab exercises.
Participants will also be able to demonstrate general knowledge
of the main hydraulic control valve and return oil system
operation and describe the strategies used for controlling oil
flow through the valve and hydraulic circuits during a classroom
post-assessment with at least 80% accuracy.
6
COMPETENCY STATEMENT

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -7- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

LEARNING OUTCOMES
Upon completion of this 374F and 390F Hydraulic Excavator
Main Hydraulic Control Valve and Return Oil System
module, participants will be able to:

• Locate, identify, and describe the functionality of all major


components, sub-components, and service points of the
ACS main hydraulic control valve and return oil system.
• Test and make adjustments to the ACS main hydraulic
control valve.
• Describe the main hydraulic control valve and return oil
system operation and the methods and strategies used to
control oil flow through the valve and hydraulic circuits.
7
LEARNING OUTCOMES

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -8- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

374F / 390F MAIN HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE AND RETURN OIL SYSTEM
SYSTEM COMPONENT IDENTIFICATION

(6)
(1) Return Oil
ACS Main Filters
Hydraulic Control
Valve

(2)
Return Oil
Manifold

(3)
Pilot
Manifold
(5)
Hydraulic
Oil Tank

(4)
Pilot Solenoid
Manifold

8
MAIN HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE OVERVIEW
• Adaptive Control System (ACS) The Adaptive Control System (ACS) Main Hydraulic Control Valve (1), or ACS
Main Hydraulic Control Valve (1): valve, is the main hydraulic component that receives high pressure oil from the
main hydraulic pumps to operate implement and travel functions. The ACS valve
-- Overview of construction directs the high pressure oil to the implement cylinders, the travel motors, and the
swing motors, based on the operator’s movement of the joysticks and travel pedals.
-- Basic operation and The ACS valve uses electro-hydraulic strategies for controlling boom, stick, bucket,
configuration and swing functions. Travel functions are controlled with pilot operated control
valves operated with the travel pedals and/or levers.
• The Pilot Manifold (3) provides Pilot pressure oil from the Pilot Manifold (3) is used by the travel controls to move
oil to the center section for pilot operated valve spools in the center section of the ACS valve that operate the
operation of swing and travel left travel FORWARD and REVERSE and the right travel FORWARD and
functions REVERSE functions.
• The Pilot Manifold provides oil The swing control valve is also contained in the center section of the ACS valve
to the ACS valve for controlling and is an electro-hydraulically controlled valve spool that controls the SWING
implement and swing functions RIGHT and SWING LEFT function.

• Boom, stick, and bucket The pilot manifold also directs pilot pressure oil to several places on the ACS valve
functions each controlled by a for use in the electro-hydraulic strategies for controlling the implement and swing
separate IMV valve section functions. The ACS valve employs Independent Metering Valve (IMV) technology
for implement control. The boom, stick, and bucket functions are each controlled
• Each IMV valve section contains by a separate IMV valve section. Each IMV valve section is comprised of four IMV
four solenoid controlled PHMVs spools. The four IMV spools are operated by four solenoid controlled Proportional
that operate four valve spools Hydraulic Modulating Valves (PHMVs). The PHMVs are ENERGIZED to drain pilot
pressure oil in order to move the IMV valve spools.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -9- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

• Each of the four IMV spools per Each of the four IMV valve spools independently control the flow of high pressure oil to
function control oil flow to or either end of a cylinder, or they independently control the flow of return oil from either
from the end of a cylinder end of a cylinder to the hydraulic oil tank (5).
The electro-hydraulic implement joysticks send Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) signals
• The electro-hydraulic joysticks to the (primary) Machine ECM, which communicates the signals, via a dedicated
send signals to the Machine ECM ACS CAN Data Link, to the two (secondary) ACS ECMs. The ACS ECMs send
• ACS ECMs control the PHMV PWM currents to the PHMVs, which control when and how far the IMV spools open.
solenoids for each of the three Movement of the IMV spools determines the direction and speed of the implement
IMV valve sections: cylinders in proportion to the movement of the joysticks. The three IMV valve sections
control the:
-- bucket OPEN and CLOSE • Bucket cylinder, for the OPEN and CLOSE functions
-- stick IN and OUT • Stick cylinder, for the stick IN and OUT functions
-- boom RAISE and LOWER • Boom cylinders, for the boom RAISE and LOWER functions
The swing control valve spool, contained in the ACS valve center section, is controlled
by two PHMVs. When the joystick is moved to request swing movement, a PWM
signal is sent to the Machine ECM, which in turn sends PWM a current to either the
left or right swing PHMV. The PHMV drains pilot pressure oil from one end the swing
spool, controlling the flow and direction of high pressure oil to and from the two swing
motors.
• The front pump (Pump 1) Oil flow from the front pump (Pump 1) enters the center section of the ACS valve
provides oil to the center ACS and supplies high pressure oil to the lower IMV valve sections for the operation of the:
valve section and to the lower • Boom IMV section
IMV valve sections
• Bucket IMV section
• Left travel control valve spool (in the center section)
• The rear pump (Pump 2) supplies Oil flow from the rear pump (Pump 2) enters the center section of the ACS valve and
oil to the center ACS valve supplies high pressure oil to the upper IMV valve section(s) for the operation of the:
section and to the upper IMV • Stick IMV section
valve sections
• Auxiliary high pressure IMV section (if equipped)
• A combiner valve is located in the • Right travel control valve spool (in the center section)
center section to combine pump • Swing control valve spool (in the center section)
flows during certain strategies
The center section of the ACS valve contains a three-position combiner valve,
which is used to combine the oil flow from either pump in different situations. The
• Boom and stick drift reduction valve’s position is controlled by the Machine ECM, based on the oil flow required for
valves are electronically the operations being requested. Electronically controlled bypass cut valves are also
controlled installed in the center section.

• Boom and stick regeneration is The boom drift reduction and the stick drift reduction valves are both electronically
accomplished by altering normal operated and are integrated into the right side of the ACS valve. The boom
operation of the IMV spools regeneration, stick regeneration, and swing priority functions are also controlled
electronically by altering the normal operation of the IMV spools. The Pilot Solenoid
• Lift mode solenoid valve in the Manifold (4) contains a lift mode solenoid valve for the standard high pressure relief
pilot manifold is used to increase mode. The lift mode solenoid valve sends pilot pressure oil to increase the opening
the main relief pressure pressure of the two main hydraulic relief valves, one for each pump circuit.
There are no hydraulic signal lines that transfer signal pressure to the main hydraulic
• There are no hydraulic signal pump regulators. Pump discharge pressure sensors and numerous other circuit
lines - pump discharge pressure pressure sensors on the ACS valve provide electronic signal data to the Machine
sensors signal the Machine ECM ECM. The Machine ECM then sends PWM signals to the NFC #1 and NFC #2
and the main hydraulic pumps PRVs, which use pilot oil to create hydraulic NFC signals to the pump regulators. The
are electronically controlled regulators control the main hydraulic pumps in order to INCREASE or DECREASE oil
flow rates to meet the flow and pressure demands.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -10- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

• Warming valves are installed in Electronically controlled warming valves are installed at the outlet of the return oil
the upper and lower IMV valve passages of both the upper and lower IMV valve sections. When the oil is cold, the
sections: Machine ECM closes the bypass cut valves and opens the two warming valves to
-- Auto warm-up mode may be create an orifice effect for quickly warming the hydraulic oil. The operator may
aborted using the monitor abort this automatic warm-up mode using the F-Series monitor.

• The return oil system is briefly The return oil system is briefly discussed at the end of this module. Return oil
discussed in this module from the operation of implement and travel functions flows out of the ACS valve
tank passages and enters the Return Oil Manifold (2). The return oil manifold
directs the oil either to the hydraulic oil cooler or directly to the capsule-type
Return Oil Filters (6), depending on the temperature of the oil. Like the E-Series
machines, the return oil filters are integrated into the Hydraulic Oil Tank (5).

NOTE: The Front Pump is referred to as Pump 1 and the Rear Pump is
referred to as Pump 2 in the Systems Operation: Test and Adjust manuals,
as well as in Cat ET and in the F-Series monitor. Sensors and other related
electronic devices also refer to the pump number designations.
NOTE: Callouts in this graphic, and in subsequent graphics or photos that
are not mentioned in the text are shown for illustration purposes only and
normally will be addressed in subsequent graphics or photos.
NOTE: Prior knowledge of the main hydraulic pumps and the pilot
hydraulic system is necessary before beginning this module. This module
will not focus on the details of these prerequisite modules, but refers to
them in the detailed explanations of the control valves, related circuit
components, and strategies used to control the hydraulic system.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -11- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

10 11
1
9

8
2

3
7
4

6 5

11
MAIN HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE SYSTEM COMPONENT IDENTIFICATION
Main Hydraulic Control Valve - Major Component Identification
• ACS main hydraulic control valve The ACS main hydraulic control valve (1) is located just forward of the non-skid
components identification service walkway on the upper structure. Major components and valve sections
shown above are:
• Stick IMV section (2
• Center section (3)
• Bucket IMV section (4)
• Boom IMV section (5)
• Boom drift reduction valve (6)
• Pump 1 and Pump 2 bypass cut PHMVs (7)
• Main hydraulic relief valves (8)
• Stick drift reduction valve (9)
• ACS ECM 1 (10) controls the bucket and boom IMV sections of the ACS valve
• ACS ECM 2 (11) controls the stick IMV section and an optional high pressure
attachment IMV section, if equipped

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -12- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

12
374F Pilot Manifold Identification

• 374F pilot manifold location and Removing the access panel beneath the 374F upper structure, immediately to the
brief explanation of pilot supply rear of the swing bearing, gains access to the pilot manifold (1), which contains:
to ACS valve: • Hydraulic activation solenoid valve
• Hydraulic activation valve
-- Pilot manifold (1)
• Pilot relief valve
-- Pilot accumulator (2)
The pilot oil pump supplies oil flow to the pilot manifold, where the pilot relief valve
sets the pilot pressure. Pilot pressure oil from the pilot manifold is always available
-- ACS valve (3) to the two pump bypass cut PHMVs in the ACS valve (3).

Pilot oil is only made available to the pilot ports on the ACS valve used for
operation of the PHMVs and PRVs that control boom, stick, bucket, swing, and
travel operation when the hydraulic activation valve is UNLOCKED.

Also shown is the pilot accumulator (2), which stores pilot pressure oil for a short
time after the engine has been shut down.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -13- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

11
7 9
8

5
6
4
10 3
1
2

13
390F Pilot Manifold Component Identification
• 390F pilot manifold (1) pilot Removing the walkway panel on the service platform of the 390F upper structure,
accumulator (2) location and immediately rearward of the ACS valve (9), gains access to the pilot manifold (1),
identification and pilot accumulator (2).
Visible above, after removing the panels to the rear of and above the ACS valve,
• Location and identification of: are the main hydraulic pump oil inlets. Shown above are the:
-- Swing motor return oil hose (3) • Front pump (Pump 1) oil inlet (5)
-- Return oil manifold (4) • Pump 1 discharge pressure sensor (6)
-- Front pump (Pump 1) oil • Rear pump (Pump 2) oil inlet (7)
inlet (5) • Pump 2 discharge pressure sensor (8)
-- Pump 1 discharge pressure Also shown above is the return oil manifold (4), which contains the slow return
sensor (6) check valve and the cooler bypass valve.
-- Rear pump (Pump 2) oil inlet (7) The slow return check valve restricts the return oil flow, creating a back pressure in
the return oil system of approximately 300 kpa (44 psi), at 5 lpm (1.32 gpm). This
-- Pump 2 discharge pressure back pressure ensures makeup oil is available for the swing motor and travel motor
sensor (8) makeup operations, as well as the other makeup valves in the implement system.
-- Return oil tube (9) to hydraulic When the oil is cold, it is returned directly to the hydraulic oil tank through the return
oil tank oil tube (10). When the oil is warm, the oil is directed to the hydraulic oil cooler
-- Oil cooler supply tube (10) through the cooler supply tube (11).
-- Cooler supply tube (11) Return oil from the swing motors flows directly to the return oil manifold through the
hose (3) connected to the bottom of the manifold.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -14- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

1
14
Pilot Solenoid Manifold Component Identification

• Pilot solenoid manifold and Lift The Pilot Solenoid Manifold (1) is located immediately inside the pump
Mode Solenoid Valve (2) location compartment door, beneath and slightly to the rear of the Main Hydraulic
and identification Pumps (3). The pilot solenoid manifold contains the Lift Mode Solenoid Valve (2).

• Brief explanation of the Lift Mode The Lift Mode feature is standard equipment on both the 374F only. The 390F has
Solenoid Valve purpose this solenoid installed in the manifold, but the Lift Mode feature is not a part of the
hydraulic strategy.

When the Machine ECM ENERGIZES this ON/OFF solenoid, pilot pressure oil
from the lift mode solenoid valve is sent to the ends of the two main hydraulic relief
valves to INCREASE their opening pressures when the Lift Mode or Heavy Lift is
ACTIVATED.

The pilot solenoid manifold is in the same location on both the 374F and the 390F
machines.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -15- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

MAIN HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE


TOP FRONT VIEW

(2) (3)
Stick Rod End Stick Head End
Pump-To-Cylinder Pump-To-Cylinder
PHMV PHMV

(1) (4)
Stick Rod End Stick Head End
Cylinder-To-Tank Cylinder-To-Tank
PHMV PHMV

(10) (5)
Swing Right Travel
Pressure Control Valve
Sensor REVERSE
Pilot Port

(9) (6)
Swing Right Left Travel
Control Valve (8) (7) Control Valve
PHMV Flow Combiner Straight Travel REVERSE
Valve PHMV Valve PHMV Pilot Port
15
MAIN HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE - MAJOR COMPONENT IDENTIFICATION
• ACS main hydraulic control The ACS main hydraulic control valve receives high pressure oil flow from the main
valve component location and hydraulic pumps and sends the oil to the implement cylinders and to the travel and
identification: swing motors at the request of the machine operator. The ACS valve utilizes
electro-hydraulic strategies for controlling the boom, stick, bucket, and swing
-- View is from the TOP FRONT of functions, but uses pilot operated strategies for controlling the travel functions.
the machine
The ACS valve employs Independent Metering Valve (IMV) technology for
• Basic description of the ACS implement control. The boom, stick, and bucket functions are each controlled by
valve construction and the a separate IMV valve section. Each IMV valve section is comprised of four IMV
function and operation of the IMV spools. Each of the four IMV spools in the section is operated by a separate
spools solenoid controlled PHMV. The Machine ECM energizes the PHMVs to drain pilot
pressure oil from above the spool in order to move the valve spool. An operator
request for implement movement normally energizes two PHMVs to control two
IMV spools.
One Pump-To-Cylinder (P-C) IMV spool opens to send oil to one end of a cylinder
and a second Cylinder-To-Tank (C-T) IMV spool opens to direct return oil from the
opposite end of the cylinder to the hydraulic oil tank.
Swing control is accomplished using a standard multi-land valve spool in the
center valve section that is controlled by two PHMVs that control the traditional
swing valve spool in a manner similar to the IMV spools. Travel functions are pilot
operated, using two travel control spools in the center valve section. A solenoid
operated straight travel valve spool, also located in the center section, is used
when the straight travel strategy is activated. The following pages identify all of the
major components and service points on the ACS valve.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -16- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

• ACS main hydraulic control The illustration above shows the ACS main hydraulic control valve, as viewed from
valve component location and the TOP FRONT of the machine. Major components identified in the illustration
identification above and a description of their basic functions are:
• Stick Rod End Cylinder-To-Tank PHMV (1): ENERGIZED by the ACS
ECM 2 to actuate the C-T IMV spool that controls the flow of return oil from the
rod end of the stick cylinder during a STICK IN command.
• Stick Rod End Pump-To-Cylinder PHMV (2): ENERGIZED by the ACS ECM
2 to actuate the P-C IMV spool that controls the flow of high pressure oil to the
rod end of the stick cylinder during a STICK OUT command.
• Stick Head End Pump-To-Cylinder PHMV (3): ENERGIZED by the ACS
ECM 2 to actuate the P-C IMV spool that controls the flow of high pressure oil
to the head end of the stick cylinder during a STICK IN command.
• Stick Head End Cylinder-To-Tank PHMV (4): ENERGIZED by the ACS ECM
2 to actuate the C-T IMV spool that controls the flow of return oil from the head
end of the stick cylinder during a STICK OUT command.
• Right Travel Control Valve REV Pilot Port (5): Supplied pilot oil through a
pilot supply hose to operate the right travel valve upon the operator’s request
for RIGHT track REVERSE movement.
• Left Travel Control Valve REV Pilot Port (6): Supplied pilot oil through a
pilot supply hose to operate the left travel valve upon the operator’s request for
LEFT track REVERSE movement.
• Straight Travel PHMV (7): Controlled by the Machine ECM and uses pilot
oil to operate the straight travel valve spool, which is used to re-allocate
front pump oil and rear pump oil during simultaneous travel and implement
requests.
• Flow Combiner PHMV (8): Electronically controlled by the Machine ECM
and uses pilot oil to operate the flow combiner valve spool, which blends front
pump oil flow and rear pump oil flow during certain combinations of implement
requests.
• Swing Right Control Valve PHMV (9): ENERGIZED by the Machine ECM to
actuate the swing control valve spool which controls the flow of high pressure
oil to and direct the flow of return oil from the pressure ports of the swing motor
circuit during a SWING RIGHT command.
• Swing Pressure Sensor (10): Monitored by the Machine ECM and indicates
the amount of hydraulic oil pressure in the swing circuit. This data is used in
controlling the rear pump, for swing system strategies, and for several other
hydraulic strategies on the machine.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -17- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

MAIN HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE


BOTTOM FRONT VIEW
(4) (11)
Bucket Head End Bucket Rod End
Pump-To-Cylinder Pump-To-Cylinder
PHMV PHMV

(1)
Rear Pump
Bypass Cut
PHMV

(10)
Bucket Rod End
Cylinder-To-Tank
PHMV
(2)
Front Pump
Bypass Cut
PHMV

(3)
Bucket Head End
Cylinder-To-Tank
PHMV

(9)
(5) Boom Rod End
Boom Head End Cylinder-To-Tank
Cylinder-To-Tank PHMV
PHMV (6) (8)
Boom Head End (7) Boom Rod End
Pump-To-Cylinder Boom Side Pump-To-Cylinder
PHMV Warming Valve Solenoid PHMV
17
• ACS main hydraulic control The illustration above shows the ACS main hydraulic control valve, as viewed from
valve component location and the BOTTOM FRONT of the machine. Major components identified in the
identification: illustration above and a description of their basic functions are listed below:
• Rear Pump Bypass Cut PHMV (1): Proportionally ENERGIZED by the
-- View is from the BOTTOM Machine ECM during certain implement requests to slow or stop the flow of
FRONT of the machine rear pump oil into the return oil passages when stick, swing, and/or right travel
functions are requested. The rear pump bypass cut can also be activated
during certain two-pump flow conditions. The PHMV is DE-ENERGIZED when
oil flow is not needed for these functions.
• Front Pump Bypass Cut PHMV (2): Proportionally ENERGIZED by the
Machine ECM during certain implement requests to slow or stop the flow
of front pump oil into the return oil passages when boom, bucket, and/or
left travel functions are requested. The rear pump bypass cut can also be
activated during certain two-pump flow conditions. The PHMV is
DE-ENERGIZED when oil flow is not needed for these functions.
• Bucket Head End Cylinder-To-Tank PHMV (3): ENERGIZED by the ACS
ECM 1 to actuate the C-T IMV spool that controls the flow of return oil from the
head end of the bucket cylinder during a BUCKET OPEN command.
• Bucket Head End Pump-To-Cylinder PHMV (4): ENERGIZED by the ACS
ECM 1 to actuate the P-C IMV spool that controls the flow of high pressure oil
to the head end of the bucket cylinder during a BUCKET CLOSE command.
• Boom Head End Cylinder-To-Tank PHMV (5): ENERGIZED by the ACS
ECM 1 to actuate the C-T IMV spool that controls the flow of return oil from the
head end of the boom cylinder during a BOOM LOWER command.
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SERV1994 - 05/14 -18- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

• Boom Head End Pump-To-Cylinder PHMV (6): ENERGIZED by the ACS


ECM 1 to actuate the P-C IMV spool that controls the flow of high pressure oil
to the head end of the boom cylinder during a BOOM RAISE command.
• Boom Side Warming Valve Solenoid (7): ENERGIZED at start-up by
the Machine ECM to OPEN when the hydraulic oil temperature is below a
predetermined temperature. When the solenoid valve opens, front pump oil
flows through an orifice into the return oil passage, helping to warm the oil.
• Boom Rod End Pump-To-Cylinder PHMV (8): ENERGIZED by the ACS
ECM 1 to actuate the P-C IMV spool that controls the flow of high pressure oil
to the rod end of the boom cylinder during a BOOM LOWER command.
• Boom Rod End Cylinder-To-Tank PHMV (9): ENERGIZED by the ACS ECM
1 to actuate the C-T IMV spool that controls the flow of return oil from the head
end of the boom cylinder during a BOOM RAISE command.
• Bucket Rod End Pump-To-Cylinder PHMV (10): ENERGIZED by the ACS
ECM 1 to actuate the P-C IMV spool that controls the flow of high pressure oil
to the head end of the bucket cylinder during a BUCKET OPEN command.
• Bucket Rod End Cylinder-To-Tank PHMV (11): ENERGIZED by the ACS
ECM 1 to actuate the C-T IMV spool that controls the flow of return oil from the
rod end of the bucket cylinder during a BUCKET CLOSE command.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -19- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

MAIN HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE (1)


LEFT FRONT VIEW IMV Pilot
Relief Valve

(2)
STICK IN
Pressure Ports

(3)
RIGHT TRAVEL FWD
Pressure Port

(4)
RIGHT TRAVEL REV
Pressure Port

(5)
LEFT TRAVEL REV
Pressure Port

(6)
LEFT TRAVEL FWD
Pressure Port
(8) (7)
BOOM LOWER BUCKET OPEN
Pressure Port Pressure Port
19
• ACS main hydraulic control The illustration above shows the ACS main hydraulic control valve, as viewed from
valve component location and the LEFT FRONT of the machine. Major components identified in the illustration
identification: above and a description of their basic functions are listed below:
• IMV Pilot Relief Valve (1): Installed in the ACS valve top end cover and
-- View is from the LEFT FRONT is used to protect all components in the valve pilot system by limiting the
of the machine maximum pilot pressure, should there be a pilot oil pressure spikes. The
opening pressure of this valve is higher than the main pilot relief
• STICK IN Pressure Port (2): Directs oil to the head end of the stick
cylinder through a high pressure hose when the operator requests STICK IN
movement. (The 390F has two hoses connected to the front and the left side
port. The 374F has one hose connected to the front port.)
• RIGHT TRAVEL FWD Pressure Port (3): Directs oil to the inlet of the right
travel motor forward port through a high pressure hose when the operator
requests RIGHT TRAVEL FORWARD.
• RIGHT TRAVEL REV Pressure Port (4): Directs oil to the inlet of the right
travel motor reverse port through a high pressure hose when the operator
requests RIGHT TRAVEL REVERSE.
• LEFT TRAVEL REV Pressure Port (5): Directs oil to the inlet of the left travel
motor reverse port through a high pressure hose when the operator requests
LEFT TRAVEL REVERSE.
• LEFT TRAVEL FWD Pressure Port (6): Directs oil to the inlet of the left travel
motor forward port through a high pressure hose when the operator requests
LEFT TRAVEL FORWARD.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -20- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

• BUCKET OPEN Pressure Port (7): Directs oil to the rod end of the bucket
cylinder through a high pressure hose when the operator requests BUCKET
OPEN movement.
• BOOM LOWER Pressure Port (8): Directs oil to the rod end of the boom
cylinders through a high pressure hose when the operator requests BOOM
DOWN movement.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -21- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

MAIN HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE


(1) LEFT REAR VIEW
Stick Head End
Line Relief/Makeup
Valve

(2) (13)
Stick Head End Rear Pump
Pressure Sensor (Pump 2)
Pressure
Sensor
(3)
Return Oil
Cooler Supply
Port

(12)
(4) Rear Pump
Return Oil Oil Inlet
Cooler Bypass
Port

(5) (11)
Bucket Rod End Swing Left
Pressure Sensor Control Valve
PHMV

(6)
Bucket Rod End
(10)
Line Relief/Makeup
Front Pump
Valve
Oil Inlet

(7) (9)
Boom Rod End Front Pump
(8)
Pressure Sensor (Pump 1)
Boom Rod End (14) Pressure
Line Relief/Makeup Inverse Resolvers Sensor
Valve
21
• ACS main hydraulic control The illustration above shows the ACS main hydraulic control valve, as viewed from
valve component location and the LEFT REAR of the machine. Major components identified in the illustration
identification: above and a description of their basic functions are listed below:
• Stick Head End Line Relief/Makeup Valve (1): Installed in the stick cylinder
-- View is from the LEFT REAR of head end circuit and serves two purposes. The valve can open to relieve
the machine excessive pressure in the stick head end circuit when external forces try to
retract the cylinder rod, protecting the stick and the hydraulic components from
damage. This valve also opens to draw tank oil into the head end circuit when
external forces try to extend the cylinder rod, also protecting the components.
• Stick Head End Pressure Sensor (2): Monitored by the ACS ECM 2 and
indicates the amount of hydraulic oil pressure in the head end of the stick
cylinder circuit. This data is used for controlling the rear pump and for several
hydraulic strategies on the machine.
• Return Oil Cooler Supply Port (3): Directs return oil through a tube to the
inlet of the hydraulic oil cooler when the oil is warm and the cooler bypass
check valve in the return oil manifold is CLOSED.
• Return Oil Cooler Bypass Port (4): Directs return oil through a tube to the
inlet of the hydraulic oil filters when the oil is cold and the cooler bypass check
valve in the return oil manifold is OPEN.
• Bucket Rod End Pressure Sensor (5): Monitored by the ACS ECM 1 and
indicates the amount of hydraulic oil pressure in the rod end of the bucket
cylinder circuit. This data is used for controlling the front pump and for several
hydraulic strategies on the machine.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -22- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

• Bucket Rod End Line Relief/Makeup Valve (6): Installed in the bucket
cylinder rod end circuit and serves two purposes. The valve can open to
relieve excessive pressure in the rod end circuit when external forces try to
extend the cylinder rod, protecting the hydraulic components from damage.
This valve also opens to draw tank oil into the rod end circuit when external
forces try to retract the cylinder rod, also protecting components.
• Boom Rod End Pressure Sensor (7): Monitored by the ACS ECM 1 and
indicates the amount of hydraulic oil pressure in the rod end of the boom
cylinder circuit. This data is used for controlling the front pump and for several
hydraulic strategies on the machine.
• Boom Rod End Line Relief/Makeup Valve (8): Installed in the boom cylinder
rod end circuit and serves two purposes. The valve can open to relieve
excessive pressure in the rod end circuit when external forces try to extend the
cylinder rods, protecting the hydraulic components from damage. This valve
also opens to draw tank oil into the rod end circuit when external forces try to
retract the boom cylinder rods, also protecting components.
• Front Pump (Pump 1) Pressure Sensor (9): Monitored by the Machine ECM
and indicates the pressure in the ACS valve circuits supplied with front pump
oil. This data is used for front pump control and for a number of hydraulic
strategies.
• Front Pump Oil Inlet (10): The port through which the front pump supplies
high pressure oil to the left travel valve spool and to the boom and bucket IMV
sections of the ACS main hydraulic control valve.
• Swing Left Control Valve PHMV (11): ENERGIZED by the Machine ECM to
actuate the swing control valve spool which controls the flow of high pressure
oil to the inlet and direct the flow of return oil from the outlet of the swing motor
circuit during a SWING LEFT command.
• Rear Pump Inlet (12): The port through which the rear pump supplies high
pressure oil to the right travel valve spool and the swing control valve spool in
the center section, and to the stick and auxiliary (if equipped) IMV sections of
the ACS main hydraulic control valve.
• Rear Pump (Pump 2) Pressure Sensor (13): Monitored by the Machine
ECM and indicates the pressure in the ACS valve circuits supplied with
rear pump oil. This data is used for rear pump control and for a number of
hydraulic strategies.
• Inverse Shuttle Valves (14): Shifted by the higher circuit pressure to allow
the lower pressure oil to be directed to the bottom of the flow compensator
valve.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -23- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

MAIN HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE


RIGHT REAR VIEW (8)
Stick Rod End
Line Relief/Makeup
Valve

(9)
Stick Side
Warming Valve
Solenoid

(7)
Stick Rod End
Pressure Sensor

(6)
Front Pump
Main Hydraulic
Relief Valve

(5)
Rear Pump
Main Hydraulic
Relief Valve
(1)
Bucket Head End
Line Relief/Makeup
Valve (4)
Bucket Head End
(2) Pressure Sensor
Boom Head End (3)
Line Relief/Makeup Boom Head End
Valve Pressure Sensor
23
• ACS main hydraulic control The illustration above shows the ACS main hydraulic control valve, as viewed from
valve component location and the RIGHT REAR of the machine. Major components identified in the illustration
identification: above and a description of their basic functions are listed below:
• Bucket Head End Line Relief/Makeup Valve (1): Installed in the bucket
-- View is from the RIGHT REAR cylinder rod end circuit and serves two purposes. The valve can open to
of the machine relieve excessive pressure in the rod end circuit when external forces try to
extend the cylinder rod, protecting the hydraulic components from damage.
This valve also opens to draw tank oil into the rod end circuit when external
forces try to retract the cylinder rod, also protecting components.
• Boom Head End Line Relief/Makeup Valve (2): Installed in the boom
cylinder rod end circuit and serves two purposes. The valve can open to
relieve excessive pressure in the head end circuit when external forces try to
retract the cylinder rods, protecting the hydraulic components from damage.
This valve also opens to draw tank oil into the head end circuit when external
forces try to extend the boom cylinder rods, also protecting components.
• Boom Head End Pressure Sensor (3): Monitored by the ACS ECM 1 and
indicates the amount of hydraulic oil pressure in the head end of the boom
cylinder circuit. This data for use in controlling the front pump and for other
hydraulic strategies on the machine.
• Bucket Head End Pressure Sensor (4): Monitored by the ACS ECM 1 and
indicates the amount of hydraulic oil pressure in the head end of the bucket
cylinder circuit. This data is used for controlling the front pump and for several
hydraulic strategies on the machine.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -24- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

• Rear Pump Main Hydraulic Relief Valve (5): Limits the maximum oil
pressure in the hydraulic circuits supplied by the rear pump, protecting
hydraulic and machine components from damage. Pilot pressure oil is sent to
the end of the relief valve to increase the maximum system pressure during
most machine states.
• Front Pump Main Hydraulic Relief Valve (6): Limits the maximum oil
pressure in the hydraulic circuits supplied by the front pump, protecting
hydraulic and machine components from damage. Pilot pressure oil is sent to
the end of the relief valve to increase the maximum system pressure during
most machine states.
• Stick Rod End Pressure Sensor (7): Monitored by the ACS ECM 2 and
indicates the amount of hydraulic oil pressure in the rod end of the stick
cylinder circuit. This data is used for controlling the rear pump and for several
hydraulic strategies on the machine.
• Stick Rod End Line Relief/Makeup Valve (8): Installed in the stick cylinder
rod end circuit and serves two purposes. The valve can open to relieve
excessive pressure in the stick rod end circuit when external forces try to
extend the cylinder rod, protecting the stick and the hydraulic components from
damage. This valve also opens to draw tank oil into the rod end circuit when
external forces try to retract the cylinder rod, also protecting the components.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -25- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

MAIN HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE


RIGHT FRONT VIEW
(1)
STICK OUT
Pressure Port

(2)
Stick Drift
Reduction
Solenoid Valve

(3)
Swing
Makeup
Oil Port

(4)
BUCKET CLOSE
Pressure Port

(5)
Boom Drift
Reduction
Solenoid Valve
(6)
BOOM RAISE
Pressure Port
25
• ACS main hydraulic control The illustration above shows the ACS main hydraulic control valve, as viewed from
valve component location and the RIGHT FRONT of the machine. Major components identified in the illustration
identification: above and a description of their basic functions are listed below:
• STICK OUT Pressure Port (1): Directs oil to the rod end of the stick cylinder
-- View is from the RIGHT FRONT through a high pressure hose when the operator requests STICK OUT
of the machine movement.
• Stick Drift Reduction Solenoid Valve (2): Installed in the stick drift reduction
valve and is ENERGIZED by the Machine ECM to allow inward movement of
the stick with a request for STICK IN movement.
• Swing Makeup Oil Port (3): Directs oil in the ACS valve return oil passages
through a hose to the swing circuit when the operator requests a stop from
swing and momentum of the upper structure causes the swing motors to
continue rotating. The makeup oil supply prevents cavitation in the swing
motors.
• BUCKET CLOSE Pressure Port (4): Directs oil to the head end of the bucket
cylinder through a high pressure hose when the operator requests BUCKET
CLOSE movement.
• Boom Drift Reduction Solenoid Valve (5): Installed in the boom drift
reduction valve and is ENERGIZED by the Machine ECM to allow downward
movement of the boom when there is a request for BOOM DOWN movement.
• BOOM RAISE Pressure Port (6): Directs oil to the head end of the boom
cylinders through a high pressure hose when the operator requests BOOM
RAISE movement.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -26- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

ACS MAIN HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE


NEUTRAL CONDITION
(2) (1)
Rear Pump Front Pump

(7) Swing Left (6) Swing Right

Drain
Drain

Drain

Pilot
Pilot

Pilot
Pilot

Pilot
(3) (25)
(4) (24)
Front Pump Front Pump
Rear Pump Rear Pump
(5) Main Bypass Cut Bypass Cut
Bypass Cut Bypass Cut
Hydraulic Spool PHMV
Spool PHMV
Relief Valves
(14)
Stick Side (13) Boom Side
Warming Warming Valve

Pilot
Valve

STICK BUCKET BOOM


SECTION SECTION SECTION

(8)
Swing Control
Valve

(9) Straight
CENTER Travel Valve
(15) SECTION
Pilot
Relief
Valve (10)
Combiner Valve

(11) (12)
Right Travel Left Travel
Valve Valve
Makeup

Drain
(23)
(22)
Pilot

Pilot
Pilot
Pilot

(16) Boom
Bucket
Stick Cylinders
Cylinder
Cylinder
(17) (18) (19) (20) (21)
Right Right Swing Left Left
TOP OF Travel Travel Return Travel Travel
VALVE Forward Reverse Oil Reverse Forward 26
ACS VALVE OPERATION
• Explanation of oil flow through The schematic above shows the ACS Main Hydraulic Control Valve in the
the ACS Main Hydraulic Control NEUTRAL condition. No requests are being made for boom, stick, bucket, swing,
Valve or travel functions and the engine speed is set at Speed Dial 10. The main
hydraulic pumps are DESTROKED, producing little oil flow and system pressure is
• Brief explanation of the at STANDBY.
functionality of components of The Rear Pump (2) produces oil flow that enters the CENTER SECTION of the
the ACS valve ACS valve and is sent to the:
• Main Hydraulic Relief Valve (5)
• Combiner Valve (10)
• Right Travel Valve (11), via the Straight Travel Valve (9)
• Rear Pump Bypass Cut Spool (4)
• Swing Control Valve (8)
Rear pump oil is also sent to the STICK SECTION for use by the IMV valves in the
operation of the stick function and an optional high pressure attachment function, if
equipped (not shown above).
When in the NEUTRAL condition and no rear pump oil is being used for implement
operation, the Rear Pump Bypass Cut PHMV (24) is DE-ENERGIZED by the
Machine ECM to keep the rear pump bypass cut spool OPEN, allowing the rear
pump supply oil to flow into the return oil passages. If implement or travel requests
are made, the rear pump bypass cut PHMV is ENERGIZED, draining the pilot oil
and allowing the pilot pressure at the left to CLOSE the rear pump bypass cut
spool, allowing system pressure to build for implement or travel operation.
Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow
SERV1994 - 05/14 -27- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

The Front Pump (1) produces oil flow that enters the CENTER SECTION of the
ACS valve and is sent to the:
• Main Hydraulic Relief Valve
• Combiner Valve
• Left Travel Valve (12)
• Front Pump Bypass Cut Spool (3)
Front pump oil is also sent to the BUCKET SECTION and the BOOM SECTION,
via the straight travel valve, for use by the IMV valves in the operation of the bucket
and boom functions.
When in the NEUTRAL condition and no front pump oil is being used for implement
operation, the Front Pump Bypass Cut PHMV (25) is DE-ENERGIZED by the
Machine ECM to keep the front pump bypass cut spool OPEN. This action allows
the front pump supply oil to flow into the return oil passages. If implement or travel
requests are made, the front pump bypass cut PHMV is ENERGIZED, draining the
pilot oil and allowing the pilot pressure at the left to CLOSE the front pump bypass
cut spool. This action allows system pressure to build for implement or travel
operation.
Unless a travel or swing request is activated, pilot pressure oil is sent to the end
of both main hydraulic relief valves, placing the system in the High Pressure Relief
Mode for digging operations. This strategy increases the system relief pressure
setting. When the Heavy Lift Mode is activated, the system pressure setting is also
increased. The system is also not in High Pressure Relief Mode when the system
is in the NEUTRAL condition, as shown above.
The combiner valve is a three-position valve spool that allows oil from both
pumps to be combined in different ways, depending on certain conditions. In the
NEUTRAL condition, the front pump oil and rear pump oil cannot combine. The
combiner valve will be discussed later in this presentation.
When the hydraulic oil is cold, the Machine ECM automatically invokes a Warming
Mode strategy. During the Warming Mode, the solenoids for the Stick Side
Warming Valve (14) and the Boom Side Warming Valve (13) are ENERGIZED by
the Machine ECM. In the ENERGIZED state, the warming valves OPEN, allowing
front pump and rear pump oil to flow through an orifice, upstream from either
valve. Oil flow through the orifices creates heat to warm the oil more quickly. The
schematic above shows the warming valve solenoids DE-ENERGIZED, blocking
the escape of oil into the return oil passages. Also during the warm-up period, both
the front pump and the rear pump bypass cut spools must be CLOSED, in order to
force oil through the warming valves. The Warming Mode may be aborted by the
operator using the monitor.
The bypass cut PHMV solenoids will also be ENERGIZED, closing the bypass
cut spools, if implement or travel functions are activated. These valves must be
CLOSED in order to maintain system pressure for operation of the requested
functions.

NOTE: Oil pressure in the front pump circuit and the rear pump circuit are
at the same pressure in NEUTRAL (STANDBY). The oil in the front pump
circuit is depicted as red with pink stripes for the purposes of distinguishing
the two separate pump circuits.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -28- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

ACS MAIN HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE


COMPONENT IDENTIFICATION

(4) (5)
ACS ECM 1 ACS ECM 2

(1)
Stick
(Upper)
Section

(2)
Center
Section

(3)
Boom/Bucket
(Lower)
Section

28
• Identification of the ACS valve Throughout this module, there will be references to the following sub-components
sections and other major of the ACS Main Hydraulic Control Valve. These sub-components are identified in
components in the main the illustration, above, in order to explain their relative location. Shown above are:
hydraulic control valve system
• Stick (Upper) Section (1): Contains the IMV section for controlling the stick
function, the pilot relief valve, and the stick side warming valve. If the machine
is equipped with a high pressure attachment, a fourth IMV section will be
stacked on top of the stick section.
• Center Section (2): Contains the left and right travel valves, the straight
travel valve, the swing control valve, the front pump and rear pump bypass cut
valves, the main hydraulic relief valves, and the combiner valve.
• Boom/Bucket (Lower) Section (3): Contains the IMV sections for controlling
boom and bucket functions and the boom side warming valve.
• ACS ECM 1 (4): Controls the IMV valves in the lower section. (ACS ECM 1 is
named “Implement Control #1 in Cat ET.)
• ACS ECM 2 (5): Controls the IMV valves in the upper section. (ACS ECM 2 is
named “Implement Control #2 in Cat ET.)

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -29- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

BUCKET IMV OPERATION


BUCKET HOLD

(1)
(19)
Head End
Bucket (2) Cylinder-to-Tank
Cylinder Head End PHMV
Pump-to-Cylinder

C C
PHMV
(4)
Rod End
Pump-to-Cylinder (15)
PHMV (16) Head End
(3) Pump Pressure Sensor
Load Inlet
Check
Valve
(5)
Rod End
Cylinder-to-Tank
PHMV
(14)
(18) Head End
Feedback Line Relief and
Spring Makeup Valve

(13)
Head End
(17) Cylinder-to-Tank
Bias Spool (18)
Spring (12) (19) Bucket Cylinder (17) Pilot
Head End Front Supply
Pump-to-Cylinder Pump
Supply
Spool
(10)
Flow (5) (4) (2) (1)
Compensator
Valve (6) (7) (14) (15)
(6)
Rod End
Pressure Sensor (9)
Rod End (11) Inverse (10) (8) (9) (12) (13)
(7) Pump-to-Cylinder Shuttle Valve
(8)
Rod End Spool (3)
Rod End
Line Relief and
Cylinder-to-Tank
Makeup Valve
Spool (11)

BUCKET

29
IMV VALVE SECTION OPERATION
Bucket IMV Section Operation
• Identification of IMV Valve The illustration above shows a section view of the Bucket IMV section of the ACS
section components and their Main Hydraulic Control Valve in the BUCKET HOLD condition. The bucket control
functions valve is used as a typical example for describing the operation of individual control
valve sections.
• Explanation of the operation of One IMV valve section controls one hydraulic function using four electronically
the Bucket IMV valve section in controlled IMV spools. Each IMV section contains four Proportional Hydraulic
the HOLD condition Modulating Valves (PHMVs) that actuate four IMV spools. Independent control
of each of the four IMV spools allows the software in the ACS ECMs to precisely
adjust openings on the Pump-to-Cylinder (P-C) and Cylinder-to-Tank (C-T) ports
to provide optimum efficiency and control for different front linkage weights and
operating conditions.
As shown above:
• The Head End Cylinder-to-Tank PHMV (1) actuates the Head End
Cylinder-to-Tank Spool (13) when the solenoid is ENERGIZED.
• The Head End Pump-to-Cylinder PHMV (2) actuates the Head End
Pump-to-Cylinder Spool (12) when the solenoid is ENERGIZED.
• The Rod End Pump-to-Cylinder PHMV (4) actuates the Rod End
Pump-to-Cylinder Spool (9) when the solenoid is ENERGIZED.
• The Rod End Cylinder-to-Tank PHMV (5) actuates the Rod End
Cylinder-to-Tank Spool (8) when the solenoid is ENERGIZED.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -30- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

Pilot Supply (18) oil is sent to the pilot chambers beneath each of the four IMV
spools and also sent to spring chambers beneath the PHMVs. The solenoids
are sent a PWM signal (current) and are ENERGIZED by the ACS ECM 1. The
amount of current sent to the solenoid is determined by algorithms in the software
that positions the IMV spool such that cylinder speed is related to joystick position,
engine speed, and system and circuit pressures. The amount of pilot oil drained
allows the IMV spool to open only enough to provide the oil flow rate that will
produce the requested cylinder speed.

To actuate a hydraulic function, an electrical current is applied to at least two


IMV solenoids, typically controlling one P-C spool and one C-T spool. The IMV
solenoids control small pilot valves that reduce pilot supply pressure in the spring
chambers above the IMV spools for individual control of the spools. The reduced
pilot pressure above allows the pilot pressure beneath to move the IMV spools UP,
against their springs. The Feedback Springs (18) above the IMV spools provide an
opposing force to the end of the small valve spool in the solenoid valve to modulate
the position of the solenoid valve spool. This action results in a reduced pilot
pressure that allows more precise positioning of the IMV spool, resulting in more
precise control and metering of oil flowing to and from either end of the Bucket
Cylinder (19). The Bias Springs (17) return the IMV spools to the CLOSED position
when full pilot pressure is present in the upper spring chamber.

The Head End Pressure Sensor (15) and the Rod End Pressure Sensor (6) are
continuously monitored by the ACS ECM under all conditions, ensuring the IMV
spools will be constantly adjusted as outside forces or changes in system pressure
might otherwise affect cylinder speed. The software algorithms constantly make
adjustments according to the sensor inputs. This strategy allows the operator to
have more precise control of the bucket, or any other implement, depending on the
IMV section in question.

In the Bucket IMV section, the Front Pump Supply (17) oil flows into the Pump
Inlet (16). The oil then flows into the center of the Flow Compensator Valve (10)
through a series of drilled holes around its periphery. Since no requests for bucket
movement have been made, the oil in the entire bucket circuit is trapped, which
prevents the Load Check Valve (3) from opening.

If external forces try to move the bucket cylinder during any particular condition,
the Rod End Line Relief and Makeup Valve (7) and the Head End Line Relief and
Makeup Valve (17) will OPEN. The makeup function of the valves allow oil to be
drawn from the tank passages into the side of the cylinder that has a negative
pressure, preventing cavitation in that side of the circuit and cylinder. The relief
function allows oil to be exhausted into the return oil passages from the side of the
cylinder that has excessive pressure, protecting hoses and seals from extreme
pressure. Unless the cylinder is placed in a stall condition, these valves only open
briefly during pressure spikes or vacuums.

When there is no movement of the bucket cylinder, the Inverse Shuttle Valve (11)
serves no purpose and has no effect on valve operation.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -31- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

IMV VALVE COMPONENTS


(4)
Pump-to-Cylinder
Signal Passage
(5) (7)
Pump Axial
Pressure Passage
Orifice
(10)
Pump
Inlet
(6)
Signal
Passage

(3)
Pump-to-Cylinder
IMV Spool

(8)
Active IMV
P-C Spool
(9)
Inactive IMV
P-C Spool
(2)
Flow
Compensator
Valve
(1) Inverse Shuttle Valve
31
IMV Valve Components and Operation
• Explanation of the operation of: The Flow Compensator Valve (2) limits the flow of oil into the circuit of a given
hydraulic function when system pressure and pump flow from another function
-- Flow compensator valve exceed the flow and pressure required for the individual function request. Pump
flow from the Pump Inlet (10) flows through holes around the periphery of the flow
-- Signal passages internal to the compensator valve (red arrows, above), then up through the valve to open the load
IMV spools check valve and enter the circuit, via the Active IMV P-C Spool (8). Each
Pump-to-Cylinder IMV Spool (3) has the following features:
-- How the inverse shuttle valve • Pump-to-Cylinder (P-C) Signal Passage (4) that senses the circuit (load signal)
transfers the lower pressure pressure when the IMV spool is ACTIVE.
to the bottom of the flow • Pump Pressure Orifice (5) that senses the system pressure in any state of the
compensator valve IMV spool.
• Signal Passage (6) that transmits either of the above pressures into a passage
leading to one end of the Inverse Shuttle Valve (1).
• Axial Passage (7) that connects all of the spool’s orifices.

The flow compensator valve opening is automatically adjusted by the load signal
from its own circuit in order to maintain a constant pressure drop across the active
P-C spool. The spring force beneath the compensator valve is designed to work
with the load signal pressure to properly balance the position of the compensator
spool in any condition. The load signal from the active P-C IMV spool is sensed at
one end of the inverse shuttle valve via the pump-to-cylinder signal passage, the
axial passage, then through the lower signal passage into a passage at one end of
the inverse shuttle valve.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -32- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

Full system pressure is directed to the opposite end of the inverse shuttle valve
via the pump pressure orifice, then through the axial passage and the lower signal
passage of the Inactive P-C IMV Spool (9).

The inverse shuttle valve consists of a pair of pressure operated check valves that
are mechanically connected and which send the circuit’s load signal pressure to the
bottom of the flow compensator valve. Full system pressure acts on one end of the
shuttle valve and the active circuit’s load signal pressure acts on the opposite end.
The higher system pressure shifts the shuttle valve, allowing the lower circuit signal
pressure to add to the force of the spring beneath the flow compensator valve
from either P-C spool, located in an IMV section. This strategy ensures the flow
compensator valve will adjust to maintain the correct flow rate and cylinder speed
if system pressure increases due to activation of another higher pressure circuit
when requested by the operator.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -33- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

PROPORTIONAL HYDRAULIC MODULATING VALVE OPERATION


(1) (11)
Inactive Active
PHMV PHMV
Solenoid Solenoid

ON
(2)
Pilot (10)
Supply Valve
Cartridge
(3)
Drain
Passage (9)
(4) Reduced
Pilot Pilot
Pressure Pressure
Chamber

(5)
Feedback
Spring

(6)
Retainer

(7)
Bias
Spring

(8)
IMV Valve
Spool 33
Proportional Hydraulic Modulating Valve Operation
• Explanation of the operation A solenoid operated PHMV controls the movement of its associated IMV Valve
of the Proportional Hydraulic Spool (8) when the ACS ECM sends a current to the Active PHMV Solenoid (11).
Modulating Valve (PHMV) The proportional solenoid is sent a PWM signal (current) and is ENERGIZED by an
ACS ECM. The amount of current sent to the solenoid is determined by algorithms
• Identification of the components in the software that opens the IMV spool so that cylinder speed is proportional to
of the PHMV and explanation of joystick position and other factors.
their function
The ENERGIZED solenoid of the Active PHMV drains pilot oil from the Pilot
Pressure Chamber (4) above its associated IMV spool. The amount of pilot oil
drained allows the IMV spool to open only enough to provide the oil flow that will
produce the cylinder speed requested. The amount of current sent to the PHMV is
determined by various electronic inputs to the ACS ECM, such as joystick position
sensors, circuit pressure sensors, pump pressure sensors, engine speed, and
other inputs, depending on machine conditions and total hydraulic demand. In
general, 540-740 mA of current sent to a solenoid attains the cracking point for
an IMV valve spool. Current to a solenoid can range from 0 amps to 2.0 amps,
depending on joystick position, engine speed, and other inputs.

The Inactive PHMV Solenoid (1) above, is shown in the DE-ENERGIZED state.
No current is sent to the solenoid from the ACS ECM. When a PHMV solenoid is
DE-ENERGIZED, Pilot Supply (2) oil is directed into the Pilot Pressure Chamber
by the small valve spool contained in the Valve Cartridge (10). The Retainer (6) is
threaded onto the top of the IMV valve spool. The Bias Spring (7) and pressure in
the pilot oil chamber push DOWN on the top of the IMV spool, keeping the spool
CLOSED and seated.
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SERV1994 - 05/14 -34- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

In the CLOSED position, oil beneath the IMV spool is trapped and oil above the
spool cannot flow into the passage beneath the valve seat.

When the operator requests implement or swing movement, the Active PHMV
Solenoid (11) is ENERGIZED by the ACS ECM, which allows some of the pilot oil in
the pilot pressure chamber to flow into the Drain Passage (3).

Because there is always full pilot pressure beneath it, the IMV valve spool is moved
UP against the Reduced Pilot Pressure (9) and the force of the Bias Spring (7). As
the spool shifts upward, pump supply oil (red arrow) from the flow compensator
valve and the load check valve flows out to the implement cylinder.

As the IMV valve spool moves UP, it also compresses the Feedback Spring (5).
The feedback spring pushes UP, providing an opposing force to the bottom of the
small valve spool (in the valve cartridge) as the solenoid pin pushes DOWN on
the small spool. These two opposing forces work together to attain the proper
pilot pressure in the upper chamber. This strategy properly modulates the position
of the IMV valve spool to precisely meter the flow of high pressure oil to the
implement cylinder (or swing motor), attaining the cylinder speed (or motor rotation)
requested by the operator. Essentially, the joystick position is a “flow request.”

As mentioned earlier, 540-740 mA of current is required to crack open an IMV


spool. However, the coil locknut on the solenoid for each PHMV is etched with
a number indicating the electronic slope characteristic of that particular solenoid.
Whenever a solenoid is replaced, or switched with another solenoid, the slope
number(s) must be written to the ECM using Cat ET before the solenoid(s) are
calibrated. For this reason, the current sent to solenoids can vary from one
to the next because of the unique slope characteristic of each solenoid. This
characteristic is true for the entire current range to any solenoid from the IMV spool
cracking point to the fully open IMV spool position.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -35- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

BUCKET IMV OPERATION


BUCKET OPEN

(16) (3)
Bucket Head End
Cylinder Cylinder-to-Tank
PHMV

C C
(13)
Return Oil (10)
(12) Passage Head End
(2)
Load
ON Pump Pressure Sensor
Inlet
Check
Valve

(1)
Rod End ON
Pump-to-Cylinder
PHMV

(11)
Spring (5)
Chamber Head End
Cylinder-to-Tank
Spool (15)
(16) Bucket Cylinder (14)
(9) Pilot
Front Supply
Head End Pump
Pump-to-Cylinder Supply
Spool
(7)
Flow (1) (3)
Compensator
Valve (4) (10)
(4)
Rod End
(6) (8)
Pressure Sensor
Rod End Inverse (9) (5)
(7) (6)
Pump-to-Cylinder Shuttle Valve
Spool (2)

(8)

BUCKET

35
Bucket IMV Section Operation: Bucket Open

• Explanation of the operation of The illustration above shows a section view of the Bucket IMV section of the ACS
the Bucket IMV valve section in Main Hydraulic Control Valve in the BUCKET OPEN condition.
the BUCKET CLOSE condition
When the operator moves the joystick to the BUCKET OPEN position, a PWM
current from the ACS ECM 1 is applied to the bucket Rod End Pump-to-Cylinder
PHMV (1) and also to the bucket Head End Cylinder-to-Tank PHMV (3). This
action causes the two PHMVs to drain the pilot pressure oil from the two Spring
Chambers (11) above the IMV spools. With full Pilot Supply (15) oil pressure
beneath and reduced pilot pressure above, both the Rod End Pump-to-Cylinder
Spool (6) (P-C Spool) and the Head End Cylinder-to-Tank Spool (9) (C-T Spool)
move UP. This action opens a path for Front Pump Supply (14) oil to flow to the
cylinder rod end and return oil to flow from the head end of the Bucket Cylinder (16)
to and from the high pressure ports of the Bucket IMV section.

The front pump supplies high pressure oil through the Pump Inlet (12). With
the P-C spool OPEN, the front pump supply oil can then flow through the Flow
Compensator Valve (7). Once oil flows through the compensator valve, the oil flow
opens the Load Check Valve (2), flows around the rod end P-C spool and on to the
high pressure port to the rod end of the bucket cylinder. Return oil from the head
end of the bucket cylinder flows back into the right most high pressure port, past
the head end C-T spool and into the Return Oil Passage (13) to the tank. Front
pump oil also flows to the Head End Pump-to-Cylinder Spool (6), but is blocked,
due to that spool remaining CLOSED.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -36- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

At the same time, the oil that flows around the rod end P-C spool also flows
through internal signal passages in the spool, then through the left most signal
passage to the left end of the Inverse Shuttle Valve (8). Due to the flow of oil to the
cylinder and the pressure drops across the compensator valve and the rod end P-C
spool, this signal oil is equal to the rod end cylinder pressure. In previous machine
hydraulic systems, this was referred to as the Load Signal.

The oil that flows to the CLOSED head end P-C spool also flows through internal
signal passages in that spool. But because there is no oil flow past the inactive
spool, the signal oil is at full front pump pressure and is sensed through the right
most signal passage and at the right end of the inverse shuttle valve.

With a full pump pressure at the right end and a lower (Load Signal) pressure at the
left end, the inverse shuttle valve shifts to the LEFT, allowing the lower pressure
oil to be directed to the bottom of the flow compensator valve. This lower pressure
oil, along with the spring force, causes the flow compensator valve to adjust, or
modulate to a position that meters the oil flow to the cylinder in direct proportion
to the operator’s request for cylinder speed. This same-circuit pre-compensation
of the oil flow to the rod end of the bucket cylinder ensures the cylinder speed will
remain constant when another implement request is made that might otherwise
raise the pressure of the front pump oil flowing into the pump inlet of the bucket
IMV section.

The ACS ECM 1 also monitors the Head End Pressure Sensor (10) and the Rod
End Pressure Sensor (4). The signals from these sensors, along with the signals
from the joystick position sensor and the front pump pressure sensor and other
electronic inputs, are all considered by the software in the ACS ECM 1. Changes
in circuit pressure, front pump pressure, and/or joystick position cause the ACS
ECM 1 to make adjustments to the PWM current sent to the rod end P-C PHMV
and the head end C-T PHMV, which varies the position of the two IMV spools to
maintain the cylinder speed requested by the operator.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -37- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

ACS MAIN HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE


SINGLE IMV SECTION OPERATION
BUCKET CLOSE
(18) Combiner
Valve PHMV
(10)
Bucket
Cylinder

(17)
Combiner Valve

(1)
Pump
Supply
(2)
Pilot
Supply

(14) RE/C-T (13) RE/P-C (12) HE/P-C (11) HE/C-T


(3) PHMV PHMV PHMV PHMV (9)
Rod End Head End
Pressure Sensor Pressure Sensor

(8) (4)
Line Relief Line Relief
and Makeup (15) and Makeup
Valve HE/P-C Valve
Spool

BUCKET
(7) (16) RE/C-T
SECTION
Bucket Flow Spool
Compensator (5)
Valve Load
Check Valve

(6)
Bucket Inverse
Shuttle Valve
37
Single IMV Section Operation: Bucket Close
• Explanation of the operation of The illustration above shows a schematic of the Bucket IMV section of the ACS
the Bucket IMV valve section in Main Hydraulic Control Valve in the BUCKET CLOSE condition with resistance to
the BUCKET CLOSE condition movement.

When the operator moves the joystick to the BUCKET CLOSE position, a PWM
signal from the joystick position sensor is sent to the Machine ECM. The Machine
ECM communicates that signal to ACS ECM 1 through the ACS CAN Data Link.
The ACS ECM 1 applies a PWM current to the bucket Head End Pump-to-Cylinder
(HE/P-C) PHMV (12) and also to the bucket Rod End Cylinder-to-Tank (RE/C-T)
PHMV (14). When ENERGIZED, the two PHMVs reduce the pilot pressure oil
from the spring chambers beneath the two PHMVs. With full Pilot Supply (2) oil
pressure beneath and reduced pilot pressure above, the HE/P-C Spool (15) and
the RE/C-T Spool (16) move UP to open a flow path to and from the Bucket
Cylinder (10). Pump Supply (1) oil can then flow to the head end and return oil can
flow from the rod end of the bucket cylinder and the bucket CLOSES.

High pressure pump supply oil enters the Bucket IMV Section through the pump
inlet passage in the valve section. With the HE/P-C spool OPEN, the pump supply
oil can then flow across the Bucket Flow Compensator Valve (7). Once oil flows
across the compensator valve, the oil flow opens the Load Check Valve (5), flows
around the HE/P-C spool, and through the high pressure port to the head end of
the bucket cylinder. Return oil from the rod end of the bucket cylinder flows back
into the bucket IMV section, past the RE/C-T spool and into the return oil passage
to tank. Front pump oil also flows to the RE/P-C spool, but is blocked, due to that
spool remaining CLOSED.
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SERV1994 - 05/14 -38- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

At the same time, the oil that flows around the HE/P-C spool also flows through
internal signal passages in the spool, then through the right most signal passage to
the right end of the Bucket Inverse Shuttle Valve (6). This is signal oil and is at the
same pressure of that in the head end of the bucket cylinder.

The oil that flows to the CLOSED RE/P-C spool also flows through internal signal
passages in that spool, but because there is no flow past the inactive IMV valve,
this signal oil is at full pump pressure. This signal oil is sensed through the left
most signal passage and at the left end of the inverse shuttle valve.

With a higher signal pressure at the left end and a lower signal pressure at the right
end, the inverse shuttle valve shifts to the RIGHT, allowing the lower (load signal)
pressure oil to be directed to the bottom of the bucket flow compensator valve.
This lower pressure oil, along with the spring force, causes the flow compensator
valve to adjust, or modulate to a position that meters the oil flow to the cylinder
in direct proportion to the operator’s movement of the joystick. This strategy is
referred to as same-circuit pre-compensation and ensures that the cylinder speed
will remain in proportion to the joystick movement when another implement request
is made that might raise the system pressure from the front pump.

The ACS ECM 1 also monitors the Head End Pressure Sensor (9) and the Rod End
Pressure Sensor (3). The signals from these sensors, along with the signals from
the joystick position sensor, the front pump pressure sensor, and other electronic
inputs, are all considered by the software in the ACS ECM 1. Changes in circuit
pressure, pump supply pressure, and/or joystick position will cause the software
algorithms in the ACS ECM 1 to make adjustments to the PWM current sent to the
HE/P-C PHMV and the RE/C-T PHMV. This ensures that the position of the two
IMV spools are constantly adjusted to maintain the cylinder speed requested by the
operator, regardless of other pressures in the system.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -39- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

ACS MAIN HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE


COMBINED IMV SECTIONS OPERATION
BUCKET CLOSE - BOOM RAISE
(38) (36) Combiner
Rear (37)
Valve PHMV
Pump Combiner
Valve

(10)
Bucket
Cylinder

(1)
Front
Pump (2)
Pilot
Supply

(14) RE/CT (13) RE/PC (12) HE/PC (11) HE/CT


PHMV PHMV PHMV PHMV
(3) (9)
Rod End Head End
Pressure Sensor Pressure Sensor

(8) (4)
Line Relief Line Relief
and Makeup (17) RE/PC and Makeup
Valve Spool Valve
(35)
Boom
Cylinders

(7)
Bucket Flow (18) RE/CT (15) HE/CT
Compensator Spool (5) Spool
Load (16) HE/PC
Valve Spool
Check Valve

BUCKET (6) (36)


Bucket Inverse Head End
SECTION Shuttle Valve Pressure
Sensor
(22) RE/CT (23) RE/PC (24) HE/PC (25) HE/CT
PHMV PHMV PHMV PHMV
(19)
Rod End
Pressure Sensor (33)
Drift
(20) Reduction
Line Relief Solenoid
and Makeup (27) RE/PC (32) Drift
Valve Spool Reduction
Check
Valve

(21)
Boom Flow (26) RE/CT (30) HE/CT (31)
Compensator Spool (28) Spool
(29) HE/PC Line Relief
Valve Load
Spool and Makeup
Check Valve
Valve

BOOM (34)
Boom Inverse
SECTION Shuttle Valve

39
Combined IMV Section Operation
• Explanation of a combined IMV The illustration above shows a schematic of the Bucket IMV and Boom IMV
valve operation for the BUCKET sections of the ACS Main Hydraulic Control Valve in the BUCKET CLOSE and
CLOSE and BOOM RAISE BOOM RAISE condition. The schematic is representative of the operator
condition requesting simultaneous boom and bucket movement with no external resistance.

The upper Bucket IMV section is in a similar condition as the previous schematic,
but reflects an operator request for slow movement of the bucket with no
resistance. Because of this, the pilot oil beneath the HE/PC PHMV (12) is not
reduced as much and the HE/PC Spool (16) is not completely opened. This
causes the oil pressure past the bucket HE/PC spool to be metered at a lower
pressure and flow rate than that shown in the previous schematic.

When the operator moves the right joystick to the full BOOM RAISE position, a
PWM current from the ACS ECM 1 is applied to the boom HE/PC PHMV (24) and
also to the boom RE/CT PHMV (22). When ENERGIZED, the two PHMVs drain
most of the pilot pressure oil from the spring chambers beneath the two PHMVs.
With full Pilot Supply (2) oil pressure beneath and reduced pilot pressure above,
the boom HE/PC Spool (29) and the RE/CT Spool (26) move UP. Front Pump (1)
and Rear Pump (38) supply oil can then flow to the head end of the Boom
Cylinders (35) and return oil can flow from the rod end of the boom cylinders back
to the Boom IMV section.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -40- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

The combined pump supply oil enters the boom IMV section through the pump inlet
passage in the Boom IMV section. With the HE/PC spool OPEN, the front pump
supply oil can then flow across the Boom Flow Compensator Valve (21).

Once oil flows across the compensator valve, the oil flow opens the boom
Load Check Valve (28), flows around the HE/PC spool and on to the boom Drift
Reduction Check Valve (33). When a BOOM RAISE request is made, the Machine
ECM keeps the Drift Reduction Solenoid (33) DE-ENERGIZED. When the oil
pressure from the boom HE/PC IMV spool becomes higher than the pressure on
the cylinder side of the drift reduction check valve, the check valve opens. The flow
of oil to the boom cylinders then opens the check valve further, to accommodate
the flow of oil. The boom cylinder rods EXTEND, raising the boom in the air. At
the same time, return oil from the rod end of the boom cylinders flows back into
the boom IMV section, around the boom RE/CT Spool (26) and into the return oil
passage to tank.

Front pump oil also flows to the boom RE/PC Spool (27), but is blocked, due to that
spool remaining CLOSED. Like the bucket IMV section, the oil that flows around
the boom HE/PC spool also flows through internal signal passages in the spool,
then through the signal passage to the right end of the Boom Inverse Shuttle
Valve (34). This is signal oil and is at a reduced pressure from that in the head end
of the boom cylinder, due to the flow of oil to the cylinder and the orifice effect of
the signal passage in the spool.

The oil that flows to the CLOSED boom RE/PC spool also flows through internal
signal passages in that spool, but because there is no flow in that portion of the
IMV valve, this signal oil is at the same pressure as the oil past the load check
valve. This signal oil is sensed through the left most signal passage and at the left
end of the inverse shuttle valve.

With a higher signal pressure at the left end and a lower signal pressure at the right
end, the inverse shuttle valve shifts to the RIGHT, allowing the lower pressure oil to
be directed to the bottom of the boom flow compensator valve. This lower pressure
oil, along with the spring force, causes the flow compensator valve to adjust,
or modulate to a position that meters the oil flow to the boom cylinders in direct
proportion to the operator’s movement of the joystick. This pre-compensation
ensures the boom cylinder speed will remain in proportion to the joystick movement
and will not be affected by movement of the bucket. Both boom and bucket circuits
are compensated according to their individual load signals.

The ACS ECM 1 also monitors the boom Head End Pressure Sensor (36) and
the boom Rod End Pressure Sensor (19). The signals from these sensors, along
with the signals from the joystick position sensor, the front pump pressure sensor,
and other electronic inputs, are all considered by the software in the ACS ECM 1.
Changes in circuit pressure, front pump pressure, and/or joystick position will cause
the ACS ECM 1 to make adjustments to the PWM current sent to the boom HE/PC
PHMV and the boom RE/CT PHMV, which varies the position of the two boom IMV
spools in order to maintain the boom cylinder speed requested by the operator.

NOTE: When operating the boom and bucket, the combiner valve is
moved to the OPEN position, which allows the oil from both pumps
to combine in that implement request condition. The combiner valve
operation will be discussed later in this presentation

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -41- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

LINE RELIEF AND MAKEUP VALVE


OPERATION

OPEN
CLOSED (RELIEF) MAKEUP

(10)
(6) (1) Return (15) (16)
Poppet Poppet Passage Adjustment Locknut
Spring
(11) Screw
(2) Outer
Spring (9) Spring
Chamber Dump (14)
Spool Makeup
(5) Spool
Seat
(8) (12)
Orifice Inner (13)
Spring Shoulder
(4)
Inner (7)
Spool Tank
Passage
(3) (3) (3)
Cylinder Cylinder Cylinder
Supply Supply Supply
Passage Passage Passage

41
Line Relief and Makeup Valve Operation
• Explanation of the line relief The illustration above shows a combination single-stage line relief and makeup
and makeup valve operation for valve in the closed, the open (relief), and the makeup conditions. A line relief and
individual implement circuits: all makeup valve is installed in the head end and the rod end passages of each
three conditions: implement control valve (boom, bucket, and stick circuits). These valves serve two
purposes:
-- CLOSED condition • Limit the pressure of the circuit in which they are installed by opening to vent
excess pressure oil to tank.
-- OPEN (RELIEF) condition
• Open to allow tank pressure oil to enter the circuit in order to supplement the
pump supply oil when the implement cylinder moves faster than the pumps can
-- MAKEUP condition supply oil.

CLOSED Condition
During normal operation, the line relief and makeup valve remains CLOSED. At
lower system pressures, the Poppet (1) is held against its Seat (5) by the force of
the Poppet Spring (6). The circuit pressure in the Cylinder Supply Passage (3)
flows through the Orifice (8) in the Inner Spool (4) to the Spring Chamber (2) above.

When the force applied by system pressure is less than the value of the poppet
spring, the poppet remains seated and the oil pressure in the spring chamber
remains equal to system pressure. The combined force of the Outer Spring (11)
and Inner Spring (12) and the oil pressure keep the inner spool and Dump Spool (9)
seated.

OPEN (RELIEF) Condition


Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow
SERV1994 - 05/14 -42- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

During pressure spikes or sustained high pressure conditions, the RELIEF function
of the line relief and makeup valve vents the excess pressure into the tank
passage.

As the system pressure nears the line relief valve pressure setting, the force of the
circuit pressure in the spring chamber overcomes the force of the poppet spring.
This pressure increase causes the poppet to unseat, allowing system oil to flow
around the poppet to the Return Passage (10), through the return passage, and
into the control valve Tank Passage (7). For short duration pressure spikes, only
the poppet unseats to limit the circuit pressure.

For sustained periods of high implement circuit pressure, the oil in the spring
chamber continues to flow around the poppet, through the return passage, and
then into the control valve tank passage.

Because the poppet is unseated and oil is flowing through the valve to tank,
there is a pressure drop across the orifice, causing the oil in the spring chamber
to be less than the oil pressure in the cylinder supply passage. When the circuit
pressure overcomes the oil pressure in the spring chamber plus the force of the
inner and outer springs, the dump spool and inner spool move UP. As the two
spools move UP, the openings in the makeup spool are opened and the circuit
pressure oil is allowed to flow into the tank passage.

MAKEUP Condition
The MAKEUP function of the line relief and makeup valve prevents cylinder
cavitation and voiding in the various circuits of the hydraulic system. Under normal
operating conditions, the Makeup Spool (14) remains seated. The valve is held
in the seated position by spring force and the hydraulic pressure in the spring
chamber above the inner spool.

If external forces try to move an implement, the circuit pressure on one side of
the implement cylinder piston can become lower than tank pressure. This lower
(negative) pressure will be present in that half of the circuit, from the implement
cylinder piston back to the IMV valve spool in the control valve.

If the hydraulic circuit pressure in the cylinder supply passage becomes lower
than the tank pressure, the oil pressure in the spring chamber is also reduced.
Tank pressure oil surrounds the makeup spool, which creates an upward, or lifting
force on the Shoulder (13) of the makeup spool. This force unseats the makeup
spool, dump spool, and inner spool. The tank pressure oil then flows from the tank
passage into the lower pressure hydraulic circuit to reduce cylinder cavitation.

The amount of spring force acting on the poppet determines the line relief valve
pressure setting. Adjustments to the line relief valve pressure setting are made by
changing the spring force of the poppet spring. The position of the Adjustment
Screw (15) determines the spring force of the poppet spring. Loosening the
Locknut (16) and turning the adjustment screw clockwise (in) increases the spring
force, which increases the pressure at which the poppet and the dump spool will
open. Turning the adjustment screw counter-clockwise (out) decreases the spring
tension and lowers the relief setting. Always tighten the locknut to maintain the
setting. Refer to the Test and Adjust procedures in the Service literature for the
correct procedure and pressure specifications for each line relief valve setting.
Always refer to the Testing and Adjusting manual for specific procedures and
specifications when making adjustments to the line relief and makeup valves.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -43- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

ACS MAIN HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE


CENTER SECTION - NEUTRAL
PUMPS IN STANDBY CONDITION
(7) (6)
(13) To Rear Pump Rear Pump (3)
Stick IMV Bypass Cut Bypass Cut Swing
Section Spool PHMV Left

Pilot
(16) Right
Travel Forward (14) (11)
Right Travel Straight
Valve Travel
(17) Right Valve Pilot
(10) (2)
Travel Reverse (5)
Swing Rear
(12) Control Main Pump
Pilot Hydraulic
Combiner Valve
Valve Relief
(25)
Valves
Pilot Oil
Pump
Pilot

(18) Cooling Fans Drain (1)


Return Oil Front
Pilot Pump
(19) Left (8)
Travel Reverse Front Pump
(15) Bypass Cut
Left Travel Spool
(20) Left
Valve
Travel Forward
Pilot

Makeup (21) (22) (23) To (9) (24) (4)


Drain
Combiner Straight Boom/Bucket Front Pump From Swing
Valve PHMV Travel IMV Sections Bypass Cut Pilot Right
PHMV PHMV Manifold

43
ACS VALVE CENTER SECTION OPERATION
• Explanation of ACS Valve center The Center Section of the ACS Main Hydraulic Control Valve contains the following
section and all components components that will be discussed here, and in more detail on subsequent pages
and/or modules.
Bypass Cut Valve Spools
• Explanation of Bypass Cut Valve The Rear Pump Bypass Cut Spool (7) is controlled by the Rear Pump Bypass Cut
Spools functionality PHMV (6). The Front Pump Bypass Cut Spool (8) is controlled by the Front Pump
Bypass Cut PHMV (9). The bypass cut PHMVs are supplied with pilot oil from the
Pilot Oil Pump (25) in all hydraulic conditions. In the NEUTRAL condition, the
bypass cut spools are OPEN and maintain STANDBY pressure in the ACS valve
when there is no request for implement or travel movement and/or when the
hydraulic activation valve is in the LOCKED condition.
• When the hydraulic activation valve is in the LOCKED condition, the PHMV
solenoids are DE-ENERGIZED by Machine ECM, which maintains system
pressure at approximately 2500 kPa (363 psi) with no requests for implement
movement or travel. All of the oil flow from the main pumps passes through
the bypass cut valves into the return oil passages in the ACS valve.
• When the hydraulic activation valve is in the UNLOCKED condition, as shown
above, the PHMV solenoids are partially ENERGIZED by the Machine ECM,
which closes down the bypass cut valves enough to bring system to STANDBY
pressure of approximately 3500 kPa (507 psi) when there are no requests for
implement movement or travel. Only enough oil flow from the pumps passes
through the valves into the return oil passages in the ACS valve to maintain
STANDBY pressure. Pilot oil From the Pilot Manifold (24) is made available to
the swing control valve, the combiner valve, and the IMV sections.
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SERV1994 - 05/14 -44- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

• When the hydraulic activation valve is in the UNLOCKED condition and there
is a request for implement or swing movement, or travel, the Machine ECM will
ENERGIZE the bypass cut PHMV solenoids in direct proportion to the required
oil pressure and flow, as determined by pressure sensors and joystick position
sensors. When full system pressure is required, the solenoids are completely
ENERGIZED to completely stop the flow of oil into the return oil passages in
the ACS valve.
By maintaining lower STANDBY pressures and only the required system pressure
during implement operations, the engine only works hard enough to maintain the
necessary hydraulic power from the pumps, which helps increase fuel efficiency.

Travel Valves
• Explanation of functionality and The Left Travel Valve (15), the Straight Travel Valve (11), and the Right Travel
strategies for the pilot operated Valve (14) are discussed in detail in the Travel Hydraulic System module of this
travel valves: training package. The only detail of note for the purposes of the ACS Valve is that
the straight travel valve is used ONLY when travel is commanded AND when any
-- Detailed discussion to be implement is activated simultaneously. The strategy for the straight travel valve is
in Travel Hydraulic System the same as previous machines for reallocating oil from the front pump and the rear
module pump during requests for travel and implement movement at the same time.
Normally, the rear pump supplies oil to the Swing Control Valve (10), To the Stick
IMV Section (13) and to the right travel valve, via the straight travel valve. The
front pump normally supplies oil To the Boom/Bucket IMV Sections (23), via the
straight travel valve, and to the left travel valve. If travel and implement requests
are made simultaneously, the Machine ECM will ENERGIZE the Straight Travel
PRV (22) to shift the straight travel valve. This valve movement then redistributes
the oil so that the front pump provides oil flow only for operation of the travel valves
and the rear pump provides high pressure supply oil for the operation of boom,
bucket, stick, and swing functions. This strategy is discussed in detail in the Travel
Hydraulic System module.

Combiner Valve
• Brief explanation of Combiner The Combiner Valve (12) is a three-position valve spool installed in the center
Valve functionality section of the ACS valve. The combiner valve is used to ensure sufficient oil is
available to the swing control valve and to the IMV valve sections during certain
-- Detailed discussion later in implement functions and also during certain combined implement functions. The
module combiner valve is controlled by the Combiner Valve PHMV (21). This valve is
discussed in detail later in this module.

Main Hydraulic Relief Valves


• Brief explanation of the The Main Hydraulic Relief Valves (5) limit the maximum system pressure for both
Main Hydraulic Relief Valve the front pump and the rear pump circuits in the ACS Valve. When the lift mode
functionality - three modes solenoid valve is ENERGIZED automatically by the Machine ECM or by pressing
the Heavy Lift soft switch on the Switch Panel ECM, the valve sends pilot pressure
-- High Pressure Relief Mode: oil to the ends of the main hydraulic relief valves. This oil pressure INCREASES
automatic during boom, stick, the main relief pressure setting.
bucket, and swing movement The lift mode solenoid valve is standard on the 374F and 390F Hydraulic
Excavators. This solenoid valve is used for three different machine states:
-- Low Pressure Relief Mode:
automatic during travel or tool • High Pressure Relief Mode: During operation of boom, stick, bucket, and
control operations swing, the solenoid is automatically ENERGIZED by the Machine ECM,
placing the system in High Pressure Relief Mode. This condition INCREASES
-- Heavy Lift Mode: temporary, the main relief setting, pump torque is maintained at 100% at speed dial 10,
when heavy lift mode switch is and the pump’s electronic high pressure cutoff setting is set to the high setting.
pressed

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -45- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

• Low Pressure Relief Mode: During travel and/or tool control operations,
or when hydraulic oil temperature is below 25° C (77° F), the solenoid is
automatically DE-ENERGIZED, placing the system in Low Pressure Relief
Mode. This condition DECREASES the main relief setting, pump torque is
maintained at 100% at speed dial 10, and the pump’s electronic high pressure
cutoff setting is set to the high setting.
• Heavy Lift Mode: When the Heavy Lift Mode switch is pressed, the solenoid
is ENERGIZED, placing the system in Heavy Lift Mode. This condition
INCREASES the main relief setting to high pressure, pump torque is
REDUCED, and the main hydraulic pump’s electronic high pressure cutoff
setting is DISABLED.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -46- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

COMBINER VALVE OPERATION


(6) To (6) To
Stick and Auxiliary Stick and Auxiliary
IMV Sections IMV Sections

(2) Rear (2) Rear


Pump Pump
(5) Combiner (5) Combiner
Valve PHMV Valve PHMV

(4) Pilot (4) Pilot


Supply Supply
(1) (1)
Combiner Combiner
Valve (4) Pilot Valve (4) Pilot
(7) To (3) Front Supply (7) To (3) Front Supply
Boom/Bucket Pump (6) To Boom/Bucket Pump
IMV Sections Stick and Auxiliary IMV Sections
IMV Sections
CHECKED POSITION OPEN POSITION

(2) Rear
Pump
(5) Combiner
Valve PHMV

(4) Pilot
Supply
(1)
Combiner
Valve (4) Pilot
(7) To (3) Front Supply
Boom/Bucket Pump
IMV Sections

CLOSED POSITION
46
Combiner Valve Operation

• Detailed explanation of the The Combiner Valve (1) is used to ensure sufficient oil is available to the IMV valve
Combiner Valve operation sections during certain implement functions, travel functions, and also during
certain combined implement and/or travel functions.

Checked Position
The schematic for the Checked Position state shows the position of the combiner
valve during a request for STICK IN and STICK OUT movement (high or low
speed). The Machine ECM sends no current to the Combiner Valve PHMV (5)
solenoid, so it remains DE-ENERGIZED. This state maintains the right valve spool
position so that oil flow from both the Rear Pump (2) and the Front Pump (3)
is available to the Stick and Auxiliary IMV Sections (6), if equipped with a high
pressure attachment IMV section. Front pump oil is available to the Boom and
Bucket IMV Sections (7). Front pump oil can also be made available to the stick
and attachment IMV sections if pressures and flow require the added oil.

This position can also be commanded during a STICK IN command with requests
for other implement movement, depending on the combination of requests. The
easiest way to test for proper operation of this position is to request STICK IN
movement only.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -47- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

Closed Position
The schematic for the Closed Position state shows the position of the combiner
valve during the following conditions:
• NEUTRAL
• BUCKET OPEN and BUCKET CLOSE (low speed)
• BOOM DOWN
• BOOM UP (low speed)
• SWING
• TRAVEL
• STRAIGHT TRAVEL with combined implement operation

This Closed Position state prevents the oil flow from the front pump and the rear
pump from combining. The Machine ECM partially ENERGIZES the combiner
valve PHMV solenoid, which drains some pilot supply oil from the right side of the
valve spool. Full pilot supply pressure on the left side of the spool moves it to the
center valve position. This spool position ensures that oil flow from the front pump
is available only to the boom and bucket IMV sections and oil flow from the rear
pump is available only to the swing control valve and the stick IMV section. Oil flow
from both pumps is available for the travel valves in the center section of the ACS
valve as usual.

Open Position
The schematic for the Open Position state shows the position of the combiner valve
during a request for:
• BOOM UP (high speed)
• BUCKET OPEN and BUCKET CLOSE (high speed)

The Machine ECM sends the full current value to ENERGIZE the combiner valve
PHMV solenoid, which completely drains the pilot supply oil from the right side of
the valve spool. Full pilot supply pressure on the left side moves the spool to the
left valve envelope position. This spool position allows the oil flow from the front
pump to combine with the oil flow from the rear pump to the Stick IMV section, but
prevents rear pump oil flow from combining with front pump oil flow to the boom
and bucket IMV sections.

NOTE: When there are multi-function requests, the combiner valve


position could vary from the explanations above, depending on the
combination of requests and the required allocation of oil flow from those
requests. In order to check for correct functionality of the combiner valve,
test for valve position only in the single function conditions described
above.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -48- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

MAIN HYDRAULIC RELIEF VALVES


LOCATION / FUNCTION

(3)
Rear
Pump
Supply (4) (2) (1)
Front Rear Pump Front Pump
Pump Main Hydraulic Main Hydraulic
Supply Relief Valve Relief Valve

48
MAIN HYDRAULIC RELIEF VALVES

• Location and identification of the The 374F and 390F use two main hydraulic relief valves to protect the high
two main hydraulic relief valves pressure hydraulic system components from damage, due to excessive pressures
or pressure spikes in the system.
• Brief explanation of which The Front Pump Main Hydraulic Relief Valve (1) and the Rear Pump Main
hydraulic circuits are protected Hydraulic Relief Valve (2) are installed in the right side of the ACS valve center
by each of the two relief valves section. Front Pump Supply (4) oil and Rear Pump Supply (3) oil enter the rear of
the ACS valve through two high pressure hoses. The oil flows through passages
inside the ACS valve and is directed to the ends of both relief valves. Each valve
protects components in specific circuits:
• Front Pump Main Hydraulic Relief Valve (1): limits the maximum pressure
allowed in the following hydraulic circuits:
-- Boom
-- Bucket
-- Left Travel
• Rear Pump Main Hydraulic Relief Valve (2): limits the maximum pressure
allowed in the following hydraulic circuits:
-- Stick
-- Attachment (if equipped)
-- Swing
-- Right Travel

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -49- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

MAIN HYDRAULIC RELIEF VALVES


Straight
OPERATION
Travel

Right
Travel
Combiner
Valve (1)
Front Pump
Main Hydraulic (4)
Front Pump
Control Valve

Relief Valve
Bypass Supply
Swing

Cut
Bypass
Cut
(2)
Rear Pump (3)
Main Hydraulic Rear Pump
Relief Valve Supply

Left
Travel (6)
Lift Mode
Solenoid
Valve

(3) (4) (5)


Rear Pump Front Pump Pilot Oil
Supply Supply Pump

49
Main Hydraulic Relief Valve Operation
• Explanation of the operation of The 374F and 390F ACS valve uses two main hydraulic relief valves to protect the
the main hydraulic relief valves hydraulic components in the entire high pressure hydraulic system from excessive
in the Center Section of the ACS pressures. High pressure Rear Pump Supply (3) oil and Front Pump Supply (4) oil
valve enters the ACS valve through high pressure hoses connected to the rear of the
ACS valve. Rear pump and front pump oil are directed to the ends of the two main
• Lift Mode active on the 374F only relief valves. If pressures reach the pressure setting of either valve, the valve
opens to vent excess oil pressure into the tank passage in the ACS valve.

Pilot pressure oil from the Pilot Oil Pump (5) is supplied to the Lift Mode Solenoid
Valve (6), which is installed in the pilot solenoid manifold. Under certain conditions,
the lift mode solenoid valve directs the pilot pressure oil to the ends of the main
hydraulic relief valves, increasing the pressure settings of the valves (374F only).
The 374F incorporates three different strategies for determining the pressure
settings of the main relief valves. The three lift mode strategies are:
• High Pressure Relief Mode: Pilot pressure oil is directed to the ends of the
relief valves to increase the pressure settings of the valves during all boom,
stick, bucket and swing operations.
• Low Pressure Relief Mode: Drains pilot pressure oil from the end of the
relief valves to decrease the pressure settings of the valves during travel, tool
control operations, or when the oil is cold.
• Heavy Lift Mode: Pilot pressure oil is directed to the ends of the relief valves
to temporarily increase the pressure settings of the valves when the Heavy Lift
Mode switch is pressed.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -50- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

The lift mode solenoid valve is automatically ENERGIZED or DE-ENERGIZED by


the Machine ECM. When ENERGIZED, the lift mode solenoid valve directs pilot
pressure oil to the piston at the end of the main relief valve to INCREASE the two
valve’s pressure settings to the High Pressure Relief Mode. When
DE-ENERGIZED, the pilot pressure oil is drained from the piston to DECREASE
the valve’s pressure setting to the Low Pressure Relief Mode.

The High Pressure Relief Mode is turned ON during implement or swing operations
and is turned OFF by the Machine ECM during travel, tool control operations, and
when the oil is cold. If an implement is being operated during travel, the system
stays in the Low Pressure Relief Mode.

The Main Relief Solenoid Valve is also ENERGIZED or DE-ENERGIZED by the


Machine ECM to direct pilot pressure oil or to drain pilot pressure oil from the main
relief valve to INCREASE or DECREASE its pressure setting when the Heavy Lift
Mode soft switch is pressed. During operation of boom, stick, bucket, or swing, the
Machine ECM signals the Switch Panel ECM via the Machine CAN Data Link and
the Switch Panel ECM controls the state of the solenoid.

When the operator presses the Heavy Lift Mode switch on the soft switch panel,
the Switch Panel ECM ENERGIZES the solenoid. Pressing the switch a second
time DE-ENERGIZES the solenoid.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -51- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

MAIN RELIEF VALVE OPERATION


CLOSED OPEN
(9)
Adjustment
Screw

(6)
Spring

(5)
Poppet
(8)
Relief Oil
Passage

(4)
Spring

(3)
Dump
Spool

(2)
Orifice

(1) (7)
Pump Supply Pump Supply
51
Main Hydraulic Relief Valves: Operation

• Detailed explanation of the main The illustration above shows a standard piloted main hydraulic relief valve in the
hydraulic relief valve operation CLOSED and in the OPEN positions, to illustrate the basic concepts of the valves’
(without high pressure or heavy operation on the 390F. The 374F main relief valve contains the high pressure
lift modes). Two conditions: piston at the top (shown later). The piston allows for operation of the High Pressure
Relief Mode and the Heavy Lift mode in the 374F, which are discussed later in this
-- Main Relief CLOSED module.

-- Main Relief OPEN Main Hydraulic Relief Valve CLOSED


In the left CLOSED example, the Poppet (5) is held down against its seat by the
force of the Upper Spring (6). The Dump Spool (3) is held down against its seat
by the force of the Lower Spring (4). Pump Supply (1) pressure flows through the
Orifice (2) in the dump spool and into the spring chamber above the orifice. The
force of the pump supply pressure oil acts on the bottom of the poppet.

When the force of the pump supply pressure acting on the end of the poppet is
lower than the force of the upper spring, the poppet remains seated. Pump supply
pressure and the pressure in the spring chamber are now equal, so the force of the
lower spring keeps the dump spool held down against its seat. In this condition,
there is no oil flow into the tank passages. When pump supply pressure is less
than the main relief valves’ pressure settings, the main relief valves remain in the
CLOSED position.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -52- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

Main Hydraulic Relief Valve OPEN


In the right OPEN example, system pressure has increased. Pump Supply (7)
pressure flows through the orifice in the dump spool and into the spring chamber
above. When the force of the increased pump supply pressure oil acting on the
end of the poppet becomes greater than the force of upper spring, the poppet
moves UP, away from its seat.

Pump supply pressure oil now flows across the seat into the chamber above the
seat and then into the Relief Oil Passage (8). As the oil flows into the relief oil
passage, the pressure in the spring chamber above the dump spool is relieved and
becomes lower than the pump supply pressure, due to the slow flow of oil through
the orifice in the bottom of the dump spool.

With a lower pressure above the dump spool and the higher pump supply pressure
below it, the dump spool moves UP against the force of the lower spring. As the
dump spool moves UP, it allows pump supply oil pressure to be relieved into the
return oil passage and back to the hydraulic oil tank. In this fashion, the main
relief valves limit the maximum pressure allowed in the hydraulic circuits, since the
highest pressure is always present at the end of the main relief valve.

The amount of force that the upper spring exerts on the poppet determines the
main relief valve pressure setting. Adjustments to the main relief valve pressure
setting are made by changing the poppet spring force. The position of the
adjustment screw (9) determines the force of the poppet spring. Turning the
adjustment screw IN causes the main relief setting to INCREASE. Turning the
adjustment screw OUT causes the main relief setting to DECREASE.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -53- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

MAIN HYDRAULIC RELIEF VALVE OPERATION


HIGH and LOW PRESSURE MODES
(13) Lift Mode (13) Lift Mode (13) Lift Mode
Solenoid Valve Solenoid Valve Solenoid Valve

(12) Pilot (12) Pilot (12) Pilot


Supply Supply Supply

(8)
Adjustment Nut

(8) (11)
Adjustment Nut Lock Nut

(7)
Piston
(10)
Spindle (7)
Piston
(6)
Spring
(9)
(5) Lock Nut
Poppet

(4)
Spring

(3)
Dump
Spool

(2)
Orifice
(1) (14) (15)
Pump Supply Pump Supply Pump Supply

CLOSED OPEN CLOSED


High Pressure High Pressure High Pressure
OFF OFF ON
53
• Detailed explanation of the main The Lift Mode strategy is employed on the 374F only. The Lift Mode Solenoid
relief valve operation with the Valve (13) valve is installed in the pilot solenoid manifold, located in the pump
optional heavy lift feature: all compartment. When ENERGIZED, the lift mode solenoid valve sends pilot
three conditions: pressure oil through a line to the end of both main hydraulic relief valves to
increase the pressure setting of the valve. Heavy lift is activated by the Switch
-- CLOSED High Pressure OFF Panel ECM when the operator presses the Heavy Lift Mode Switch on the soft
switch panel. The Switch Panel ECM signals the Machine ECM to ENERGIZE the
-- OPEN High Pressure OFF main relief solenoid valve, which sends pilot pressure oil to the main relief valves
for the Heavy Lift Mode.
-- CLOSED High Pressure ON The Machine ECM automatically ENERGIZES the lift mode solenoid valve to send
pilot pressure oil to the main relief valve to activate the High Pressure Relief Mode
during implement and swing operations. The Machine ECM automatically
DE-ENERGIZES the solenoid to drain pilot oil from the main relief valves for the
Low Pressure Relief Mode during travel, tool control operations, or when the oil is
cold.
The illustration above shows the pilot operated main relief valve equipped with
the main relief solenoid valve in three different conditions. Without the Heavy Lift
Mode or the High Pressure Relief Mode ENABLED, the main hydraulic relief valve
operates identically to the main relief valve shown earlier.
CLOSED: High Pressure Relief Mode and Heavy Lift Mode OFF
At lower system pressures, the Poppet (5) is held down against its seat by the force
of the Upper Spring (6). The Dump Spool (3) is held down against its seat by the
force of the Lower Spring (4). Pump Supply (1) pressure oil flows through the
Orifice (2) in the dump spool and into the spring chamber above. The force of the
pump supply pressure oil acts on the bottom of the poppet.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -54- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

When the force of the pump supply pressure acting on the end of the poppet is lower
than the force of the upper spring, the poppet remains seated. Pump supply pressure
and the pressure in the spring chamber are now equal, so the force of the lower
spring keeps the dump spool held down against its seat.
In this condition, there is no oil flow into the tank passages. When pump supply
pressure is less than the main relief valve’s pressure setting, the main relief valve
remains in the CLOSED position.
OPEN: High Pressure Relief Mode and Heavy Lift Mode OFF
In the center example, system pressure has increased. Pump Supply (4) pressure oil
flows through the orifice in the dump spool and into the spring chamber above. When
the force of the increased pump supply pressure oil acting on the end of the poppet
becomes greater than the force of upper spring, the poppet moves UP, away from its
seat.
Pump supply pressure oil now flows across the seat into the chamber above the
seat and then into the tank oil passage. As the oil flows into the tank passage, the
pressure in the spring chamber above the dump spool is relieved and becomes lower
than the pump supply pressure, due to the slow flow of oil through the orifice in the
bottom of the dump spool.
With a lower pressure above the dump spool and the higher pump supply pressure
below it, the dump spool moves UP against the force of the lower spring. As the
dump spool moves UP, it allows pump supply oil pressure to be relieved into the tank
passage. In this fashion, the main relief valve limits the maximum pressure allowed
in the pump circuit.
CLOSED: High Pressure Relief Mode and/or Heavy Lift Mode ON
The High Pressure Relief Mode (or the Heavy Lift Mode) increases the main relief
valve opening pressure, and therefore, a like amount for the allowable maximum
hydraulic system pressure. When the High Pressure Relief Mode or the Heavy Lift
Mode is activated, the Lift Mode Solenoid Valve is ENERGIZED by the Machine ECM,
sending pilot oil to the end of the main relief valve.
The pilot pressure oil pushes the piston down, compressing the poppet spring in
order to increase the maximum system pressure. The oil pressure acting against
the bottom of the poppet must then overcome the force of the spring plus the pilot oil
pressure above the piston. When these forces are overcome, the poppet can unseat,
allowing the dump spool to move UP to relieve the Pump Supply (15) pressure into
the tank passage.
The amount of force that the upper spring exerts on the poppet determines the main
relief valve pressure setting. Adjustments to the Lift Mode pressure setting are also
made by changing the poppet spring force. However, with the Lift Mode, the position
of the Piston (7) determines the added force to the poppet spring. Loosening the
Upper Locknut (11) from against the Spindle (10) and turning the Adjustment Nut (8)
IN causes the poppet spring setting to be INCREASED, and therefore the main relief
high pressure setting to be INCREASED. Turning the adjustment nut OUT causes
the main relief high pressure setting to be DECREASED.
To adjust the high pressure setting, the spindle must be turned in or out. The high
pressure setting should be adjusted first before adjusting the normal relief pressure.
Always refer to the Testing and Adjusting manual for specific procedures and
specifications when making adjustments to the main relief valve.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -55- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

(10) (13) (1) (2) (3) (4)


Cooler Return Oil Case Drain Hydraulic Return Oil Suction Screen
Supply Manifold Oil Filters Oil Tank Filters Access Cover
Tube

(12)
Cooler
Bypass Tube

(9)
Hydraulic
Oil Cooler (11) (7)
Cooler Filter Bypass
(6)
Return Switch
Oil Level
Tube (8) Sight Glass
(5)
Main Suction
Suction
Tube
Screen

RETURN OIL SYSTEM


COMPONENTS

55
RETURN OIL SYSTEM
Return Oil System Component Identification
• Return oil system component The return oil system transfers all of the hydraulic oil that has been used in the
location and identification: view hydraulic oil system back to the hydraulic oil tank. Most of the oil is filtered before
is from the RIGHT REAR of the returning, but some oil is returned directly to the hydraulic oil tank. The return oil
machine system includes the following major components:
• Case Drain Oil Filters (1): Remove contaminants from all case drain oil
• Brief description of component returning from the main hydraulic pumps and from the fan, travel, and swing
purpose and operation motors. The case drain oil filters return the filtered oil to the hydraulic oil tank.
• Hydraulic Oil Tank (2): The reservoir from which the hydraulic pumps draw
oil for operation of all the hydraulic operations.
• Return Oil Filters (3): Twin capsule-type filters that are integrated into the
hydraulic oil tank. The return oil filters remove contaminants from the oil
returning from the operation of the boom, stick, bucket, swing, travel, and
attachment hydraulic circuits.
• Suction Screen Access Cover (4): Must be removed to access and clean
the Suction Screen (5), located inside and above the main suction tube
inlet. The suction screen prevents large contaminants from being drawn
into the pump inlets, preventing damage to the pump components and other
components in the hydraulic system.

• Oil Level Sight Glass (6): Mounted on the rear of the hydraulic oil tank and
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SERV1994 - 05/14 -56- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

may be accessed from the service platform walkway. The sight glass is a
visual level gauge for determining the level of oil in the tank.
• Filter Bypass Switch (7): A pressure switch that is monitored by the Machine
ECM. If the return oil filter becomes clogged, the increased pressure at the
return oil filter inlet causes the monitor to warn the operator that the return oil
(capsule) filter is clogged.
• Main Suction Tube (8): A large tube through which all hydraulic pumps draw
oil from the hydraulic oil tank.
• Hydraulic Oil Cooler (9): An oil-to-air type cooler that is used to prevent the
hydraulic oil from overheating. The engine fan draws outside air through the
cooler as the warm oil flows through the small diameter tubes.
• Cooler Supply Tube (10): Directs oil from the slow return check valve to the
top of the hydraulic oil cooler cores.
• Cooler Return Tube (11): Directs cooled oil from the hydraulic oil cooler back
to the inlet manifold of the return oil filters.
• Cooler Bypass Tube (12): Directs oil from the cooler bypass valve to the inlet
manifold of the return oil filters.
• Return Oil Manifold (13): Bolted to the rear of the ACS main hydraulic control
valve. The manifold contains the slow return check valve and the cooler
bypass valve. The slow return check valve restricts the return oil flow, creating
a slight back pressure in the return oil system. This back pressure ensures
that oil is readily available for any makeup oil operations. The cooler bypass
valve directs warm oil to the hydraulic oil cooler and sends cooled or cold oil
directly back to the hydraulic oil tank.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -57- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

4 2
1

6
5

57
Return Oil Manifold

• Return oil system component The return oil manifold (1) is bolted to the left rear of the ACS main hydraulic
location and identification: control valve.

-- Return oil manifold (1) The return oil manifold sends return oil from the implement, swing, travel, and
auxiliary hydraulic systems:
-- Slow return check valve (2), • Directly to the return oil filter through the cooler bypass tube (5), via the cooler
installed in the upper manifold bypass valve (3) when the oil is cold,
outlet
• or to the hydraulic oil cooler through the cooler supply tube (4), via the slow
return check valve (2) when the oil is warm.
-- Cooler bypass valve (3),
installed in the lower manifold
On the machine pictured above, return oil from the hydraulic cooling fans is
outlet
directed to the return oil manifold through the hydraulic hose (6).
-- Cooler supply tube (4)
Also shown above is the pilot relief valve (7), which is installed in the pilot manifold.
Relief oil from the pilot relief valve is directed to the hydraulic oil tank. This oil is
-- Cooler bypass tube (5) filtered by the pilot oil filter prior to the relief valve.

-- Return oil hose from the NOTE: The image above is from a 390F Hydraulic Excavator. The
hydraulic cooling fans (6) arrangement is the same on the 374F machine.

-- Pilot relief valve (7), installed in


the pilot manifold

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -58- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

1
2

58
374F Case Drain Oil Filters

• Return oil system component The two spin-on type case drain oil filters for the 374F are located at the top of the
location and identification: 374F pump compartment (right rear of the machine), above and forward of the main
case drain oil filters hydraulic oil pumps (3). Filtered case drain oil is returned to the hydraulic oil tank.

The two case drain oil filters identified above are:


• Case drain oil filter for all hydraulic oil pumps on the machine (1)
• Case drain oil filter for all hydraulic motors on the machine (2)

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -59- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

5 6

4 3

1 2

9
59
390F Case Drain Oil Filters and Return Oil Filters

• Return oil system component The two spin-on type case drain oil filters for the 390F are installed on the rear of
location and identification: 390F the hydraulic oil tank (5) and are accessible from the service platform walkway.
case drain oil filters and other
return oil system components The two case drain oil filters identified above are:
• Case drain oil filter for all hydraulic motors on the machine (1)
• Case drain oil filter for all hydraulic oil pumps on the machine (2)

Also shown above are:


• Access covers for the two return oil filters (3) and (4)
• Access cover for the main suction screen (6)
• Cooler bypass tube (7) from the cooler bypass valve in the return oil manifold
• Cooler return tube (8) from the hydraulic oil coolers
• Inlet manifolds (9) for the return oil filters

Oil that is filtered by the case drain oil filters is returned to the hydraulic oil tank
through the ports on the rear of the filter base. Since the 374F case drain oil filters
are located in the pump compartment, the filtered case drain oil is returned to the
hydraulic oil tank via a hose.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -60- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

2
1
7

4 6

60
• Return oil system component Return oil is directed back to the return oil filter inlet manifold (1) through either the
location and identification: 390F cooler bypass tube (2) or the cooler return tube (3). The oil flows directly into the
case drain oil filters and other filter inlet manifold, where the flow is split between the to capsule-type oil filters,
return oil system components: which are integrated in the hydraulic oil tank.

-- Return oil filter inlet A normally CLOSED pressure switch (5) is installed at the inlet to the outboard
manifold (1) return oil filter. As the filter media becomes clogged with contaminants, the oil
is restricted as it flows through the filter media. The restriction to flow causes
-- Cooler bypass tube (2) the return oil pressure to rise at the filter inlet. When the pressure becomes too
high, the switch OPENS and the monitor will warn the operator “Hyd Return Filter
-- Cooler return tube (3) Plugged”.

-- Hydraulic oil temperature Relief oil from the pilot relief valve, as well as drain oil from the pilot manifold, the
sensor (4) pilot solenoid manifold, the travel pilot control valves, and return oil from the pilot
relief valve is returned to the hydraulic oil tank through the smaller hydraulic
hoses (6) near the bottom of the hydraulic oil tank (7).
-- Pressure switch (5)
The hydraulic oil temperature sensor (4) is installed in the rear wall of the hydraulic
-- Drain hoses from pilot system oil tank, near the bottom. If the oil is cold, as indicated by the temperature sensor,
operation (6) the operator will not be warned of a plugged filter, due to the higher return oil
pressures from the thicker, less viscous oil.
-- Hydraulic oil tank (7)

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -61- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

1 2 3

61
Hydraulic Oil Cooler

• Location of the hydraulic The twin hydraulic oil cooler cores (1) are the forward cooler cores located in the
oil cooler, in the cooler cooler compartment, at the left rear of the machine. The twin radiator cores (2) and
compartment, at the left rear of the Air to Air AfterCooler (ATAAC) (3) are arranged in line and to the rear of the
the machine: hydraulic oil cooler.

-- Twin hydraulic oil cooler Also shown is the air conditioning condenser (4) and the fuel cooler (5).
cores (1)
The twin hydraulic cooling fans are situated directly behind this group of coolers
-- Twin radiator cores (2) and draw outside air inward through the cooler cores.

-- Air to Air AfterCooler


(ATAAC) (3)

-- Air conditioning condenser (4)

-- Fuel cooler (5)

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -62- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

3
62
Capsule-Type Return Oil Filter and Main Suction Screen: Service Procedure
• Explanation of the proper The images above and on the next page are representative of the procedure for
procedure for replacing the properly replacing the return oil filter media and the main suction screen.
capsule-type return oil filter
media without contaminating the Cleanliness of the oil in the hydraulic system is extremely important. Contaminants
clean hydraulic oil in the tank in the hydraulic oil can cause valves to stick, can plug orifices, and can cause
damage to hydraulic system components. The hydraulic oil filtering system for
hydraulic excavators has been designed to remove these contaminants and to
provide an easy method for replacing the capsule-type filter cartridges without
allowing unfiltered oil to mix with filtered oil.
After removing four bolts and the cover (1) above the filter cartridge (2), a threaded
plug in the top of the cartridge must be removed. Removing this plug allows
pressures to equalize inside and outside of the cartridge. The cartridge must be
rotated 180 degrees, contacting the guide on the filter case before pulling the
cartridge from the filter case.
Rotating the cartridge 180 degrees closes a slide plate at the bottom of the filter
case, which will prevent unfiltered oil from mixing with filtered oil when the cartridge
is removed. The slide plate in the bottom of the cartridge aligns with the inlet and
outlet (3) ports in the bottom of the filter case.
Once the cartridge is removed from the filter case, the top of the cartridge may be
disassembled to clean the inside of the cartridge and to replace the filter element.
This procedure is reversed when replacing the cartridge inside the filter case.
Always refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual for proper procedure and
frequencies when replacing this and other filters on the machine.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -63- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

1
2

63
• Hydraulic oil tank and related The image above illustrates the ease of service for accessing and replacing the
main suction screen access: hydraulic tank main suction screen (1). The suction screen is removed through the
access opening in the top of the hydraulic oil tank (2). The suction screen is
-- Main suction screen (1) situated above the opening to the main suction tube for the hydraulic pumps.

-- Hydraulic oil tank (2) The suction screen prevents large contaminants from being drawn into the pumps,
which could cause damage to the pumps and other hydraulic components.
Always refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual for proper procedure and
frequencies when replacing this and other filters on the machine.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -64- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

RETURN OIL SYSTEM


(15) (12)
Slow Return Return Oil
Check Valve Manifold

(11)
ACS Valve
Return Oil
(16)
Hydraulic Oil
Cooler (14)
Cooler Bypass
Check Valve
(13)
Return Oil (10)
From Fan From
Motors Hydraulic
Motors
(8)
Case Drain
Oil Filters (9)
From
(7) Pilot Relief Hydraulic
Valve Return Oil Pumps

(6) Pilot
Manifold Drain (3)
Return Oil
(5) Travel Pilot
Filters
Control Valves

(4) Pilot Solenoid


Manifold Drain (1) Hydraulic
Oil Tank

(2) Main
Suction Tube
64
RETURN OIL SYSTEM: OPERATION

• Detailed explanation of the flow The return oil system transfers all of the hydraulic oil that has been used to operate
of all oil through the return oil hydraulic functions back to the Hydraulic Oil Tank (1). Most of the oil is filtered
system before returning and small amounts of oil are returned directly to the hydraulic oil
tank without filtration. The return oil system includes the following components:
• Return Oil Manifold (12), containing:
-- Slow Return Check Valve (15)
-- Cooler Bypass Check Valve (14)
• Hydraulic Oil Cooler (16)
• Two Return Oil Filters (3)
• Two Case Drain Oil Filters (7)
• Hydraulic Oil Tank

ACS Valve Return Oil (11) from the operation of boom, stick, bucket, swing, and
travel enters the return oil manifold. The oil flow opens and flows through either the
slow return check valve and/or the cooler bypass check valve, depending on the
temperature of the oil. If the oil is cold, the small tubes in the hydraulic oil cooler
restrict the flow of the thick, viscous oil, creating high pressures that could damage
the cooler.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -65- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

When the return oil flow reaches approximately 300 kPa (44 psi), the slow return
check valve opens and oil starts to flow to the hydraulic oil cooler. When the
restriction to oil flow at the hydraulic oil cooler raises the return oil pressure to
approximately 500 kPa (73 psi), the cooler bypass check valve opens, sending
most of the oil directly to the return oil filters in the hydraulic oil tank. As the oil
warms and the return oil pressure drops, the cooler bypass valve gradually closes,
sending the majority of the oil through the hydraulic oil cooler.
The slow return check valve also restricts the return oil flow from the ACS valve
tank passages, creating a slight back pressure in the return oil system to ensure
that oil is readily available for any makeup oil operations.
The hydraulic oil cooler is an oil-to-air type cooler used to prevent the hydraulic oil
from overheating. The hydraulic cooling fans draw outside air through the cooler
as the warm oil flows through the small diameter tubes. The cooled oil is then
directed to the return oil filters, which are integrated into the hydraulic oil tank.
The two capsule-type return oil filters remove fine contaminants from the hydraulic
oil before being allowed to blend with the oil already in the hydraulic oil tank.
Bypass valves are installed in the bottom of the return oil filter inlet manifolds. If
the filters become clogged, the pressure created by the resistance to oil flow
through the filters cause the bypass valves to open, dumping the unfiltered oil
directly into the hydraulic oil tank.
A normally CLOSED pressure switch is installed at the inlet to the return oil filter.
As the filter media becomes impregnated with contaminants, the oil becomes
restricted as it tries to flow through the media. The restriction to flow through the
filter causes the return oil pressure to rise at the filter inlet. When the pressure
becomes high enough to open the bypass valves, the pressure switch OPENS and
the monitor will warn the operator, “Hyd Return Filter Plugged”.
Case drain oil From the Hydraulic Oil Pumps (9) (all pumps) is directed to one of
the case drain oil filters before returning to the hydraulic oil tank. Case drain oil
From the Hydraulic Motors (10) (all motors) is directed to the other case drain oil
filters before returning to the hydraulic oil tank. The case drain oil filter removes
contaminants due to normal wear of the pump and motor components. If the filter
becomes clogged, the oil will bypass the filter and unfiltered oil will flow into the
hydraulic oil tank. There is no bypass switch on the case drain oil filter.
All of the oil from the operation of the pilot system is returned, unfiltered, to the
hydraulic oil tank. Four hoses direct this oil from the following sources:
• The Pilot Relief Valve Return (7)
• Pilot Manifold Drain Oil (6)
• Travel Pilot Control Valves (5)
• Pilot Solenoid Manifold Drain (4)
These are small amounts of oil, most of which passed through the pilot oil filter
before being sent to the pilot system components.
Because nearly all the oil that is returned to the hydraulic oil tank is filtered, the
hydraulic oil pumps have a steady supply of clean, filtered oil, which it draws from
the tank through the screened Main Suction Tube (2). The screen at the inlet to
the suction tube prevents large contaminants from being drawn into the pump
inlets, preventing damage to the pump components and other components in the
hydraulic system.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -66- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

RETURN OIL MANIFOLD


SLOW RETURN CHECK VALVE AND COOLER BYPASS CHECK VALVE OPERATION
(2)
Slow Return
Check Valve

(4) To
Hydraulic
Oil Cooler

(1)
Return Oil
Manifold

(5) To
Hydraulic
Oil Tank

(3)
Cooler Bypass
(6) Return Oil From Cooling Fan Motors
Check Valve
66
Cooler Bypass and Slow Return Check Valve Operation
• Detailed explanation of the The image above shows a cutaway view of the Return Oil Manifold (1) in order to
operation of the cooler bypass show the operation of the two check valves inside.
valve and the slow return check
valve Return oil from the ACS main hydraulic control valve flows into the return oil
manifold from two flow paths. When the return oil flow reaches approximately
300 kPa (44 psi), the Slow Return Check Valve (2) OPENS and oil starts to flow To
the Hydraulic Oil Cooler (4).
When the restriction to oil flow through the hydraulic oil cooler raises the return oil
pressure to approximately 500 kPa (73 psi), the Cooler Bypass Check Valve (3)
OPENS, sending most of the oil directly To the Hydraulic Oil Tank (5), via the return
oil filters. As the oil warms and the return oil pressure drops, the cooler bypass
valve gradually CLOSES, sending the majority of the oil through the hydraulic oil
cooler before returning to the hydraulic oil tank, via the return oil filters.

Return Oil From the Cooling Fan Motors (6) is directed into the lower passage in
the return oil manifold and flows through the cooler bypass valve directly to the
hydraulic oil tank.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -67- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

RETURN OIL FILTER BYPASS VALVE


COMPONENT IDENTIFICATION

(2)
Pressure
(3)
Switch
Capsule-Type
Return Oil
Filter

(1)
Return Oil
Inlet

(4)
Filter Bypass
Valve
(5)
Hydraulic
Oil Tank
67
Return Oil Filter and Bypass Valve Component Identification

• Return oil filter and bypass valve The Capsule-Type Return Oil Filters (3) are integrated into the Hydraulic Oil
component identification and Tank (5). The return oil tubes from the return oil manifold and hydraulic oil cooler
explanation of operation directs return oil from the ACS valve into the Return Oil Inlet (1) to the oil filters.

If the filter media inside either filter capsule becomes impregnated with
contaminants, that Filter Bypass Valve (4) will open and allow unfiltered oil to flow
into the hydraulic oil tank.

A normally CLOSED Pressure Switch (2) is installed in the return oil inlet of the
outboard filter. When the filter becomes clogged with contaminants and the filter
bypass valve is OPEN, the pressure switch will also OPEN.

The Switch Panel ECM monitors the state of the (filter bypass) pressure switch.
When the pressure switch OPENS, the Switch Panel ECM communicates the
change in the switch state to the monitor over the Machine CAN Data Link and the
monitor will warn the operator with the message, “Hyd Return Filter Plugged”.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -68- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

RETURN OIL FILTER BYPASS VALVE


NORMAL OPERATION / WARM OIL FILTER CLOGGED / COLD OIL
(9)
Filter
Media
(4)
Return
Oil Filter
Capsule

(5) (5)
Pressure Pressure
Switch Switch

(1) (8)
Return Return
Oil (3) Oil
To
Tank
(6) To Tank

(2)
Bypass (7)
Valve Bypass
Valve 68
Return Oil Filter and Bypass Valve Operation

• Explanation of return oil filter The return oil filter assembly contains a Filter Bypass Valve (2) beneath the inlet to
bypass valve operation - warm oil the assembly. During normal operation when the oil is warm, Return Oil (1) enters
and cold oil (or clogged filter) the filter inlet and flows upward through the center of the Filter Media (9) inside the
Return Oil Filter Capsule (4). Contaminants are removed from the oil as it passes
through the filter media. The oil is then returned through the filter outlet To the
Tank (3). The filter bypass valve remains CLOSED in this condition.

When the oil is cold, or if the filter is clogged, the resistance to Return Oil (8)
flow through the filter media causes the inlet oil pressure to INCREASE. When
the pressure differential between the inlet and the hydraulic oil tank reaches
approximately 150 kPa (22 psi), the Bypass Valve (7) OPENS, against the spring.
This action allows the oil to bypass the filter and flow directly Into the Tank (6).

A Pressure Switch (5) is installed at the outboard filter inlet, just outside the
hydraulic oil tank. This is a NORMALLY CLOSED pressure switch that OPENS
when the oil pressure reaches the bypass valve opening pressure. When the
switch OPENS, the monitor will warn the operator with the message, “Hyd Return
Filter Plugged”.

When the oil is cold, the resistance to flow through the filter media is restricted, due
to the high viscosity of the oil. The monitor will ignore the OPEN switch condition
when the hydraulic oil temperature sensor (installed in the tank) indicates the oil is
cold. When the oil warms, the viscosity of the oil is lower, and unless the filter is
clogged, the spring will close the bypass valve, allowing the oil to be filtered.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -69- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

PURPOSE

This module was designed to ensure technicians are


able to locate, identify, and describe the functionality
of all major components and service points of the ACS
main hydraulic control valve and return oil system and
can demonstrate knowledge of the main hydraulic
control valve operation.

69
PURPOSE REVIEW

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -70- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

REASON

This training was necessary for technicians to be able


to properly locate and identify all major components
and service points of the ACS main hydraulic control
valve and return oil system and to demonstrate
knowledge of the valve operation and the control of oil
flow to hydraulic circuits in order to properly diagnose
and correct hydraulic system problems. These abilities
will ensure customers experience quick, accurate
resolution of hydraulic system complaints.

70
REASON REVIEW

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -71- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

COMPETENCY STATEMENT

Participants are now able to locate and identify all


major components and service points of the ACS main
hydraulic control valve and return oil system, describe the
functionality of the major components, and demonstrate
the ability to test and properly make adjustments to the
valve components during lab exercises. Participants
have also demonstrated general knowledge of the main
hydraulic control valve and return oil system operation
and described the strategies used for controlling oil
flow through the valve and hydraulic circuits during a
classroom post-assessment with at least 80% accuracy.
71
COMPETENCY STATEMENT REVIEW

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -72- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

LEARNING OUTCOMES

Participants have completed this 374F/390F Hydraulic


Excavator Main Hydraulic Control Valve and Return Oil
System module and are able to:
• Locate, identify, and describe the functionality of all major
components, sub-components, and service points of the
ACS main hydraulic control valve and return oil system.
• Test and make adjustments to the ACS main hydraulic
control valve.
• Describe the main hydraulic control valve and return oil
system operation and the methods and strategies used to
control oil flow through the valve and hydraulic circuits.
72
LEARNING OUTCOMES REVIEW

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -73- Module 9 - Main Hyd Control Valve/Return Oil System

73
MODULE CONCLUSION

This concludes the Main Hydraulic Control Valve and Return Oil System module for
the 374F and 390F Hydraulic Excavators.

When used in conjunction with the Systems Operation Manuals, the Test and
Adjust Manuals, the Operation and Maintenance Manuals (OMM), and other
service publications, the information in this module will aid the service technician
in troubleshooting, testing, adjusting, and correcting problems with the ACS main
hydraulic control valve and return oil system in these machines.

For service repairs, adjustments, and maintenance, always refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manuals (OMM), Service Manuals, and other related service
publications.

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